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Facebook (stylized facebook) is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004, operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. As of January 2011, Facebook has more than 600 million active users  HP 448007-001 battery .

Users may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile. Additionally, users may join common interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics  HP Pavilion DV7 battery .

The name of the service stems from the colloquial name for the book given to students at the start of the academic year by university administrations in the United States to help students get to know each other better. Facebook allows anyone who declares themselves to be at least 13 years old to become a registered user of the website  HP DV6-1120SA battery .

Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow computer science students Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz andChris Hughes.The website's membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Bostonarea, the Ivy League, and Stanford University  HP DV6-1210SA battery .

It gradually added support for students at various other universities before opening to high school students, and, finally, to anyone aged 13 and over.

A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook as the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users, followed byMySpace  Compaq CQ50 battery .

Entertainment Weekly included the site on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list, saying, "How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers' birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?" Quantcast estimates Facebook has 135.1 million monthly unique U.S. visitors in October 2010  HP Pavilion DV8 battery .

According to Social Media Today, in April 2010 an estimated 41.6% of the U.S. population had a Facebook account.

History

Mark Zuckerberg wrote Facemash, the predecessor to Facebook, on October 28, 2003, while attending Harvard as a sophomoreSony VGP-BPS13 battery .

According to The Harvard Crimson, the site was comparable to Hot or Not, and "used photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the 'hotter' person"  HP DV9700 battery .

To accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into the protected areas of Harvard's computer network and copied the houses' private dormitory ID images. Harvard at that time did not have a student "facebook" (a directory with photos and basic information). Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online  Compaq CQ35-100 battery .

The site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days later by the Harvard administration. Zuckerberg was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, and violating individual privacy, and faced expulsion. Ultimately, however, the charges were dropped  Sony VGP-BPS11 battery .

Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art historyfinal, by uploading 500 Augustan images to a website, with one image per page along with a comment section. He opened the site up to his classmates, and people started sharing their notes  HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery .

The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004. He was inspired, he said, by an editorial in The Harvard Crimson about the Facemash incident. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "Thefacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com  Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/L Battery .

Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors, Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra, accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com, while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product  Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/P Battery .

The three complained to the Harvard Crimson, and the newspaper began an investigation. The three later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling.

Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, and within the first month, more than half the undergraduate population at Harvard was registered on the service   Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/R Battery .

Eduardo Saverin (business aspects), Dustin Moskovitz (programmer), Andrew McCollum (graphic artist), and Chris Hughes soon joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Stanford, Columbia, and Yale  Sony Vaio VGN-CR190E/W Battery .

It soon opened to the other Ivy League schools, Boston University,New York University, MIT, and gradually most universities in Canada and the United States.

Facebook incorporated in the summer of 2004, and the entrepreneur Sean Parker, who had been informally advising Zuckerberg, became the company's president  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21/B Battery .

In June 2004, Facebook moved its base of operations to Palo Alto, California. It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. The company dropped The from its name after purchasing thedomain name facebook.com in 2005 for $200,000   Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/L Battery .

Facebook launched a high school version in September 2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical step. At that time, high-school networks required an invitation to join. Facebook later expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/P Battery .

Facebook was then opened on September 26, 2006, to everyone of age 13 and older with a valid email address.

On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/W Battery .

Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international ads on Facebook. In October 2008, Facebook announced that it would set up its international headquarters in Dublin, Ireland.In September 2009, Facebook said that it had turned cash flow positive for the first time   Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/L Battery .

In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc., an exchange for shares of privately held companies, Facebook's value was $41 billion (slightly surpassing eBay's) and it became the third-largest US web company after Google and Amazon. Facebook has been identified as a possible candidate for anIPO by 2013   Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/P Battery .

Traffic to Facebook increased steadily after 2009. More people visited Facebook than Google for the week ending March 13, 2010.Facebook also became the top social network across eight individual markets—in Australia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Vietnam   Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/W Battery ,

while other brands commanded the top positions in certain markets, including Google-owned Orkut in India, Mixi.jp in Japan, CyWorld in South Korea, and Yahoo!'s Wretch.cc in Taiwan  Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N Battery .

In March 2011 it was reported that Facebook removes approximately 20,000 profiles from the site every day for various infractions, including spam, inappropriate content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security.

In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move to its new headquarters, the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California   Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/R Battery .

Company

Most of Facebook's revenue comes from advertising. Microsoft is Facebook's exclusive partner for serving banner advertising, and as such Facebook only serves advertisements that exist in Microsoft's advertisement inventory   Sony Vaio VGN-CR220E/R Battery .

According to comScore, an internet marketing research company, Facebook collects as much data from its visitors as Google and Microsoft, but considerably less than Yahoo!.In 2010, the security team began expanding its efforts to reduce the risks to users' privacy  Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/B Battery .

On November 6, 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Beacon, which was an ultimately failed attempt to advertise to friends of users using the knowledge of what purchases friends made.

Facebook generally has a lower clickthrough rate (CTR) for advertisements than most major websites  Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/P Battery .

For banner advertisements, they have generally received one-fifth the number of clicks on Facebook compared to the Web as a whole. This means that a smaller percentage of Facebook's users click on advertisements than many other large websites   Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/R Battery .

For example, while Google users click on the first advertisement for search results an average of 8% of the time (80,000 clicks for every one million searches), Facebook's users click on advertisements an average of 0.04% of the time (400 clicks for every one million pages)   Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/L Battery .

Sarah Smith, who was Facebook's Online Sales Operations Manager, confirmed that successful advertising campaigns can have clickthrough rates as low as 0.05% to 0.04%, and that CTR for ads tend to fall within two weeks. Competing social network MySpace's CTR, in comparison, is about 0.1%, 2.5 times better than Facebook's but still low compared to many other websites  Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/N Battery .

Explanations for Facebook's low CTR include the fact that Facebook's users are more technologically savvy and therefore use ad blocking software to hide advertisements, the users are younger and therefore are better at ignoring advertising messages, and that on MySpace   Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/W Battery ,

users spend more time browsing through content while on Facebook, users spend their time communicating with friends and therefore have their attention diverted away from advertisements.

On pages for brands and products, however, some companies have reported CTR as high as 6.49% for Wall posts  HP Pavilion DM3 battery .

Involver, a social marketing platform, announced in July 2008 that it managed to attain a CTR of 0.7% on Facebook (over 10 times the typical CTR for Facebook ad campaigns) for its first client,Serena Software, managing to convert 1.1 million views into 8,000 visitors to their website   HP Pavilion DM4 battery .

A study found that for video advertisements on Facebook, over 40% of users who viewed the videos viewed the entire video, while the industry average was 25% for in-banner video ads.

As of April 2011, Facebook has over 2,000 employees, and offices in 15 countries   HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery .

Regarding Facebook ownership, Mark Zuckerberg owns 24% of the company, Accel Partners owns 10%, Digital Sky Technologies owns 10%, Dustin Moskovitz owns 6%, Eduardo Saverin owns 5%, Sean Parker owns 4%,Peter Thiel owns 3%, Greylock Partners and Meritech Capital Partners own between 1 to 2% each   Dell N3010 battery ,

Microsoft owns 1.3%, Li Ka-shing owns 0.75%, the Interpublic Group owns less than 0.5%, a small group of current and former employees and celebrities own less than 1% each, including Matt Cohler, Jeff Rothschild, Adam D'Angelo, Chris Hughes, and Owen Van Natta, while Reid Hoffman and Mark Pincus have sizable holdings of the company   Dell Inspiron N4010 battery ,

and the remaining 30% or so are owned by employees, an undisclosed number of celebrities, and outside investors.Adam D'Angelo, chief technology officer and friend of Zuckerberg, resigned in May 2008. Reports claimed that he and Zuckerberg began quarreling, and that he was no longer interested in partial ownership of the company  Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery .

On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired FB.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed 8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history   Dell XPS 1340 battery .

Website

Users can create profiles with photos, lists of personal interests, contact information, and other personal information. Users can communicate with friends and other users through private or public messages and a chat feature   Dell Inspiron 1464 battery .

They can also create and join interest groups and "like pages" (formerly called "fan pages", until April 19, 2010), some of which are maintained by organizations as a means of advertising.

To allay concerns about privacy, Facebook enables users to choose their own privacy settings and choose who can see specific parts of their profile    Dell Inspiron 1764 battery .

The website is free to users, and generates revenue from advertising, such as banner ads. Facebook requires a user's name and profile picture (if applicable) to be accessible by everyone. Users can control who sees other information they have shared, as well as who can find them in searches, through their privacy settings   Dell Inspiron 1564 battery .

The media often compare Facebook to MySpace, but one significant difference between the two websites is the level of customization.Another difference is Facebook's requirement that users give their true identity, a demand that MySpace does not make   Dell Inspiron 1720 battery .

MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), while Facebook only allows plain text.Facebook has a number of features with which users may interact. They include the Wall, a space on every user's profile page that allows friends to post messages for the user to see   Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery ;

Pokes, which allows users to send a virtual "poke" to each other (a notification then tells a user that they have been poked); Photos, where users can upload albums and photos;and Status, which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions  Dell LATITUDE D800 battery .

Depending on privacy settings, anyone who can see a user's profile can also view that user's Wall. In July 2007, Facebook began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall, whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only   Dell Inspiron 6400 AC Adapter .

On September 6, 2006, a News Feed was announced, which appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays of the user's friends. This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause  SONY VAIO VGN-FWZJ/H Battery .

Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, while others were concerned it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users)  SONY VAIO VGN-FW41M/H Battery .

In response, Zuckerberg issued an apology for the site's failure to include appropriate customizable privacy features. Since then, users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities  SONY VAIO VGN-FW37J Battery ,

including profile changes, Wall posts, and newly added friends .

On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the same activity of another user  SONY VAIO VGN-FW90NS Battery .

The patent may encourage Facebook to pursue action against websites that violate its patent, which may potentially include websites such as Twitter.

One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the Photos application, where users can upload albums and photos   SONY VAIO VGN-FW83XS Battery . 

Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos, compared with other image hosting services such as Photobucket and Flickr, which apply limits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to upload. During the first years, Facebook users were limited to 60 photos per album  SONY VAIO VGN-FW83JS Battery .

As of May 2009, this limit has been increased to 200 photos per album.

Privacy settings can be set for individual albums, limiting the groups of users that can see an album. For example, the privacy of an album can be set so that only the user's friends can see the album, while the privacy of another album can be set so that all Facebook users can see it    SONY VAIO VGN-FW30B Battery .

Another feature of the Photos application is the ability to "tag," or label, users in a photo. For instance, if a photo contains a user's friend, then the user can tag the friend in the photo. This sends a notification to the friend that they have been tagged, and provides them a link to see the photo   SONY VAIO VGN-AW41MF/H Battery .

Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22, 2006, a blogging feature that allowed tags and embeddable images. Users were later able to import blogs fromXanga, LiveJournal, Blogger, and other blogging services. During the week of April 7, 2008, Facebook released a Comet-based instant messagingapplication called "Chat" to several networks   SONY VAIO VGN-AW41MF Battery ,

which allows users to communicate with friends and is similar in functionality to desktop-based instant messengers.

Facebook launched Gifts on February 8, 2007, which allows users to send virtual gifts to their friends that appear on the recipient's profile   SONY VAIO VGN-AW41JF/H Battery .

Gifts cost $1.00 each to purchase, and a personalized message can be attached to each gift. On May 14, 2007, Facebook launched Marketplace, which lets users post free classified ads.Marketplace has been compared to Craigslist by CNET  SONY VAIO VGN-AW41JF Battery ,

which points out that the major difference between the two is that listings posted by a user on Marketplace are seen only by users in the same network as that user, whereas listings posted on Craigslist can be seen by anyone.

On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks  SONY VAIO VGN-FW38M Battery .

The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a "cleaner" look.After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook began migrating all users to the new version beginning in September 2008  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31Z Battery .

On December 11, 2008, it was announced that Facebook was testing a simpler signup process.

On June 13, 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, whereby pages can be linked with simpler URLs such SONY VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery .

Many newsmartphones offer access to the Facebook services either through their web-browsers or applications. An official Facebook application is available for theiPhone OS, the Android OS, and the WebOS. Nokia and Research In Motion both provide Facebook applications for their own mobile devices  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31B Battery .

More than 150 million active users access Facebook through mobile devices across 200 mobile operators in 60 countries.

On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced a new "Facebook Messages" service. In a media event that day, CEO Mark Zuckerberg said, "It's true that people will be able to have an @facebook.com email addresses, but it's not email  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31E Battery.

" The launch of such a feature had been anticipated for some time before the announcement, with some calling it a "Gmail killer." The system, to be available to all of the website's users, combines text messaging, instant messaging, emails, and regular messages, and will include privacy settings similar to those of other Facebook services   SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery .

Codenamed "Project Titan," Facebook Messages took 15 months to develop.

In February 2011, Facebook began to use the hCalendar microformat to mark up events, and the hCard microformat for the events' venues, enabling the extraction of details to users' own calendar or mapping applications   Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery .

Reception

According to comScore, Facebook is the leading social networking site based on monthly unique visitors, having overtaken main competitor MySpace in April 2008. ComScore reports that Facebook attracted 130 million unique visitors in May 2010, an increase of 8.6 million people   Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery .

According to Alexa, the website's ranking among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in worldwide traffic, from September 2006 to September 2007, and is currently 2nd.Quantcast ranks the website 2nd in the U.S. in traffic, and Compete.com ranks it 2nd in the U.S   Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

The website is the most popular for uploading photos, with 50 billion uploaded cumulatively. In 2010, Sophos's "Security Threat Report 2010" polled over 500 firms, 60% of which responded that they believed that Facebook was the social network that posed the biggest threat to security, well ahead of MySpace, Twitter, and LinkedIn   Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery .

Facebook is the most popular social networking site in several English-speaking countries, including Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.In regional Internet markets, Facebook penetration is highest in North America (69 percent), followed by Middle East-Africa (67 percent)    SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery ,

Latin America (58 percent), Europe (57 percent), and Asia-Pacific (17 percent).

The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007, and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008   SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery .

In a 2006 study conducted by Student Monitor, a New Jersey-based company specializing in research concerning the college student market, Facebook was named the second most popular thing among undergraduates, tied with beer and only ranked lower than the iPod    SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery .

On March 2010, Judge Richard Seeborg issued an order approving the class settlement in Lane v. Facebook, Inc., the class action lawsuit arising out of Facebook's Beacon program.

In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie “Best Overall Startup Or Product” the third year in a row and was recognized as one of the "Hottest Silicon Valley Companies" by Lead411   SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

However, in a July 2010 survey performed by the American Customer Satisfaction Index, Facebook received a score of 64 out of 100, placing it in the bottom 5% of all private sector companies in terms of customer satisfaction, alongside industries such as the IRS e-file system, airlines, and cable companies    SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery .

Reasons for why Facebook scored so poorly include privacy problems, frequent changes to the website's interface, the results returned by the News Feed, and spam.

In December 2008, the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory ruled that Facebook is a valid protocol to serve court notices to defendants    SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery .

It is believed to be the world's first legal judgement that defines a summons posted on Facebook as legally binding.[124] In March 2009, the New Zealand High Court associate justice David Glendall allowed for the serving of legal papers on Craig Axe by the company Axe Market Garden via Facebook   SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery .

Employers (such as Virgin Atlantic Airways) have also used Facebook as a means to keep tabs on their employees and have even been known to fire them over posts they have made.

By 2005, the use of Facebook had already become so ubiquitous that the generic verb "facebooking" had come into use to describe the process of browsing others' profiles or updating one's own   SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery .

In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as their new Word of the Year. In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared their word of the year to be the verb "unfriend", defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking site such as Facebook. As in, 'I decided to unfriend my roommate on Facebook after we had a fight  SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .'

As of April 2010, according to The New York Times, countries with most Facebook users are the United States, the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Indonesia has become the country with the second largest number of Facebook users, after the United States, with 24 million users, or 10% of Indonesia's population   SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

Also in early 2010, Openbook was established, an avowed parodywebsite (and privacy advocacy website) that enables text-based searches of those Wall posts that are available to "Everyone", i.e. to everyone on the Internet  Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery .

Writers for The Wall Street Journal found in 2010 that Facebook apps were transmitting identifying information to "dozens of advertising and Internet tracking companies". The apps used an HTTP referrer which exposed the user's identity and sometimes their friends'   Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery .

Facebook said, "We have taken immediate action to disable all applications that violate our terms".

Criticism

Facebook has been met with controversies. It has been blocked intermittently in several countries including the People's Republic of China, Vietnam, Iran, Uzbekistan, Pakistan Syria, and Bangladesh on different bases  Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery .

For example, it was banned in many countries of the world on the basis of allowed content judged as anti-Islamic and containing religious discrimination. It has also been banned at many workplaces to prevent employees wasting their time on the site   Sony VGP-BPS21 battery .

The privacy of Facebook users has also been an issue, and the safety of user accounts has been compromised several times. Facebook has settled a lawsuit regarding claims over source code and intellectual property  Sony VGP-BPS14 battery .

Social impact

In many ways, Facebook has impacted on the social life and activity of people. One of such impacts is with the ability to reunite lost family members and friends. One of such reunion was between John Watson, who had spent the last 20 years searching for his long lost daughter. The two met on Facebook as father found her profile  Sony VGP-BPL8 battery .

Another father-daughter reunion happened between Tony Macnauton and Frances Simpson who had not seen each other for nearly 48 years.

Political impact

Facebook's role in the American political process was demonstrated in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primarySony VGP-BPS22 battery ,

when Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. Charles Gibsonmoderated both debates, held at the Dana Center for the Humanities at Saint Anselm College   Sony VGP-BPS11 battery .

Facebook users took part in debate groups organized around specific topics, register to vote, and message questions.

Over 1,000,000 people installed the Facebook application 'US politics' in order to take part, and the application measured users' responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates   Sony VGP-BPS9 battery .

This debate showed the broader community what many young students had already experienced: Facebook was an extremely popular and powerful new way to interact and voice opinions. An article by Michelle Sullivan of Uwire.com illustrates how the "facebook effect" has affected youth voting rates   Sony VGP-BPS10 battery ,

support by youth of political candidates, and general involvement by the youth population in the 2008 election.

In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia  Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery ,

better known as the FARC (from the group's Spanish name). In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook   Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery .

In 2010 an English director of public health, whose staff was researching Syphilis, linked and attributed a rise in Syphilis cases in areas of Britain to Facebook. The reports of this research were rebuked by Facebook as "ignoring the difference between correlation and causation   Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery ."

In media

  • At age 102, Ivy Bean of Bradford, England joined Facebook in 2008, making her one of the oldest people ever on Facebook. An inspiration to other residents of the care home in which she lived, she quickly became more widely known and several fan pages were made in her honor   SONY VGN -FZ210CE Battery .
  • She visited Prime Minister Gordon Brown and his wife, Sarah, in Downing Street early in 2010. Some time after creating her Facebook page, Bean also joinedTwitter, when she passed the maximum number of friends allowed by Facebook. She became the oldest person to ever use the Twitter website    Dell Precision M70 Battery .
  • At the time of her death in July 2010, she had 4,962 friends on Facebook and more than 56,000 followers on Twitter. Her death was widely reported in the media and she received tributes from several notable media personalities   Acer Aspire One battery 10400mAh .
  • "FriendFace", a December 2008 episode of the British sitcom, The IT Crowd, parodied Facebook and social networking sites in general.
  • American author Ben Mezrich published a book in July 2009 about Mark Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook, titled The Accidental Billionaires   Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery :
  • The Founding of Facebook, A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius, and Betrayal.
  • In response to the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day controversy and the ban of the website in Pakistan, an Islamic version of the website was created, called MillatFacebook   Dell RM791 battery .
  • "You Have 0 Friends", an April 2010 episode of the American animated comedy series, South Park, parodied Facebook.
  • The Social Network, a drama film directed by David Fincher about the founding of Facebook, was released October 1, 2010Dell Inspiron E1505 battery .
  • The film features an ensemble cast consisting of Jesse Eisenberg asMark Zuckerberg, Andrew Garfield as Eduardo Saverin, Justin Timberlake as Sean Parker, and Armie Hammer as Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss. The film was written by Aaron Sorkin and adapted from Ben Mezrich's 2009 book   Dell Studio 1737 battery .
  • The film was distributed by Columbia Pictures. No staff members of Facebook, including Zuckerberg, were involved with the project. However, one of Facebook's co-founders, Eduardo Saverin, was a consultant for Mezrich's book. Mark Zuckerberg has said that The Social Network is inaccurate   Dell Inspiron 300M Battery .
  • On February 22, 2011, an Egyptian baby was named "Facebook" to commemorate the vital role Facebook and other social media played in Egypt's revolution  Dell Latitude E4200 Battery .

Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization. It may include false accusations, monitoring, making threats, identity theft, damage to data or equipment, the solicitation of minors for sex, or gathering information in order to harass   Dell Latitude E5400 Battery .

The definition of "harassment" must meet the criterion that areasonable person, in possession of the same information, would regard it as sufficient to cause another reasonable person distress.

Definitions

Stalking is a continuous process, consisting of a series of actions, each of which may be entirely legal in itself   Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery .

Lambèr Royakkers writes that:

"Stalking is a form of mental assault, in which the perpetrator repeatedly, unwantedly, and disruptively breaks into the life-world of the victim, with whom he has no relationship (or no longer has), with motives that are directly or indirectly traceable to the affective sphere    Sony VGN-FW11M Battery .

Moreover, the separated acts that make up the intrusion cannot by themselves cause the mental abuse, but do taken together (cumulative effect)."

CyberAngels has written about how to identify cyberstalking   Sony VGN-FW11S Battery :

When identifying cyberstalking "in the field," and particularly when considering whether to report it to any kind of legal authority, the following features or combination of features can be considered to characterize a true stalking situation  Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery :

malice, premeditation, repetition, distress, obsession, vendetta, no legitimate purpose, personally directed, disregarded warnings to stop, harassment, and threats.

A number of key factors have been identified   Dell Latitude D620 Battery :

  • False accusations. Many cyberstalkers try to damage the reputation of their victim and turn other people against them. They post false information about them on websites. They may set up their own websites, blogs or user pages for this purposeDell Latitude D830 Battery .
  • They post allegations about the victim to newsgroups, chat rooms or other sites that allow public contributions, such as Wikipedia or Amazon.com.
  • Attempts to gather information about the victim. Cyberstalkers may approach their victim's friends, family and work colleagues to obtain personal information  Toshiba Satellite M60 battery .
  • They may advertise for information on the Internet, or hire a private detective. They often will monitor the victim's online activities and attempt to trace their IP address in an effort to gather more information about their victims.
  • Encouraging others to harass the victim   Toshiba Satellite M65 battery .
  •  Many cyberstalkers try to involve third parties in the harassment. They may claim the victim has harmed the stalker or his/her family in some way, or may post the victim's name and telephone number in order to encourage others to join the pursuit   Dell Latitude D610 Battery .
  • False victimization. The cyberstalker will claim that the victim is harassing him/her. Bocij writes that this phenomenon has been noted in a number of well-known cases.
  • Attacks on data and equipment. They may try to damage the victim's computer by sending viruses Toshiba NB100 Battery .
  • Ordering goods and services. They order items or subscribe to magazines in the victim's name. These often involve subscriptions to pornography or ordering sex toys then having them delivered to the victim's workplace.
  • Arranging to meet. Young people face a particularly high risk of having cyberstalkers try to set up meetings between themDell Studio 1457 Battery .

History

An early example of using the internet to gather personal info was in the popular 1993 movie Sleepless in Seattle, where Meg Ryan's character uses her office computer to learn about Tom Hanks' character. She then faxes that info to a private detective to gain yet more info   Dell Studio 1450 Battery .

Stakeholders

There are three parts: the cyberstalker, the victim and witnesses.

The stalker

According to Antonio Chacón Medina, author of "A new face of Internet: the cyberstalking" , the general profile of the harasser a person is cold, with little or no respect for others  Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery .

A stalker is a predator that can wait patiently connected to the network, participate in chat or forums to make contact with someone that you appear susceptible to annoy, usually women or children, and enjoys chasing a particular person, and directly connected with it or be a complete unknown  SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery .

The bully enjoys and shows its power to pursue and psychologically damaging to the person.

Witnesses

Recipients of the slander not realize they are suffering a manipulation and an invasion privacy   SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery .

According the psychologist Iñaki Piñuel y Zabalaone of the reasons for adhering to bully some of the peers is because they wish to have no problems. They think the victim must have done something. In any case see the victim as someone who should not be. This situation leads them isolated to the idea that he has blame, because nobody speaks  SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery .

Behaviors

Cyberstalkers meet or target their victims by using search engines, online forums, bulletin and discussion boards, chat rooms, and more recently, through online communities such as MySpace,Facebook, Bebo, Friendster, Twitter, and Indymedia, a media outlet known for self-publishing   SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery .

They may engage in live chat harassment or flaming or they may send electronic viruses and unsolicited e-mails. Victims of cyberstalking may not even know that they are being stalked. Cyberstalkers may research individuals to feed their obsessions and curiosity   SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery .

Conversely, the acts of cyberstalkers may become more intense, such as repeatedly instant messaging their targets.

More commonly they will post defamatory or derogatory statements about their stalking target on web pages, message boards and in guest books designed to get a reaction or response from their victim, thereby initiating contact  SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery .

In some cases, they have been known to create fake blogs in the name of the victim containing defamatory or pornographic content.

When prosecuted, many stalkers have unsuccessfully attempted to justify their behavior based on their use of public forums, as opposed to direct contact   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery .

Once they get a reaction from the victim, they will typically attempt to track or follow the victim's internet activity. Classic cyberstalking behavior includes the tracing of the victim's IP address in an attempt to verify their home or place of employment  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery .

Some cyberstalking situations do evolve into physical stalking, and a victim may experience abusive and excessive phone calls, vandalism, threatening or obscene mail, trespassing, and physical assault. Moreover, many physical stalkers will use cyberstalking as another method of harassing their victims  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery .

A 2007 study, led by Paige Padgett from the University of Texas Health Science Center, found that there was a false degree of safety assumed by women looking for love online.

Means used by the cyberstalker to obtain information

Cyberstalkers find their victims by using search engines, forums, chats, and more recently, through social networks like MySpace, Facebook , Tuenti, Flickr, Skype, Twitter, Sonic, Linkedin, Xing, etc.. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery

The cyberstalker feels in a position of power from the anonymity that is perceived as being "online" for all that time is collecting all possible information about their victim, mainly those aspects that are part of their private life and their movements on the Web  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery .

The amount of information collected from the victim depend primarily on the innocence of the victim at the time to handle their data as the skill of the stalker and their obsession with the victim, because the more you are obsessed, the more interest will to look at hacker forums and learn computer skills needed for information of the victim   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery .

If the victim has internet search how to connect with it, either through social networks instant messaging clients, or by sending infected emails. Once you get access your mail, proceed to steal all your contacts and all your private information. Monitor your computer through the use of rootkits and keyloggers   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ4000 Battery .

If you know your location, will the IP tracking from which connects the victim to find its location.

Getting information through the environment of the victim

For more information, or if the cyberstalker can not contact the victim, they seek personal information about the victim using the same method but through its environment: friends, family, coworkers, classmates, neighbors, etc.. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery

Right to privacy violation

  • steal your email password, and changes so that the rightful owner does not

can check, read the messages that arrive in your mailbox will violate their privacy  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery

  • Theft of photos, videos, audios, personal data, credit cards, passwords, files, contacts the environment

the victim and his family, etc. your computer.  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery

Defamation

  • Access illegally to the e-mail account, social networking, instant messaging network, supplanting

the identity of the victim and insulting to your contacts.  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery

  • Send E-mail so anonymously (easy with the e-mail free of charge, which can distort identity)

and manipulated to give the impression that he sent the same person harassed and put it well in a difficult situation that would compromise its credibility.  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery

  • Leaving offensive comments in forums or chats aggress  vely involved posing as the victim of

so that the reactions be then directed to those who have experienced the impersonation  Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery .

  • The manipulation of photographs is harassed or otherwise harassed, the harasser can retouch and upload the

Network with the sole purpose of hurting and scaring her victim.  Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

  • Hang on a Web Network "dedicated" to the person harassed, personal content is offensive, pornographic ,...,

to scare the victim and get what you want.  Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

  • Hang a picture on the internet involved (real or made through photomontages) sensitive data, things

can harm or embarrass the victim and make it known in its relations environment. As these photos, videos, audio or previously stolen from your computer.   Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

  • Circulating rumors in which the victim was suppose conduct reprehensible, offensive or

unfair.

  • Register with a photo included, the victim in a web where voting is the ugliest person, to the least

smart ... and charge you "points" or "votes" to appear on the top.  Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

  • Create a fake profile or space on behalf of the victim, which is written confessions as a first

person certain personal events, explicit claims of sexual ... Generally, most of the environment of the victim knows the website created and humiliate the victim, who is never at much of what is happening, despite being the protagonist Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery .

Threats

  • Sent messages threatening e-mail or SMS, chasing and stalking the victim of Internet sites in

relates on a regular basis causing a feeling of complete despondency. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

Call bombing

  • Using the mobile phone as an instrument of harassment: The extensive possibilities offered by current mobile

Mobile, have been known to be perversely used by cyber-stalkers  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery .

The most traditional is the so-called made anonymous inopportune times. Silent calls can range from serious threats, including insults, yelling or threatening messages.

Other

subscriptions, contact with strangers ...

in a mass mailing of a message identical to one direction, strain on your mailbox (mailbox) of recipient, or spam mail spamming thousands of users have these requested the message or no, or junk mail or junk mail, much like the previous one, is an indiscriminate and massive propaganda through mail.  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Social media are media for social interaction, using highly accessible and scalable communication techniques. Social media is the use

of web-based and mobile technologies to turn communication into interactive dialogue  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery .

Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, which allows the creation and exchange of user-generated content." Businesses may also refer to social media as consumer-generated media (CGM)   SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery .

A common thread running through all definitions of social media is a blending of technology and social interaction for the co-creation of value.

Social media may have been integral to the Arab revolutions and revolts of 2011   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery .

As one Cairo activist succinctly put it, "“We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, andYouTube to tell the world." However, there is some debate about the extent to which social media facilitate this kind of change  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery .

Distinction from Industrial media

People gain information, education, news, etc., by electronic media and print media. Social media are distinct from industrial or traditional media, such as newspapers, television, and film  HP Pavilion DV8000 battery .

They are relatively inexpensive and accessible to enable anyone (even private individuals) to publish or access information, compared to industrial media, which generally require significant resources to publish information.  HP Pavilion DV6000 battery

One characteristic shared by both social media and industrial media is the capability to reach small or large audiences; for example, either a blog post or a television show may reach zero people or millions of people. Some of the properties that help describe the differences between social media and industrial media are  HP Pavilion DV8000 battery :

  1. Reach - both industrial and social media technologies provide scale and are capable of reaching a global audience. Industrial media, however, typically use a centralized framework for organization, production, and dissemination, whereas social media are by their very nature more decentralized   HP Pavilion DV6000 battery ,
  2. less hierarchical, and distinguished by multiple points of production and utility.
  3. Accessibility - the means of production for industrial media are typically government and/or privately owned; social media tools are generally available to the public at little or no cost   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery .
  4. Usability - industrial media production typically requires specialized skills and training. Conversely, most social media production does not require specialized skills and training, or requires only modest reinterpretation of existing skills; in theory, anyone with access can operate the means of social media production  HP PAVILION DV8000 Battery .
  5. Immediacy - the time lag between communications produced by industrial media can be long (days, weeks, or even months) compared to social media (which can be capable of virtually instantaneous responses; only the participants determine any delay in response)  HP PAVILION DV6000 Battery .
  6. However, as industrial media begin adopting aspects of production normally associated with social media tools, this feature may not prove distinctive over time.
  7. Permanence - industrial media, once created  HP Pavilion dv8000 battery ,
  8. cannot be altered (once a magazine article is printed and distributed changes cannot be made to that same article) whereas social media can be altered almost instantaneously by comments or editing.

Community media constitute an interesting hybrid of industrial and social media  HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery .

Though community-owned, some community radios, TV and newspapers are run by professionals and some by amateurs. They use both social and industrial media frameworks.

In his 2006 book, The Wealth of Networks   Dell Inspiron E1505 battery :

How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom, Yochai Benkler analyzed many of these distinctions and their implications in terms of both economics and political liberty. However, Benkler, like many academics, uses the neologism network economy or "network information economy" to describe the underlying economic, social, and technological characteristics of what has come to be known as "social media".

Andrew Keen criticizes social media in his book The Cult of the Amateur, writing, "Out of this anarchy, it suddenly became clear that what was governing the infinite monkeys now inputting away on the Internet was the law of digital Darwinism, the survival of the loudest and most opinionated   Sony VGP-BPL15 battery .

Under these rules, the only way to intellectually prevail is by infinite filibustering."

Tim Berners-Lee contends that the danger of social networking sites is that most are silos and do not allow users to port data from one site to another   Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery .

He also cautions against social networks that grow too big and become a monopoly as this tends to limit innovation.

There are various statistics that account for social media usage and effectiveness for individuals worldwide. Some of the most recent statistics are as follows    Sony VGP-BPL9 battery :

  • Social networking now accounts for 22% of all time spent online in the US.
  • A total of 234 million people age 13 and older in the U.S. used mobile devices in December 2009  Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery .
  • Twitter processed more than one billion tweets in December 2009 and averages almost 40 million tweets per day.
  • Over 25% of U.S. internet page views occurred at one of the top social networking sites in December 2009, up from 13.8% a year before   Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery .
  • Australia has some of the highest social media usage statistics in the world. In terms of Facebook use Australia ranks highest with almost 9 hours per month from over 9 million users.
  • The number of social media users age 65 and older grew 100 percent throughout 2010, so that one in four people in that age group are now part of a social networking site   Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery .

Social media, Marketing, and "social authority"

One of the key components in successful social media marketing implementation is building "social authority".   Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery

Social authority is developed when an individual or organization establishes themselves as an "expert" in their given field or area, thereby becoming an influencer in that field or area.

It is through this process of "building social authority" that social media becomes effective  Sony VGP-BPS13 battery .

That is why one of the foundational concepts in social media has become that you cannot completely control your message through social media but rather you can simply begin to participate in the "conversation" in the hopes that you can become a relevant influence in that conversation  Dell Studio 1555 battery .

However, this conversation participation must be cleverly executed because while people are resistant to marketing in general, they are even more resistant to direct or overt marketing through social media platforms. This may seem counter-intuitive but is the main reason building social authority with credibility is so important   Dell KM958 battery .

A marketer can generally not expect people to be receptive to a marketing message in and of itself. In the Edleman Trust Barometer report in 2008, the majority (58%) of the respondents reported they most trusted company or product information coming from "people like me" inferred to be information from someone they trusted   Dell XPS M1210 Battery .

In the 2010 Trust Report, the majority switched to 64% preferring their information from industry experts and academics. According to Inc. Technology's Brent Leary, "This loss of trust, and the accompanying turn towards experts and authorities, seems to be coinciding with the rise of social media and networks   SONY VAIO VGN-FW33GW Battery ."

Thus, using social media as a form of marketing has taken on whole new challenges. As the 2010 Trust Study indicates, it is most effective if marketing efforts through social media revolve around the genuine building of authority   SONY VAIO VGN-FW33G/W Battery .

Someone performing a "marketing" role within a company must honestly convince people of their genuine intentions, knowledge, and expertise in a specific area or industry through providing valuable and accurate information on an ongoing basis without a marketing angle overtly associated  SONY VAIO VGN-FW33G/E1 Battery .

If this can be done, trust with, and of, the recipient of that information – and that message itself – begins to develop naturally. This person or organization becomes a thought leader and value provider - setting themselves up as a trusted "advisor" instead of marketer   SONY VAIO VGN-FW290JTH Battery .

"Top of mind awareness" develops and the consumer naturally begins to gravitate to the products and/or offerings of the authority/influencer.

Of course, there are many ways authority can be created – and influence can be accomplished – including: participation in Wikipedia which actually verifies user-generated content and information more than most people may realize  SONY VAIO VGN-FW290JTB Battery ;

providing valuable content through social networks on platforms such as Facebook and Twitter; article writing and distribution through sites such as Ezine Articles andScribd; and providing fact-based answers on "social question and answer sites" such as EHow and Yahoo! Answers   SONY VAIO VGN-FW290JRB Battery .

As a result of social media – and the direct or indirect influence of social media marketers – today, consumers are as likely – or more likely – to make buying decisions based on what they read and see in platforms we call "social" but only if presented by someone they have come to trust   SONY VAIO VGN-FW29/B Battery .

Additionally, reports have shown organizations have been able to bring back dissastisfied customers and stakeholders through social media channels. This is why a purposeful and carefully designed social media strategy has become an integral part of any complete and directed marketing plan but must also be designed using newer "authority building" techniques  SONY VAIO VGN-FW27T/H Battery .

Examples

The Dutch man Ramon Stoppelenburg traveled around the world for free, without spending any money, from 2001 to 2003, thanks to his blog on Letmestayforaday.com  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31ZJ Battery .

His website was his profile with which he created his own necessary network of online offered places to stay for the night. This made Stoppelenburg one of the first people online who used the online media in a social and effective manner   SONY VAIO VGN-FW27/W Battery .

Social media can take many different forms, including Internet forums, weblogs, social blogs, microblogging, wikis, podcasts, photographs or pictures, video, rating and social bookmarking. By applying a set of theories in the field of media research (social presence, media richness) and social processes SONY VAIO VGN-FW27/B Battery

(self-presentation, self-disclosure) Kaplan and Haenlein created a classification scheme for different social media types in their Business Horizons article published in 2010. According to Kaplan and Haenlein there are six different types of social media: collaborative projects, blogs and microblogs, content communities  SONY VAIO VGN-FW26T/B Battery ,

social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Technologies include: blogs, picture-sharing, vlogs, wall-postings, email, instant messaging, music-sharing, crowdsourcing, and voice over IP, to name a few. Many of these social media services can be integrated via social network aggregation platforms  SONY VAIO VGN-FW25T/B Battery .

New media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the later part of the 20th century. For example, new media holds out a possibility of on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery .

Another important promise of New Media is the "democratization" of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. What distinguishes new media from traditional media is the digitizing of content into bits. There is also a dynamic aspect of content production which can be done in real time  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery .

Thus, a high-definition digital television broadcast of a film viewed on a digital plasma TV is still an example of traditional media, while an "analog" paper poster of a local rock band that contains a web address where fans can find information and digital music downloads is an example of New media communication   SONY VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery .

Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, is one of the best examples of the new media phenomenon, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors   SONY VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery .

Most technologies described as "new media" are digital, often having characteristics of being manipulated, networkable, dense, compressible, and interactive. Some examples may be the Internet, websites, computer multimedia, computer games, CD-ROMS, and DVDs    Dell Latitude E6400 ATG Battery .

New media do not include television programs, feature films, magazines, books, or paper-based publications - unless they contain technologies that enable digital interactivity.

History

In the 1960s, connections between computing and radical art began to grow stronger   Asus M52N Battery .

It was not until the 1980s that Alan Kay and his co-workers at Xerox PARC began to give the power of a personal computer to the individual, rather than have a big organization be in charge of this. "In the late 1980s and early 1990s, however, we seem to witness a different kind of parallel relationship between social changes and computer design  SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery .

Although causally unrelated, conceptually it makes sense that the Cold War and the design of the Web took place at exactly the same time."

Until the 1980s media relied primarily upon print and analog broadcast models, such as those of television and radio   Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery .

The last twenty-five years have seen the rapid transformation into media which are predicated upon the use of digital computers, such as the Internet and computer games. However, these examples are only a small representation of new media    Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery .

The use of digital computers has transformed the remaining 'old' media, as suggested by the advent of digital television and online publications. Even traditional media forms such as the printing press have been transformed through the application of technologies such as image manipulation software like Adobe Photoshop and desktop publishing tools  Ibm THINKPAD X200 Battery .

Andrew L. Shapiro (1999) argues that the "emergence of new, digital technologies signals a potentially radical shift of who is in control of information, experience and resources" (Shapiro cited in Croteau and Hoynes 2003: 322). W. Russell Neuman (1991) suggests that whilst the "new media" have technical capabilities to pull in one direction  HP Pavilion DV7 battery ,

economic and social forces pull back in the opposite direction. According to Neuman, "We are witnessing the evolution of a universal interconnected network of audio, video, and electronic text communications that will blur the distinction between interpersonal and mass communication and between public and private communication"  HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery

(Neuman cited in Croteau and Hoynes 2003: 322). Neuman argues that New Media will:

  • Alter the meaning of geographic distance.
  • Allow for a huge increase in the volume of communication.  Dell Latitude E6500 battery
  • Provide the possibility of increasing the speed of communication.
  • Provide opportunities for interactive communication.
  • Allow forms of communication that were previously separate to overlap and interconnect  Dell Latitude E6500 battery .

Consequently it has been the contention of scholars such as Douglas Kellner, Callum Rymer and James Bohman that new media, and particularly the Internet , provide the potential for a democraticpostmodern public sphere, in which citizens can participate in well informed   Dell Latitude E6500 battery ,

non-hierarchical debate pertaining to their social structures. Contradicting these positive appraisals of the potential social impacts of new media are scholars such as Ed Herman and Robert McChesney who have suggested that the transition to new media has seen a handful Dell Latitude E6500 battery

of powerful transnational telecommunicationscorporations who achieve a level of global influence which was hitherto unimaginable.

Recent contributions to the field such as Callum Rymer (2009) and his recent presentation on Wikipedia, as well as Lister et al Dell Latitude E6400 Battery .

(2003) and Friedman (2005) have highlighted both the positive and negative potential and actual implications of new media technologies, suggesting that some of the early work into new media studies was guilty of technological determinism – whereby the effects of media were determined by the technology themselves  Dell Latitude E6400 Battery ,

rather than through tracing the complex social networks which governed the development, funding, implementation and future development of any technology.

Definition

Although there are several ways that New Media may be described, The New Media Reader edited by Wardrip-Fruin and Montfort defines New Media by using eight simple and concise propositions  Dell Latitude E6400 battery :

  1. New Media versus Cyberculture - Cyberculture is the various social phenomena that are associated with the Internet and network communications (blogs, online multi-player gaming), whereas New Media is concerned more with cultural objects and paradigms (digital to analog television, iPhones)  Dell Vostro 1310 battery .
  2. New Media as Computer Technology Used as a Distribution Platform - New Media are the cultural objects which use digital computer technology for distribution and exhibition. e.g. (at least for now) Internet, Web sites, computer multimedia, Blu-ray disks etc   Dell Studio 1735 battery .
  3. The problem with this is that the definition must be revised every few years. The term "new media" will not be "new" anymore, as most forms of culture will be distributed through computers.
  4. New Media as Digital Data Controlled by Software - The language of New Media is based on the assumption that Dell Studio 1535 battery ,
  5. in fact, all cultural objects that rely on digital representation and computer-based delivery do share a number of common qualities. New media is reduced to digital data that can be manipulated by software as any other data. Now media operations can create several versions of the same object   Dell Vostro A860 battery .
  6. An example is an image stored as matrix data which can be manipulated and altered according to the additional algorithms implemented, such as color inversion, gray-scaling, sharpening, rasterizing, etc.
  7. New Media as the Mix Between Existing Cultural Conventions and the Conventions of Software Dell Vostro A840 battery -
  8. "New Media today can be understood as the mix between older cultural conventions for data representation, access, and manipulation and newer conventions of data representation, access, and manipulation. The "old" data are representations of visual reality and human experience, and the "new" data is numerical data   Dell Studio XPS 1640 battery .
  9. The computer is kept out of the key "creative" decisions, and is delegated to the position of a technician." e.g. In film, software is used in some areas of production, in others are created using computer animation  Dell Vostro 1720 battery .
  10. New Media as the Aesthetics that Accompanies the Early Stage of Every New Modern Media and Communication Technology - "While ideological tropes indeed seem to be reappearing rather regularly, many aesthetic strategies may reappear two or three times...  Dell Vostro 1710 battery
  11. In order for this approach to be truly useful it would be insufficient to simply name the strategies and tropes and to record the moments of their appearance; instead, we would have to develop a much more comprehensive analysis which would correlate the history of technology with social, political, and economical histories or the modern period  Dell Inspiron 1320n battery ."
  12. New Media as Faster Execution of Algorithms Previously Executed Manually or through Other Technologies- Computers are a huge speed-up of what were previously manual techniques. e.g. calculators. "Dramatically speeding up the execution makes possible previously non-existent representational technique  Dell Inspiron 1320 battery .
  13. " This also makes possible of many new forms of media art such as interactive multimedia and computer games. "On one level, a modern digital computer is just a faster calculator, we should not ignore its other identity: that of a cybernetic control deviceDell Inspiron 1764 battery ."
  14. New Media as the Encoding of Modernist Avant-Garde; New Media as Metamedia - Manovich declares that the 1920s are more relevant to New Media than any other time period. Meta-media coincides with postmodernism in that they both rework old work rather than create new work   Dell Inspiron 1564 battery .
  15. New media avant-garde "is about new ways of accessing and manipulating information" (e.g. hypermedia, databases, search engines, etc.). Meta-media is an example of how quantity can change into quality as in new media technology and manipulation techniques can "recode modernist aesthetics into a very different postmodern aesthetics Dell Inspiron 1464 battery ."
  16. New Media as Parallel Articulation of Similar Ideas in Post-WWII Art and Modern Computing - Post WWII Art or "combinatorics" involves creating images by systematically changing a single parameter. This leads to the creation or remarkably similar images and spatial structures   Dell Inspiron N7010 battery .
  17. "This illustrates that algorithms, this essential part of new media, do not depend on technology, but can be executed by humans."

Globalization and new media

The rise of new media has increased communication between people all over the world and the Internet   Dell Inspiron N5010 battery .

It has allowed people to express themselves through blogs, websites, pictures, and other user-generated media.

Flew (2002) stated that as a result of the evolution of new media technologies, globalization occurs. Globalization is generally stated as "more than expansion of activities beyond the boundaries of particular nation states"  Dell Inspiron N3610 battery .

Globalization shortens the distance between people all over the world by the electronic communication (Carely 1992 in Flew 2002) and Cairncross (1998) expresses this great development as the "death of distance". New media "radically break the connection between physical place and social place  Dell Inspiron N4010 battery ,

making physical location much less significant for our social relationships" (Croteau and Hoynes 2003: 311).

However, the changes in the new media environment create a series of tensions in the concept of “public sphere”   Dell Inspiron 9100 battery .

According to Ingrid Volkmer, “public sphere” is defined as a process through which public communication becomes restructured and partly disembedded from national political and cultural institutions. This trend of the globalized public sphere is not only as a geographical expansion form a nation to worldwide  Dell Studio XPS 1340 battery ,

but also changes the relationship between the public, the media and state (Volkmer, 1999:123).

"Virtual communities" are being established online and transcend geographical boundaries, eliminating social restrictions  Dell XPS M2010 battery .

Howard Rheingold (2000) describes these globalised societies as self-defined networks, which resemble what we do in real life. "People in virtual communities use words on screens to exchange pleasantries and argue, engage in intellectual discourse, conduct commerce  Dell XPS M1730 battery ,

make plans, brainstorm, gossip, feud, fall in love, create a little high art and a lot of idle talk" (Rheingold cited in Slevin 2000: 91). For Sherry Turkle "making the computer into a second self, finding a soul in the machine, can substitute for human relationships" (Holmes 2005: 184). New media has the ability to connect like-minded others worldwide Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery .

While this perspective suggests that the technology drives – and therefore is a determining factor – in the process of globalization, arguments involving technological determinism are generally frowned upon by mainstream media studies.Instead academics focus on the multiplicity of processes by which technology is funded  Hp 2230 Battery ,

researched and produced, forming a feedback loop when the technologies are used and often transformed by their users, which then feeds into the process of guiding their future development.

While commentators such as Castells espouse a 'soft determinism  whereby they contend that 'Technology does not determine society   Hp cq20 Battery .

Nor does society script the course of technological change, since many factors, including individual inventiveness and entrpreneurialism, intervene in the process of scientific discovery, technical innovation and social applications, so the final outcome depends on a complex pattern of interaction   Hp Pavilion cq72 Battery .

Indeed the dilemma of technological determinism is probably a false problem, since technology is society and society cannot be understood without its technological tools.' (Castells 1996:5) This, however, is still distinct from stating that societal changes are instigated by technological development, which recalls the theses of Marshall McLuhan  Hp Pavilion cq42 Battery .

Manovich[14] and Castells[10] have argued that whereas mass media 'corresponded to the logic of industrial mass society, which values conformity over individuality,' (Manovich 2001:41) new media follows the logic of the postindustrial or globalized society whereby 'every citizen can construct her own custom lifestyle and select her ideology from a large number of choices Hp Pavilion cq62 Battery .

Rather than pushing the same objects to a mass audience, marketing now tries to target each individual separately.' (Manovich 2001:42).

As tool for social change

Social Movement Media has a rich and storied history that has changed at a rapid rate since New Media became widely used (Chris Atton)   Hp Pavilion dm4 Battery .

The Zapatista Army of National Liberation of Chiapas, Mexico were the first major movement to make widely recognized and effective use of New Media for communiques and organizing in 1994. Since then, New Media has been used extensively by social movements to educate   Hp Pavilion dm3 Battery ,

organize, share cultural products of movements, communicate, coalition build, and more. The WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 protest activity was another landmark in the use of New Media as a tool for social change. The WTO protests used media to organize the original action, communicate with and educate participants, and was used as an alternative media source Samsung P467 battery .

The Indymedia movement also developed out of this action, and has been a great tool in the democratization of information, which is another widely discussed aspect of new media movement. Some scholars even view this democratization as an indication of the creation of a "radical, socio-technical paradigm to challenge the dominant   Samsung R522 battery ,

neoliberal and technologically determinist model of information and communication technologies." A less radical view along these same lines is that people are taking advantage of the Internet to produce a grassroots globalization, one that is anti-neoliberal and centered on people rather than the flow of capital   Apple A1281 battery .

Of course, some are also skeptical of the role of New Media in Social Movements. Many scholars point out unequal access to new media as a hindrance to broad-based movements, sometimes even oppressing some within a movement. Others are skeptical about how democratic or useful it really is for social movements, even for those with access    Apple A1280 battery .

There are also many New Media components that activists cite as tools for change that have not been widely discussed as such by academics.

New Media has also found a use with less radical social movements such as the Free Hugs Campaign  Ibm ThinkPad X200T Battery .

Using websites, blogs, and online videos to demonstrate the effectiveness of the movement itself. Along with this example the use of high volume blogs has allowed numerous views and practices to be more widespread and gain more public attention   Ibm ThinkPad G40 Battery .

Another example is the on-going Free Tibet Campaign, which has been seen on numerous websites as well as having a slight tie-in with the band Gorillaz in their Gorillaz Bitez clip featuring the lead singer 2D sitting with protesters at a Free Tibet protest  HP Pavilion DV6 Battery .

Another social change seen coming from New Media is trends in fashion and the emergence of subcultures such as Text Speak, Cyberpunk, and various others.

New Media in the Offices of US Governors   HP Pavilion DV6-1000ET Battery :

1. The citizenry can be better served by more use of NM, can better share in state governance, and can better market citizen ideas.

2. For Governors, NM offers opportunities to better put their names, accomplishments and ideas higher in the minds of state citizenry  HP Pavilion DV6-1001TX Battery .

3. Reliance on existing NM facilities and guidelines from federal, (other) state and local government organizations will help to lower costs for new programs.

4: NM works well with plenty of governor generated communications, beyond press releases, such as events – via live (and recorded) video, tweets (tweet-a-thons), etcetera   HP Pavilion DV6-1001XX Battery .

5. NM should additionally go hand in hand with new thinking about embracing new methods and new cost structures. These include, but are not limited to: verified accounts, secure accounts, 99.99% up-time facilities, data mining, general and highly customized home (postcard) mailings   HP Pavilion DV6-1002TX Battery ,

geo-location, transportation, telephone automatic calling, highway billboards, and doing things automatically.

6. Digital Grand Canyon – Accepting an estimate (based on the 80/20 rule) that NM impresses many times on 20% of the state’s citizenry, a bit on another 60% of the state’s citizenry and not at all on the remaining 20% of the state’s citizenry  HP Pavilion DV6-1003TX Battery .

The ‘Digital Grand Canyon’ is a great divide, and a divide which might silence, or keep deaf, some citizens. There must be a balance of expended resources to ensure “Equal Access” for the entire state citizenry.

To impress on more people, more often, consider that…  HP Pavilion DV6-1004TX Battery

- Americans might like watching tv and getting telephone calls – NM technology can enable governor communications via tv on demand (on demand on local cable systems, or simpler, frequent rebroadcasts of video on public tv) and pushing automatic telephone calls    HP Pavilion DV6-1005EA Battery .

Further, Americans might like governor communications via getting postcards in the mail, seeing billboards as they drive, and seeing flyers posted in their neighborhoods.

7 How do we get the kids to eat their vegetables?

Use NM to tell the advantages of, where and how to use other available NM resources in the state  HP Pavilion DV6-1005EZ Battery .

8 NM tools may need to be modified to be used by Government entities, for legal reasons or to eliminate commercial advertising.

9 Some Open questions/comments:

- Creating large social network groups/followers/friends can take a long time – this is one challenge/opportunity for a Governor HP Pavilion DV6-1005TX Battery .

Maybe the Republican and Democratic party entities who manage communications with registered voters in the state need to manage groups/followers/friends on an ongoing basis – which then Governors to be can rely on for re-election, and use when they are in office   HP Pavilion DV6-1006TX Battery .

- Should the Governors make a statement of promised avoidance of certain uses of (lists of) followers/friends et al? What about list member Privacy? What about gaining Income using the list  HP Pavilion DV6-1007TX Battery ?

National security

New Media has also recently become of interest to the global espionage community as it is easily accessible electronically in database format and can therefore be quickly retrieved and reverse engineered by national governments   HP Pavilion DV6-1008TX Battery .

Particularly of interest to the espionage community are Facebook and Twitter, two sites where individuals freely divulge personal information that can then be sifted through and archived for the automatic creation of dossiers on both people of interest and the average citizen   HP Pavilion DV6-1009EL Battery .

Interactivity and new media

Interactivity has become a term for a number of new media use options evolving from the rapid dissemination of Internet access point, the digitalization of the media, and media convergence. In 1984, Rice defined the new media as communication technologies that enable or facilitate user-to-user interactivity and interactivity between user and information  HP Pavilion DV6-1009TX Battery .

Such as Internet replaces the "one-to-many" model of traditional mass communication with the possibility of a "many-to-many" web of communication. Any individual with the appropriate technology can now produce his or her online media and include images, text, and sound about whatever he or she chooses  HP Pavilion DV6-1010EA Battery .

So the new media with technology convergence shifts the model of mass communication, and radically shapes the ways we interact and communicate with one another. Vin Crosbie (2002) described three communications media in "What is new media?"   HP Pavilion DV6-1010ED Battery .

He saw Interpersonal media as "one to one", Mass media as "one to many" and, finally New Media as Individuation Media or "many to many".

When we think of interactivity and its meaning, we assume that it is only prominent in the conversational dynamics of individuals who are face-to-face   HP Pavilion DV6-1010ET Battery .

This restriction of opinion does not allow us to see its existence in mediated communication forums. Interactivity is present in some programming work, such as video games. It's also viable in the operation of traditional media. In the mid 1990s, filmmakers started using inexpensive digital cameras to create films   HP Pavilion DV6-1010TX Battery .

It was also the time when moving image technology had developed, which was able to be viewed on computer desktops in full motion. This development of new media technology was a new method for artists to share their work and interact with the big worldHP Pavilion DV6-1011TX Battery .

Other settings of interactivity include radio and television talk shows, letters to the editor, listener participation in such programs, and computer and technological programming. Interactive new media has become a true benefit to every one because people can express their artwork in more than HP Pavilion DV6-1012TX Battery

one way with the technology that we have today and there is no longer a limit to what we can do with our creativity.

Interactivity can be considered as a central concept in understanding new media, but different media forms possess different degrees of interactivity,even some forms of digitized and converged media are not in fact interactive at all HP Pavilion DV6-1013EA Battery .

Tony Feldman considers digital satellite television as an example of a new media technology that uses digital compression to dramatically increase the number of television channels that can be delivered, and which changes the nature of what can be offered through the service  HP Pavilion DV6-1013TX Battery ,

but does not transform the experience of television from the user’s point of view, as it lacks a more fully interactive dimension. It remains the case that interactivity is not an inherent characteristic of all new media technologies, unlike digitization and convergence   HP Pavilion DV6-1016EZ Battery .

Terry Flew (2005) argues that "the global interactive games industry is large and growing, and is at the forefront of many of the most significant innovations in new media" (Flew 2005: 101). Interactivity is prominent in these online computer games such as World of WarcraftThe Sims Online and Second Life   HP Pavilion DV6-1018EL Battery .

These games, developments of "new media", allow for users to establish relationships and experience a sense of belonging, despite temporal and spatial boundaries. These games can be used as an escape or to act out a desired life. Will Wright, creator of The Sims, "is fascinated by the way gamers have become so attached to his invention-with some even living their lives through it".HP Pavilion DV6-1020EC Battery

New media have created virtual realities that are becoming mere extensions of the world we live in. With the creation of Second Lifeand Active Worlds before it, people have even more control over this virtual world where anything that a participant can think of in their mind can become a reality inSecond Life.HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery

New Media changes continuously because it is constantly modified and redefined by the interaction between the creative use of the masses, emerging technology, cultural changes, etc.

Industry

The new media industry shares an open association with many market segments in areas such as software/video game design, television  HP Pavilion DV6-1018EL Battery ,

radio, and particularly movies, advertising and marketing, through which industry seeks to gain from the advantages of two-way dialogue with consumers primarily through the Internet. The advertising industry has capitalized on the proliferation of new media with large agencies running multi-million dollar interactive advertising subsidiaries  HP Pavilion DV6-1020EC Battery .

Interactive websites and kiosks have become popular. In a number of cases advertising agencies have also set up new divisions to study new media. Public relations firms are also taking advantage of the opportunities in new media through interactive PR practicesHP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery .

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