Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
11 août 2011 4 11 /08 /août /2011 10:55

Father of a university

After leaving the Presidency, Jefferson continued to be active in public affairs. Sony VAIO VGN-NS92XS Battery

He wanted to found a new institution of higher learning, specifically one free of church influences, where students could specialize in many new areas not offered at other universities. Jefferson believed educating people was a good way to establish an organized society. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S Battery

He believed such schools should be paid for by the general public, so less wealthy people could be educated as students. A letter to Joseph Priestley, in January 1800, indicated that he had been planning the University for decades before its founding.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF Battery

In 1819 he founded the University of Virginia. Upon its opening in 1825, it was the first university to offer a full slate of elective courses to its students. One of the largest construction projects to that time in North America, the university was notable for being centered about a library rather than a church. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF Battery

No campus chapel was included in Jefferson's original plans. Until his death, Jefferson invited students and faculty of the college to his home.

Jefferson is widely recognized  for his planning of the University grounds. Its innovative design was an expression of his aspirations for both state-sponsored education and an agrarian democracy in the new Republic. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

His educational idea of creating specialized units of learning is expressed in the configuration of his campus plan, which he called the "Academical Village". Individual academic units were defined as distinct structures, represented by Pavilions, facing a grassy quadrangle. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF Battery

Each Pavilion housed classroom, faculty office, and residences. Though distinctive, each is visually equal in importance, and they are linked with a series of open-air arcades that are the front facades of student accommodations. Gardens and vegetable plots are placed behind and surrounded by serpentine walls, affirming the importance of the agrarian lifestyle.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W Battery

His highly ordered site plan establishes an ensemble of buildings surrounding a central rectangular quadrangle, named The Lawn, which is lined on either side with the academic teaching units and their linking arcades. The quad is enclosed at one end with the library, the repository of knowledge, at the head of the table.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF Battery

The remaining side opposite the library remained open-ended for future growth. The lawn rises gradually as a series of stepped terraces, each a few feet higher than the last, rising up to the library set in the most prominent position at the top, while also suggesting that the Academical Village facilitates easier movement to the future.Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B Battery

Stylistically, Jefferson was a proponent of the Greek and Roman styles, which he believed to be most representative of American democracy by historical association. Each academic unit is designed with a two story temple front facing the quadrangle, while the library is modeled on the Roman Pantheon. Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

The ensemble of buildings surrounding the quad is an unmistakable architectural statement of the importance of secular public education, while the exclusion of religious structures reinforces the principle of separation of church and state. The campus planning and architectural treatment remains today as a paradigm of building of structures to express intellectual ideas and aspirations. Sony VAIO VGN-NW35E Battery

A survey of members of the American Institute of Architects identified Jefferson's campus as the most significant work of architecture in America.

The University was designed as the capstone of the educational system of Virginia. In his vision, any citizen of the state could attend school with the sole criterion being ability.Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/S Battery

Slavery

Biographers such as Dumas Malone and Merrill Peterson have portrayed Jefferson as anti-slavery in that he hated slavery, opposed it as an institution, tried to end it in the territories, and successfully criminalized the international slave trade in 1807. Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/T Battery

However, historians such as David Brion Davis and Paul Finkelman, have noted his failure to free slaves he owned, even at his death. His views, like most of his contemporaries, changed over time. Earlier in his life he opposed slavery as an institution and said he wanted it to end, though later he became a stronger defender of the institution.Sony VAIO VGN-NW50JB Battery

and increasingly articulated defenses for the institution predicated on his views of racial inferiority. Regardless, he depended on enslaved labor to support his household and his plantations. His first public attack on slavery came in 1774; when he was chosen in 1776 to draft the Declaration of Independence, his opposition to slavery was well known.Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/N Battery

Junius P. Rodriguez says, "All aspects of Jefferson's public career suggest an opposition to slavery." Peter Onuf points to "his well-known opposition to slavery, most famously expressed in... his Notes on the state of Virginia (1785). Jefferson called slavery an "abominable crime," and a "moral depravity". Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/W Battery

David Brion Davis said that by 1784 Jefferson was "one of the first statesman in any part of the world to advocate concrete measures for restricting and eradicating Negro slavery." But Davis also noted that after the planter returned to the US from France in 1789, "the most remarkable thing about Jefferson's stand on slavery is his immense silence."Sony VAIO VGN-NW70JB Battery

Paul Finkelman noted Jefferson's lack of action after this date in terms of correcting or ending the institution. He said Jefferson's greatest failing was "his inability to join the best of his generation in fighting slavery and in his working instead to prevent any significant change in America's racial status quo."Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/N Battery

In his first draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson condemned the British crown for the slave trade. He also condemned the King for "inciting American Negroes to rise in arms against their masters", related to the Crown's promise of freedom for slaves who fought for the British in the Revolution.Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/W Battery

At the request of delegates from South Carolina and Georgia, this language was dropped from the Declaration.

From the mid-1770s, Jefferson advocated a plan of gradual emancipation, in Virginia, by which children of slaves would be freed. But he did not advance legislation for it while in the assembly.Sony VAIO VGN-NW91FS Battery

During the 1770s as a Virginia legislator, Jefferson also wrote bills to prevent free blacks from living in or moving into Virginia, and to punish interracial relations. Jefferson believed that free blacks should be deported and replaced with white settlers. He feared free blacks would encourage a rebellion by slaves against whites. Sony VAIO VGN-NW91GS Battery

He proposed policies to prepare slaves for freedom: education, emancipation, and transportation of the freedmen to Africa.

In 1778 Jefferson pushed a bill through the Virginia legislature—one of the first of its kind in modern history—to ban further importation of slaves into the state. Sony VAIO VGN-NW91VS Battery

Davis says that abolitionists assumed "that an end to slave imports would lead automatically to the amelioration and gradual abolition of slavery.". Many slave owners opposed the international slave trade, while still supporting slavery. Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery

Ending the importation benefited slaveholders because it increased the value of slaves and decreased the chances of slave rebellion associated with new arrivals.

As a Virginia legislator, Jefferson failed to lead on gradual emancipation and discouraged efforts to include it in law.Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

After he left the Assembly, in 1782 Virginia "easily adopted a law allowing private manumission." Maryland and Delaware passed similar laws as part of the post-Revolutionary War trend toward increased freedoms. In the two decades after the Revolution, in Virginia the number of free blacks climbed from less than one percent in 1782, to 4.2 percent in 1790, and 7.2 percent in 1810.Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

In Delaware, three-quarters of blacks were free by 1810. In these two decades, numerous slaveholders were moved by ideals to free their slaves, either during their lives or by deed of will. In this period, Jefferson nominally freed only two slaves: he allowed Robert Hemings to purchase his freedom at market rates in 1794;Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

and he freed his younger brother James Hemings in 1796, after requiring him to train his brother Peter for three years as a chef.

In 1784, Jefferson wrote an ordinance banning slavery in all the nation's territories (not just the Northwest), but it failed by one vote.Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

While he was in France as US minister, the US Congress adopted a version that banned slavery in the Northwest Territory (north of the Ohio River). He was a leader in abolishing the international slave trade, both for Virginia (1778) and the nation as a whole (1808).Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

During his presidential term, Jefferson was disappointed that the younger generation was making no move to abolish slavery, but he kept silent. In December 1806 in his presidential message to Congress, he called for a law to ban the international slave trade as required by the U.S. Constitution. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

He denounced the trade as "violations of human rights which have been so long continued on the unoffending inhabitants of Africa, in which the morality, the reputation, and the best interests of our country have long been eager to proscribe." Jefferson signed the bill passed by Congress, and the international trade became illegal in January 1808. Sony VGP-BPS13AS Battery

By that time only South Carolina had been officially importing slaves. Illegal smuggling continued for decades.

Views of slaves and blacks

Jefferson inherited slaves as a child, and owned upwards of 700 different people at one time or another.Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

The historian Herbert E. Sloan says that Jefferson's debt prevented his freeing his slaves, but Finkelman says that freeing slaves was "not even a mildly important goal" of Jefferson, who preferred to spend lavishly on luxury goods like wine and French chairs.Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

Isaac Jefferson was a blacksmith who had learned tinsmithing and nailmaking while being held as a slave by Jefferson. Born into slavery in 1775, in 1847 he was interviewed as a free man by author and historian Charles Campbell. The material remained unpublished until 1951 when Raymond Logan edited it into Memoirs of a Monticello Slave.Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

Isaac Jefferson's account provided valuable details to historians about daily life and family relationships at Monticello.

According to historian Stephen Ambrose: "Jefferson, like all slaveholders and many others, regarded Negroes as inferior, childlike, untrustworthy and, of course, as property."Sony VGP-BPS13Q Battery

He believed they were inferior to whites in reasoning, mathematical comprehension, and imagination. Jefferson thought these "differences" were "fixed in nature" and was not dependent on their freedom or education.  He thought such differences created "innate inferiority of Blacks compared to Whites". Sony VGP-BPS13S Battery

In Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson claimed that blacks prefer the beauty of whites over other blacks, and cited "the preferences of the Orangutan for the black woman over those of his own species".

Jefferson did not believe that African Americans could live in American society as free people together with whites.Sony VAIO VGN-AW110J/H Battery

For a long-term solution, he thought that slaves should be freed after reaching maturity and having repaid their owner's investment; afterward, he thought they should be sent to African colonies in what he considered "repatriation", despite their being American-born.Sony VAIO VGN-AW11M/H Battery

Otherwise, he thought the presence of free blacks would encourage a violent uprising by slaves' looking for freedom. Jefferson expressed his fear of slave rebellion: "We have the wolf by the ears; and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other."Sony VAIO VGN-AW11S/B Battery

In 1809, he wrote to Abbé Grégoire, whose book argued against Jefferson's claims of black inferiority in Notes on the State of Virginia. Jefferson said blacks had "respectable intelligence", but did not alter his views.In August 1814 the planter Edward Coles and Jefferson corresponded about Coles' ideas on emancipation.Sony VAIO VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery

Jefferson urged Coles not to free his slaves, but the younger man took all his slaves to the free state of Illinois and freed them.

Life as a widower

Jefferson became a widower at age 40 in 1783, and remained so to his death in 1826. As the Monticello Website says:Sony VAIO VGN-AW11Z/B Battery

"Through his celebrity as the eloquent spokesman for liberty and equality as well as the ancestor of people living on both sides of the color line, Jefferson has left a unique legacy for descendants of Monticello's enslaved people as well as for all Americans."Sony VAIO VGN-AW120J/H Battery

Sally Hemings and her children

Since a 1998 DNA study showing a match between the Jefferson male line and Eston Hemings' descendants. As a result of independent reviews by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation (TJF) and theNational Genealogical Society and other historical groups, Sony VAIO VGN-AW150Y/H Battery

most historians believe that the widower Jefferson had a 38-year intimate relationship with his mixed-race slave Sally Hemings, and fathered six children with her, four of whom survived to adulthood. Much of the case is circumstantial, there is DNA evidence linking the male Jefferson line to only one of Sally Hemings' children. Sony VAIO VGN-AW160J/Q Battery

In the antebellum period, the Hemingses would have been called a "shadow family". Hemings was three-fourths white and a half-sister to Jefferson's late wife, as her father was also John Wayles. Wayles had six children by his 12-year liaison with his slave Betty Hemings; the youngest was Sally.Sony VAIO VGN-AW170Y/Q Battery

Hemings' children were seven-eighths European in ancestry and legally white according to Virginia law of the time. (The "one-drop rule" did not become law until 1924.) Of the four who survived to adulthood: William Beverley, Harriet Hemings, Madison Hemings and Thomas Eston Hemings, all but Madison eventually identified as white and lived as adults in white communities. Sony VAIO VGN-AW180Y/Q Battery

Thomas Jefferson Randolph, the president's oldest grandson, noted the Hemings' children's strong resemblance to his grandfather, but he told the historian Henry Randall that Jefferson's nephew Peter Carr was the father. Sony VAIO VGN-AW190JAH Battery

Controversy

As early as the 1790s, neighbors talked about Jefferson's connection to Hemings, and in 1802 the journalist James T. Callender after being refused an appointment to a Postmaster position by Jefferson and issuing veiled threats of "consequences" to Jefferson,Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NAB Battery

reported that Jefferson had fathered several children with Sally Hemings. Jefferson never responded publicly, but his family denied the issue. The controversy has referred to the family's and historians' denial of Jefferson's paternity for nearly 200 years, and disagreements over how to interpret limited evidence related to the issue. Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NBB Battery

Jefferson's daughter Martha told her son Thomas Randolph that Jefferson had been away from Monticello for more than a year before one of Hemings' children was born. Randolph, noting the family resemblance of the Hemings, later named Peter Carr, Jefferson's nephew, as father of the Hemings' children. Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NCB Battery

The biographer Henry Randall passed on this family testimony to the historian James Parton, while strengthening his account. Randall's letter was a "pillar" of historians' defenses of Jefferson.

In 1873 Madison Hemings claimed Jefferson as father in a memoir recounting his family life at Monticello.Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YAB Battery

He said Jefferson promised Sally Hemings to free her children when they came of age. In 1873, Israel Jefferson, also a former slave of Monticello, confirmed the account of Jefferson's paternity of Hemings' children in his own memoir.

Nineteenth century biographers generally attacked Hemings' account and noted the political intentions of the journalist who interviewed him;Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YBB Battery

they essentially discounted the content, although the 20th-century historian Merrill Peterson noted it was mostly accurate. James Parton repeated the family's Carr paternity thesis and assertion of Jefferson's critical absence in his 1874 book on the president.Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YCB Battery

Succeeding 20th-century historians, such as Merrill Peterson and Douglass Adair, relied on Parton's book. In turn, Dumas Malone adopted their positions. In the 1970s, he also published a letter by Ellen Randolph Coolidge, Randolph's sister, who claimed Samuel Carr, rather than Peter, had fathered Hemings' children. Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YDB Battery

Briefly, the above 20th-century historians and others such as Joseph Ellis and Andrew Burstein "defended" Jefferson on the following grounds, based on the family testimony: he was absent at the conception of one Hemings child; and the family identified Peter or Samuel Carr as father(s) );Sony VAIO VGN-AW220J/B Battery

these historians interpreted Jefferson's character and his expressed antipathy to blacks to preclude his having such a relationship (although the prevalence of such arrangements among planters was well known). They discounted accounts from former slaves, including Madison Hemings, and did not cross check the facts to determine whose account was best supported.Sony VAIO VGN-AW230J/H Battery

For instance, Madison Hemings' account was supported by the fact that Jefferson freed all of Sally Hemings' children, although he was deeply in debt.

Facts

A timeline developed by Malone was used by the historian Winthrop Jordan to show that Jefferson was at Monticello at the time of conception of each of Hemings' children, during a 15-year period when he was often away for months at a time.Sony VAIO VGN-AW235J/B Battery

Hemings conceived only when Jefferson was at Monticello. These facts overturned his daughter's testimony.The Hemings children were named for people in the Randolph-Jefferson family or important to Jefferson, rather than for people in the Hemings family.Sony VAIO VGN-AW290JFQ Battery

Jefferson gave the Sally Hemings family special treatment: the three boys were each apprenticed to the master carpenter of the estate, the most skilled artisan of all. This would provide them with skills to make a good living.

Most importantly, Jefferson freed all the Hemings children; this was the only slave family to go free from Monticello. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41JF Battery

Harriet Hemings was the only female slave whom he freed.  He allowed Beverley (male) and Harriet to "escape" in 1822 at ages 23 and 21, although Jefferson was already struggling financially and would be $100,000 in debt at his death. Jefferson thus avoided publicity but the young adults were legally fugitive slaves under the law until Emancipation.Sony VAIO VGN-AW41JF/H Battery

The gentry noted their absences at the time; the overseer Edmund Bacon mentioned in his memoir that people were talking about Harriet's having left, saying that she was Jefferson's daughter.In his 1826 will, Jefferson freed the younger brothers Madison and Eston Hemings. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41MF Battery

The will petitioned the legislature to permit them and three older Hemings males, who were also freed in his will, to stay in the state with their families. His daughter Martha Randolph gave Sally Hemings "her time", and she lived freely with her two younger sons in nearby Charlottesville for a decade.Sony VAIO VGN-AW41MF/H Battery

In 1997 Annette Gordon-Reed identified errors of fact in the Jefferson family testimony, noted that Randall had suggested he had seen material which did not exist, and showed that Parton, Malone, and Peterson had failed to assess critical evidence. She noted the significance of Jefferson's actions related to the Sally Hemings' family, which he took for no other.Sony VAIO VGN-AW41XH Battery

For 180 years, historians represented Peter or Samuel Carr as the likely father(s) of Sally Hemings' children. This was conclusively disproved in the 1998 DNA study of the Y-chromosome of direct male descendants of the Jefferson male line, the Carr line, and an Eston Hemings descendant.Sony VAIO VGN-AW41XH/Q Battery

In the same study, the team did find a match between the Eston Hemings descendant and the Jefferson male line. While another Jefferson male from his line would have had the same DNA as Thomas Jefferson, no other candidate from his male line had ever been identified during the decades of the historic controversy as a possible father; Sony VAIO VGN-AW41ZF Battery

as noted above, the Carrs had been considered candidates. As the historian Andrew Burstein said in 2005,

[T]he white Jefferson descendants who established the family denial in the mid-nineteenth century cast responsibility for paternity on two Jefferson nephews (children of Jefferson’s sister) whose DNA was not a match. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41ZF/B Battery

So, as far as can be reconstructed, there are no Jeffersons other than the president who had the degree of physical access to Sally Hemings that he did.

Jefferson is documented at Monticello for each of Hemings' conceptions. It is for the total body of evidence, plus the DNA match, that the DNA study team and most historians have concluded that Thomas Jefferson was the most likely father.Sony VAIO VGN-AW50DB/H Battery

Conclusions

With this new evidence, formerly skeptical biographers such as Joseph Ellis and Andrew Burstein publicly said they had changed their opinions and acknowledged Jefferson's paternity of Hemings' children.Sony VAIO VGN-AW51JGB Battery

In addition, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, which operates Monticello, issued its own report in 2000 supporting Jefferson's paternity. Dr. Daniel P. Jordan, president of Monticello, committed at the time to incorporate "the conclusions of the report into Monticello's training, interpretation, and publications." Sony VAIO VGN-AW52JGB Battery

The Foundation has published new articles and monographs on the Hemings descendants reflecting the new evidence, and installed exhibits at the facility showing Jefferson as father of the Sally Hemings children. In February 2000, PBS Frontline produced a program about the issues. Sony VAIO VGN-AW53FB Battery

It noted in its overview of material published about Jefferson-Hemings:

"More than 20 years after CBS executives were pressured by Jefferson historians to drop plans for a mini-series on Jefferson and Hemings, the network airs, "Sally Hemings: An American Scandal.Sony VAIO VGN-AW70B/Q Battery

" Though many quarreled with the portrayal of Hemings as unrealistically modern and heroic, no major historian challenged the series' premise that Hemings and Jefferson had a 38-year relationship that produced children."Sony VAIO VGN-AW71JB Battery

As noted in the following, some historians continue to disagree with these conclusions. For instance, in 1999 the newly formed Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society (TJHS) commissioned its own report. Its Scholars Commission, who included Lance Banning, Robert F. Turner and Paul Rahe, Sony VAIO VGN-AW72JB Battery

among others, concluded in 2001 there was insufficient evidence to determine that Jefferson was the father of Hemings's children. It suggested that his younger brother Randolph Jefferson was the father, and that Hemings may have had multiple partners. Sony VAIO VGN-AW73FB Battery

But, Paul Rahe published a minority view saying he thought Jefferson's paternity of Eston Hemings was more likely than not. In turn, the TJHS report was directly criticized as poor scholarship in the National Genealogical Society Quarterly, which reported that the historical, genealogical, and DNA evidence were sufficient to conclude that Thomas Jefferson was the father.Sony VAIO VGN-AW80NS Battery

The historian Alexander Boulton also reviewed TJHS report and a related book published by the TJHS. He noted that Randolph Jefferson had never been seriously proposed as a candidate by historians until after the DNA study of 1998 showed a genetic match between the Hemings descendant and the Jefferson line. Sony VAIO VGN-AW80S Battery

He noted "previous testimony had agreed" that Hemings had only one father for her children, so criticized the idea that she had multiple partners for her children. Jeanette Daniels, Marietta Glauser, Diana Harvey and Carol Hubbell Ouellette conducted separate research and documented that Randolph Jefferson was seldom at Monticello.Sony VAIO VGN-AW80US Battery

In 2010 Shay Banks-Young and Julie Jefferson Westerinen, descended from Hemings, who identify as African American and white, respectively; and David Works, descended from Wayles; were honored with the international "Search for Common Ground" award for "their work to bridge the divide within their family and heal the legacy of slavery."Sony VAIO VGN-AW81DS Battery

The three have spoken about race and family in numerous appearances across the country. They organized "The Monticello Community", for descendants of all who lived and worked there during Jefferson's lifetime.

Interests, activities, inventions, and improvements

Jefferson was a farmer, with a lifelong interest in mechanical innovations, new crops, soil conditions, and scientific agricultural techniques.Sony VAIO VGN-AW81JS Battery

He took special interest in his gardens. His main cash crop was tobacco, but its price was usually low and it was rarely profitable. He tried to achieve self-sufficiency with wheat, vegetables, flax, corn, hogs, sheep, poultry and cattle to feed and clothe his family, slaves and white employees, but he had cash flow problems and was always in debt.Sony VAIO VGN-AW81YS Battery

Jefferson had a love for reading and collected thousands of books in his personal library. Jefferson stated that he could not "live without books" and that he had a "canine appetite for reading." By 1815, his library included 6,487 books, which he sold to the Library of Congress to replace the smaller collection destroyed in the War of 1812.Sony VAIO VGN-AW82DS Battery

In honor of Jefferson's contribution, the library's website for federal legislative information was named THOMAS. In 2007, Jefferson's two-volume 1764 edition of the Qur'an was used by Rep. Keith Ellison for his swearing in to the House of Representatives.Sony VAIO VGN-AW82JS Battery

In February 2011 the New York Times reported that a part of Jefferson's retirement library, containing 74 volumes with 28 book titles, was discovered at Washington Universityin St. Louis .

Jefferson was an accomplished architect who helped popularize the Neo-Palladian style in the United States.Sony VAIO VGN-AW82YS Battery

Modern scholarship indicates that hemp was a secondary crop at Monticello, but there is no evidence that Jefferson used the plant for smoking. Jefferson was interested in birds and wine, and was a noted gourmet. Jefferson was a prolific writer. He learned Gaelic to translate Ossian, and sent to James Macpherson for the originals.Sony VAIO VGN-AW83FS Battery

Jefferson invented many small practical devices and improved contemporary inventions. These include the design for a revolving book-stand to hold five volumes at once to be viewed by the reader. Another was the "Great Clock", powered by the Earth's gravitational pull on Revolutionary War cannonballs. Sony VAIO VGN-AW83GS Battery

Its chime on Monticello's roof could be heard as far as the University of Virginia. Louis Leschot, a machinist, aided Jefferson with the clock. Jefferson invented a 15 cm long coded wooden cypher wheel, mounted on a metal spindle, to keep secure State Department messages while he was Secretary of State. Sony VAIO VGN-AW83HS Battery

The messages were scrambled and unscrambled by 26 alphabet letters on each circular segment of the wheel. He improved the moldboard plow and thepolygraph, in collaboration with Charles Willson Peale.

Political philosophy and views

Jefferson was a leader in developing republicanism in the United States. Sony VAIO VGN-AW90NS Battery

He insisted that the British aristocratic system was inherently corrupt and that Americans' devotion to civic virtue required independence. Jefferson's vision was that of an agricultural nation of yeoman farmers minding their own affairs.

Jefferson's republican political principles were heavily influenced by the Country Party of 18th century British opposition writers.Sony VAIO VGN-AW90S Battery

He was influenced by John Locke (particularly relating to the principle of inalienable rights).

Jefferson had a decided dislike and distrust of banks and bankers and opposed borrowing from banks because he believed it created long-term debt as well as monopolies, and inclined the people to dangerous speculation, as opposed to productive labor on the farm.Sony VAIO VGN-AW90US Battery

Jefferson believed that each man has "certain inalienable rights". He defines the right of "liberty" by saying, "Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others..." A proper government, for Jefferson,Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CDS Battery

is one that not only prohibits individuals in society from infringing on the liberty of other individuals, but also restrains itself from diminishing individual liberty.

Like almost all political thinkers of his day Jefferson did not support gender equality, and opposed female involvement in politics, saying that "our good ladies ... Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CJS Battery

are contented to soothe and calm the minds of their husbands returning ruffled from political debate."

Democracy

There is no dispute that Jefferson is a major iconic figure in the emergence of democracy—he was the "agrarian democrat" who shaped the thinking of his nation and the world.Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CYS Battery

As historian Vernon Louis Parrington concluded in 1927:

"Far more completely than any other American of his generation he embodied the idealisms of the great revolution -- its faith in human nature, its economic individualism, its conviction that here in America, through the instrumentality of political democracy, the lot of the common man should somehow be made better." Sony VAIO VGN-AW91DS Battery

Jefferson's concepts of democracy were rooted in The Enlightenment, as Peter Onuf has stressed. He envisioned democracy an expression of society as a whole, calling for national self-determination, cultural uniformity, and based upon the education of the all the people. Sony VAIO VGN-AW91JS Battery

The emphasis on uniformity allowed no opportunity for a multiracial republic in which some groups were not fully assimilated into the identical republican values. Onuf argues that Jefferson was unable and unwilling to abolish slavery until a such demand could issue naturally from the sensibilities of the entire people.Sony VAIO VGN-AW91YS Battery

Gordon Wood (2009) concluded that Jefferson personified American ideals: "His ideas about liberty and democracy left such a deep imprint on the future of his country that, despite persistent attempts to discredit his reputation, as long as there is a United States he will remain the supreme spokesman for the nation's noblest ideals and highest aspirations."Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CDS Battery

Public education and a free press was essential to a democratic nation: "If a nation expects to be ignorant and free it expects what never was and never will be....The people cannot be safe without information. Where the press is free, and every man able to read, all is safe.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CJS Battery

Foreign policy

According to Tucker and Hendrickson (1992) Jefferson believed America "was the bearer of a new diplomacy, founded on the confidence of a free and virtuous people, that would secure ends based on the natural and universal rights of man, by means that escaped war and its corruptions.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CYS Battery

" Jefferson sought a radical break from the traditional European emphasis on "reason of state" (which could justify any action) and the traditional priority of foreign policy and the needs of the ruling family over the needs of the people.

Jefferson envisaged America becoming the world's great "empire of liberty"--that is, the model for democracy and republicanism.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92DS Battery

He identified his nation as a beacon to the world, for, he said on departing the presidency in 1809, America was:

"Trusted with the destinies of this solitary republic of the world, the only monument of human rights, and the sole depository of the sacred fire of freedom and self-government,Sony VAIO VGN-AW92JS Battery
from hence it is to be lighted up in other regions of the earth, if other regions of the earth shall ever become susceptible of its benign influence."

He saw Britain as America's great enemy because it was the base for successful aristocracy and antipathy to democracy, Sony VAIO VGN-AW92YS Battery

.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vgn-aw92ys-battery-27293.htm">while France, at least in the early stages of the French Revolution, appeared to Jefferson to be an ideal solution to Europe's malaise. He said, "The liberty of the whole world was depending on the issue of the contest." He never wanted war. The paradox was that Britain was much more powerful and was the leading trading partner of the U.S.,Sony VAIO VGN-AW93FS Battery

so that the sort of economic warfare he proposed would hurt the American economy.

Rebellion

In the 1780s Jefferson saw occasional upheaval as a natural event. In a letter to James Madison on January 30, 1787, Jefferson wrote, "A little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical...Sony VAIO VGN-AW93GS Battery

It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government." Similarly, in a letter to Abigail Adams on February 22, 1787 he wrote, "The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on certain occasions that I wish it to be always kept alive. It will often be exercised when wrong, but better so than not to be exercised at all."Sony VAIO VGN-AW93HS Battery

ConcerningShays' Rebellion after he had heard of the bloodshed, on November 13, 1787 Jefferson wrote to William S. Smith, John Adams' son-in-law, "What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must from time to time be refreshed with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure."Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZFS Battery

In another letter to William S. Smith during 1787, Jefferson wrote: "And what country can preserve its liberties, if the rulers are not warned from time to time, that this people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms."

Religion

Jefferson rejected the orthodox Christianity of his day and was especially hostile to the Catholic Church as he saw it operate in France. Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZGS Battery

Throughout his life Jefferson was intensely interested in theology, biblical study, and morality. As a landowner he played a role in governing his local Episcopal Church; in terms of belief he was inclined toward the religious philosophy of Christianity:Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZHS Battery

In private letters, Jefferson refers to himself as "Christian" (1803): "To the corruptions of Christianity I am, indeed, opposed; but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself. I am a Christian, in the only sense in which he wished any one to be; sincerely attached to his doctrines, in preference to all others; ascribing to himself every human excellence....Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11EN Battery

Jefferson believed in the moral teachings of Christ and edited a compilation of Christ's teachings leaving out the miracles. Jefferson was firmly anticlerical saying that in "every country and every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot...Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11MN Battery

they have perverted the purest religion ever preached to man into mystery and jargon, unintelligible to all mankind, and therefore the safer for their purposes."

Jefferson rejected the idea of immaterial beings and considered the idea of an immaterial Creator a heresy introduced into Christianity. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11XN Battery

He held to the view that God was a material being, stating in a letter to John Adams that "[t]o talk of immaterial existences is to talk of nothings." He, instead, held to a belief that all things that existed were material, including God. In the same letter to Adams he continues: Sony VAIO VGN-BZ12VN Battery

"At what age of the Christian church this heresy of immaterialism, this masked atheism, crept in, I do not know. But a heresy it certainly is. Jesus taught nothing of it. He told us indeed that 'God is a spirit,' but he has not defined what a spirit is, nor said that it is not matter.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ12XN Battery

And the antient fathers generally, if not universally, held it to be matter: light and thin indeed, an etherial gas; but still matter."

Native American policy

Between 1776 and 1779, while governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary War, Jefferson recommended forcibly moving Cherokee and Shawnee tribes that fought on the British side to lands west of the Mississippi River.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ31VT Battery

Later, Jefferson was the first President to propose the idea of Indian Removal. He laid out an approach to Indian removal in a series of private letters that began in 1803 (for example, see letter to William Henry Harrison below).  His first such act as president was to make a deal with the state of Georgia:Sony VAIO VGN-BZ31XT Battery

if Georgia were to release its legal claims to discovery in lands to its west, the U.S. military would help forcefully expel the Cherokee people from Georgia. At the time, the Cherokee Nation had a treaty with the United States government which guaranteed its people the right to their lands, which was violated by Jefferson's deal with Georgia.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560 Battery

Acculturation and assimilation

Jefferson's original plan was for Natives to give up their own cultures, religions, and lifestyles in favor of western European culture, Christian religion, and a European-style agricultural lifestyle.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560N24 Battery

Jefferson believed that their assimilation into the European-American economy would make them more dependent on trade with white Americans, and would eventually thereby be willing to give up land that they would otherwise not part with, in exchange for trade goods or to resolve unpaid debts.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560N30 Battery

In an 1803 letter to William Henry Harrison, Jefferson wrote:

To promote this disposition to exchange lands, which they have to spare and we want, for necessaries, which we have to spare and they want, we shall push our trading uses, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P Battery
and be glad to see the good and influential individuals among them run in debt, because we observe that when these debts get beyond what the individuals can pay, they become willing to lop them off by a cession of lands.... In this way our settlements will gradually circumscribe and approach the Indians, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P20 Battery
and they will in time either incorporate with us as citizens of the United States, or remove beyond the Mississippi. The former is certainly the termination of their history most happy for themselves; but, in the whole course of this, it is essential to cultivate their love.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P22 Battery
As to their fear, we presume that our strength and their weakness is now so visible that they must see we have only to shut our hand to crush them, and that all our liberalities to them proceed from motives of pure humanity only. Should any tribe be foolhardy enough to take up the hatchet at any time, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P28 Battery
the seizing the whole country of that tribe, and driving them across the Mississippi, as the only condition of peace, would be an example to others, and a furtherance of our final consolidation.

Forced Indian relocation

With the colonial and native civilizations in collision compounded by British incitement of Indian tribes and mounting hostilitiesSony VAIO VGN-BZ560P30 Battery

between the two peoples quick measures were resorted to so as to avert another major conflict and measures were taken to forcefully relocate the various Indian tribes to points further west.Jefferson relates his feelings of the affair in a letter to Alexander von Humboldt in 1813:Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P34 Battery

You know, my friend, the benevolent plan we were pursuing here for the happiness of the aboriginal inhabitants in our vicinities. We spared nothing to keep them at peace with one another. To teach them agriculture and the rudiments of the most necessary arts, and to encourage industry by establishing among them separate property.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561 Battery
In this way they would have been enabled to subsist and multiply on a moderate scale of landed possession. They would have mixed their blood with ours, and been amalgamated and identified with us within no distant period of time. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561N20 Battery
On the commencement of our present war, we pressed on them the observance of peace and neutrality, but the interested and unprincipled policy of England has defeated all our labors for the salvation of these unfortunate people. They have seduced the greater part of the tribes within our neighborhood, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561P20 Battery
to take up the hatchet against us, and the cruel massacres they have committed on the women and children of our frontiers taken by surprise, will oblige us now to pursue them to extermination, or drive them to new seats beyond our reach.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ562P Battery

Jefferson believed assimilation was best for Native Americans; second best was removal to the west. The worst possible outcome would happen if Native Americans attacked the whites.He told hisSecretary of War, General Henry Dearborn (who was the primary government official responsible for Indian affairs):Sony VAIO VGN-BZ563P Battery

"if we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, we will never lay it down until that tribe is exterminated, or driven beyond the Mississipi."

Death

Jefferson' health began to deteriorate by July 1825, and by June 1826 he was confined to bed. Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAFS Battery

His death was from natural causes, a combination of illnesses and conditions including uremia, severe diarrhea, and pneumonia. Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, and a few hours before John Adams.Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAHS Battery

Though born into a wealthy slave-owning family, Jefferson had many financial problems, and died deeply in debt. He gave instructions for disposal of his assets in his Will and after his death, his possessions (including the persons he held as slaves) were sold off in public auctions starting in 1827, Monticello itself was sold in 1831.Sony VAIO VGN-BZAANS Battery

Thomas Jefferson is buried in the family cemetery at Monticello. The cemetery only is now owned and operated by the Monticello Association, a separate lineage society that is not affiliated with the Thomas Jefferson Foundation that runs the estate.Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAPS Battery

Memorials and Honors

Jefferson has been memorialized in many ways, including buildings, sculptures, and currency. The Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. on April 13, 1943, the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birth.Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/Q Battery

The interior of the memorial includes a 19-foot (6 m) statue of Jefferson and engravings of passages from his writings. Most prominent are the words which are inscribed around the monument near the roof: "I have sworn upon the altar of god eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man".Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/R Battery

Thomas Jefferson has been honored on U.S. postage since the first Jefferson postage stamp was released in 1856. Jefferson was the second president to be featured on U.S. Postage. His portrait appears on the U.S. $2 bill, nickel, and the $100 Series EE Savings Bond, and a Presidential Dollar which released into circulation on August 16, 2007.Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/W Battery

His original tombstone, now a cenotaph, is located on the campus in the University of Missouri's Quadrangle. A life mask of Jefferson was created by John Henri Isaac Browere in the 1820s.

Jefferson, together with George Washington, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln, was chosen by sculptor Gutzon Borglum and approved by PresidentCalvin Coolidge to be depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial.Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/P Battery

Other memorials to Jefferson include the commissioning of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shipThomas Jefferson in Norfolk, Virginia on July 8, 2003, in commemoration of his establishment of a Survey of the Coast, the predecessor to NOAA's National Ocean Service;Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/Q Battery

and the placement of a bronze monument in Jefferson Park, Chicago at the entrance to the Jefferson Park Transit Center along Milwaukee Avenue in 2005.

Reputation

Jefferson has often been seen as one of the central American icons of liberty, democracy and republicanism.Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/W Battery

Scholars have hailed him as one of the most articulate spokesmen of the American Revolution, and as a renaissance man who promoted science and scholarship. He championed a political philosophy that has retained its power over the centuries.Sony VAIO VGN-CS11Z/R Battery

Abraham Lincoln cited Jefferson when articulating his own philosophy of liberty and equality in the battle against slavery. Lincoln used the natural rights precepts of the Declaration of Independence as his guide to a better Union. He once said that Jefferson was "the most distinguished politician in our history."Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/P Battery

During the New Deal era of the 1930s, Democrats honored Jefferson and Andrew Jackson as their party's founding fathers and continued inspiration. He was portrayed as the spokesman for democracy and the common man and archfoe of Hamilton, portrayed as the front man for bankers and aristocrats.Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/Q Battery

President Franklin D. Roosevelt took the lead in building his monument in Washington.

After the Civil Rights Revolution came a reappraisal focused on race. Some historians expressed dismay at his harsh treatment of Native Americans, while others have been more forgiving. Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/R Battery

There is also dismay about his opposition to a biracial society, and his views on blacks and their supposed racial inferiority. The likelihood of his relationship with Sally Hemings, a slave who was three-quarters white, and his "shadow family" by her suggests he kept his privacy and was a complex man of apparent contradictions.Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTB Battery

Jefferson's legacy as a champion of Enlightenment ideals has been challenged by modern historians  who find his ownership of hundreds of slaves at Monticello to be in contradiction to his views on freedom and the equality of men. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTP Battery

Historian Peter Onuf stated that "Jefferson's failure to address the problem of slavery generally and the situation of his own human chattel...is in itself the most damning possible commentary on his iconic standing as 'apostle of freedom'.Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTQ Battery

" The historian Clarence E. Walker said that Jefferson could rationalize being a slave owner and defender of freedom since he believed blacks were inferior and needed supervision.Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTR Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTW Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAC Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAD Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NBB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCA Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCB Battery

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys - dans Laptop Battery
commenter cet article

commentaires