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16 mars 2012 5 16 /03 /mars /2012 13:22

Wang Jian (Former Shu)

Wang Jian (??) (847-July 11, 918), courtesy name Guangtu (??), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Former) Shu ((?)???), was the founding emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Former Shu.Sony VPCM125AG/P Battery

He started his career as an army officer under the Tang Dynasty eunuch generals Yang Fuguang and Tian Lingzi, eventually seizing control of the modern Sichuan and Chongqing region, founding his state after Tang's destruction. Sony VPCM125AGP Battery

Wang Jian was born in 847, during the reign of Emperor Xu?nzong of Tang. He was from Wuyang (??, in modern Luohe, Henan), and was said to be ambitious and alert in his youth. Sony VPCM125AG/W Battery

However, he was also described to be a hoodlum, abandoning his ancestral craft of baking to be involved in butchering cattle, stealing donkeys, and privateering in salt. His father died while he was still a commoner. Sony VPCM126AA/L Battery

At one point, for misdeeds, he was incarcerated at the jail at Xuchang (??, in modern Xuchang, Henan), the capital of Zhongwu Circuit (??), which Wuyang sat in, but the jailers privately released him. Sony VPCM126AA/P Battery

He subsequently stayed with the monk Chuhong (??) in the Wudang Mountains, and Chuhong encouraged him to change his ways, Sony VPCM126AG/L Battery

predicting that there would be great accomplishments in his future. He thus joined the Zhongwu Circuit army and became an officer under then-military governor (Jiedushi) Du Shenquan.[6] Sony VPCM126AA/W Battery

Service under Yang Fuguang

As of 881, the major agrarian rebel Huang Chao had captured the Tang capital Chang'an, forcing then-reigning Emperor Xizong to flee to Chengdu. Sony VPCM126AG/P Battery

Zhongwu's then-military governor Zhou Ji initially submitted to Huang, who established a new state of Qi as its emperor, but at the urging by the eunuch general Yang Fuguang redeclared allegiance to Tang in summer 881. Yang took 8,000 Zhongwu troops and organized them into eight corps, Sony VPCM126AG/W Battery

commanded by Lu Yanhong, Jin Hui (??), Wang Jian, Han Jian, Zhang Zao (??), Li Shitai (???), and Pang Cong (??) respectively. He then took the troops northwest to join the other Tang troops in campaign against Huang.[7] Sony VPCM126AH/L Battery

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Yang Fuguang died in 883 while stationed at Hezhong Circuit (??, in modern Yuncheng, Shanxi) and still fighting against Huang. Instead of continuing to fight against Huang, Lu Yanhong decided to take his troops and rove around the region, pillaging as he went.[8] Sony VPCM126AH/W Battery

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Wang Jian, Han Jian, Zhang Zao, Jin Hui, and Li Shitai followed him as well.[9]Later in 883, Lu captured Xingyuan (??, in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi) the capital of Shannan West Circuit (????), Sony VPCM129AJ/P Battery

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expelling the military governor Niu Xu (??) and claiming the title of acting military governor.[8] He commissioned Wang and the other Zhongwu corps commanders as prefects within Shannan West, but did not allow them to actually report to their prefectures. Sony VPCM13M1E/L Battery

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He was particularly suspicious of Wang and Han because of their deep friendship, but wanting to comfort them, he often treated them well. Wang and Han realized Lu's intentions, Sony VPCM13M1E/W Battery

however, and in fall 884, with Emperor Xizong's trusted eunuch Tian Lingzi secretly tempting them with offers of good treatment, they, along with Zhang, Jin, and Li, abandoned Lu and fled to Chengdu to serve under Tian.[9]Sony VPCS111FM/S Battery

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Service under Tian Lingzi

Tian Lingzi subsequently reorganized the Zhongwu troops that Wang Jian and the others commanded into a group of imperial guards directly under Tian's command,Sony VPCS117GG Battery

while sending imperial troops to attack Lu Yanhong, defeating him and forcing him to abandon Shannan West. Tian also adopted Wang and the others as his sons. Meanwhile, with Huang Chao having been defeated earlier, Emperor Xizong returned to Chang'an, in spring 885, with Tian and his troops accompanying him.[9] Sony VPCS117GGB Battery

Soon after Emperor Xizong returned to Chang'an, however, Tian got into a major dispute with Wang Chongrong the military governor of Hezhong over control of two salt ponds at Hezhong, Sony VPCS119FJ Battery

which Tian wanted to use the revenue from to support the imperial Shence Armies. Wang Chongrong refused to yield control, and soon, a full confrontation between Tian and his allies (Zhu Mei the military governor of Jingnan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi) Sony VPCS11AFJ Battery

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and Li Changfu the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi)) and Wang Chongrong and his ally Li Keyong the military governor of Hedong Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Sony VPCS11AHJ Battery

Shanxi) occurred. In winter 885, Wang Chongrong's and Li Keyong's forces defeated those of Tian, Zhu, and Li Changfu. As Li Keyong's forces approached Chang'an, Sony VPCS11AVJ Battery

Tian escorted Emperor Xizong and fled again, initially to Fengxiang and then to Xingyuan when Zhu and Li Changfu also turned against him. During this flight, with Emperor Xizong's flight path blocked by waves of refugees, Sony VPCS11J7E Battery

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Wang Jian and Jin cleared the path, killing all in their way, to allow Emperor Xizong through, and during the confusion, Emperor Xizong had Wang Jian bear the imperial seal, and at night slept on Wang Jian's knees.[9] Sony VPCS11V9E Battery

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With Tian realizing that the whole empire was against him by this point, he resigned while Emperor Xizong was at Xingyuan, recommending Yang Fuguang's brother Yang Fugong to succeed him as the commander of the Shence Armies, Sony VPCS11V9E/B Battery

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while having himself commissioned as the eunuch monitor of Xichuan Circuit (??, headquartered at Chengdu) to join his brother Chen Jingxuan the military governor of Xichuan. Sony VPCS123FGB Battery

Yang Fugong, not wanting Tian's trusted officers near him, had Wang, Jin, Zhang, and Li Shitai all sent out to prefectures to serve as prefect, with Wang becoming the prefect of Li Prefecture (??, in modern Guangyuan, Sichuan). Sony VPCS12AFJ Battery

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After Yang Fuguang's adoptive son Yang Shouliang became military governor of Shannan West in spring 887, Wang became titularly his subordinate.[9] Sony VPCS12AHJ Battery

Service under Yang Shouliang

Yang Shouguang was apprehensive about Wang Jian's fighting ability and tried to summon him to Xingyuan several times, but Wang, fearful of Yang's intentions, refused the summons. Sony VPCS12AVJ Battery

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At the suggestion of his subordinate Zhou Xiang (??), who pointed out that Li Prefecture was not an ideal defense position, he attacked Lang Prefecture (??, in modern Nanchong, Sichuan), Sony VPCS12L9E/B Battery

expelled the prefect Yang Maoshi (???), and took over Lang, claiming the greater title of defender. At the advice of Zhang Qianyu (???) and Jiwu Jian (???), he submitted humble petitions to Emperor Xizong and comforted the people. Sony VPCS12V9E/B Battery

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He also entered into friendly relations with Gu Yanlang the military governor of Dongchuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Mianyang, Sichuan), as the two were colleagues previously at the Shence Armies.[9] Sony VPCS135EC/B Battery

Campaign against Chen Jingxuan

Chen Jingxuan, however, feared the close alliance between Gu Yanlang and Wang Jian and was worried that Gu and Wang would attack him. He discussed the situation with Tian Lingzi. Sony VPCS135EC/G Battery

Tian opined that he, as Wang's adoptive father, could summon Wang and make him serve under Chen. Chen agreed and allowed Tian to do so in winter 887. Sony VPCS135EC/P Battery

after receiving the summons, was initially happy about the summons. He, leaving most of his family at Dongchuan's capital Zi Prefecture (??) with Gu, took 2,000 men, along with his nephew Wang Zonghui (???) and his adoptive sons Wang Zongyao (???), Wang Zongbi, Sony VPCS135FA/B Battery

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Wang Zongkan (???), Wang Zongji, and Wang Zongbian (???), and headed toward Chengdu. While Wang was en route to Chengdu, however, Chen's subordinate Li Ai (??) convinced Chen that Wang was not to be trusted, Sony VPCS135FH/P Battery

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and Chen decided to try to stop Wang's advance. Wang, in anger, refused, defeating officers that Chen sent to stop him and advancing all the way to Chengdu. Sony VPCS136EC/G Battery

He was unable to capture it quickly, even with the assistance of Gu Yanlang's brother Gu Yanhui, so both he and Gu Yanhui withdrew to Han Prefecture (??, in modernDeyang, Sichuan). Sony VPCS136EC/P Battery

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Their hostilities continued, despite efforts by Emperor Xizong to mediate. It was said that Wang's army pillaged all 12 prefectures of Xichuan Circuit.[10]Sony VPCS136FG/B Battery

However, Wang's attacks were stifled by Chengdu's strong defenses, and his supplies soon ran low. By summer 888, he considered abandoning the campaign altogether, Sony VPCS137GA/B Battery

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but after Zhou Yang and Jiwu Jian convinced him otherwise, continued the campaign. He, believing that he needed imperial sanction in order to succeed in the campaign, Sony VPCS137GH/B Battery

had Zhou draft a petition for him to Emperor Zhaozong — Emperor Xizong's brother, who succeeded Emperor Xizong after Emperor Xizong died early in 888 — asking to be given the rich Qiong Prefecture (??, in modern Chengdu) while asking the emperor to send a new military governor of Xichuan, Sony VPCS138EC/B Battery

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offering to assist the new military governor. Gu Yanlang also submitted a petition requesting that Chen be moved from his post. Emperor Zhaozong, who had previous grudges against Tian and Chen for Tian's ill treatment of him while he was an imperial prince, Sony VPCS138EC/P Battery

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issued an edict summoning Chen back to Chang'an to serve as an imperial guard general, while making the chancellor Wei Zhaodu the new military governor of Xichuan. Sony VPCS139FJ/P Battery

When Chen subsequently refused the summons, Emperor Zhaozong stripped him of all of his titles and put Wei in charge of the operations against him, with Yang Shouliang, Sony VPCS139FJ/S Battery

Wang, and Gu assisting him. Emperor Zhaozong also carved out four prefectures from Xichuan and made it into a new Yongping Circuit, with its capital at Qiong,Sony VPCS139GC/B Battery

for Wang to serve as military governor.[10] In spring 890, Wang put Qiong Prefecture under siege. Around the same time, Wei arrived in Chengdu's vicinity, and Wang outwardly honored him greatly. Sony VPCS13AFG/B Battery

A number of prefectures began to submit to Wang, and in winter 890, Qiong fell to him, allowing him to use Qiong as his basis of operations.[11] Sony VPCS13AFG/G Battery

However, in spring 891, with imperial forces having recently conducted a failed campaign against Li Keyong and the imperial treasury drained, Emperor Zhaozong decided to abandon the campaign against Chen. Sony VPCS13AFG/P Battery

He restored Chen's titles and ordered Gu and Wang to return to their posts at Dongchuan and Yongping. Wang, believing that Chengdu was on the verge of falling, decided to disobey the imperial orders and continue the campaign. Sony VPCS13AFG/W Battery

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He intimidated Wei by having Dongchuan soldiers arrest and execute Wei's associate Luo Bao (??) on charges of corruption, and Wei transferred the command of the army to him. Wang continued the siege against Chengdu, and a famine began in the city. Sony VPCS13AFH/W Battery

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In fall 891, after Wang made assurances that he would continue to respect Chen and honor Tian as a father, Chen and Tian surrendered Chengdu. Emperor Zhaozong soon made Wang the military governor of Xichuan, merging Yongping back into Xichuan.[11] Sony VPCS13AGJ Battery

Campaign against Dongchuan

It was said that Wang Jian, after he took over Xichuan, ruled it diligently, listened to good advice, promoted capable people, put people in rightful positions, and was humble and frugal. However, he was also said to be suspicious, and that many subordinates with accomplishments suffered deaths due to his suspicions of them.[11] Sony VPCS13AHJ Battery

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Around the same time that Wang took over Xichuan, his ally Gu Yanlang died, and Gu Yanhui succeeded Gu Yanlang as the acting military governor of Dongchuan.Sony VPCS13L9E/B Battery

Emperor Zhaozong was ready to commission Gu Yanhui as the full military governor, but Yang Shouliang reacted by sending his brother Yang Shouhou (???) to attack Dongchuan, trying to take it over. Sony VPCS13V9E/B Battery

Wang sent his officers Hua Hong, Li Jian (??), Wang Zongkan, and Wang Zongbi to aid Gu — with secret instructions to, once they repelled the Yangs' attack, seize Gu Yanhui and take over Dongchuan at a feast that Gu would surely be holding in their honor. Sony VPCS13X9E/B Battery

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After Wang Zongkan defeated Yang Shouhou and forced his withdrawal, Gu was ready to hold such a feast — but Wang Zongbi leaked the plot to Gu, causing Gu to cancel the feast and eventually ending the alliance between Wang and Gu.[11]Sony VPCS149FJ/P Battery

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Meanwhile, Tian Lingzi's and Chen Jingxuan's remaining subordinate Yang Sheng (??), who continued to hold Peng Prefecture (??, in modern Chengdu) and holding out against Wang, tried to jointly attack Wang with Yang Shouliang, Sony VPCS14AHJ Battery

but Li Jian repelled Yang Sheng and killed his officer Lü Yao (??) in spring 892. Wang then sent his nephew Wang Zongyu (???), Wang Zongkan, Sony VPCY115FG/S Battery

Wang Zongyao, and Hua to attack Peng Prefecture. When Yang Shouliang tried to send troops to aid Yang Sheng, Hua intimidated Yang Shouliang's officer Fu Zhao (??) into withdrawing. Hua subsequently attacked Lang Prefecture and defeated Yang Shouliang there, too.[12] Sony VPCY115FGS Battery

Meanwhile, in 893, Gu entered into an alliance with Li Maozhen the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit, and Li Maozhen sent troops to aid Gu. Sony VPCY115FX/B Battery

However, after Wang then defeated Fengxiang and Dongchuan troops at Li Prefecture, Gu sought peace against with Wang, claiming to be willing to break relations with Li Maozhen, and Wang agreed. Around the same time, Sony VPCY118GX/BI Battery

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Emperor Zhaozong bestowed on Wang the honorary chancellor title of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangzhi (????????). Meanwhile, Wang had repeatedly sought permission to execute Chen and Tian, and when imperial permission never came, Wang executed them anyway.[12] Sony VPCY11AFJ Battery

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By 894, Peng Prefecture was suffering from a famine due to the siege that Wang's forces had placed on it. Yang Sheng could not hold the defense any further, and it fell. Sony VPCY11AHJ Battery

Yang Sheng tried to fight still, but was killed in battle. His territory was merged back into Xichaun. Meanwhile, when Yang Shouhou, who was then the prefect of Mian Prefecture (??, in modern Mianyang) died in fall 894, Sony VPCY11AVJ Battery

with Yang Shouliang having been defeated by Li Maozhen by that point and his territory largely taken by Li Maozhen, Yang Shouhou's officer Chang Zairong (???) surrendered Mian to Wang.[12] Sony VPCY11M1E Battery

In 895, Li Maozhen, Han Jian (who was then the military governor of Zhenguo Circuit (??, in modern Weinan, Shaanxi)), and Wang Xingyu the military governor of Jingnan Circuit, jointly attacked Chang'an, sSony VPCY11S1E Battery

eizing and killing the former chancellors Wei Zhaodu and Li Xi (whom they considered hostile to their agenda). In reaction, Li Keyong launched his troops and headed for Chang'an, Sony VPCY11V9E Battery

claiming to be coming to the emperor's aid. Wang also launched his troops, put Wang Zongyao in command, and had them stationed at Mian Prefecture, claiming to be coming to the emperor's aid as well. Sony VPCY11V9E/S Battery

Wang then claimed that Gu was cutting off his path and declared a campaign against Gu. (Meanwhile, Li Keyong defeated and killed Wang Xingyu, forcing Li Maozhen and Han to, Sony VPCY219FJ/S Battery

or the time being, resubmit to the imperial government.) Hua spearheaded Wang's attack against Dongchuan, and over the next few years, Wang's Xichuan forces gradually stripped Gu's territory prefecture by prefecture, despite Emperor Zhaozong's attempt to mediate. Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery

In 896, when Li Maozhen again attacked Chang'an, forcing Emperor Zhaozong to flee to Zhenguo to depend on Han, Wang submitted a petition for Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital to Chengdu, Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery

while Yang Xingmi the military governor of Huainan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu) submitted a petition for Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital to Huainan; neither idea was implemented.[13] Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery

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In 897, Wang again launched a major attack on Dongchuan, commanded by Hua and another adoptive son, Wang Zongyou (???), while sending Wang Zongjin (???) to attack Fengxiang to cut off any relief forces that might come from Fengxiang,Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery

and Wang Zongjin defeated LI Maozhen's adoptive son Li Jihui. When Li Maozhen subsequently Li Jizhao (???) to try to relieve Dongchuan, Wang Jian's adoptive son Wang Zongbo (???) defeated and captured him. Around the same time, Wang Zongkan and Wang Zongruan (???) captured the Three Gorges region, opening a trade path to the east down the Yangtze River.[14] Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery

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In summer 897, Wang Jian took 50,000 men and joined the attack against Dongchuan himself. Li Maozhen reacted by submitting a petition against Wang Jian for failing to follow imperial orders to stop his attacks against Gu. Sony VPCYA15EC/B Battery

Emperor Zhaozong, wanting to exploit the situation himself, issued an edict demoting Wang to be the prefect of Nan Prefecture (??, in modern Chongqing),Sony VPCYA15EC/R Battery

while naming Li Maozhen the new military governor of Xichuan and Li Sizhou (???) the Prince of Qin as the new military governor of Fengxiang — hoping to take control of Fengxiang back into imperial hands. Sony VPCYA15FG Battery

Both Wang and Li Maozhen refused the orders, and Li Maozhen reacted by blocking Li Sizhou's advance, forcing Li Sizhou to return to Zhenguo. Emperor Zhaozong soon thereafter restored Wang Jian's titles.[14] Sony VPCYA15FG/B Battery

Wang Jian's siege of Zi Prefecture put Gu in dire straits. In winter 897, Gu had his adoptive son Gu Yao (??) kill his entire family and then commit suicide. Wang Jian took over Dongchuan and made Hua (whom he formally took as an adoptive son, Sony VPCYA15FG/R Battery

with the new name of Wang Zongdi) the acting military governor of Dongchuan. The imperial government initially tried to make the official Liu Chongwang (???) the military governor of Dongchuan, Sony VPCYA15FH/B Battery

but upon hearing that Wang Jian had already commissioned Wang Zongdi, gave up the attempt and allowed Wang Zongdi to take over as acting military governor (and later, full military governor). Sony VPCYA15FH/R Battery

(Subsequently, at Wang Zongdi's suggestion (that Dongchuan was too large to be a single circuit), Wang Jian requested, and the imperial government approved, Sony VPCYA16EC/R Battery

the division of Dongchuan into two circuits, with five prefectures carved out into a Wuxin Circuit (??), with its headquarters at Sui Prefecture (??, in modern Suining, Sichuan).)[14] Sony VPCYA17GG/B Battery

After seizing Dongchuan

In spring 900, Emperor Zhaozong gave Wang Jian the greater honorary chancellor title of Zhongshu Ling (???). Soon thereafter, he also granted Wang Jian the title of commander over Dongchuan and Wuxin as well.[15] He also created Wang the Prince of Langye.[6Sony VPCYA17GG/R Battery

]

In 901, Wang Zongdi offered to resign on account of illness, and Wang Jian sent Wang Zongyu to Dongchuan to replace him. Later in the year, when the Taoist monk Du Congfa (???) started a rebellion with the people of Chang (??, in modern Chongqing), Sony VPCYA17GH/B Battery

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Pu (??, in modern Ziyang, Sichuan), and He (??, in modern Chongqing) Prefectures. Wang Jian sent his adoptive son Wang Zong'an to attack Du, but Wang Zongkan subsequently suppressed Du's rebellion.[15] Sony VPCYA19FJ/B Battery

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Late in the year, the eunuch Han Quanhui, fearing that Emperor Zhaozong and the chancellor Cui Yin were planning to massacre the eunuchs, seized Emperor Zhaozong. Sony VPCYB15AG/P Battery

Cui, in response, summoned Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan) to bring an army to Chang'an.Sony VPCYB15AG/S Battery

As Han was allied with LI Maozhen, he forcibly took Emperor Zhaozong to Fengxiang. Zhu then put Fengxiang under siege, claiming that he wanted to restore the emperor to the proper place in Chang'an. Both Zhu and Li Maozhen sought an alliance with Wang Jian. Sony VPCYB15AH/G Battery

Wang played both sides — outwardly announcing agreement with Zhu, while secretly sending messengers to Li Maozhen urging him to resist Zhu — and yet at the same time sent Wang Zongji and Wang Zongdi north, Sony VPCYB15AH/P Battery

seeking to seize the prefectures south of the Qinling Mountains that Li Maozhen still controlled.[15] By spring 902, Li Maozhen's adoptive son Li Jizhong (???) the military governor of Zhaowu Circuit (??, headquartered at Li Prefecture) abandoned Li Prefecture, Sony VPCYB15AH/S Battery

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allowing Xichuan forces to seize it. Subsequently, Wang Zongbo and Wang Zongdi captured Xingyuan, and Li Maozhen's adoptive son Li Jimi (???), then the military governor of Shannan West, Sony VPCYB16KG/P Battery

was forced to surrender as well. Wang Jian initially made Wang Zongdi the military governor of Shannan West, but subsequently, getting reports from Wang Zongji that made accusations against Wang Zongdi, Sony VPCYB16KG/S Battery

and fearing that Wang Zongdi was both loved by the soldiers, he summoned Wang Zongdi back to Chengdu and had him strangled. He made another adoptive son, Sony VPCYB19KJ/G Battery

Wang Zonghe (???), the acting military governor of Shannan West. Subsequently, Li Sijing (???) the military governor of Wuding Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Hanzhong) surrendered as well. Sony VPCYB19KJ/P Battery

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By this point, Wang Jian had captured all of Li Maozhen's former territory south of the Qinling Mountains, partially leading to Li Maozhen's subsequent agreement in 903 with Zhu to kill Han and his associates and to give the emperor to Zhu in return for lifting the siege on Fengxiang.[16] Sony VPCYB35JC Battery

After Emperor Zhaozong returned to Chang'an, Cui and Zhu ordered that all eunuchs be massacred. However, Wang protected Yu Quanyan (???) the eunuch monitor for Xichuan and the prominent retired eunuch Yan Zunmei (???) from execution, instead executing two inmates that he claimed to be Yu and Yan.[16][17] Sony VGN-AW11M/H Battery

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Later in 903, Wang Jian entered into a peace agreement with Zhu. Subsequently, Emperor Zhaozong created Wang the greater title of Prince of Shu. Soon thereafter, Sony VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery

at the suggestion of his adoptive son Wang Zongben (???), Wang Jian had Wang Zongben lead an army east on the Yangtze River, intending to capture Jingnan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Jingzhou, Hubei). Sony VGN-AW11Z/B Battery

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At that time, the military governor of Jingnan, Cheng Rui, had just been killed in battle against Yang Xingmi's forces, and so Cheng's subordinate, Hou Ju (??), surrendered Kui Prefecture (??, in modern Chongqing) to Wang Zongben, allowing Wang Jian to take over Kui, Sony VGN-AW19/Q Battery

Zhong (??, in modern Chongqing), Wan (??, in modern Chongqing), and En (??, in modern Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Hubei) as well. Sony VGN-AW19 Battery

However, believing that the Qutang Gorge would serve as a good natural defense, Wang Jian decided to make no further attempt to capture Gui (??) and Xia (??) (both in modern Yichang,Hubei) as well. Sony VGN-AW21M/H Battery

He made Wang Zongben the acting military governor of Wutai Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Chongqing) to govern over the region.[17] Sony VGN-AW21S/B Battery

In 904, Zhu, wanting to put the emperor even firmer under control as a prelude to usurping the throne, forcibly moved Emperor Zhaozong from Chang'an to Luoyang. Sony VGN-AW21VY/Q Battery

Emperor Zhaozong sent secret messengers to Wang Jian, asking him to come to the emperor's aid. Wang Jian sent Wang Zongyou north, claiming to be wanting to rendezvous with Fengxiang forces and jointly rescue the emperor, Sony VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery

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but when Wang Zongyou encountered Xuanwu forces, he abandoned the campaign. Thereafter, though, Wang Jian began to be issuing imperial edicts in the name of the emperor, Sony VGN-AW230J/H Battery

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claiming that he was temporarily taking imperial authority until the emperor would return to Chang'an (which Emperor Zhaozong would eventually never be able to do). Sony VGN-AW270Y/Q Battery

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Another subsequent secret edict issued by Emperor Zhaozong to Wang, Yang, and Li Keyong also drew no further response from Wang immediately. Later in the year, when Zhao Kuangning the military governor of Zhongyi Circuit (??, headquartered in modernXiangfan, Hubei) Sony VGN-AW290JFQ Battery

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attempted to capture the Jingnan prefectures that Wang had seized earlier, Wang Zongruan repelled Zhao's attack. Zhang Wu (??) the prefect of Wan Prefecture further built an iron chain across the Yangtze, intending to secure it from further invasion from the east.[17] Sony VGN-AW31S/B Battery

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Meanwhile, believing that it would be advantageous to enter into an alliance with Li Maozhen for Li Maozhen to serve as a protective neighbor to the north, Wang Jian did so in early 905, Sony VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery

and also jointly issued a declaration with Li Maozhen and Li Maozhen's adoptive son Li Jihui the military governor of Jingnan condemning Zhu. Sony VGN-AW35GJH Battery

Thereafter, Wang gave his daughter in marriage to Li Maozhen's nephew LI Jichong (???) the military governor of Tianxiong Circuit (??, headquartered in modernPingliang, Gansu), Sony VGN-AW37GY/HE1 Battery

and often supplied Li Maozhen's army from this point on. At the suggestion of Feng Juan (??), who believed that Wang's tax burdens were too high, Wang reduced the tax burdens on the people.[18] Sony VGN-AW37GYQ Battery

Soon thereafter, a marriage alliance was also concluded between Wang Jian and Zhao. Alarmed by the situation, Zhu Quanzhong attacked Zhao, defeating him and annexing his territory, Sony VGN-AW41JF/H Battery

forcing Zhao to flee to Huainan, while Zhao's brother Zhao Kuangming fled to Wang Jian. Around the same time, Wang sent another adoptive son, Wang Zonghe (???), Sony VGN-AW41JF Battery

to attack Feng Xingxi the military governor of Zhaoxin Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Ankang, Shaanxi). Feng fled, and his subordinate Quan Shilang (???) surrendered Zhaoxin's capital Jin Prefecture (??). Sony VGN-AW41MF/H Battery

Wang adopted Quan as a son (renaming him Wang Zonglang (???)) and made him the governor of Jin Prefecture and three other surrounding prefectures.[18] Sony VGN-AW41MF Battery

Meanwhile, Emperor Zhaozong had been assassinated by Zhu's soldiers and replaced by his son Emperor Ai. Zhu disavowed involvement, and subsequently sent messengers in Emperor Ai's name to various circuits to announce Emperor Zhaozong's death. Sony VGN-AW41XH/Q Battery

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When the messenger to Xichuan, Sima Qing (???), arrived at Xichuan, Wang, under the suggestion of Wei Zhuang, refused to meet with Sima; rather, Sony VGN-AW41ZF/B Battery

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