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3 juillet 2012 2 03 /07 /juillet /2012 04:02

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale OM, RRC ( /ˈflɒrəns ˈnaɪtɨŋɡeɪl/; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. HP Mini 110-3143tu Keyboard 

She was dubbed "The Lady with the Lamp" after her habit of making rounds at night. Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, HP Mini 110-3144tu Keyboard

in 1860, of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospitalin London, the first secular nursing school in the world, now part of King's College London. The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday. HP Mini 110-3145tu Keyboard

Florence Nightingale was born into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia,[1] near thePorta Romana at Bellosguardo in Florence, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. Florence's older sister Frances Parthenope had similarly been named after her place of birth, Parthenopolis, a Greek settlement now part of the city ofNaples. HP Mini 110-3150ca Keyboard

Her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore (1794–1874) and Frances ("Fanny") Nightingale néeSmith (1789–1880). William's mother Mary née Evans was the niece of one Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate Lea Hurst in Derbyshire, HP Mini 110-3150ed Keyboard

and assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny's father (Florence's maternal grandfather) was the abolitionist and Unitarian William Smith. (For family trees, see here.[2] ) HP Mini 110-3150ev Keyboard

Inspired by what she took as a call from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, Florence announced her decision to enter nursing in 1844, despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister. In this, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status, HP Mini 110-3150sb Keyboard

which was to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in spite of opposition from her family and the restrictive societal code for affluent young English women. Nightingale was courted by politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, HP Mini 110-3150sf Keyboard

1st Baron Houghton, but she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing. HP Mini 110-3150si Keyboard

In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a politician who had been Secretary at War (1845–1846), a position he would hold again during the Crimean War. Herbert was on his honeymoon; he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert and his wife were instrumental in facilitating Nightingale's nursing work in the CrimeaHP Mini 110-3150sr Keyboard

, and she became a key adviser to him in his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert's death from Bright's Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him.

Nightingale also much later had strong relations with Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her. HP Mini 110-3150ss Keyboard

Nightingale continued her travels (now with Charles and Selina Bracebridge) as far as Greece and Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learning, literary skill and philosophy of life. Sailing up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel in January 1850, she wrote HP Mini 110-3150sv Keyboard

"I don't think I ever saw anything which affected me much more than this." And, considering the temple: "Sublime in the highest style of intellectual beauty, intellect without effort, without suffering... not a feature is correct – but the whole effect is more expressive of spiritual grandeur than anything I could have imagined. HP Mini 110-3151sr Keyboard

It makes the impression upon one that thousands of voices do, uniting in one unanimous simultaneous feeling of enthusiasm or emotion, which is said to overcome the strongest man." HP Mini 110-3155ea Keyboard

HP Mini 110-3155si Keyboard

At Thebes she wrote of being "called to God" while a week later near Cairo she wrote in her diary (as distinct from her far longer letters that her elder sister Parthenope was to print after her return): "God called me in the morning and asked me would I do good for him alone without reputation."[3] HP Mini 110-3155sr Keyboard

Later in 1850, she visited the Lutheran religious community at Kaiserswerth-am-Rhein in Germany, where she observed PastorTheodor Fliedner and the deaconesses working for the sick and the deprived. She regarded the experience as a turning point in her life, and issued her findings anonymously in 1851; HP Mini 110-3156ei Keyboard

The Institution of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, for the Practical Training of Deaconesses, etc. was her first published work;[4] she also received four months of medical training at the institute which formed the basis for her later care. HP Mini 110-3156si Keyboard

On 22 August 1853, Nightingale took the post of superintendent at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in Upper Harley Street, London, a position she held until October 1854.[5] Her father had given her an annual income of £500 (roughly £40,000/US$65,000 in present terms), which allowed her to live comfortably and to pursue her career. HP Mini 110-3160ef Keyboard

Crimean War

Florence Nightingale's most famous contribution came during the Crimean War, which became her central focus when reports began to filter back to Britain about the horrific conditions for the wounded. On 21 October 1854, she and a staff of 38 women volunteer nurses, HP Mini 110-3160ev Keyboard

trained by Nightingale and including her aunt Mai Smith,[6] were sent (under the authorisation of Sidney Herbert) to the Ottoman Empire, about 295 nautical miles (546 km; 339 mi) across the Black Sea from Balaklava in theCrimea, where the main British camp was based. HP Mini 110-3160sf Keyboard

Nightingale arrived early in November 1854 at Selimiye Barracks in Scutari (modern-day Üsküdar in Istanbul). She and her nurses found wounded soldiers being badly cared for by overworked medical staff in the face of official indifference.Medicines were in short supply, HP Mini 110-3160sv Keyboard

hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. HP Mini 110-3170ef Keyboard

After Nightingale sent a plea to The Times for the government to produce a solution to the poor condition of the facilities, the British Government commissioned Isambard Kingdom Brunel to design a prefabricated hospital, which could be built in England and shipped to the Dardanelles. HP Mini 110-3170ev Keyboard

rate less than 1/10th that of Scutari.[7]

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was asserted that Nightingale reduced the death rate from 42% to 2% either by making improvements in hygiene herself or by calling for the Sanitary Commission. The 1911 first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography made this claim, HP Mini 110-3170sf Keyboard

but the second edition in 2001 did not. However, death rates did not drop: they began to rise. The death count was the highest of all hospitals in the region. During her first winter at Scutari, 4,077 soldiers died there. Ten times more soldiers died from illnesses such as typhus, HP Mini 110-3170sv Keyboard

typhoid, cholera and dysentery than from battle wounds. Conditions at the temporary barracks hospital were so fatal to the patients because of overcrowding and the hospital's defective sewers and lack of ventilation. A Sanitary Commission had to be sent out by the British government to Scutari in March 1855, HP Mini 110-3180ev Keyboard

almost six months after Florence Nightingale had arrived, and effected flushing out the sewers and improvements to ventilation.[8] Death rates were sharply reduced. During the war she did not recognise hygiene as the predominant cause of death, and she never claimed credit for helping to reduce the death rate.[9] HP Mini 110-3180sv Keyboard

Nightingale continued believing the death rates were due to poor nutrition and supplies and overworking of the soldiers. It was not until after she returned to Britain and began collecting evidence before the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army that she came to believe that most of the soldiers at the hospital were killed by poor living conditions. HP Mini 110-3190ef Keyboard

This experience influenced her later career, when she advocated sanitary living conditions as of great importance. Consequently, she reduced deaths in the army during peacetime and turned attention to the sanitary design of hospitals. HP Mini 110-3190sf Keyboard

She is a ‘ministering angel’ without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor, every poor fellow's face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. HP Mini 110-3500 CTO Keyboard

When all the medical officers have retired for the night and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds. HP Mini 110-3501tu Keyboard

Later career

While she was in the Crimea, on 29 November 1855, a public meeting to give recognition to Florence Nightingale for her work in the war led to the establishment of the Nightingale Fund for the training of nurses. There was an outpouring of generous donations. HP Mini 110-3501xx Keyboard

Sidney Herbert served as honorary secretary of the fund, and the Duke of Cambridge was chairman. Nightingale was considered a pioneer in the concept of medical tourism as well, on the basis of her letters from 1856 in which she wrote of spas in the Ottoman Empire, detailing the health conditions, HP Mini 110-3502tu Keyboard

physical descriptions, dietary information, and other vitally important details of patients whom she directed there (where treatment was significantly less expensive than in Switzerland). It may be assumed[citation needed] she was directing patients of meagre means to affordable treatment. HP Mini 110-3503tu Keyboard

By 1859 Nightingale had £45,000 at her disposal from the Nightingale Fund to set up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas' Hospital on 9 July 1860. HP Mini 110-3504tu Keyboard

(It is now called the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery and is part of King's College London.) The first trained Nightingale nurses began work on 16 May 1865 at the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary. She also campaigned and raised funds for the Royal Buckinghamshire Hospital in Aylesbury, near her family home. HP Mini 110-3505tu Keyboard

Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing, which was published in 1859, a slim 136-page book that served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools established, though it was written specifically for the education of those nursing at home. HP Mini 110-3506tu Keyboard

Nightingale wrote "Every day sanitary knowledge, or the knowledge of nursing, or in other words, of how to put the constitution in such a state as that it will have no disease, or that it can recover from disease, takes a higher place. It is recognised as the knowledge which every one ought to have – distinct from medical knowledge, which only a profession can have".[12] HP Mini 110-3510nr Keyboard

Notes on Nursing also sold well to the general reading public and is considered a classic introduction to nursing. Nightingale spent the rest of her life promoting the establishment and development of the nursing profession and organizing it into its modern form. HP Mini 110-3512tu Keyboard

In the introduction to the 1974 edition, Joan Quixley of the Nightingale School of Nursing wrote: "The book was the first of its kind ever to be written. It appeared at a time when the simple rules of health were only beginning to be known, when its topics were of vital importance not only for the well-being and recovery of patients, HP Mini 110-3513tu Keyboard

when hospitals were riddled with infection, when nurses were still mainly regarded as ignorant, uneducated persons. The book has, inevitably, its place in the history of nursing, for it was written by the founder of modern nursing".[13] HP Mini 110-3519la Keyboard

Nightingale was an advocate for the improvement of care and conditions in the military and civilian hospitals in Britain. Among her popular books are Notes on Hospitals, which deals with the correlation of sanitary techniques to medical facilities; HP Mini 110-3520ca Keyboard

Notes on Nursing, which was the most valued nursing textbook of the day; Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army. HP Mini 110-3521la Keyboard

As Mark Bostridge has recently demonstrated, one of Nightingale's signal achievements was the introduction of trained nurses into the workhouse system in England and Ireland from the 1860s onwards. This meant that sick paupers were no longer being cared for by other, able-bodied paupers, HP Mini 110-3521tu Keyboard

but by properly trained nursing staff. This innovation may be said to herald the establishment of the National Health Service in Britain, forty years after Nightingale's death. HP Mini 110-3522tu Keyboard

It is commonly stated that Nightingale "went to her grave denying the germ theory of infection". Mark Bostridge in his recent biography[14] disagrees with this, saying that she was opposed to a precursor of germ theory known as "contagionism" which held that diseases could only be transmitted by touch. HP Mini 110-3523la Keyboard

Before the experiments of the mid-1860s by Pasteur and Lister, hardly anyone took germ theory seriously and even afterwards many medical practitioners were unconvinced. Bostridge points out that in the early 1880s Nightingale wrote an article for a textbook in which she advocated strict precautions designed, she said, HP Mini 110-3523tu Keyboard

to kill germs. Nightingale's work served as an inspiration for nurses in the American Civil War. The Union government approached her for advice in organizing field medicine. Although her ideas met official resistance, they inspired the volunteer body of the United States Sanitary Commission. HP Mini 110-3524tu Keyboard

In the 1870s, Nightingale mentored Linda Richards, "America's first trained nurse", and enabled her to return to the USA with adequate training and knowledge to establish high-quality nursing schools. Linda Richards went on to become a great nursing pioneer in the USA and Japan. HP Mini 110-3525la Keyboard

By 1882, Nightingale nurses had a growing and influential presence in the embryonic nursing profession. Some had become matrons at several leading hospitals, including, in London, St Mary's Hospital, Westminster Hospital, St Marylebone Workhouse Infirmary and the Hospital for Incurables at Putney; HP Mini 110-3525tu Keyboard

and throughout Britain, e.g., Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley; Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; Cumberland Infirmary and Liverpool Royal Infirmary, as well as at Sydney Hospital inNew South Wales, Australia. HP Mini 110-3526tu Keyboard

In 1883, Nightingale was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. In 1904, she was appointed a Lady of Grace of the Order of St John (LGStJ) and in 1907, she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. In 1908, she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London. Her birthday is now celebrated as International CFS Awareness Day. HP Mini 110-3527tu Keyboard

From 1857 onwards, Nightingale was intermittently bedridden and suffered from depression. A recent biography cites brucellosis and associated spondylitis as the cause.[15] An alternative explanation for her depression is based on her discovery after the war that she had been mistaken about the reasons for the high death rate.[9]HP Mini 110-3530nr Keyboard

There is, however, no documentary evidence to support this theory which remains, therefore, largely supposition. Most authorities today accept that Nightingale suffered from a particularly extreme form of brucellosis, the effects of which only began to lift in the early 1880s. HP Mini 110-3531tu Keyboard

Despite her symptoms, she remained phenomenally productive in social reform. During her bedridden years, she also did pioneering work in the field of hospital planning, and her work propagated quickly across Britain and the world. HP Mini 110-3533tu Keyboard


Although much of Nightingale's work improved the lot of women everywhere, Nightingale was of the opinion that women craved sympathy and were not as capable as men.[16] She criticized early women's rights activists for decrying an alleged lack of careers for women at the same time that lucrative medical positions, under the supervision of Nightingale and others, went perpetually unfilled.[17]HP Mini 110-3534tu Keyboard

She preferred the friendship of powerful men, insisting they had done more than women to help her attain her goals, writing, "I have never found one woman who has altered her life by one iota for me or my opinions."[18] She often referred to herself in the masculine, as for example "a man of action" and "a man of business".[19] HP Mini 110-3535tu Keyboard

She did, however, have several important and passionate friendships with women. Later in life she kept up a prolonged correspondence with an Irish nun, Sister Mary Clare Moore, with whom she had worked in Crimea.[20] Her most beloved confidante was Mary Clarke, an Englishwoman she met in 1837 and kept in touch with throughout her life.[21] HP Mini 110-3536tu Keyboard

In spite of these deep emotional attachments to women, some scholars of Nightingale's life believe that she remained chaste for her entire life; perhaps because she felt an almost religious calling to her career, or because she lived in the time of Victorian sexual morality.[22] HP Mini 110-3538tu Keyboard


On 13 August 1910, at the age of 90, she died peacefully in her sleep in her room at 10 South Street,[23] Park Lane.[24] The offer of burial in Westminster Abbey was declined by her relatives, and she is buried in the graveyard at St. Margaret Church in East Wellow, Hampshire.[25][26] She left a large body of work, including several hundred notes which were previously unpublished.[27] HP Mini 110-3539tu Keyboard

Florence Nightingale had exhibited a gift for mathematics from an early age and excelled in the subject under the tutorship of her father. Later, Nightingale became a pioneer in the visual presentation of information and statistical graphics.[28]HP Mini 110-3540tu Keyboard

Among other things she used the pie chart, which had first been developed by William Playfair in 1801. While taken for granted now, it was at the time a relatively novel method of presenting data.[29] HP Mini 110-3541tu Keyboard

Indeed, Nightingale is described as "a true pioneer in the graphical representation of statistics", and is credited with developing a form of the pie chart now known as thepolar area diagram,[30] or occasionally the Nightingale rose diagram, equivalent to a modern circular histogram, HP Mini 110-3542tu Keyboard

in order to illustrate seasonal sources of patient mortality in the military field hospital she managed. Nightingale called a compilation of such diagrams a "coxcomb", but later that term has frequently been used for the individual diagrams. HP Mini 110-3543tu Keyboard

She made extensive use of coxcombs to present reports on the nature and magnitude of the conditions of medical care in the Crimean War to Members of Parliament and civil servants who would have been unlikely to read or understand traditional statistical reports. HP Mini 110-3546tu Keyboard

In her later life Nightingale made a comprehensive statistical study of sanitation in Indian rural life and was the leading figure in the introduction of improved medical care and public health service in India. In 1858 and 1859 she successfully lobbied for the establishment of a Royal Commission into the Indian situation. HP Mini 110-3547tu Keyboard

Two years later she provided a report to the commission, which completed its own study in 1863. "After 10 years of sanitary reform, in 1873, Nightingale reported that mortality among the soldiers in India had declined from 69 to 18 per 1,000".[30] HP Mini 110-3548tu Keyboard

In 1859 Nightingale was elected the first female member of the Royal Statistical Society and she later became an honorary member of the American Statistical Association. HP Mini 110-3549tu Keyboard

Literature and the women's movement

But while better known for her contributions in the nursing and mathematical fields, Nightingale is also an important link in the study of English feminism. During 1850 and 1852, she was struggling with her self-definition and the expectations of an upper-class marriage from her family. HP Mini 110-3550tu Keyboard

As she sorted out her thoughts, she wrote Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth. This was an 829 page, three-volume work, which Nightingale had printed privately in 1860, but which until recently was never published in its entirety.[32]HP Mini 1100 Keyboard

An effort to correct this was made with a 2008 publication by Wilfrid Laurier University, as volume 11[33] of a 16 volume project, the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale.[34] The best known of these essays, called Cassandra, was previously published by Ray Strachey in 1928. HP Mini 1100CM Keyboard

Strachey included it in The Cause, a history of the women's movement. Apparently, the writing served its original purpose of sorting out thoughts; Nightingale left soon after to train at the Institute for deaconesses at Kaiserswerth. HP Mini 1101TU Keyboard

Cassandra protests the over-feminization of women into near helplessness, such as Nightingale saw in her mother's and older sister's lethargic lifestyle, despite their education. She rejected their life of thoughtless comfort for the world of social service. HP Mini 1102TU Keyboard

The work also reflects her fear of her ideas being ineffective, as were Cassandra's. Cassandra was a princess of Troy who served as a priestess in the temple of Apollo during the Trojan War. The god gave her the gift of prophecy but when she refused his advances he cursed her so that her prophetic warnings would go unheeded. HP Mini 1103TU Keyboard

Elaine Showalter called Nightingale's writing "a major text of English feminism, a link between Wollstonecraft and Woolf."[35]

Despite being named as a Unitarian in many older sources, Nightingale's own rare references to conventional Unitarianism are mildly negative, and she remained in the Church of England throughout her life, albeit with unorthodox views.[36] HP Mini 1104TU Keyboard

Suggestions for Thought is also Nightingale's work of theology, her own theodicy, which develops her heterodox ideas. Nightingale questioned the goodness of a God who would condemn souls to hell, showing sympathy for the idea of universal reconciliation.[37][38] HP Mini 1105TU Keyboard

The first official nurses’ training program, the Nightingale School for Nurses, opened in 1860. The mission of the school was to train nurses to work in hospitals, work with the poor, and to teach. This intended that students cared for people in their homes, an appreciation that is still advancing in reputation and professional opportunity for nurses today.[39] HP Mini 1107TU Keyboard

Florence Nightingale's lasting contribution has been her role in founding the modern nursing profession. She set an example of compassion, commitment to patient care, and diligent and thoughtful hospital administration. HP Mini 1106TU Keyboard

The work of her School of Nursing continues today as the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery at King's College London. The Nightingale Building in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Southampton is also named after her. International Nurses Day is celebrated on her birthday each year. HP Mini 1108TU Keyboard

The Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign,[40] established by nursing leaders throughout the world through the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH), aims to build a global grassroots movement to achieve two United Nations Resolutions for adoption by the UN General Assembly of 2008 which will declare: HP Mini 1109TU Keyboard

The International Year of the Nurse–2010 (the centennial of Nightingale's death); The UN Decade for a Healthy World–2011 to 2020 (the bicentennial of Nightingale's birth). HP Mini 1110LA Keyboard

NIGH also works to rekindle awareness about the important issues highlighted by Florence Nightingale, such as preventive medicine andholistic health. So far, the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 18,500 signatories from 86 countries. HP Mini 1110NR Keyboard

During the Vietnam War, Nightingale inspired many U.S. Army nurses, sparking a renewal of interest in her life and work. Her admirers include Country Joe of Country Joe and the Fish, who has assembled an extensive website in her honour.[41] HP Mini 1110TU Keyboard

The Agostino Gemelli Medical School[42] in Rome, the first university-based hospital in Italy and one of its most respected medical centres, honoured Nightingale's contribution to the nursing profession by giving the name "Bedside Florence" to a wireless computer system it developed to assist nursing.[43] HP Mini 1111TU Keyboard

In 1912 the International Committee of the Red Cross instituted the Florence Nightingale Medal, awarded every two years to nurses or nursing aides for outstanding service. HP Mini 1112TU Keyboard


Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: F. N. Hastanesi in Şişli (the biggest private hospital in Turkey), Metropolitan F.N. Hastanesi inGayrettepe, Avrupa F.N. Hastanesi in Mecidiyeköy, and Kızıltoprak F.N. Hastanesi in Kadiköy, all belonging to the Turkish Cardiology Foundation.[44] HP Mini 1113TU Keyboard

An appeal is being considered for the former Derbyshire Royal Infirmary hospital in Derby, England to be named after Nightingale. The suggested new name will be either Nightingale Community Hospital or Florence Nightingale Community Hospital. The area in which the hospital lies in Derby has recently been referred to as the "Nightingale Quarter".[45] HP Mini 1114TU Keyboard

A statue of Florence Nightingale stands in Waterloo Place, Westminster, London, just off The Mall.

There are three statues of Florence Nightingale in Derby — one outside the London Road Community Hospital formerly known as the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, one in St. HP Mini 1115NR Keyboard

Peter's Street, and one above the Nightingale-Macmillan Continuing Care Unit opposite the Derby Royal Infirmary. A public house named after her stands close to the Derby Royal Infirmary.[46] The Nightingale-Macmillan continuing care unit is now at the Royal Derby Hospital, formerly known as The City Hospital, Derby. HP Mini 1115TU Keyboard

hire Royal Infirmary chapel in the late 1950s. When the chapel was later demolished the window was removed, stored and replaced in the new replacement chapel. At the closure of the DRI the window was again removed and stored. In October 2010, HP Mini 1116NR Keyboard

£6,000 was raised by friends of the window and St Peters Church to reposition the window in St Peters Church, Derby. The remarkable work features nine panels, of the original ten, depicting scenes of hospital life, Derby townscapes and Florence Nightingale herself. HP Mini 1116TU Keyboard

Some of the work was damaged and the tenth panel was dismantled for the glass to be used in repair of the remaining panels. All the figures, who are said to be modelled on prominent Derby town figures of the early sixties, surround and praise a central pane of the triumphant Christ. A nurse who posed for the top right panel in 1959 attended the rededication service in October 2010.[47] HP Mini 1117TU Keyboard

The Florence Nightingale Museum at St Thomas' Hospital in London reopened in May 2010 in time for the centenary of Nightingale's death. Another museum devoted to her is at her sister's family home, Claydon House, now a property of the National Trust. HP Mini 1118TU Keyboard

2010 marked the centenary of Nightingale's death, and to commemorate her connection with Malvern, the Malvern Museum held a Florence Nightingale exhibit,[48] with a school poster competition to promote some events.[49] HP Mini 1119TU Keyboard

In Istanbul, the northernmost tower of the Selimiye Barracks building is now a museum,[50] and in several of its rooms, relics and reproductions relevant to Florence Nightingale and her nurses are on exhibition.[51] HP Mini 1120BR Keyboard

When Nightingale moved on to the Crimea itself, in May 1855, she often travelled on horseback to make hospital inspections. She later transferred to a mule cart and was reported to have escaped serious injury when the cart was toppled in an accident. HP Mini 1120LA Keyboard

Following this episode, she used a solid Russian-built carriage, with a waterproof hood and curtains. The carriage was returned to England by Alexis Soyer after the war and subsequently given to the Nightingale training school for nurses. The carriage was damaged when the hospital was bombed by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was later restored and transferred to the Army Medical Services Museum in Mytchett, Surrey, near Aldershot. HP Mini 1120NR Keyboard

A bronze plaque, attached to the plinth of the Crimean Memorial in the Haydarpaşa Cemetery, Istanbul and unveiled on Empire Day, 1954, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of her nursing service in that region, bears the inscription:[52] HP Mini 1120TU Keyboard


The first theatrical representations of Nightingale was Reginald Berkeley in his "The Lady with the Lamp", premiering in London in 1929 with Edith Evans in the title role. This does not portray her as an entirely sympathetic character and draws much characterisation from Lytton Strachey's biography of her in Eminent Victorians.[55] HP Mini 1121TU Keyboard

It was adapted as a film of the same name in 1951. Nightingale also appears in Edward Bond's surrealist play Early Morning, in which she is depicted having a lesbian affair with Queen Victoria. HP Mini 1122TU Keyboard

In 2009, a stage musical play representation of Nightingale was produced by the Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines (ANSAP), entitled "The Voyage of the Lass". The play depicts the story of love and vocation on the nursing communities' icon Florence Nightingale, shown on all Fridays of February 2009 at the AFP Theatre, Camp Crame, Philippines

. HP Mini 1123TU Keyboard

The play tells the story of Nightingale's early life and her struggles during the Crimean War. "The Voyage of the Lass" was a two-hour play that showcased Philippine local registered nurses from various hospitals of the country, exposing their talents on the performing arts. HP Mini 1124TU Keyboard


Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary - the BBC's 2008 Florence Nightingale emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, HP Mini 1125NR Keyboard

but in Channel 4's 2006 Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea and Simon Schama's A History of Britain she was portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole's efforts. In 1985 a TV biopic "Florence Nightingale", starring Jaclyn Smith as Florence, was produced. HP Mini 1125TU Keyboard

Nightingale had a principled objection to having photographs taken or her portrait painted. An extremely rare photograph of her, taken at Embley on a visit to her family home in May 1858, was discovered in 2006 and is now at the Florence Nightingale Museum in London. HP Mini 1126NR Keyboard

A black and white photograph of Florence Nightingale taken in about 1907 by Lizzie Caswall Smith at Nightingale's London home in South Street, Park Lane, was auctioned on 19 November 2008 by Dreweatts auction house in Newbury, Berkshire, England, for £5,500.[57] HP Mini 1126TU Keyboard

The first biography of Nightingale was published in England in 1855. In 1911 Edward Cook was authorised by Nightingale's executors to write the official life, published in two volumes in 1913. Lytton Strachey based much of his chapter on Nightingale in Eminent Victorians on Cook, HP Mini 1127TU Keyboard

and Cecil Woodham-Smith relied heavily on Cook's Life in her 1950 biography, though she did have access to new family material preserved at Claydon. In 2008 Mark Bostridge published a major new life of Nightingale, almost exclusively based on unpublished material from the Verney Collections at Claydon, HP Mini 1128TU Keyboard

and from archival documents from about 200 archives around the world, some of which had been published by Lynn McDonald in her projected sixteen-volume edition of the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale (2001 to date). HP Mini 1129TU Keyboard


Nightingale is a major supporting character in the Enola Holmes detective novel, The Case of the Cryptic Crinoline, where a coded message in a crinoline she once gave to Enola's landlady in the Crimean War gets her kidnapped. In this novel, Nightingale is depicted as a firm feminist who malingers as an invalid in order to focus on her political and medical work without the distractions of expected feminine behaviour of the day. HP Mini 1130CM Keyboard

This facade, as well as her advanced age and social respect, enables her to bluntly explain to Enola's brother, Sherlock Holmes, why his sister is determined to defy her brothers' wish for her to conform at a boarding school. HP Mini 1131TU Keyboard


Several churches in the Anglican Communion commemorate Nightingale with a feast day on their liturgical calendars. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Americacommemorates her as a renewer of society with Clara Maass on 13 August. HP Mini 1133CA Keyboard

Beginning in 1968, the U.S. Air Force operated a fleet of 20 C-9A "Nightingale" aeromedical evacuation aircraft, based on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9platform.[59] The last of these planes was retired from service in 2005.[60] HP Mini 1135CA Keyboard

In 1982 Sentara Healthcare inaugurated its medical helicopter service, officially named "Nightingale".[61]

A KLM McDonnell-Douglas MD-11 (registration PH-KCD) also named after her honor[62] HP Mini 1137NR Keyboard

Crimean War

The Crimean War (pronounced /kraɪˈmiːən/ or /krɨˈmiːən/) (October 1853 – February 1856)[7][8] was a conflict between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. HP Mini 1139NR Keyboard

The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, but there were smaller campaigns in western Anatolia, Caucasus, the Baltic Sea, the Pacific Ocean and the White Sea. HP Mini 1140NR Keyboard

In Russia, this war is also known as the "Eastern War" (Russian: Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), and in Britain it was also called the "Russian War" at the time. HP Mini 1141NR Keyboard

The Crimean War is known for the logistical and tactical errors during the land campaign on both sides (the naval side saw a successful Allied campaign which eliminated most of the ships of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea). Nonetheless, it is sometimes considered to be one of the first "modern" wars as it HP Mini 1150BR Keyboard

"introduced technical changes which affected the future course of warfare," including the first tactical use of railways and the electric telegraph.[9] It is also famous for the work of Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole, who pioneered modern nursing practices while caring for wounded British soldiers.[10] HP Mini 1150CM Keyboard

The Crimean War was one of the first wars to be documented extensively in written reports and photographs: notably by William Russell (for The Times newspaper) and Roger Fenton respectively. News correspondence reaching Britain from the Crimea was the first time the public were kept informed of the day-to-day realities of war. HP Mini 1150LA Keyboard

As early as 1850, observers, including Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, had been predicting the outbreak of a Russo-Turkish War.[11] Russia, as a member of the Holy Alliance, had operated as the "Policeman of Europe" maintaining the balance of power that had been established in the Treaty of Vienna in 1815 and suppressing all revolutionary uprisings in Europe. HP Mini 1150NR Keyboard

In exchange for providing the armies required to maintain that balance of power and suppress the revolutions of 1848 and 1849, Russia had expected Europe to allow it a free hand in settling its problems with the Ottoman Empire—the "sick man of Europe." HP Mini 1151NR Keyboard

However, Marx and Engels predicted that the UK and France could not allow Russia this freedom of action. Thus, any Russo-Turkish War would become a European War.[12]The whole discussion over the future of the Ottoman Empire took on the name of "the Eastern Question"[13]—a term that would continue in use with reference to the Ottoman Empire/Turkey until the beginnings of the twentieth century. HP Mini 1152NR Keyboard

The immediate chain of events leading to France and Britain declaring war on Russia on 27 March and 28 March 1854[7] can be traced to the coup d'état of 1851 in France. Napoleon III sent his ambassador to the Ottoman Empire to attempt to force the Ottomans to recognise France as the "sovereign authority" in the Holy Land.[14] Russia disputed this newest change in "authority" in the Holy Land. HP Mini 1153NR Keyboard

Pointing to two more treaties, one in 1757 and the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, the Ottomans reversed their earlier decision, renouncing the French treaty and insisting that Russia was the protector of the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire. HP Mini 1160CM Keyboard

Napoleon III responded with a show of force, sending the ship of the line Charlemagne to the Black Sea, a violation of the London Straits Convention.[14] France's show of force, combined with aggressive diplomacy and money, induced Sultan Abdülmecid I to accept a new treaty, HP Mini 1170CM Keyboard

confirming France and the Roman Catholic Church as the supreme Christian authority in the Holy Land with control over the Christian holy places and possession of the keys to the Church of the Nativity, previously held by the Greek Orthodox Church.[15] HP Mini 1180CM Keyboard

Tsar Nicholas I then deployed his 4th and 5th Army Corps along the River Danube, and had Count Karl Nesselrode, his foreign minister, undertake talks with the Ottomans. Nesselrode confided to Sir George Hamilton Seymour, the British ambassador in Saint Petersburg: HP Mini 1190BR Keyboard

As conflict emerged over the question of the holy places, Nicholas I and Nesselrode began a diplomatic offensive which they hoped would prevent either Britain's or France's interfering in any conflict between Russia and the Ottomans, as well as to prevent their allying together. HP Mini 1198eo Keyboard

Nicholas began courting Britain through Seymour. Nicholas insisted that he no longer wished to expand Imperial Russia, but that he had an obligation to Christian communities in the Ottoman Empire. The Tsar next dispatched a diplomat, Prince Menshikov, on a special mission to the Ottoman Sublime Porte. HP Mini 1199ea Keyboard

By previous treaties, the Sultan was committed "to protect the Christian religion and its churches". Menshikov attempted to negotiate a new sened, a formal convention with the power of an international treaty, HP Mini 1199eb Keyboard

under which the Ottomans would allow to Russia the same rights of intervention in the affairs of the Orthodox religion as recently allowed France in respect of Catholic churches and churchmen.[17] Such a treaty would allow Russia to control the Orthodox Church's hierarchy in the Ottoman Empire. HP Mini 1199ec Keyboard

Menshikov arrived at Constantinople on 16 February 1853 on the steam-powered warshipGromovnik.[18] Menshikov broke protocol at the Porte when, at his first meeting with the Sultan, he condemned the Ottomans' concessions to the French. Menshikov also began demanding the replacement of highly placed Ottoman civil servants. HP Mini 1199ee Keyboard

The British embassy at Constantinople at the time was being run by Hugh Rose, chargé d'affaires for the British. Using his abundant resources within the Ottoman Empire, Rose gathered intelligence on Russian troop movements along the Danube frontier, HP Mini 1199eh Keyboard

and became concerned about the extent of Menshikov's mission to the Porte. Rose, using his authority as the British representative to the Ottomans, ordered a British squadron of warships to depart early for an eastern Mediterranean cruise and head for Constantinople.[19]HP Mini 1199ej Keyboard

However, Rose's actions were not backed up by Whitley Dundas, the British admiral in command of the squadron, who resented the diplomat for believing he could interfere in the Admiralty's business. Within a week, Rose's actions were cancelled.[20] Thus, only the French sent a naval task force to support the Ottomans. HP Mini 1199eo Keyboard

The British government of Prime Minister Lord Aberdeen sent Lord Stratford to replace Colonel Hugh Rose as envoy to the Ottoman Empire.[21] Lord Stratford convinced the Sultan to reject the treaty as compromising the independence of the Turks. HP Mini 1199ep Keyboard

Benjamin Disraeli blamed Aberdeen and Stratford's actions for making war inevitable, thus starting the process by which the Aberdeen government would be forced to resign over the issue of the war. Shortly after he learned of the failure of Menshikov's diplomacy, the Tsar marched his armies into theDanubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.[22] HP Mini 1199eq Keyboard

Wallachia and Moldavia were Turkish/Ottoman-controlled provinces on the banks of the Danube River. Russia had, previously, obtained from the Ottoman Empire/Turkey recognition of their role as special guardian of the Orthodox Christians in these two provinces. HP Mini 1199er Keyboard

Now, Russia used the Sultan's failure to resolve the issue of the protection of the Christian sites in the Holy land as a pretext for their occupation of these Danubian provinces. Nicholas believed that the European powers, HP Mini 1199et Keyboard

especially Austria, would not object strongly to the annexation of a few neighbouring Ottoman provinces, especially given Russia had assisted Austria's efforts in suppressing the Revolutions of 1848. HP Mini 1199ev Keyboard

When on 2 July 1853[23] the Tsar sent his troops into the Danubian Principalities, Britain, hoping to maintain the Ottoman Empire as a bulwark against the expansion of Russian power in Asia, sent a fleet to the Dardanelles, where it joined another fleet sent by France.[24] HP Mini 1199ez Keyboard

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At the same time, however, the European powers hoped for a diplomatic compromise. The representatives of the four neutralGreat Powers — Britain, France, Austria and Prussia — met in Vienna, where they drafted a note which they hoped would be acceptable to the Russians and Ottomans.[25]HP Mini 210-1000 CTO Keyboard

The note met with the approval of Nicholas I; it was, however, rejected byAbdülmecid I, who felt that the document's poor phrasing left it open to many different interpretations. Britain, France and Austria were united in proposing amendments to mollify the Sultan, but their suggestions were ignored in the court of St Petersburg. HP Mini 210-1000EB Keyboard

Britain and France set aside the idea of continuing negotiations, but Austria and Prussia did not believe that the rejection of the proposed amendments justified the abandonment of the diplomatic process. Nonetheless, the Sultan formally declared war on 23 October 1853[7] and proceeded to the attack, HP Mini 210-1000EI Keyboard

his armies moving on the Russian army near the Danube later that month.[26]Russia and the Ottoman empire massed forces on two main fronts, the Caucasus and the Danubian front. HP Mini 210-1000EP Keyboard

The Ottoman leader Omar Pasha managed to pull in some victories on the Danubian front. In the Caucasus, the Ottomans were able to stand ground with the help of Chechen Muslims, led by Imam Shamil. HP Mini 210-1000EW Keyboard

Nicholas responded by dispatching warships, which in the Battle of Sinop on 30 November 1853 destroyed a patrol squadron of Ottoman frigates and corvettes while they were anchored at the port of Sinop in northern Anatolia.[27] HP Mini 210-1000SA Keyboard

The destruction of the Ottoman ships provided Britain and France the casus belli for declaring war against Russia, on the side of the Ottoman Empire. By 28 March 1854, after Russia ignored an Anglo-French ultimatum to withdraw from the Danubian Principalities, Britain and France formally declared war.[8][28][29] HP Mini 210-1000SP Keyboard

Peace attempts

Nicholas felt that because of Russian assistance in suppressing the Hungarian revolution of 1848, Austria would side with him, or at the very least remain neutral. Austria, however, felt threatened by the Russian troops. When Britain and France demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from the principalities, Austria supported them and, though it did not immediately declare war on Russia, it refused to guarantee its neutrality. HP Mini 210-1000VT CTO Keyboard

Russia then withdrew its troops from the Danubian principalities, which were then occupied by Austria for the duration of the war. This removed the original grounds for war, but Britain and France continued with hostilities. Determined to address the Eastern Question by putting an end to the Russian threat to the Ottoman Empire, the allies proposed several conditions for a peaceful resolution, including: HP Mini 210-1001SA Keyboard

Danube campaign

The Danube campaign opened when the Russians occupied the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in May 1853, bringing their forces to the north bank of the river Danube. In response, the Ottoman Empire also moved their forces up to the river. This established strongholds at Vidin in the west, and Silistra,[30] which was located in the east, near the mouth of the Danube. HP Mini 210-1001TU Keyboard

The Turkish/Ottoman move up the Danube River was also of concern to the Austrians, who moved forces into Transylvania in response. However, the Austrians had begun to fear the Russians more than the Turks. Indeed, like the British, HP Mini 210-1001XX Keyboard

the Austrians were now coming to see that an intact Ottoman Empire was necessary as a bulwark against the Russians.[31] Accordingly, the Austrians resisted Russian diplomatic attempts to join the war on the Russian side. Austria remained neutral in the Crimean War.[32] HP Mini 210-1002SA Keyboard

Following the Ottoman ultimatum in September 1853, forces under the Ottoman general, Omar Pasha, crossed the Danube at Vidin and captured Kalafat in October 1853.[33] Simultaneously, in the east, the Ottomans crossed the Danube at Silistra and attacked the Russians at Oltenitza. HP Mini 210-1002TU Keyboard

The resulting Battle of Oltenitza was actually the first engagement following the declaration war.[34] The Russians counterattacked, but were beaten back. On December 31, 1853, the Ottoman forces at Kalafat moved against the Russian force at Chetatea or Cetate, HP Mini 210-1002VU Keyboard

a small village nine miles north of Kalafat.[35] Occurring on January 6, 1854, the Battle of Chatatea was actually the second major battle of the Crimean War after Oltenitza.[36] The battle began when the Russians made a move to recapture Kalafat. Most of the battle, however, took place in heavy fighting around Chatatea, the Russians were driven out of Chetatea.[37]HP Mini 210-1003SA Keyboard

Nonetheless, the Russians began a siege of Kalafat on January 28, 1854. This was the last operation before the winter ended campaigning. However, the siege of Kalafat would continue until May 1854 when the Russians lifted the siege. The Ottomans also beat the Russians in a battle at Caracal. HP Mini 210-1003TU Keyboard

In the spring of 1854 the Russians again advanced, crossing the Danube River into the Turkish province of Bulgaria.[38] Soon they occupied the whole of the Bulgarian district of Dobruja.[39] By April 1854, the Russians had reached the lines ofTrajan's Wall where they were finally halted. HP Mini 210-1003VU Keyboard

In the centre the Russian forces crossed the Danube and began to lay siege to Silistra on April 14, 1854.[40] The siege would last until June 23, 1854.[41] In the east the Russians were dissuaded from attacking Vidin by the presence of the Austrian forces, which had swelled to 280,000 men. On May 28, 1854 a protocol of the Vienna Conference was signed by Austria and Russia.[42] HP Mini 210-1003XX Keyboard

One of the aims of the Russian advance was to encourage the Serbs and Bulgarians living under Ottoman rule to rebel; when they showed little interest in doing so, and faced with increasing pressure from Austria, the Russians raised the siege of Silistra on June 23, 1854, and began to abandon the Principalities. HP Mini 210-1004SA Keyboard

In June 1854 the Allied expeditionary force landed at Varna, but made little advance from their base there. In July, 1854, the Turks under Omer Pasha crossed the Danube into Wallachia and on July 7, 1854 engaged the Russians in the village of Giurgevo and conquered that village.[43]HP Mini 210-1004TU Keyboard

The capture of Giurgevo by the Turks, immediately threatened Bucharest in Romania with capture by the same Turk army. In September, following up on the Russian retreat, the French staged an expedition against the Russian forces still in Dobruja, but this was a failure. HP Mini 210-1004VU Keyboard

By then the Russian withdrawal was complete, except for the fortress towns of northern Dobruja, while their place in the Principalities was taken by the Austrians, as a neutral peace-keeping force. There was little further action on this front after the autumn of 1854 and in September the allied force at Varna moved on to the invasion of the Crimea. HP Mini 210-1005SA Keyboard

Black Sea theatre

The naval operations of the Crimean war commenced with the dispatch, in summer of 1853, of the French and British fleets sailed to the Black Sea region, in order to support the Ottomans and to dissuade the Russians from encroachment. By June 1853 both fleets were stationed at Besikas bay, outside the Dardanelles. HP Mini 210-1005TU Keyboard

With the Russian occupation of the Danube Principalities in October they moved to the Bosphorus and in November entered the Black Sea. HP Mini 210-1006SA Keyboard

During this period the Russian Black Sea Fleet was operating against Ottoman coastal traffic between Constantinople and the Caucasus ports, while the Ottoman fleet sought to protect this supply line. The clash came on 30 November 1853 when a Russian fleet attacked an Ottoman force in the harbour at Sinop, and destroyed it.[44] HP Mini 210-1006TU Keyboard

There was little additional naval action until March 1854 when on the declaration of war the British frigate Furious was fired on outsideOdessa harbour. In response the British fleet bombarded the port, causing much damage to the town. HP Mini 210-1006VU Keyboard

In June the fleets transported the Allied expeditionary forces to Varna, in support of the Ottoman operations on the Danube; in September they again transported the armies, this time to the Crimea. The Russian fleet during this time declined to engage the allies, HP Mini 210-1007SA Keyboard

preferring to maintain a "fleet in being"; this strategy failed when Sevastopol, the main port and where most of the Black Sea fleet was based, came under siege. The Russians were reduced to scuttling their warships as blockships, after stripping them of their guns and men to reinforce batteries on shore. During the siege, HP Mini 210-1007TU Keyboard

the Russians lost four 110- or 120-gun 3-deckerships of the line, twelve 84-gun 2-deckers and four 60-gun frigates in the Black Sea, plus a large number of smaller vessels.During the rest of the campaign the allied fleets remained in control of the Black Sea, ensuring the various fronts were kept supplied. HP Mini 210-1007VU Keyboard

In April 1855 they supported an invasion of Kerch and operated against Taganrog in the Sea of Azov. In September they moved against Russian installations in theDnieper estuary, attacking Kinburn in the first use of ironclad ships in naval warfare. HP Mini 210-1007XX Keyboard

The Russians evacuated Wallachia and Moldavia. With the evacuation of the Danubian Principalities the immediate cause of war was withdrawn. Nonetheless, allied troops landed in the Crimea and besieged the city of Sevastopol, home of the Tsar's Black Sea Fleet. The Russian fleet was a threat to the Mediterranean. HP Mini 210-1008TU Keyboard

The Crimean campaign opened in September 1854 with the landing of the allied expeditionary force at Eupatoria, north of Sevastopol. After crossing the Alma River on September 30, 1854,[45] the allies moved on to invest Sevastopol. The Russian army retreated to the interior. HP Mini 210-1008VU Keyboard

A Russian assault on the allied supply base at Balaclava was rebuffed on October 25, 1854.[46] The Battle of Balaclava is noteworthy to history because of the bravery of two British units. The 93rd Highlanders stood solidly against repeated attacks by a larger Russian force.[47]HP Mini 210-1009SA Keyboard

This stand led the 93rd Highlanders to be remembered in history as the "Thin Red Line". The second British unit to gain immortality in the Battle of Balaclava was the Light Cavalry Brigade under the command of the Earl of Cardigan. An extremely ambiguous order sent the Light Brigade on a fruitless and suicidal "charge" into the South Valley of the Balaclava battlefield.[48]HP Mini 210-1009TU Keyboard

The heights around the South Valley was brimming with Russian artillery which decimated the Light Brigade. Of the original nearly 700-man strength of the Light Brigade, fewer than 200 men survived the encounter.[48] The Light Brigade was memorialised in the famous poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson called the "Charge of the Light Brigade." HP Mini 210-1010CA Keyboard

The failure of the British and French to follow up on the Battle of Balaclava led directly to another and much more bloody battle—the Battle of Inkerman.[49] On November 5, 1854, the Russians attempted to raise the siege at Sevastopol with an attack against the allies near the town of Inkerman which resulted in another victory for the allies.[50] HP Mini 210-1010EB Keyboard

Meanwhile at Sevastopol, the allies had surrounded the city with entrenchments and, in October 1854, unleashed an all–out bombardment (the first of many) against the city's defences. Winter, and a deteriorating supply situation on both sides, led to a halt in ground operations. Sevastopol remained invested by the allies, while the allied armies were hemmed in by the Russian army in the interior. HP Mini 210-1010EE Keyboard

In February 1855 the Russians attacked the allied base at Eupatoria, where an Ottoman army had built up and was threatening Russian supply routes. The battle saw the Russians defeated, and led to a change in command. On the allied side the emphasis of the siege shifted to the right-hand sector of the lines, HP Mini 210-1010EF Keyboard

against the fortifications on Malakoff hill. In March there was fighting over the fort at Mamelon, located on a hill in front of the Malakoff. Several weeks of fighting saw little change in the front line, and the Mamelon remained in Russian hands. HP Mini 210-1010EG Keyboard

In April the allies staged a second all-out bombardment, leading to an artillery duel with the Russian guns, but no ground assault followed. In May the allies landed a force at Kerch, to the east, opening another front in the Crimea in an attempt to outflank the Russian army. HP Mini 210-1010EI Keyboard

The landings were successful, but the force made little progress thereafter. In June a third bombardment was followed by a successful attack on the Mamelon, but a follow-up assault on the Malakoff failed with heavy losses. During this time the garrison commander, Admiral Nakhimov, suffered a fatal bullet wound to the head and died on 30 June 1855. HP Mini 210-1010EJ Keyboard

In August the Russians again made an attack on the base at Balaclava. The resulting battle of Tchernaya was a defeat for the Russians, who suffered heavy casualties. September saw the final assault. HP Mini 210-1010EK Keyboard

On 5 September another bombardment (the sixth) was followed by an assault on 8 September resulting in the capture of the Malakoff by the French, and the collapse of the Russian defences. The city fell on 9 September 1855, after about a year-long siege. HP Mini 210-1010EM Keyboard

At this point both sides were exhausted, and there were no further military operations in the Crimea before the onset of winter.

In spring 1855, the allied British–French commanders decided to send an Anglo-French naval squadron into the Azov Sea to undermine Russian communications and supplies to besieged Sevastopol. On May 12, 1855 British–French warships entered the Kerch Strait and destroyed the coast battery of the Kamishevaya Bay. HP Mini 210-1010ES Keyboard

On 21 May 1855 the gunboats and armed steamers attacked the seaport of Taganrog, the most important hub in proximity to Rostov on Don. The vast amounts of food, especially bread, wheat, barley, and rye that were amassed in the city after the outbreak of war were prevented from being exported. HP Mini 210-1010EY Keyboard

he Governor of Taganrog, Yegor Tolstoy, and lieutenant-general Ivan Krasnov refused the ultimatum, responding that "Russians never surrender their cities." The British–French squadron bombarded Taganrog for 6½ hours and landed 300 troops near theOld Stairway in downtown Taganrog, but they were thrown back by Don Cossacks and a volunteer corps. HP Mini 210-1010NR Keyboard

In July, 1855 the allied squadron tried to go past Taganrog to Rostov on Don, entering the Don River through the Mius River. On 12 July 1855 HMS Jasper grounded near Taganrog thanks to a fisherman who repositioned the buoys into shallow waters. TheCossacks captured the gunboat with all of its guns and blew it up. HP Mini 210-1010SE Keyboard

The third siege attempt was made August 19–31, 1855, but the city was already fortified and the squadron could not approach close enough for landing operations. The allied fleet left the Gulf of Taganrog on September 2, 1855, with minor military operations along the Azov Sea coast continuing until late autumn 1855. HP Mini 210-1010SL Keyboard

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