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Gellhorn inspired him to write his most famous novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, which he started in March 1939 and finished in July 1940. It was published in October 1940.[91]Consistent with his pattern of moving around while working on a manuscript, he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls in Cuba, Wyoming, and Sun Valley.[86] HP Pavilion dv7-6055sf Battery

For Whom the Bell Tollsbecame a Book-of-the-Month Club choice, sold half a million copies within months, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, and as Meyers describes it, "triumphantly re-established Hemingway's literary reputation".[92] HP Pavilion dv7-6065ef Battery


In January 1941 Martha was sent to China on assignment for Collier's magazine. Hemingway went with her, sending in dispatches for the newspaper PM, but in general he disliked China.[93] They returned to Cuba before the declaration of war by the United States that December when he convinced the Cuban government to help him refit thePilar, which he intended to use to ambush German submarines off the coast of Cuba.[16] HP Pavilion dv7-6065sf Battery

From June to December 1944 Hemingway was in Europe. At the D-Day landing, he was kept on a landing craft because military officials considered him "precious cargo",[94]although biographer Kenneth Lynn claims he fabricated accounts that he went ashore during the landings.[95] HP Pavilion dv7-6070sf Battery

Late in July he attached himself to "the 22nd Infantry Regimentcommanded by Col. Charles 'Buck' Lanham, as it drove toward Paris", and Hemingway became de facto leader to a small band of village militia in Rambouillet outside of Paris.[94] HP Pavilion dv7-6081eg Battery

Of Hemingway's exploits, World War II historian Paul Fussell remarks: "Hemingway got into considerable trouble playing infantry captain to a group of Resistance people that he gathered because a correspondent is not supposed to lead troops, even if he does it well".[16] HP Pavilion dv7-6097ef Battery

This was in fact in contravention of the Geneva Convention, and Hemingway was brought up on formal charges; he said he "beat the rap" by claiming that he only offered advice.[96] HP Pavilion dv7-6090sf Battery

On August 25 he was present at the liberation of Paris, although contrary to the Hemingway legend, he was not the first into the city, nor did he liberate the Ritz.[97] In Paris he did, however, attend a reunion hosted by Sylvia Beach, where he "made peace with" Gertrude Stein.[98] HP Business Notebook 2400 Battery

Later that year he was present at heavy fighting in theHürtgenwald near the end of 1944.[97] On December 17, a feverish and ill Hemingway had himself driven to Luxembourg to cover what would later be called The Battle of the Bulge. As soon as he arrived, however, Lanham handed him to the doctors, who hospitalized him with pneumonia; by the time he recovered a week later most of the fighting was over.[96] HP Business Notebook 2510p Battery


In 1947 Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery during World War II. He was recognized for his valor, having been "under fire in combat areas in order to obtain an accurate picture of conditions," with the commendation that "through his talent of expression, Mr. Hemingway enabled readers to obtain a vivid picture of the difficulties and triumphs of the front-line soldier and his organization in combat."[16] HP Business Notebook 4200 Battery


When Hemingway initially arrived in London, England, he met Time magazine correspondent Mary Welsh, with whom he became infatuated; on their third meeting he asked her to marry him. Martha—who had been forced to cross the Atlantic in a ship filled with explosives because he refused to help her get a press pass on a plane—HP Business Notebook 7400 Battery

arrived in London to find Hemingway hospitalized with a concussion from a car accident. Unsympathetic to his plight, she accused him of being a bully, and told him she was "through, absolutely finished."[99] The last time he saw her was in March 1945 as he was preparing to return to Cuba.[100] HP Business Notebook 8200 Battery



Hemingway said he "was out of business as a writer" from 1942 to 1945.[101] In 1946 he married Mary, who had an ectopic pregnancy five months later. The Hemingway family suffered a series of accidents and health problems in the years following the war: in a 1945 car accident he "smashed his knee" and sustained another "deep wound on his forehead";HP Business Notebook 8400 Battery

Mary broke first her right ankle and then her left in successive skiing accidents. A 1947 car accident left Patrick with a head wound and severely ill.[102] Hemingway sank into depression as his literary friends began to die: in 1939 Yeats and Ford Madox Ford; in 1940 Scott Fitzgerald; HP Business Notebook 8710p Battery

in 1941 Sherwood Anderson and James Joyce; in 1946 Gertrude Stein; and the following year in 1947, Max Perkins, Hemingway's long-time Scribner's editor and friend.[103] During this period, he suffered from severe headaches, high blood pressure, weight problems, HP Business Notebook 9400 Battery

and eventually diabetes—much of which was the result of previous accidents and many years of heavy drinking.[104] Nonetheless, in January 1946 he began work on The Garden of Eden, finishing 800 pages by June.[105][note 4] HP Business Notebook NC2400 Battery

During the post–war years he also began work on a trilogy tentatively titled "The Land", "The Sea" and "The Air", which he wanted to combine in one novel titled The Sea Book. However, both projects stalled, and Mellow says that Hemingway's inability to continue was "a symptom of his troubles" during these years.[106][note 5] HP Business Notebook NC4200 Battery


In 1948, Hemingway and Mary traveled to Europe, staying in Venice for several months. While there, Hemingway fell in love with the then 19-year-old Adriana Ivancich. The platonic love affair inspired the novel Across the River and Into the Trees, written in Cuba during a time of strife with Mary, and published in 1950 to negative reviews.[107] HP Business Notebook NC4400 Battery

The following year, furious at the critical reception of Across the River and Into the Trees, he wrote the draft of The Old Man and the Sea in eight weeks, saying that it was "the best I can write ever for all of my life".[104] The Old Man and the Sea became a book-of-the-month selection, made Hemingway an international celebrity, and won the Pulitzer Prize in May 1952, a month before he left for his second trip to Africa.[108][109] HP Business Notebook NC8200 Battery


In 1954, while in Africa, Hemingway was almost fatally injured in two successive plane crashes. He chartered a sightseeing flight over the Belgian Congo as a Christmas present to Mary. On their way to photograph Murchison Falls from the air, the plane struck an abandoned utility pole and "crash landed in heavy brush." Hemingway's injuries included a head wound, while Mary broke two ribs.[110] HP Business Notebook NC8230 Battery

The next day, attempting to reach medical care in Entebbe, they boarded a second plane that exploded at take-off, with Hemingway suffering burns and another concussion, this one serious enough to cause leaking of cerebral fluid.[111] HP Business Notebook NC8430 Battery

They eventually arrived in Entebbe to find reporters covering the story of Hemingway's death. He briefed the reporters and spent the next few weeks recuperating and reading his erroneous obituaries.[112] Despite his injuries, Hemingway accompanied Patrick and his wife on a planned fishing expedition in February, but pain caused him to be irascible and difficult to get along with.[113] HP Business Notebook NX4800 Battery

When a bushfire broke out he was again injured, sustaining second degree burns on his legs, front torso, lips, left hand and right forearm.[114] Months later in Venice, "according to Mary they learned the full extent of Hemingway's injuries".HP Business Notebook NX7400 Battery

She reported to friends that he had two cracked discs, a kidney and liver rupture, a dislocated shoulder and a broken skull.[113] The accidents may have precipitated the physical deterioration that was to follow. After the plane crashes, Hemingway, who had been "a thinly controlled alcoholic throughout much of his life, drank more heavily than usual to combat the pain of his injuries."[115] HP Business Notebook NX8200 Battery


In October 1954 Hemingway received the Nobel Prize in Literature. He modestly told the press that Carl Sandburg, Isak Dinesen and Bernard Berenson deserved the prize,[116]but the prize money would be welcome.[117] HP Business Notebook NX8220 Battery

 Mellow claims Hemingway "had coveted the Nobel Prize", but when he won it, months after his plane accidents and the ensuing world-wide press coverage, "there must have been a lingering suspicion in Hemingway's mind that his obituary notices had played a part in the academy's decision."[118] HP Business Notebook NX8420 Battery

Because he was suffering pain from the African accidents, he decided against traveling toStockholm.[119] Instead he sent a speech to be read, defining the writer's life: "Writing, at its best, is a lonely life. HP Business Notebook NX9420 Battery

Organizations for writers palliate the writer's loneliness but I doubt if they improve his writing. He grows in public stature as he sheds his loneliness and often his work deteriorates. For he does his work alone and if he is a good enough writer he must face eternity, or the lack of it, each day."[ HP Business Notebook NX9500 Battery


From the end of the year in 1955 to early 1956, Hemingway was bedridden.[121] He was told to stop drinking to mitigate liver damage, advice he initially followed but then disregarded.[122] In October 1956 he returned to Europe and met Basque writer Pio Baroja, HP Business Notebook TC4400 Battery

who was seriously ill and died weeks later. During the trip Hemingway became sick again and was treated for "high blood pressure, liver disease, and arteriosclerosis".[121] HP Business Notebook TC4200 Battery


In November, while in Paris, he was reminded of trunks he had stored in the Ritz Hotel in 1928 and never retrieved. The trunks were filled with notebooks and writing from his Paris years. Excited about the discovery, when he returned to Cuba in 1957 he began to shape the recovered work into his memoir A Moveable Feast.[123] HP Business NX9100 Battery

By 1959 he ended a period of intense activity: he finished A Moveable Feast (scheduled to be released the following year); brought True at First Light to 200,000 words; added chapters to The Garden of Eden; and worked on Islands in the StreamHP Business NX9600 Battery

The latter three were stored in a safe deposit box in Havana, as he focused on the finishing touches for A Moveable Feast. Reynolds claims that it was during this period he slid into depression, from which he was unable to recover.[124] HP NC6110 Battery


The Finca Vigia became crowded with guests and tourists, as Hemingway, beginning to become unhappy with life there, considered a permanent move to Idaho. In 1959 he bought a home overlooking the Big Wood River, outside of Ketchum, and left Cuba—although he apparently remained on easy terms with the Castro government, telling theNew York Times he was "delighted" with Castro's overthrow of Batista.[125][126] HP NC6120 Battery

He was in Cuba in November 1959, between returning from Pamplona and traveling west to Idaho, and the following year for his birthday; however, that year he and Mary decided to leave after hearing the news that Castro wanted to nationalize property owned by Americans and other foreign nationals.[127] IHP NC6140 Battery

in July 1960 the Hemingways left Cuba for the last time, leaving art and manuscripts in a bank vault in Havana. After the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Finca Vigia was expropriated by the Cuban government, complete with Hemingway's collection of "four to six thousand books".[128] HP NX5100 Battery



Hemingway continued to rework the material that would be published as A Moveable Feast through the end of the 1950s.[123] In the summer of 1959 he visited Spain to research a series of bullfighting articles commissioned by Life Magazine,[129] HP NX6110 Battery

returning to Cuba in January 1960 to work on the manuscript. Life only wanted 10,000 words, but the manuscript grew out of control. For the first time in his life, unable to organize his writing, he asked A. E. Hotchner to travel to Cuba to help. HP NX6120 Battery

Hotchner helped him trim the Life piece to 40,000 words, and Scribner's agreed to a full-length book version (The Dangerous Summer) of almost 130,000 words.[130] Hotchner found Hemingway to be "unusually hesitant, disorganized, and confused",[131] and he was suffering badly from failing eyesight.[132] HP NX6125 Battery


On July 25, 1960, Hemingway and Mary left Cuba, never to return. Hemingway then traveled alone to Spain to be photographed for the front cover of the current Life magazine piece. A few days later he was reported in the news to be seriously ill and on the verge of dying, which panicked Mary until she received a cable from him telling her, "Reports false. Enroute Madrid. Love Papa."[133] HP Omnibook 4100 Battery

However, he was seriously ill and believed himself to be on the verge of a breakdown.[130] He was lonely and took to his bed for days, retreating into silence, despite the first installments of The Dangerous Summer published in Life in September 1960 to good reviews.[134] HP Omnibook 6000 Battery

In October he left Spain for New York, where he refused to leave Mary's apartment on the pretext that he was being watched. She quickly took him out to Idaho, where George Saviers (a Sun Valley physician) met them at the train.[130] HP Omnibook XE Battery


At this time Hemingway was worried about money and about his safety.[132] He worried about his taxes, and that he would never return to Cuba to retrieve the manuscripts he had left there in a bank vault. He also became paranoid,[135] HP Omnibook XE2 Battery

and thought the FBI was actively monitoring his movements in Ketchum.[136] [note 7] By the end of November Mary was at wits' end and Saviers suggested Hemingway go to the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, where he may have believed he was to be treated for hypertension.[135] HP Omnibook XE3 Battery

At an attempt at anonymity he was checked in under Saviers' name.[134] Meyers writes that "an aura of secrecy surrounds Hemingway's treatment at the Mayo", but confirms he was treated withelectroconvulsive therapy as many as 15 times in December 1960, HP Omnibook XT1000 Battery

then in January 1961 he was "released in ruins."[137] Reynolds accessed Hemingway's records at the Mayo which indicate the combination of medications may have created a depressive state, for which he was treated.[138] HP Omnibook XT1500 Battery


Three months later in April 1961, back in Ketchum, one morning in the kitchen Mary "found Hemingway holding a shotgun." She called Saviers who sedated him and admitted him to the Sun Valley hospital; from there he was returned to the Mayo Clinic for more electro shock treatments.[139] HP Pavilion DV1000 Battery

He was released in late June and arrived home in Ketchum on June 30. Two days later, in the early morning hours of July 2, 1961, Hemingway "quite deliberately" shot himself with his favorite shotgun.[140] He unlocked the basement storeroom where his guns were kept, HP Pavilion DV2000 Battery

went upstairs to the front entrance foyer of their Ketchum home, and "pushed two shells into the twelve-gauge Boss shotgun ...put the end of the barrel into his mouth, pulled the trigger and blew out his brains." HP Pavilion DV2100 Battery

Mary called the Sun Valley Hospital, and Dr. Scott Earle arrived at the house within "fifteen minutes". Despite his finding that Hemingway "had died of a self-inflicted wound to the head", the story told to the press was that the death had been "accidental".[141] HP Pavilion DV2200 Battery


During his final years, Hemingway's behavior was similar to his father's before he himself committed suicide;[142] his father may have had the genetic disease hemochromatosis, in which the inability to metabolize iron culminates in mental and physical deterioration.[143] HP Pavilion DV2300 Battery

Medical records made available in 1991 confirm that Hemingway's hemochromatosis had been diagnosed in early 1961.[144] His sister Ursula and his brother Leicester also committed suicide.[145] Added to Hemingway's physical ailments was the additional problem that he had been a heavy drinker for most of his life.[104] HP Pavilion DV2400 Battery

Hemingway's family and friends flew to Ketchum for the funeral which was officiated by the local Catholic priest, who believed the death accidental.[141] Of the funeral (during which an altar boy fainted at the head of the casket), his brother Leicester wrote: "It seemed to me Ernest would have approved of it all."[146] HP Pavilion DV2500 Battery

In a press interview five years later Mary Hemingway admitted that her husband had committed suicide.[147]

Writing style

The New York Times wrote in 1926 of Hemingway's first novel, "No amount of analysis can convey the quality of The Sun Also RisesHP Pavilion DV2600 Battery

It is a truly gripping story, told in a lean, hard, athletic narrative prose that puts more literary English to shame."[148] The Sun Also Rises is written in spare, tight prose that influenced countless crime and pulp fiction novels and made Hemingway famous.[149] HP Pavilion DV2700 Battery

In 1954, when Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, it was for "his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style."[150] HP Pavilion DV4 Battery

Henry Louis Gates believes Hemingway's style was fundamentally shaped "in reaction to [his] experience of world war". After World War I, he and other modernists "lost faith in the central institutions of Western civilization," HP Pavilion DV4T Battery

by reacting against the elaborate style of 19th century writers and by creating a style "in which meaning is established through dialogue, through action, and silences—a fiction in which nothing crucial—or at least very little—is stated explicitly."[16] HP Pavilion DV5 Battery

Because he began as a writer of short stories, Baker believes Hemingway learned to "get the most from the least, how to prune language, how to multiply intensities and how to tell nothing but the truth in a way that allowed for telling more than the truth."[152] HP Pavilion DV5T Battery

Hemingway called his style the iceberg theory: the facts float above water; the supporting structure and symbolism operate out of sight.[152] The concept of the iceberg theory is sometimes referred to as the "theory of omission." HP Pavilion DV7T Battery

Hemingway believed the writer could describe one thing (such as Nick Adams fishing in "The Big Two-Hearted River") though an entirely different thing occurs below the surface (Nick Adams concentrating on fishing to the extent that he does not have to think about anything else).[153] HP Pavilion DV4000 Battery

Jackson Benson believes Hemingway used autobiographical details as framing devices about life in general—not only about his life. For example, Benson postulates that Hemingway used his experiences and drew them out with "what if" scenarios: HP Pavilion DV5000 Battery

"what if I were wounded in such a way that I could not sleep at night? What if I were wounded and made crazy, what would happen if I were sent back to the front?"[154] Writing in "The Art of the Short Story," Hemingway explains: "A few things I have found to be true. HP Pavilion DV6100 Battery

If you leave out important things or events that you know about, the story is strengthened. If you leave or skip something because you do not know it, the story will be worthless. The test of any story is how very good the stuff that you, not your editors, omit."[155] HP Pavilion DV6300 Battery

The simplicity of the prose is deceptive. Zoe Trodd believes Hemingway crafted skeletal sentences in response to Henry James's observation that World War I had "used up words." Hemingway offers a "multi-focal" photographic reality. HP Pavilion DV6500t Battery

His iceberg theory of omission is the foundation on which he builds. The syntax, which lacks subordinating conjunctions, creates static sentences. The photographic "snapshot" style creates acollage of images. Many types of internal punctuation (colons, semicolons, dashes, parentheses) are omitted in favor of short declarative sentences. HP Pavilion DV8000 Battery

The sentences build on each other, as events build to create a sense of the whole. Multiple strands exist in one story; an "embedded text" bridges to a different angle. He also uses other cinematic techniques of "cutting" quickly from one scene to the next; or of "splicing" a scene into another. Intentional omissions allow the reader to fill the gap, as though responding to instructions from the author, and create three-dimensional prose.[157] HP Pavilion DV8002ea Battery

In his literature, and in his personal writing, Hemingway habitually used the word "and" in place of commas. This use of polysyndeton may serve to convey immediacy. Hemingway's polysyndetonic sentence—or in later works his use of subordinate clauses—uses conjunctions to juxtapose startling visions and images; Jackson Benson compares them to haikus.[158][159] HP Pavilion DV9000 Battery

 Many of Hemingway's followers misinterpreted his lead and frowned upon all expression of emotion; Saul Bellow satirized this style as "Do you have emotions? Strangle them."[160] However, Hemingway's intent was not to eliminate emotion, but to portray it more scientifically. HP Pavilion DV9100 Battery

Hemingway thought it would be easy, and pointless, to describe emotions; he sculpted collages of images in order to grasp "the real thing, the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion and which would be as valid in a year or in ten years or, HP Pavilion DV9500 Battery

with luck and if you stated it purely enough, always".[161]This use of an image as an objective correlative is characteristic of Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, and Proust.[162] Hemingway's letters refer to Proust's Remembrance of Things Past several times over the years, and indicate he read the book at least twice.[163] HP Pavilion DV9600 Battery


The recurring themes of American literature are clearly evident in Hemingway's work. Critic Leslie Fiedler sees the theme he defines as "The Sacred Land"—the American West—extended in Hemingway's work to include mountains in Spain, Switzerland and Africa, and to the streams of Michigan. HP Pavilion N3200 Battery

The American West is given a symbolic nod with the naming of the "Hotel Montana" in The Sun Also Rises and For Whom the Bell Tolls.[164] Although Hemingway writes about sports, Carlos Baker believes the emphasis is more on the athlete than the sport.[165] HP Pavilion N5100 Battery

According to Stoltzfus and Fiedler, Hemingway's nature is a place for rebirth, for therapy, and the hunter or fisherman has a moment of transcendence when the prey is killed.[166] Nature is where men are without women: men fish; men hunt; men find redemption in nature.[164] HP Pavilion N5200 Battery

Fiedler believes Hemingway inverts the American literary theme of the evil "Dark Woman" versus the good "Light Woman". The dark woman—Brett Ashley of The Sun Also Rises—is a goddess; the light woman—Margot Macomber of "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber"—is a murderess.[164] HP Pavilion N5250 Battery

Robert Scholes admits that early Hemingway stories, such as "A Very Short Story", present "a male character favorably and a female unfavorably."[167] According to Rena Sanderson, early Hemingway critics lauded his male-centric world of masculine pursuits, and the fiction divided women into "castrators or love-slaves." HP Pavilion N5290 Battery

Feminist critics attacked Hemingway as "public enemy number one", although more recent re-evaluations of his work "have given new visibility to Hemingway's female characters (and their strengths) and have revealed his own sensitivity to gender issues, HP Pavilion N5300 Battery

thus casting doubts on the old assumption that his writings were one-sidedly masculine."[168] Nina Baym believes that Brett Ashley and Margot Macomber "are the two outstanding examples of Hemingway's 'bitch women.'"[169] HP Pavilion N5340 Battery

The theme of women and death is evident in stories as early as "Indian Camp". The theme of death permeates Hemingway's work. Young believes the emphasis in "Indian Camp" was not so much on the woman who gives birth or the father who commits suicide, HP Pavilion N5350 Battery

but on Nick Adams who witnesses these events as a child, and becomes a "badly scarred and nervous young man." Hemingway sets the events in "Indian Camp" that shape the Adams persona. Young believes "Indian Camp" holds the "master key" to "what its author was up to for some thirty-five years of his writing career." [170] HP Pavilion N5390 Battery

Stoltzfus considers Hemingway's work to be more complex with a representation of the truth inherent in existentialism: if "nothingness" is embraced, then redemption is achieved at the moment of death. Those who face death with dignity and courage live an authentic life. HP Pavilion N5400 Battery

Francis Macomber dies happy because the last hours of his life are authentic; the bullfighter in the corridarepresents the pinnacle of a life lived with authenticity.[166] In his paper The Uses of Authenticity: Hemingway and the Literary FieldHP Pavilion N5415 Battery

Timo Müller writes that Hemingway's fiction is successful because the characters live an "authentic life", and the "soldiers, fishers, boxers and backwoodsmen are among the archetypes of authenticity in modern literature".[171]HP Pavilion N5420 Battery

The theme of emasculation is prevalent in Hemingway's work, most notably in The Sun Also Rises. Emasculation, according to Fiedler, is a result of a generation of wounded soldiers; and of a generation in which women such as Brett gained emancipation. HP Pavilion N5425 Battery

This also applies to the minor character, Frances Clyne, Cohn's girlfriend in the beginning in the book. Her character supports the theme not only because the idea was presented early on in the novel but also the impact she had on Cohn in the start of the book while only appearing a small number of times.[164] HP Pavilion N5430 Battery

Baker believes Hemingway's work emphasizes the "natural" versus the "unnatural". In "Alpine Idyll" the "unnaturalness" of skiing in the high country late spring snow is juxtaposed against the "unnaturalness" of the peasant who allowed his wife's dead body to linger too long in the shed during the winter. The skiers and peasant retreat to the valley to the "natural" spring for redemption.[165] HP Pavilion N5435 Battery

Some critics have characterized Hemingway's work as misogynistic and homophobic. Susan Beegel analyzed four decades of Hemingway criticism, published in her essay "Critical Reception". She found, particularly in the 1980s, "critics interested in multiculturalism" simply ignored Hemingway; although some "apologetics" have been written.HP Pavilion N5440 Battery

Typical is this analysis of The Sun Also Rises: "Hemingway never lets the reader forget that Cohn is a Jew, not an unattractive character who happens to be a Jew but a character who is unattractive because he is a Jew." During the same decade, according to Beegel, criticism was published that investigated the "horror of homosexuality", and racism in Hemingway's fiction.[172] HP Pavilion N5445 Battery

Influence and legacy

Hemingway's legacy to American literature is his style: writers who came after him emulated it or avoided it.[173] After his reputation was established with the publication ofThe Sun Also Rises, he became the spokesperson for the post–World War I generation, having established a style to follow.[149] His books were burned in Berlin in 1933, "HP Pavilion N5455 Battery

as being a monument of modern decadence", and disavowed by his parents as "filth".[174]Reynolds asserts the legacy is that "he left stories and novels so starkly moving that some have become part of our cultural heritage."[175] HP Pavilion N5470 Battery

 In a 2004 speech at the John F. Kennedy Library, Russell Banks declared that he, like many male writers of his generation, was influenced by Hemingway's writing philosophy, style, and public image.[176] Müller reports that Hemingway "has the highest recognition value of all writers worldwide".[177] HP Pavilion N5490 Battery

Benson believes the details of Hemingway's life have become a "prime vehicle for exploitation", resulting in a Hemingway industry.[178] Hemingway scholar Hallengren believes the "hard boiled style" and the machismo must be separated from the author himself.[174] HP Pavilion N6000 Battery

Benson agrees, describing him as introverted and private as J. D. Salinger, although Hemingway masked his nature with braggadocio.[179] In fact, during World War II, Salinger met and corresponded with Hemingway, whom he acknowledged as an influence. In a letter to Hemingway, Salinger claimed their talks "had given him his only hopeful minutes of the entire war" and jokingly "named himself national chairman of the Hemingway Fan Clubs."[180] HP Pavilion N6195 Battery

The extent of Hemingway's influence is seen in the tributes and echoes of his fiction in popular culture. A minor planet, discovered in 1978 by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh, was named for him (3656 Hemingway);[181] Ray Bradbury wroteThe Kilimanjaro Device, with Hemingway transported to the top of Mount Kilimanjaro;[69] HP Pavilion n6400 Battery

the 1993 motion picture Wrestling Ernest Hemingway, about the friendship of two retired men, Irish and Cuban, in a seaside town in Florida, starred Robert Duvall, Richard Harris,Shirley MacLaine, Sandra Bullock, and Piper Laurie.[182] The influence is evident with the many restaurants named "Hemingway"; and the proliferation of bars called "Harry's" (a nod to the bar in Across the River and Into the Trees).[183] HP Pavilion N6490 Battery

A line of Hemingway furniture, promoted by Hemingway's son Jack (Bumby), has pieces such as the "Kilimanjaro" bedside table, and a "Catherine" slip-covered sofa. Montblanc offers a Hemingway fountain pen, and a line of Hemingway safari clothes has been created.[184] THP Pavilion XF100 Battery

the International Imitation Hemingway Competition was created in 1977 to publicly acknowledge his influence and the comically misplaced efforts of lesser authors to imitate his style. Entrants are encouraged to submit one "really good page of really bad Hemingway" and winners are flown to Italy to Harry's Bar.[185] HP Pavilion XZ100 Battery

In 1965 Mary Hemingway established the Hemingway Foundation and in the 1970s she donated her husband's papers to the John F. Kennedy Library. In 1980 a group of Hemingway scholars gathered to assess the donated papers, subsequently forming the Hemingway Society, "committed to supporting and fostering Hemingway scholarship."[186] HP Pavilion ZD7000 Battery

Almost exactly 35 years after Hemingway's death, on July 1, 1996, his granddaughterMargaux Hemingway died in Santa Monica, California. Margaux was a supermodel and actress, co-starring with her sister Mariel in the 1976 movie Lipstick.[187] Her death was later ruled a suicide, making her "the fifth person in four generations of her family to commit suicide."[188] HP Pavilion ZD7300 Battery


The right wing daily, Magyar Hírlap published one of her letters sent to the MSZMP, in 1959, begging her reemployment at the university. It includes passages like "As a communist and member of MSZMP I feel it is my duty" and it describes the 1956 Revolution in Hungary as a counter-revolution.[15] The letter was deemed authentic by historian Fráter Olivér.[16] Heller claims that her first husband, István Hermann, fabricated the quoted parts of the texts. HP Pavilion ZD7900 Battery

Others[17] in Hungary criticize the republishing of her early works. In the new editions, they claim she simply cut out citations from Marx, Lenin, Makarenko and other communist ideologists as well as parts criticizing non-Marxist thinkers and writers. According to one of her infamous statements, HP Pavilion ZE2000 Battery

 Dezső Kosztolányi was moral nihilist (nihilism being the main characteristic of fascism). She argues that Kosztolányi defined himself as a homo aestethicus, who is opposed to the homo moralis. In Kosztolányi's understanding a homo moralis is narrow minded, HP Pavilion ZT1000 Battery

focusing only on things he/she regards valuables. A homo moralis is cruel to everyone, starts wars, hangs people, offers always Paradise in the future, but turns the Earth into hell. According to Heller, the homo aestethicus is unacceptable and can not be tolerated. She wrote that the socialist morality must be present in the works and in the life of an artist at a very high level. HP Pavilion ZT1125 Battery

Heller's other argument for Kosztolányi's nihilism was that he first had been a supporter of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, but later became a journalist of the right wing Hungarian newspaper, the Új Nemzedék.

Daniel Berkeley Updike (14 February 1860—29 December 1941) was an American printer and historian of typography. HP Pavilion ZT1130 Battery

Updike was born at Providence, Rhode Island. In 1880 he joined the publishers Houghton, Mifflin & Company, of Boston as an errand boy. He worked for the firm's Riverside Pressand trained as a printer but soon moved to typographic design. HP Pavilion ZT1150 Battery

He set up on his own in 1893, and renamed his enterprise the Merrymount Press in 1896. That same year, one of his first works with the "Merrymount Press" was "In the Old Days, A Fragment" written by his mother, Elisabeth Bigelow Updike, as reminiscences of her youth. HP Pavilion ZT1145 Battery

Initially he followed the style of William Morris and the Kelmscott Press but soon turned towards the historical printing of the seventeenth, eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He began to acquire fonts of his own, including some specially cut for him —HP Pavilion ZT1160 Battery

Montalegro and Merrymount. He made his name as a liturgical printer for the Episcopal Church, but also undertook general jobbing and ephemeral work. John Bianchi became a partner in the press in 1915. HP Pavilion ZT1155 Battery

Updike was greatly interested in the history of printing types, and in 1922 published Printing Types: Their History, Forms and Use. An extensively revised second edition was published in 1937. He was involved in the Anglo-American 'Typographical Renaissance' of the time, together with Frederic Goudy, Stanley Morison, Bruce Rogers and Theodore Low De Vinne. HP Pavilion ZT1170 Battery

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