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Foreign affairs

The foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of state, and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Colombia has diplomatic missions in all continents and is also represented in multilateral organizations at the following locations: Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX/B Battery

Colombia’s foreign relations are mostly concentrated on combating the illegal drug trade and fighting terrorism, both which originate with the FARC. Colombia, with the help of the United States, have fought the FARC and pushed them into the Amazon jungle, significantly reducing the drug trade and kidnappings within Colombia. Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX Battery


This co-operation from the United States is mainly through Plan Colombia. Another foreign relation policy concentrates around expanding their international market and managing their international issues with other countries. Colombia enjoys special financial preferences from the European Union in certain product categories. Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX Battery


Colombia was one of the 12 founding members of the UNASUR, which is supposedly modeled on the European Union having free trade agreements between the members, free movement of people, a common currency, and also a common passport. Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/PC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/T Battery

Colombia as well as all the other members of UNASUR have had some problems with the integration due to the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis. Colombia is a member of the Andean Community of Nations and the Union of South American Nations.

Colombians need tourist visa for 180 countries[59] and exempt from tourist visa requirements in 15 countries.[60] Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XXP Battery


The executive branch of government is responsible for managing the defense of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

The Colombian military is divided into three branches: the National Army of Colombia; the Colombian Air Force; and the Colombian National Armada.Sony VAIO VPCW111XXT Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XXW Battery

The National Police functions as a gendarmerie, operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country. Each of these operates with their own intelligence apparatus separate from the national intelligence agency, the Administrative Department of Security.

The National Army is formed by divisions, regiments and special units; Sony VAIO VPCW115XG Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW115XGP Battery

the National Armada by the Colombian Naval Infantry, theNaval Force of the Caribbean, the Naval Force of the Pacific, the Naval Force of the South, Colombia Coast Guards, Naval Aviationand the Specific Command of San Andres y Providencia; and the Air Force by 13 air units. The National Police has a presence in all municipalities. Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/T Battery


For over a century Colombian politics were monopolized by the Liberal Party (founded in 1848 on an anti-clerical, broadlyeconomically liberal and federalist platform), and the Conservative Party (founded in 1849 espousing Catholicism, protectionism, and centralism). Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/T Battery

This culminated in the formation of the National Front (1958–1974), which formalized arrangements for an alternation of power between the two parties and excluded non-establishment alternatives (thereby fueling the nascent armed conflict). Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/T Battery

By the time of the dissolution of the National Front, traditional political alignments had begun to fragment. This process has continued since, and the consequences of this are exemplified by the results of the 2006 presidential election which was won with 62% of the vote by the incumbent, Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX Battery

Álvaro Uribe. Uribe was from a Liberal background but he campaigned as part of the Colombia First movement with the support of the Conservative Party. His hard line on security issues and liberal economics place him on the right of the modern political spectrum[citation needed].

In second place with 22% was Carlos Gaviria of the Alternative Democratic Pole, Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/T Battery

a newly formed social democratic alliance which includes elements of the former M-19guerrilla movement. Horacio Serpa of the Liberal Party achieved third place with 12%. Meanwhile in the congressional elections held earlier that year the two traditional parties secured only 93 out of 268 seats available. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI Battery

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Despite a number of controversies, most notably the ongoing parapolitics scandal, dramatic improvements in security and continued strong economic performance have ensured that former President Uribe remained popular among Colombian people, with his approval rating peaking at 85%, according to a poll in July 2008.[61] Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/BI Battery

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However, having served two terms, he was constitutionally barred from seeking re-election in 2010. The Colombian Congress, with overwhelming support of the Colombian people, had attempted to hold a referendum allowing a vote that would overturn the 2-term limit for presidents, but this attempt was ruled unconstitutional by the Colombian constitutional court on 27 February 2010. Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI Battery

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Uribe stated that he respects the decision as one that cannot be appealed.

In presidential elections held on 30 May 2010 the former Minister of defense Juan Manuel Santos received 46% of the vote.[62] However, according to legislation, a second round was required since he received less than the 50% threshold of votes. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BIC Battery

In the run-off elections on 20 June 2010 against the second most popular candidate,Antanas Mockus who had scored 21%,[62] Juan Manuel Santos was declared the winner; his term as Colombia's president runs for four years from 7 August 2010. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX Battery


In spite of the difficulties presented by serious internal armed conflict, Colombia's market economy grew steadily in the latter part of the twentieth century, with gross domestic product (GDP) increasing at an average rate of over 4% per year between 1970 and 1998. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/T Battery

The country suffered a recession in 1999 (the first full year of negative growth since the Great Depression), and the recovery from that recession was long and painful. However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 8.2% in 2007, one of the highest rates of growth in Latin America. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM Battery

Meanwhile the Colombian stock exchange climbed from 1,000 points at its creation in July 2001 to over 7,300 points by November 2008.[63]

According to International Monetary Fund estimates, in 2010 Colombia's GDP (PPP) was US$429.866 billion (28th in the world and third in South America).Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/T Battery

Adjusted for purchasing power parity, GDP per capita stands at $6,273, placing Colombia 82nd in the world. However, in practice this is relatively unevenly distributed among the population, and, in common with much of Latin America, Colombia scores poorly according to the Gini coefficient, with UN figures placing it 119th out of 126 countries. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX Battery

In 2003 the richest 20% of the population had a 62.7% share of income/consumption and the poorest 20% just 2.5%, and 17.8% of Colombians live on less than $2 a day.[64]

Government spending represents 37.9% of GDP.[2] Almost a quarter of this goes towards servicing the country's government debt, estimated at 52.8% of GDP in 2007.[2][64] Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/T Battery

Other problems facing the economy include weak domestic and foreign demand, the funding of the country's pension system, and unemployment (10.8% in November 2008).[63] Inflation has remained relatively low in recent years, standing at 5.5% in 2007.[2]

Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanised rapidly in the twentieth century, Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX Battery

by the end of which just 22.7% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, generating just 11.5% of GDP. 18.7% of the workforce are employed in industry and 58.5% in services, responsible for 36% and 52.5% of GDP respectively.[2] Colombia is rich in natural resources, and its main exports include petroleum, coal, coffee and other agricultural produce, and gold.[65] Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/G Battery

Colombia is also known as the world's leading source of emeralds,[66] while over 70% of cut flowers imported by the United States are Colombian.[67]Principal trading partners are the United States (a controversial free trade agreement with the United States was approved on October 11, 2011 by the United States Congress), the European Union, Venezuela and China.[2] Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/P Battery

All imports, exports, and the overall balance of trade are at record levels, and the inflow of export dollars has resulted in a substantial re-valuation of the Colombian peso.

Economic performance has been aided by liberal reforms introduced in the early 1990s and continued during the presidency of Álvaro Uribe, Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/W Battery

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whose policies included measures designed to bring the public sector deficit below 2.5% of GDP. In 2008, The Heritage Foundation assessed the Colombian economy to be 61.9% free, an increase of 2.3% since 2007, placing it 67th in the world and 15th out of 29 countries within the region.[68] Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/B Battery

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Meanwhile the improvements in security resulting from President Uribe's controversial "democratic security" strategy have engendered an increased sense of confidence in the economy. On 28 May 2007 the American magazine BusinessWeek published an article naming Colombia "the most extreme emerging market on Earth".[69] Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/P Battery

Colombia's economy has improved in recent years. Investment soared, from 15% of GDP in 2002 to 26% in 2008. private business has retooled. However, unemployment at 12% and the poverty rate at 46% in 2009 are above the regional average.[70]

According to a recent World Bank report, doing business is easiest in Manizales, Ibagué and Pereira, Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB190X Battery

and more difficult in Cali and Cartagena. Reforms in custom administration have helped reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare documentation by over 60% for exports and 40% for imports compared to the previous report. Colombia has taken measures to address the backlog in civil municipal courts.Sony VAIO VPCEB19FX Battery

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The most important result was the dismissal of 12.2% of inactive claims in civil courts thanks to the application of Law 1194 of 2008 (Ley de Desistimiento Tácito).[71]


For many years serious internal armed conflict deterred tourists from visiting Colombia, with official travel advisories warning against travel to the country.Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX/B Battery

However, in recent years numbers have risen sharply, thanks to improvements in security resulting from President Álvaro Uribe's "democratic security" strategy, which has included significant increases in military strength and police presence throughout the country and pushed rebel groups further away from the major cities, highways and tourist sites likely to attract international visitors. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX/BI Battery

Foreign tourist visits were predicted to have risen from 0.5 million in 2003 to 1.3 million in 2007,[72] while Lonely Planet picked Colombia as one of their top ten world destinations for 2006.[73] In 2010, tourism in Colombia increased 11% according to UNWTO Tourism Highlights for that year.[74] Dell PRECISION M50 Battery,Dell Precision M90 SERIES Battery

In 2010 Colombia received 1,4 million foreign visitors, according to official statistics.[75]

In November 2010 the U.S. State Department travel warning for the country stated that security conditions had improved significantly in recent years and kidnappings had been noticeably reduced from their previous peak, Dell Precision Mobile Workstation M20 Battery,Dell PRECISION WORKSTATION M50 Battery

but cautioned travelers about continuing terrorist threats and the dangers of common crime, including hostage-taking. Rising murder rates in Cali and Medellín were also highlighted and U.S. citizens were urged to travel between cities by air instead of using ground transportation.[76]>

Popular tourist attractions include the historic Candelaria district of central Bogotá, tDell SMART PC100N Battery,Dell Vostro 1400 Battery

he walled city and beaches of Cartagena, the colonial towns of Santa Fe de Antioquia, Popayán, Villa de Leyva and Santa Cruz de Mompox, and the Las Lajas Sanctuary and the Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá. Tourists are also drawn to Colombia's numerous festivals, including Medellín's Festival of the Flowers, the Barranquilla Carnival, the Carnival of Blacks and Whitesin Pasto and the Ibero-American Theater Festival in Bogotá. Dell Vostro 1500 Battery,Dell Vostro 1700 Battery

Meanwhile, because of the improved security, Caribbean cruise ships now stop at Cartagena and Santa Marta.

The great variety in geography, flora and fauna across Colombia has also resulted in the development of an ecotourist industry, concentrated in the country'snational parks. Dell Winbook N4 Battery

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Popular ecotourist destinations include: along the Caribbean coast, the Tayrona National Natural Park in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range and Cabo de la Vela on the tip of the Guajira Peninsula; the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, the Cocora valley and the Tatacoa Desert in the central Andean region;Amacayacu National Park in the Amazon River basin; Dell XPS M1210 Battery,Dell XPS M1330 Battery

and the Pacific islands of Malpelo and Gorgona. Colombia is home to seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


Colombia has a network of national highways maintained by the Instituto Nacional de Vías or INVIAS (National Institute of Roadways) government agency under the Ministry of Transport. Dell XPS M170 Battery,Dell XPS M1710 SERIES Battery

The Pan-American Highway travels through Colombia, connecting the country with Venezuela to the east and Ecuador to the south.

Colombia's main airports are El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá, Jose Maria Cordova International Airport in Medellín, Dell XPS M1530 Battery Battery,Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery Battery

Alfonso Bonilla Aragon International Airport in Cali, Rafael Nuñez International Airport in Cartagena, Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport in Barranquilla, andMatecaña International Airport in Pereira. El Dorado International Airport is the busiest airport in Latin America based upon the number of flights and the weight of goods transported.[77] Sony VAIO VPCEA20 Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB10 Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM Battery

Several national airlines (Avianca, AeroRepública, AIRES, SATENA and EasyFly, ), and international airlines (such as Iberia, American Airlines, Varig, Copa, Continental, Delta, Air Canada, Spirit, Lufthansa,Air France, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aerogal, TAME, TACA, JetBlue Airways, LAN Airlines) operate from El Dorado. Dell LATITUDE D505 SERIES Battery,Dell Latitude D510 Series Battery

Because of its central location in Colombia and America, it is preferred by national land transportation providers, as well as national and international air transportation providers.

Urban transport systems are developed in Bogotá and Medellín. Traffic congestion in Bogotá has been greatly exacerbated by the lack of rail transport.Dell LATITUDE D600 SERIES Battery,Dell Latitude D610 Series Battery

However, this problem has been alleviated somewhat by the development of the TransMilenio Bus Rapid System and the restriction of vehicles through a daily, rotating ban on private cars depending on plate numbers. Bogotá's system consists of bus and minibus services managed by both private- and public-sector enterprises. Dell Latitude D620 Battery,Dell LATITUDE D800 SERIES Battery

Since 1995 Medellín has had a modern urban railway referred to as the 'Metro de Medellín', which connects it to most of its metropolitan area. An elevated cable car system, Metrocable, was added in 2004 to link some of Medellín's poorer mountainous neighborhoods with the Metro de Medellín. Dell LATITUDE LS 400 Battery,Dell LATITUDE LS SERIES Battery

By the end of 2011 an articulated bus system, called Metroplusstarted operating in Medellín too. A rapid-transit bus system called Transmetro, similar to Bogotá's TransMilenio, began operating in Barranquilla in late 2007. Cali's streets remain under construction as a new public-transit system called the Massive Integration of the West is being built. Dell Latitude LSH Battery,Dell LATITUDE LST Battery

Colombia dry canal

China and Colombia have discussed a Panama Canal rival, a 'Dry Canal' a 220 km rail link between the Pacific and a new city near Cartagena. China is Colombia's second largest trade partner after the USA. Colombia is also the world's fifth-largest coal producer, but most is currently exported via Atlantic ports while demand is growing fastest across the Pacific. Dell LATITUDE PP01 Battery

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A dry canal could make Colombia a hub where imported Chinese goods would be assembled for re-export throughout the Americas and Latin American raw materials would begin the return journey to China.[78]


With an estimated 46 million people in 2008, Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. Dell LATITUDE PP01X Battery,Dell LATITUDE PPL Battery

It is also home to the second-largest number of Spanish speakers in the world after Mexico. It is slightly ahead of Argentina by almost 6 million people. At the outset of the 20th century, Colombia's population was approximately 4 million.[79] The population increased at a rate of 1.9% between 1975 and 2005, predicted to drop to 1.2% over the next decade. Dell LATITUDE PPX Battery,Dell Latitude X1 Battery

Colombia is projected to have a population of 50.7 million by 2015. These trends are reflected in the country's age profile. In 2005 over 30% of the population was under 15 years old, compared to just 5.1% aged 65 and over.

The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast. Dell LATITUDE X200 Battery,Dell LATITUDE X300 Battery

The nine eastern lowland departments, comprising about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two persons per square mile). Traditionally a rural society, movement to urban areas was very heavy in the mid-twentieth century, and Colombia is now one of the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Dell LATITUDE X300 SERIES Battery,Dell M170 Battery

The urban population increased from 31% of the total in 1938 to 60% in 1975, and by 2005 the figure stood at 72.7%.[64][80]The population of Bogotá alone has increased from just over 300,000 in 1938 to approximately 8 million today. In total thirty cities now have populations of 100,000 or more. As of 2010 Colombia has the world's largest populations ofinternally displaced persons (IDPs), estimated up to 4.5 million people. Dell PRCISION M60 MOBILE WORKSTATION Battery,Dell Precision M Series Battery

Ethnic groups

The census data in Colombia does not record ethnicity, other than that of those identifying themselves as members of particular minority ethnic groups, so overall percentages are essentially estimates from other sources and can vary from one to another.[84] Dell Precision M20 Series Battery,Dell PRECISION M40 Battery

According to theCIA World Factbook, the majority of the population (58%) is Mestizo, or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry. Approximately 20% of the population is of European ancestry (predominantly Spanish, partly Italian, Portuguese, and German). Dell LATITUDE C540 Battery

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The CIA World Factbook also states that 14% of Colombia's total population is of mixed African and European ancestry, with 3% being of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry, and 4% having primarily African ancestry. Indigenous Amerindians comprise only 1% of the population.[2] Other sources claim that up to 29% of Colombians (13 million people) have some African ancestry.[85] Dell LATITUDE C610 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C640 Battery

The overwhelming majority of Colombians speak Spanish (see also Colombian Spanish), but in total 101 languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database, of which 80 are spoken today. Most of these belong to the Chibchan, Arawak and Cariban language families. Dell LATITUDE C800 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C810 Battery

TheQuechua language, spoken in the Andes region of the country, has also extended more northwards into Colombia, mainly in urban centers of major cities. There are currently about 500,000 speakers of indigenous languages.[86]

Indigenous peoples

Before the Spanish colonization of what is now Colombia, the territory was home to a significant number of indigenous peoples. Dell LATITUDE C840 Battery,Dell Latitude CP Battery

Many of these were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty-five distinct cultures. 567 reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples occupy 365,004 square kilometres (over 30% of the country's total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people in over 67,000 families.[88] Dell LATITUDE CP SERIES Battery


The 1991 constitution established their native languages as official in their territories, and most of them have bilingual education (native and Spanish).

Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[89] the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna, the Paez, the Tucano and the Guahibo.Cauca, La Guajira and Guainia have the largest indigenous populations. Dell LATITUDE CPIC Battery,Dell Latitude CPID Battery

The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia, who comprise some 800,000 people – roughly 2% of the population.

In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.[90]Dell LATITUDE CPIR Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPIR400GT Battery

Immigrant groups

The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Colombia consisted of Spanish colonists, following the arrival of Europeans in 1499. However a low number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries, Dell LATITUDE CPM Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPT Battery

and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War. Also many Venezuelan people have immigrated into the country in the last decade, due to the political and economic situation inVenezuela. Dell LATITUDE CPTC Battery


Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla(the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese and Arabs, Sephardi Jews, Roma. There are also important communities of Chinese and Japanese[Dell LATITUDE CPTV Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPX Battery.

Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century. Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The population of the department of Chocó, running along the northern portion of Colombia's Pacific coast, is over 80% black.[91] Dell LATITUDE CPXH Battery


Impact of armed conflict on civilians

Around one third of the people in Colombia have been affected in some way by the ongoing armed conflict. Those with direct personal experience make up 10% of the population and many others also report suffering a range of serious hardships. Dell LATITUDE D400 SERIES Battery

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Overall, 31% have been affected on a personal level or as a result of the wider consequences of the conflict.[92] During the 1990s, an estimated 35,000 people died as a result of the armed conflict.[93] Trade unions in Colombia are included among the victimized groups with over 2,800 of their members being murdered between 1986 and 2010.[94] Dell Inspiron 710m Battery

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During the first six months of 2011 it is estimated that 98,000 people had to flee their homes due to the internal armed conflict.[95] A total of 3.7 million people have been displaced due to violence between 2000 and 2011.[96]


The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. Dell INSPIRON 8100 SERIES Battery

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However, based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity,[97] the vast majority of which (between 81% and 90%) are Roman Catholic. About 1% of Colombians adhere to indigenous religions and under 1% to Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. However, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo reported that they did not practice their Catholic faith actively.[98] Dell INSPIRON 8500M SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 8600 Battery

Like the rest of Latin America, Colombia is seeing a continuous increase of Protestant adherents, most of them being converts from Catholicism to Protestantism Link label. Now Protestants constitute between 10 to 13% of the Colombia population [2] While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the Colombian constitution guarantees freedom and equality of religion after 1991.[99] Dell INSPIRON 8600M SERIES Battery,Dell Inspiron 910 (all 8.9 series) Battery

Religious groups are readily able to obtain recognition as organized associations, although some smaller ones have faced difficulty in obtaining the additional recognition required to offer chaplaincy services in public facilities and to perform legally recognized marriages.[98] Before the constitution guaranteed freedom of religion, Catholicism was the official states religion. Dell INSPIRON 9200 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 9300 Battery

After the 1991 constitution, there was a separation between the Catholic Church and the state, although the Catholic Church still holds a privilege position in Colombia.

Currently in Colombia there is some religion persecution against Evangelical Protestant leader coming from Terrorist organizations mostly FARC. Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery,Dell Inspiron E1505 Battery

They persecute Protestant leaders specially in rural areas for their biblical teachings that violence should not be acceptable. [3]


Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 72.3; 2.1% would not reach the age of 5, 9.2% would not reach the age of 40.[64] Health standards in Colombia have improved greatly since the 1980s. Dell Inspiron E1705 Battery,Dell Inspiron Mini 9 (all 8.9 series) Battery

A 1993 reform transformed the structure of public health-care funding by shifting the burden of subsidy from providers to users. As a result, employees have been obligated to pay into health plans to which employers also contribute. Although this new system has widened population coverage by the social and health security system from 21 percent (pre-1993) to 56 percent in 2004 and 66 percent in 2005, health disparities persist, Dell Inspiron Mini 9N (all 8.9 series) Battery,Dell Inspiron XPS Gen 2 Battery

with the poor continuing to suffer relatively high mortality rates. In 2002 Colombia had 58,761 physicians, 23,950 nurses, and 33,951 dentists; these numbers equated to 1.35 physicians, 0.55 nurses, and 0.78 dentists per 1,000 population, respectively. In 2005 Colombia was reported to have only 1.1 physicians per 1,000 population, as compared with a Latin American average of 1.5. Dell Inspiron XPS M140 Battery,Dell Inspiron XPS M170 Battery

The health sector reportedly is plagued by rampant corruption, including misallocation of funds and evasion of health-fund contributions.[100]


The educational experience of many Colombian children begins with attendance at a preschool academy until age 5 (Educación preescolar). Dell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery,Dell Inspiron Z100 Battery

Basic education (Educación básica) is compulsory by law.[101] It has two stages: Primary basic education (Educación básica primaria) which goes from first to fifth grade – children from 6 to 10 years old, and Secondary basic education (Educación básica secundaria), which goes from sixth to ninth grade. Basic education is followed by Middle vocational education (Educación media vocacional) that comprises the tenth and eleventh grades. Dell Latitude 110L Battery,Dell Latitude C Battery

It may have different vocational training modalities or specialties (academic, technical, business, and so on.) according to the curriculum adopted by each school. However, in many rural areas, teachers are poorly qualified, and only the five years' of primary schooling are offered. The school year can extend from February to November or from August to June; Dell LATITUDE C500 Battery

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in many public schools attendance is split into morning and afternoon sessions to accommodate the large numbers of children.[102]

After the successful completion of all the basic and middle education years, a high-school diploma is awarded. Dell Inspiron 1200 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery

The high-school graduate is known as a bachiller, because secondary basic school and middle education are traditionally considered together as a unit called bachillerato (6th to 11th grade). Students in their final year of middle education take the ICFES test in order to gain access to higher education (Educación superior). Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1521 Battery

This higher education includes undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies.

Bachilleres (high-school graduates) may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; Dell Inspiron 1720 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1721 Battery

these programs last up to 5 years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies), even up to 6–7 years for some careers, such as medicine. In Colombia, there is not an institution such as college; students go directly into a career program at a university or any other educational institution to obtain a professional, technical or technological title. Dell Inspiron 2000 Series Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2100 SERIES Battery

Once graduated from the university, people are granted a (professional, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the career they have chosen. For some professional career programs, students are required to take the SABER-PRO test, also known as ECAES, in their final year of undergraduate academic education.[103] Dell Inspiron 2200 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2600 SERIES Battery

Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in 2006 was 4.7% – one of the highest rates in Latin America – as compared with 2.4% in 1991. This represented 14.2% of total government expenditure.[64][104] In 2006, the primary and secondary net enrollment rates stood at 88% and 65% respectively, slightly below the regional average. School-life expectancy was 12.4 years.[104] Dell INSPIRON 2650 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2800 SERIES Battery

A total of 92.3% of the population aged 15 and older were recorded as literate, including 97.9% of those aged 15–24, both figures slightly higher than the regional average.[104] However, literacy levels are considerably lower in rural areas.[105]

The University of the Nation, is the most relevant High Education and Research institution of the country, which has served as the alma mater of most of its citizens since 1867. Dell INSPIRON 3700 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 3800 SERIES Battery


Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a wide range of cultural influences. Native American, Spanish and other European, African, American, Caribbean, and Middle Eastern influences, Dell INSPIRON 4000 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 4100 SERIES Battery

as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture. Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression.

Historically, the country's imposing landscape left its various regions largely isolated from one another, Dell INSPIRON 4150 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 500M SERIES Battery

resulting in the development of very strong regional identities, in many cases stronger than the national. Modern transport links and means of communication have mitigated this and done much to foster a sense of nationhood, but social and political instability, and in particular fear of armed groups and bandits on intercity highways, have contributed to the maintenance of very clear regional differences. Dell INSPIRON 5100 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 6000 Battery

Accent, dress, music, food, politics and general attitude vary greatly between the Bogotanos and other residents of the central highlands, the paisasof Antioquia and the coffee region, the costeños of the Caribbean coast, the llanerosof the eastern plains, and the inhabitants of the Pacific coast and the vast Amazon region to the south east. Dell INSPIRON 600M SERIES Battery,Dell Inspiron 630m Battery

An inheritance from the colonial era, Colombia remains a deeply Roman Catholic country and maintains a large base of Catholic traditions which provide a point of unity for its multicultural society. Colombia has many celebrations and festivals throughout the year, and the majority are rooted in these Catholic religious traditions. Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery,Dell Inspiron 640m Battery

However, many are also infused with a diverse range of other influences. Prominent examples of Colombia's festivals include the Barranquilla Carnival, the Carnival of Blacks and Whites, Medellín's Festival of the Flowers and Bogotá's Ibero-American Theater Festival. Dell Mini 12 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1210 Battery

The mixing of various ethnic traditions is reflected in Colombia's music and dance. The most well-known Colombian genres are cumbia and vallenato, the latter now strongly influenced by global pop culture. A powerful and unifying cultural medium in Colombia is television. Notably, the telenovela Betty La Fea has gained international success through localized versions in the United States, Mexico, and elsewhere. Dell Mini 10 Battery,Dell Mini 1010 Battery

Television has also played a role in the development of the local film industry.

The language spoken is as well a matter of pride, having as many accents as cultural regions. Results special the orthodoxy in the use of the Spanish language, since the times of the creation of the Academia de la Lengua, just second in terms of relevance to the Real Academia Española, in Europe. Dell Mini 1010n Battery,Dell Mini 1010v Battery

Famous Colombians include the Nobel Prize winning author Gabriel García Márquez, the artist Fernando Botero, the writers Fernando Vallejo, Laura Restrepo, Álvaro Mutis and James Cañón, the musicians Shakira, Juanes, Carlos Vives, Herostreet and Juan Garcia-Herreros, and the actors Catalina Sandino Moreno, John Leguizamo,Catherine Siachoque and Sofía Vergara. Dell Mini 1011 Battery,Dell Mini 1011n Battery

As in many Latin American countries, Colombians have a passion for association football. The Colombian national football team is seen as a symbol of unity and national pride, though local clubs also inspire fierce loyalty and sometimes-violent rivalries. Colombia has "exported" many players, such as Freddy Rincón, Carlos Valderrama, Iván Ramiro Córdoba, and Faustino Asprilla. Dell Mini 1011v Battery,Dell Inspiron 1501 Battery

Other Colombian athletes have also achieved success, including Juan Pablo Montoya in Formula One Racing,Edgar Rentería and Orlando Cabrera in Major League Baseball, and the Camilo Villegas in professional golf.

The Colombian cuisine developed mainly from the food traditions of European countries. Dell D630 Battery Battery,Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery Battery

Spanish, Italian and French culinary influences can all be seen in Colombian cooking. The cuisine of neighboring Latin American countries, Mexico, the United States and the Caribbean, as well as the cooking traditions of the country's indigenous inhabitants, have all influenced Colombian food. For example, cuy or guinea pig, which is an indigenous cuisine, is eaten in the Andes region of south-western Colombia. ttery-pack.co.uk/laptop-battery/dell-latitude-d820.html">Dell D820 Battery Battery,Dell D830 Battery Battery

Many national symbols, both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia's diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common. Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture. Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 1000 Battery Battery

Popular culture

The depiction of Colombia in popular culture, especially the portrayal of Colombian people in film and fiction, has been asserted by Colombian organizations[ and government to be largely negative and has raised concerns that it reinforces, or even engenders, stereotypes, societal prejudice and discrimination due to association with poverty, Dell Vostro 1310 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 1510 Battery Battery

narcotics trafficking, terrorism and other criminal elements.[109] These stereotypes are considered unfair by many Colombians.[110][111] The Colombian government funded the "Colombia es Pasión" advertisement campaign as an attempt to improve Colombia's image abroad, with mixed results.[112][113]Dell Vostro 1520 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 2510 Battery Battery


Colombia's cuisine, influenced heavily by the Spanish and Indigenous populations, is not as widely known as other Latin American cuisines such as Peruvian or Brazilian, but to the adventurous traveler there are plenty of delectable dishes to try, not to mention fruits, rum, and especially Colombian coffee. Dell Vostro 1400 Battery Battery,Dell XPS M1530 Battery

Antioquian Gastronomy The traditional gastronomy it’s about dishes that born and developmented in rurals context isolated the rest of the country for generations, which have survived the processes of industrialization, urbanization and globalization.

Antioquian typical dish is composed of a tray with beans, rice, eggs, slices of ripe, pork, ground beef, sausage and avocado: Dell INSPIRON 1525 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 1100 Battery

Bandeja paisa Fríjoles antioqueños Fríjoles con pezuña Sancocho antioqueño Sopa de mondongo antioqueño Morcilla antioqueña Chorizo antioqueño

Bandeja paisa: Bandeja paisa  is a herbal dish known as bandeja de arriero or bandeja montañera, typical of the Kitchen Antioquia, Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery,Dell Latitude E6400 Battery Battery

corresponding to the current departments of Antioquia, Caldas, or the Old Coffee (Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda), part of North Valley Cauca and Tolima in northern Colombia.

Frijoles Antioqueños:In Colombia, in general, corresponds to a sancocho or soup thicksoup based on potato and cassava, which adds some meat  (eggchicken, chicken, fish, beef, etc..)  Dell Latitude E6500 Battery Battery,Dell Studio XPS 13 Battery

Meat, as selected , gives the final name to the sancocho. (For example, the stew prepared with beef is often called "beef sancocho" or "whole").

Caribbean coast gastronomy

The dishes of the Caribbean Coast in preparation and ingredients vary by region and incorporate the traditions of indigenous cultures, European, black and mestizo. Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery

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They are ingredients like sea fish and crayfish, seafood, beef, chicken, pork, wild bush, yucca, plantains, yams, vegetables, dairy, rice, corn and native fruits. The most popular dish is the sancocho region that varies in preparation and ingredients: beef, fish, shellfish, turtles, chicken, goat, deer and other native species. Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery,Dell Studio XPS M1640 Battery

Cayeye:It consists of green bananas cooked and then mashed, sautéed in a stew of tomato, onion and chopped garlic and achiote optionally. Also they can simply add the stew. Serve with grated cheese and whey atollabuey coastal or butter, but can be supplemented with any meat. Is mainly consumed at breakfast. Dell Latitude E5500 Battery,Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

Casabe: Casabe de yuca is an unleavened bread made of thin, circular cassava flour, this is roasted on a griddle, griddle or grilled. Its production and consumption dates back to pre-Hispanic times, is made from cassava, also known as  yuca brava or yuca amarga

Santander gastronomy

Pepitoria Hormiga culona Bofe Bocadillo Veleño Dell XPS M2010 Battery

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Pepitoria:La pepitoria is a Spanish form of cooking different dishes of meat (usually chicken or chicken), usually obtained from the natural juices of the meat preparation are enriched with egg yolks and ground almonds, when this is done the plate receives the name “in pepitoria." Some argue that the word comes from piperitoria pepitoria, and this of Piper (pepper). Dell Vostro 1014 Battery,Dell Vostro 1015 Battery

What is certain is that this dish was formerly composed of offal. There are severaldpepitorias along the Spanish geography.

Hormiga culona:For its preparation are discarded wings and legs, soaked in salt water bodies and roasted in ceramic pots. Dell Vostro A840 Battery,Dell Vostro A860 Battery

This food istraditionally used as a wedding gift, by the belief that these antsare a delicacy aphrodisiac. The main production centers of these ants are the municipalities of San Gil and Barichara. From thereits trade extends to Bucaramanga and Bogota, where they are sold in packages during the season. Dell Vostro A860n Battery

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Bofe: it´s called bofe a part of the beef, especiffic the lung,exit bofe and put it to dry in the sun. Hang it on the stove or oven for that smoked a little (do not think this can be done in an apartment). if you can not smoke them no matter, continue withthe recipe.??Small portions and serve cold as an appetizer, accompanied by toast of banana with pepper or drowned. Dell Studio 1735 Battery

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Of all the sports in Colombia, Football is the most popular. It is highly regarded as an important event in both national and international games. More than often, Football has been considered to be very 'sacred' in Colombia for their passionate fans rivaling even fans of nations like Brazil and Argentina. Dell Studio 1535 Battery,Dell Studio 1536 Battery

The sport has been proven as a stronghold fighting the stereotypes of Colombia's drug cartels and violence. Despite winning very few international events, Colombia has produce outstanding players increasing a positive reputation in the nation itself.

A golden area existed for the national team between the mid 1980s towards the late 1990s becoming one of the most powerful teams in football. Dell Studio 1537 Battery,Dell Studio 1555 Battery

The tragic death ofAndrés Escobar for an own goal at the 1994 FIFA World Cup caused a severe scar in the nation's history of the sport ending the golden era as many of the star players quit due to his assassination. Many noticeable players had played for the national team such as Carlos Valderrama and René Higuita both made an impact in the sport. Dell Studio 1557 Battery,Dell Studio PP33L Battery

The Colombian national football team had not qualify for a world cup since 1998 although recent current generation talented players such as Radamel Falcao García,Fredy Guarín and James Rodriguez have given hope in revial of the Colombian national team. Colombia in history has qualified in 1962, 1990, 1994, and 1998 editions of the FIFA World Cup. Dell N998P Battery

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In club football, Atlético Nacional became the first Colombian club team to win the Copa Libertadores in 1989. Many of Colombia's star players of the golden era came from this team such as Andrés Escobar, Rene Higuita, among others. Once Caldas became the surprising winners of the 2004 edition of the Copa Libertadores, thus becoming the second Colombian team to do so. Dell Y264R Battery

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