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Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral (1540 – 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, andpolitician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. TOSHIBA Satellite P100-413 Keyboard 

He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He also carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580. He died of dysentery in January 1596[1] after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. ACER Aspire 5242 Keyboard 

His exploits were legendary, making him a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spaniards to whom he was known as El Draque, 'Draque' being the Spanish pronunciation of 'Drake'. HP Probook 4320s Keyboard

His name in Latinised form was Franciscus Draco ('Francis the Dragon').[2] King Philip II was claimed to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats,[3] about £4,000,000 (US$6.5M) by modern standards, for his life. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard

Birth and early years

Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon, in February or March 1544 at the earliest, when his namesake godfather Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford was but age 17.[4] Although Drake's birth is not formally recorded, SAMSUNG Q330-JS0E Keyboard

it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. "Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith" (1566). This would date his birth to 1544. As with many of Drake's contemporaries, ACER Aspire 4310 Keyboard

the exact date of his birth is unknown and could be as early as 1535, the 1540 date being extrapolated from two portraits: one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was allegedly 42, the other painted in 1594 when he was said to be 53.[5] SONY Vaio VGN-FW378J Keyboard

He was the eldest of the twelve sons[6] of Edmund Drake (1518–1585), a Protestant farmer, and his wife Mary Mylwaye. The first son was reportedly named after his godfather Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford.[7][8]

Because of religious persecution during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549, ACER Aspire 1410-742G16n Keyboard

the Drake family fled from Devonshire into Kent. There the father obtained an appointment to minister to men in the King's Navy. He was ordained deacon and made vicar ofUpnor Church upon the Medway.[4] ThinkPad Edge E525 Keyboard

Drake's father apprenticed Francis to his neighbour, the master of a barque used for coastal trade transporting merchandise to France.[4] The ship master was so satisfied with the young Drake's conduct that, being unmarried and childless at his death, he bequeathed the barque to Drake.[4] SONY VAIO VGN-FS770W Keyboard

Marriage and family

Francis Drake married Mary Newman in 1569. She died 12 years later, in 1581. In 1585, Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham—born circa 1562, the only child of Sir George Sydenham, of Combe Sydenham,[9] who was the High Sheriff of Somerset.[10]SONY VGN-FE11H Keyboard

After Drake's death, the widow Elizabeth eventually married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham.[11] As Sir Francis Drake had no children, his estate and titles passed on to his nephew (also named Francis). ACER 9J.N4282.T3D Keyboard

At age twenty-three, Drake made his first voyage to the New World, sailing with his second cousin, Sir John Hawkins, on one of a fleet of ships owned by his relatives, the Hawkins family of Plymouth. In 1568 Drake was again with the Hawkins fleet when it was trapped by the Spaniards in the Mexican port of San Juan de Ulúa. He escaped along with Hawkins. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-SP4010M Keyboard

Following the defeat at San Juan de Ulúa, Drake vowed revenge. He made two voyages to the West Indies, in 1570 and 1571, of which little is known. ACER Aspire 5710Z Keyboard

In 1572, he embarked on his first major independent enterprise. He planned an attack on the Isthmus of Panama, known to the Spanish as Tierra Firme and the English as the Spanish Main. This was the point at which the silver and gold treasure of Peru had to be landed and sent overland to the Caribbean Sea, HP 640892-001 Keyboard

where galleons from Spain would pick it up at the town of Nombre de Dios. Drake left Plymouth on 24 May 1572, with a crew of 73 men in two small vessels, the Pascha (70 tons) and the Swan (25 tons), to capture Nombre de Dios. SAMSUNG R45 Keyboard

His first raid was late in July 1572. Drake and his men captured the town and its treasure. When his men noticed that Drake was bleeding profusely from a wound, they insisted on withdrawing to save his life and left the treasure. Drake stayed in the area for almost a year, raiding Spanish shipping and attempting to capture a treasure shipment. DELL Alienware M11x Keyboard

In 1573, he joined Guillaume Le Testu, a French buccaneer, in an attack on a richly laden mule train. Drake and his party found that they had captured around 20 tons of silver and gold. They buried much of the treasure, ACER Aspire 5012LMi Keyboard

as it was too much for their party to carry. (An account of this may have given rise to subsequent stories of pirates and buried treasure). Wounded, Le Testu was captured and later beheaded. The small band of adventurers dragged as much gold and silver as they could carry back across some 18 miles of jungle-ACER Aspire 5738PG Keyboard

covered mountains to where they had left the raiding boats. When they got to the coast, the boats were gone. Drake and his men, downhearted, exhausted and hungry, had nowhere to go and the Spanish were not far behind. TOSHIBA Tecra M9-S5515X Keyboard

At this point Drake rallied his men, buried the treasure on the beach, and built a raft to sail with two volunteers ten miles along the surf-lashed coast to where they had left the flagship. When Drake finally reached its deck, HP Pavilion dv5-1110eo Keyboard

his men were alarmed at his bedraggled appearance. Fearing the worst, they asked him how the raid had gone. Drake could not resist a joke and teased them by looking downhearted. Then he laughed, pulled a necklace of Spanish gold from around his neck and said "Our voyage is made, lads!" By 9 August 1573, he had returned to Plymouth. HP Pavilion dv6-3016tu Keyboard

Circumnavigation of the earth

With the success of the Panama isthmus raid, in 1577 Elizabeth I of England sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. He set out from Plymouth on 15 November 1577, but bad weather threatened him and his fleet. ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard

They were forced to take refuge in Falmouth, Cornwall, from where they returned to Plymouth for repair. After this major setback, he set sail again on 13 December, aboard Pelican, with four other ships and 164 men. ACER Aspire 7735Z Keyboard

He soon added a sixth ship, Mary(formerly Santa Maria), a Portuguese merchant ship that had been captured off the coast of Africa near the Cape Verde Islands. He also added its captain, Nuno da Silva, a man with considerable experience navigating in South American waters. HP G72-c55DX Keyboard

Drake's fleet suffered great attrition; he scuttled both Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing. He made landfall at the gloomy bay of San Julian, in what is now Argentina. Ferdinand Magellan had called here half a century earlier, Compaq Presario CQ71-120ED Keyboard

where he put to death some mutineers. Drake's men saw weathered and bleached skeletons on the grim Spanish gibbets. They discovered that Mary had rotting timbers, so they burned the ship. Following Magellan's example, SONY VAIO VGN-SR165E Keyboard

Drake tried and executed his own 'mutineer' Thomas Doughty. Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan. TOSHIBA Tecra A9-51S Keyboard

Entering the Pacific

The three remaining ships of his convoy departed for the Magellan Strait at the southern tip of South America. A few weeks later (September 1578) Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed one of the three ships in the strait and caused another to return to England, leaving only the Pelican. After this passage, ACER Aspire 3000LC Keyboard

the Pelican was pushed south and discovered an island which Drake called Elizabeth Island. Drake, like navigators before him, probably reached a latitude of 55°S (according to astronomical data quoted in Hakluyt's The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation of 1589) along the Chilean coast.[12]ACER TravelMate 4600 Keyboard

Despite popular lore, it seems unlikely that he reached Cape Horn or the eponymous Drake Passage,[12] because his descriptions do not fit the first and his shipmates denied having seen an open sea. ACER Aspire 4720 Keyboard

The first report of his discovery of an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego was written after the 1618 publication of the voyage of Willem Schouten and Jacob le Maire around Cape Horn in 1616.[13]

He pushed onwards in his lone flagship, now renamed the Golden Hind in honour of Sir Christopher Hatton (after his coat of arms). HP Pavilion dv6-2155tx Keyboard

The Golden Hind sailed north along the Pacific coast of South America, attacking Spanish ports and rifling towns. Some Spanish ships were captured, and Drake used their more accurate charts. Before reaching the coast of Peru, SONY VAIO VGN-N17G Keyboard

Drake visited Mocha Island, where he was seriously injured by hostile Mapuche. Later he sacked the port of Valparaíso further north in Chile where he also captured a ship full of Chilean wine.[14] TOSHIBA Tecra M9-S5517X Keyboard

A most consequential action

Near Lima, Drake captured a Spanish ship laden with 25,000 pesos of Peruvian gold, amounting in value to 37,000 ducats of Spanish money (about £7m by modern standards). Drake also discovered news of another ship, Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, which was sailing west towards Manila. SONY VAIO VPCF122FX Keyboard

It would come to be called theCacafuego. Drake gave chase and eventually captured the treasure ship, which proved their most profitable capture. Aboard Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, Drake found 80 lb (36 kg) of gold, a golden crucifix, jewels, 13 chests full of royals of plate and 26 tons of silver. ACER Aspire 1522WLMi Keyboard

Nova Albion

On 17 June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim at Point Loma. He found a good port, landed, repaired and restocked his vessels, then stayed for a time, keeping friendly relations with the natives. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5117 Keyboard

He claimed the land in the name of the Holy Trinity for the English Crown as called Nova Albion—Latin for "New Britain". Assertions that he left some of his men behind as an embryo "colony" are founded on the reduced number who were with him in the Moluccas.[15] TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4047 Keyboard

The precise location of the port was carefully guarded to keep it secret from the Spaniards, and several of Drake's maps may have been altered to this end. All first-hand records from the voyage, including logs, paintings and charts, ACER TravelMate 242XC Keyboard

were lost whenWhitehall Palace burned in 1698. A bronze plaque inscribed with Drake's claim to the new lands -Drake's Plate of Brass- fitting the description in his account, was discovered in Marin County, California, but was later declared a hoax. HP Pavilion G6-1B76US Keyboard

The generally accepted location of Drake's New Albion is Drakes Bay, California, although more than a score of other notions have been offered. ACER Aspire 1406XC Keyboard

Drake headed westward across the Pacific, and a few months later reached the Moluccas, a group of islands in the south west Pacific, in eastern modern-day Indonesia. While there, Golden Hind became caught on a reef and was almost lost. SONY VAIO VGN-CS21S/V Keyboard

After the sailors waited three days for expedient tides and dumped cargo, they freed the barque. Befriending a sultan king of the Moluccas, Drake and his men became involved in some intrigues with the Portuguese there. He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa, eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and reached Sierra Leone by 22 July 1580. ACER Travelmate 8571 Keyboard

On 26 September, Golden Hind sailed into Plymouth with Drake and 59 remaining crew aboard, along with a rich cargo of spices and captured Spanish treasures. The Queen's half-share of the cargo surpassed the rest of the crown's income for that entire year. HP Pavilion DV9060EA Keyboard

Drake was hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth (and the second such voyage arriving with at least one ship intact, after Elcano's in 1520). The Queen declared that all written accounts of Drake's voyages were to become the Queen's secrets of the Realm, HP Pavilion dv5-1050tx Keyboard

and Drake and the other participants of his voyages on the pain of death sworn to their secrecy; she intended to keep Drake's activities away from the eyes of rival Spain. Drake presented the Queen with a jewel token commemorating the circumnavigation. HP G62-b65SS Keyboard

Taken as a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico, it was made of enameled gold and bore an African diamond and a ship with an ebony hull. For her part, the Queen gave Drake a jewel with her portrait, an unusual gift to bestow upon a commoner, HP Pavilion zv6209us Keyboard

and one that Drake sported proudly in his 1591 portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts now at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. On one side is a state portrait of Elizabeth by the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard, on the other asardonyx cameo of double portrait busts, a regal woman and an African male. ACER TravelMate 4150 Series Keyboard

The "Drake Jewel", as it is known today, is a rare documented survivor among sixteenth-century jewels; it is conserved at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.[17] ACER TravelMate 2350 Keyboard

Award of knighthood

Queen Elizabeth awarded Drake a knighthood aboard Golden Hind in Deptford on 4 April 1581; the dubbing being performed by a French diplomat, Monsieur de Marchaumont, who was negotiating for Elizabeth to marry the King of France's brother, Francis, Duke of Anjou.[18][19] ACER 9J.N282.S1D Keyboard

By getting the French diplomat involved in the knighting, Elizabeth was gaining the implicit political support of the French for Drake's actions.[20][21] During the Victorian era, in a spirit of nationalism, the story was promoted that Elizabeth I had done the knighting.[19][22] HP G72-b45SB Keyboard

Award of arms

After receiving his knighthood Drake unilaterally adopted the armorials of the ancient Devon family of Drake of Ash, nearMusbury, to whom he claimed a distant but unspecified kinship. These arms were: Argent, a wyvern gules. HP G72-b46EB Keyboard

The head of the family concerned, also a distinguished sailor, Sir Bernard Drake (d.1586), strenuously refuted Sir Francis's claimed kinship and his right to bear his family's arms, which dispute led to "a box in the ear" being given to Sir Francis by Sir Bernard at court, as recorded by John Prince in his "Worthies of Devon" (1697). HP G72-b47SB Keyboard

The Queen in order to assuage matters awarded Sir Francis his own armorials: A fess wavy between two pole-stars Arctic and Antarctic, considered by students of heraldry to be an early example of "debased arms" due to their over-complexity, HP G72-b49WM Keyboard

particularly as regards the crest: A ship on a globe under ruff held by a cable rope with a hand out of the clouds in the rigging whereof is hung up by the heels a wivern gules. Nevertheless he continued stubbornly to quarter his new arms with the wyvern gules.[24] HP G72-b50EC Keyboard

In a pre-emptive strike, Drake "singed the beard of the King of Spain" by sailing a fleet into Cadiz and also Corunna, two of Spain's main ports, and occupied the harbours. He destroyed 37 naval and merchant ships. HP G72-b50EF Keyboard

The attack delayed the Spanish invasion by a year.[26] Over the next month, Drake patrolled the Iberian coasts between Lisbon and Cape St. Vincent, intercepting and destroying ships on the Spanish supply lines. Drake estimated that he captured around 1600–1700 tons of barrel staves, enough to make 25,000 to 30,000 barrels (4,800 m3) for containing provisions.[27] HP G72-b50EP Keyboard

Drake was vice admiral in command of the English fleet (under Lord Howard of Effingham) when it overcame the Spanish Armada that was attempting to invade England in 1588. HP G72-b50SF Keyboard

The Spanish ship was known to be carrying substantial funds to pay the Spanish Army in the Low Countries. Drake's ship had been leading the English pursuit of the Armada by means of a lantern. By extinguishing this for the capture, Drake put the fleet into disarray overnight. HP G72-b50SI Keyboard

On the night of 29 July, along with Howard, Drake organised fire-ships, causing the majority of the Spanish captains to break formation and sail out of Calais into the open sea. The next day, Drake was present at the Battle of Gravelines. HP G72-b50SP Keyboard

He wrote as follows to Admiral Henry Seymour after coming upon part of the Spanish Armada, whilst aboard Revenge on 31 July 1588 (21 July 1588 O.S.):[28] HP G72-b50SR Keyboard

HP G72-b50SS Keyboard

"Coming up to them, there has passed some common shot between some of our fleet and some of them; and as far as we perceive, they are determined to sell their lives with blows".HP G72-b50SQ Keyboard

The most famous (but probably apocryphal) anecdote about Drake relates that, prior to the battle, he was playing a game of bowlson Plymouth Hoe. On being warned of the approach of the Spanish fleet, Drake is said to have remarked that there was plenty of time to finish the game and still beat the Spaniards. HP G72-b50US Keyboard

There is no known eyewitness account of this incident and the earliest retelling of it was printed 37 years later.[13] Adverse winds and currents caused some delay in the launching of the English fleet as the Spanish drew nearer,[13] perhaps prompting a popular myth of Drake's cavalier attitude to the Spanish threat. HP G72-b51SF Keyboard

Drake-Norris Expedition

Drake's seafaring career continued into his mid-fifties. In 1595, he failed to conquer the port of Las Palmas, and following a disastrous campaign against Spanish America, where he suffered a number of defeats, he unsuccessfully attacked San Juan de Puerto Rico, HP G72-b52EF Keyboard

eventually losing the Battle of San Juan (1595).

The Spanish gunners from El Morro Castle shot a cannonball through the cabin of Drake's flagship, and he survived; but a few weeks later, in January 1596, he died of dysentery when he was about 55, while anchored off the coast of Portobelo, Panama, where some Spanish treasure ships had sought shelter. Following his death, the English fleet withdrew. HP G72-b52SF Keyboard

Before dying, he asked to be dressed in his full armour. He was buried at sea in a lead coffin, near Portobelo. Divers continue to search for the coffin. HP G72-b53EF Keyboard

n 1589, the year after defeating the Armada, Drake and Sir John Norreys were given three tasks. They were ordered to first seek out and destroy the remaining ships, second they were to support the rebels in Lisbon, Portugal against King Philip II (then king of Spain and Portugal), HP G72-b53NR Keyboard

and third they were to take the Azores if possible. Drake and Norreys destroyed a few ships in the harbour of La Coruña in Spain but lost more than 12,000 lives and 20 ships.[citation needed] This delayed Drake, and he was forced to forgo hunting the rest of the surviving ships and head on to Lisbon.[27] HP G72-b53SF Keyboard

Drake's seafaring career continued into his mid-fifties. In 1595, he failed to conquer the port of Las Palmas, and following a disastrous campaign against Spanish America, where he suffered a number of defeats, he unsuccessfully attacked San Juan de Puerto Rico, eventually losing the Battle of San Juan (1595). HP G72-b54EF Keyboard

The Spanish gunners from El Morro Castle shot a cannonball through the cabin of Drake's flagship, and he survived; but a few weeks later, in January 1596, he died of dysentery when he was about 55, while anchored off the coast of Portobelo, Panama, where some Spanish treasure ships had sought shelter. Following his death, the English fleet withdrew. HP G72-b54NR Keyboard

Before dying, he asked to be dressed in his full armour. He was buried at sea in a lead coffin, near Portobelo. Divers continue to search for the coffin. HP G72-b54SF Keyboard

Drakes Bay and Sir Francis Drake Boulevard of Marin County, California are both named after him, as well as the high schoolin San Anselmo, California. The boulevard runs between Drakes Bay at Point Reyes to Point San Quentin on San Francisco Bay. HP G72-b56EF Keyboard

A large hotel in Union Square, San Francisco also bears his name. In Devon, England there are various places named after him, especially in Plymouth, where a roundabout has been named Drake Circus. Additionally, the Sir Francis Drake Channel in theBritish Virgin Islands bears his name. HP G72-b56SF Keyboard

Drake's will was the focus of a vast confidence scheme which Oscar Hartzell perpetrated in the 1920s and 1930s. He convinced thousands of people, mostly in the American Midwest, that Drake's fortune was being held by the British government, and had compounded to a huge amount. HP G72-b57CL Keyboard

If their last name was Drake they might be eligible for a share if they paid Hartzell to be their agent. The swindle continued until a copy of Drake's will was brought to Hartzell's mail fraud trial and he was convicted and imprisoned.[29] HP G72-b58SF Keyboard

Modern workings of stories involving Drake include the 1961 British television series Sir Francis Drake,[30] and the 2009 UStelevision movie The Immortal Voyage of Captain Drake.[31] HP G72-b60EB Keyboard

Nathan Drake, a fictional descendant of Sir Francis Drake, searches for lost treasure supposedly found by Sir Francis during his circumnavigation in the video game Uncharted: Drake's Fortune,[32] and again in Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception. HP G72-b60SF Keyboard

Slave trading

Drake accompanied his second cousin Sir John Hawkins in making the third English slave-trading expeditions, making fortunes through the abduction and transportation of West African people, and then exchanging them for high-value goods.[33]HP G72-b60SS Keyboard

The first Englishman recorded to have taken slaves from Africa was John Lok, a London trader who, in 1555, brought to England five slaves from Guinea.[34] A second London trader taking slaves at that time was William Towerson whose fleet sailed into Plymouth following his 1556 voyage to Africa and from Plymouth on his 1557 voyage. HP G72-b60US Keyboard

Despite the exploits of Lok and Towerson, John Hawkins of Plymouth is widely acknowledged to be an early pioneer of the English slave trade. While Hawkins made only three such trips, ultimately the English were to dominate the trade.[35] HP G72-b61NR Keyboard

Around 1563 Drake first sailed west to the Spanish Main, on a ship owned and commanded by John Hawkins, with a cargo of people forcibly removed from the coast of West Africa. The Englishmen sold their African captives into slavery in Spanish plantations. HP G72-b62EF Keyboard

In general, the kidnapping and forced transportation of people was considered to be a criminal offence under English law at the time, although legal protection did not extend to slaves, non-Protestants or criminals. HP G72-b62SF Keyboard

Hawkins' own account of his actions (in which Drake took part) cites two sources for their victims. One was military attacks on African towns and villages (with the assistance of rival African warlords), the other was attacking Portuguese slave ships.[citation needed] HP G72-b62US Keyboard

HP G72-b63NR Keyboard

Conflict in the Caribbean

During his early days as a slave-trader, Drake took an immediate dislike to the Spanish, at least in part due to their Catholicism and inherent distrust of non-Spanish. His hostility is said to have increased over an incident at San Juan de Ulúa in 1568, HP G72-b66US Keyboard

when Drake was sailing with the fleet of his second cousin John Hawkins. Whilst negotiating to resupply and repair at the Spanish port, the fleet were attacked by Spanish warships, with all but two of the English ships lost. Drake survived the attack by swimming.[citation needed]HP G72-b67CA Keyboard

The most celebrated of Drake's adventures along the Spanish Main was his capture of the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de Dios in March 1573. With a crew including many French privateers and Maroons—African slaves who had escaped the Spanish—Drake raided the waters around Darien (in modern Panama) and tracked the Silver Train to the nearby port of Nombre de Dios. HP G72-b67US Keyboard

He made off with a fortune in gold, but had to leave behind another fortune in silver, because it was too heavy to carry back to England. It was during this expedition that he climbed a high tree in the central mountains of the Isthmus of Panama and thus became the first Englishman to see the Pacific Ocean. HP G72-b80SB Keyboard

He remarked as he saw it that he hoped one day an Englishman would be able to sail it—which he would do years later as part of his circumnavigation of the world. HP G72-c55DX Keyboard

When Drake returned to Plymouth after the raids, the government signed a temporary truce with King Philip II of Spain and so was unable to acknowledge Drake's accomplishment officially.

Drake was considered a hero in England and a pirate in Spain for his raids.[36] HP G72t-100 CTO Keyboard

Ireland

In 1575, Drake was present at Rathlin Island, part of the English plantation effort in Ulster where 600 men, women, and childrenwere massacred after surrendering.[37]

Francis Drake was in charge of the ships which transported John Norreys' troops to Rathlin Island, commanding a small frigate calledFalcon, with a total complement of 25. HP G72T-200 CTO Keyboard

At the time of the massacre, he was charged with the task of keeping Scottish vessels from bringing reinforcements to Rathlin Island. The people who were massacred were, in fact, the families of Sorley Boy MacDonnell's followers.[38] HP G72t-b00 CTO Keyboard

In 1578 Drake accused his co-commander Thomas Doughty of witchcraft in a shipboard trial.[22] Doughty was charged with mutiny and treason. Drake then denied his requests to see Drake's commission from the Queen to carry out such acts and was denied a trial in England. HP HDX18 Keyboard

HP HDX18-1000 CTO Keyboard

The two main pieces of evidence against Doughty were the testimony of the ship's carpenter, Edward Bright, and also that Doughty admitted to telling Lord William Burghley of the voyage. Drake consented to his request of Communion and dined with him. Thomas Doughty was beheaded on 2 July 1578. HP HDX18-1000EO Keyboard

Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, which is equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies,[1] HP HDX18-1001 Keyboard

vice admiral is a three-star rank with a NATO Code of OF-8, although in some navies like the French Navy it is an OF-7 rank, the OF-8 code corresponding to the four-star rank of squadron vice-admiral. HP HDX18-1001TX Keyboard

Canada

In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of vice-admiral (VAdm) (vice-amiral or Vam in Fr

ench) is equivalent to lieutenant-general of the Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force. A vice-admiral is a flag officer, the naval equivalent of a general officer. A vice-admiral is senior to a rear-admiral and major general, and junior to an admiral and general. HP HDX18-1002TX Keyboard

The rank insignia of a Canadian vice-admiral is as follows:

-On winter black mess dress jacket and winter black service dress tunic: the cuff insignia is one wide gold braid below two standard size gold braids, the superior one includes the executive curl. HP HDX18-1003TX Keyboard

-On tropical white mess dress and tropical white service dress tunic: three gold maple leaves, beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by a St. Edward's Crown located on gold shoulder boards.

Two rows of gold oak leaves are located on the black visor of the white service cap. HP HDX18-1004TX Keyboard

From 1968 to June 2010, the winter service dress tunic featured only a wide gold braid around the cuff with three gold maple leaves, beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by a St. Edward's Crown located on cloth shoulder straps. HP HDX18-1005EA Keyboard

Vice-admirals are addressed by rank and name; thereafter by subordinates as "Sir" or "Ma'am". Vice-admirals are normally entitled to a staff car; the car will normally bear a flag, dark blue with three gold maple leaves arranged one over two. HP HDX18-1005TX Keyboard

A vice-admiral generally holds only the most senior command or administrative appointments, barring only Chief of Defence Staff, which is held by a full admiralor general. Appointments held by vice-admirals may include: HP HDX18-1006TX Keyboard

In the Canadian Forces, a flag officer (French: officier général, "general officer") is an admiral, vice-admiral, rear-admiral, or commodore, the naval equivalent of a general officer of the army or air force. HP HDX18-1007TX Keyboard

It is a somewhat counterintuitive usage of the term, as only flag officers in command of commands or formations actually have their own flags (technically a commodore has only a broad pennant, not a flag), and army and air force generals in command of commands or formations also have their own flags, but are not called flag officers. HP HDX18-1008TX Keyboard

Base commanders, usually full colonels, also have a pennant that flies from the mast or flagpole on the base, when resident, or on vehicles that carry them.[1] HP HDX18-1009TX Keyboard

A flag officer's rank is denoted by a wide strip of gold braid on the cuff of the service dress tunic; one to four gold maple leaves over a crossed sword and baton, HP HDX18-1010EA Keyboard

HP HDX18-1010TX Keyboard

all beneath a royal crown, on epaulettes and shoulder boards; and two rows of gold oak leaves on the peak of the service cap.[2] Since the Unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968, a flag officer's dress tunic had a single broad stripe on the sleeve and epaulettes. HP HDX18-1011TX Keyboard

On May 5, 2010, however, the naval uniform dark dress tunic was adjusted—exterior epaulettes were removed, reverting to the sleeve ring and executive curl-rank insignia used by most navies; commodores' uniforms display a broad stripe, and each succeeding rank receives an additional sleeve ring. There are no epaulettes on the exterior of the tunic, but they are still worn on the uniform shirt underneath.[3] HP HDX18-1012TX Keyboard

United Kingdom

In the Royal Navy, there is a distinction between "flag officer" and "officer of flag rank". Formerly all officers promoted to flag rank were considered to be "flag officers"[4] and the term is still widely used to refer to any officer of flag rank. HP HDX18-1013TX Keyboard

Present usage is that all rear-admirals and above are officers of flag rank, but only those officers of flag rank who are authorised to fly a flag are formally called "flag officers", and have different flags for different ranks ofadmiral. HP HDX18-1014TX Keyboard

Of the 39 officers of flag rank in the Royal Navy in 2006, very few were "flag officers" with entitlement to fly a flag. For example, Commander-in-Chief Fleet flies an admiral's flag whether ashore or afloat and is a "flag officer"; the chief of staff (support), a rear admiral, is not entitled to fly a flag and is an "officer of flag rank" rather than a "flag officer". HP HDX18-1015TX Keyboard

List of fleets and major commands of the Royal Navy lists most admirals who were "flag officers". A flag officer's junior officer is often known as "Flags".HP HDX18-1016TX Keyboard

Equivalent ranks in the British Army and Royal Marines are called general officer rather than flag officers, and those in the Royal Air Force (as well as the rank of air commodore) are called air officers, although all are entitled to fly flags of rank. HP HDX18-1017TX Keyboard

United States

In 1857 Congress created the title of "flag officer" as an actual rank of the Navy.[5] The rank of flag officer was bestowed on senior navy captains who were assigned to lead a squadron of vessels in addition to command of their own ship. HP HDX18-1018TX Keyboard

During the American Civil War the Confederate States Navy also used the term. The 19th-century rank of "flag officer" was considered strictly temporary and became obsolete upon the creation and widespread usage of the equivalent naval rank of commodore; HP HDX18-1019TX Keyboard

however, the term is still in use today to denote a category of naval officers equivalent to general officers.[6]In  1862 Congress authorized American use of the title "admiral".[5] In the navy, although formally known as the "aide", "flag aide", or "flag lieutenant", HP HDX18-1020 Keyboard

a flag officer's junior officer is often referred to informally as "(the) loop" after the braided cord worn by the aide on the left shoulder of the uniform. In the U.S. Coast Guard, this officer is referred to as a "flag aide" and wears the same style of blue and gold braided cord on the left shoulder as their navy counterparts. HP HDX18-1023 Keyboard

In the U.S. Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, the term "flag officer" generally is applied to all general officers authorized to fly their own command flags—i.e., Brigadier General, or rank O-7, and above.[7] However, as a matter of law, Title 10 of the United States Code makes a distinction between general officers and flag officers.[6]HP HDX18-1023CA Keyboard

Non-naval officers usually fly their flags from their headquarters, vessels, or vehicles, typically only for the most senior officer present.[8][9] In the United States all flag and general officers must be nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate; each subsequent promotion requires renomination and re-approval. HP HDX18-1024 Keyboard

United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providingpower projection from the sea,[6] using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. HP HDX18-1024CA Keyboard

It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States. In the civilian leadership structure of the United States military, the Marine Corps is a component of the United States Department of the Navy,[7][8]often working closely with U.S. naval forces for training, transportation, and logistic purposes; however, in the military leadership structure the Marine Corps is a separate branch.[9] HP HDX18-1025 Keyboard

Captain Samuel Nicholas formed two battalions of Continental Marines on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as naval infantry.[10] Since then, the mission of the Marine Corps has evolved with changing military doctrine and American foreign policy. HP HDX18-1027 Keyboard

The Marine Corps has served in every American armed conflict and attained prominence in the 20th century when its theories and practices of amphibious warfare proved prescient and ultimately formed the cornerstone of the Pacific campaign of World War II.[11HP HDX18-1027CL Keyboard

]By the mid-20th century, the Marine Corps had become the dominant theorist and practitioner of amphibious warfare.[12][13][14] Its ability to rapidly respond on short notice to expeditionary crises gives it a strong role in the implementation and execution of American foreign policy.[15] HP HDX18-1050EB Keyboard

As of 2010 the United States Marine Corps included just under 203,000 active duty Marines and just under 40,000reserve Marines.[2] It is the smallest of the United States' armed forces in the Department of Defense. The United States Coast Guard is smaller, about one-fifth the size of the Marine Corps, HP HDX18-1050EF Keyboard

but it does not normally operate under the DoD. The Marine Corps is nonetheless larger than the armed forces of many significant military powers, being larger than the active duty Israel Defense Forces and the active duty British Army.[16][17] HP HDX18-1050ER Keyboard

The USMC serves as an expeditionary force-in-readiness. As outlined in 10 U.S.C. § 5063 and as originally introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, it has three primary areas of responsibility: HP HDX18-1058 Keyboard

§  The seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns;

§  The development of tactics, technique, and equipment used by amphibious landing forces in coordination with the Army and Air Force; and

§  Such other duties as the President may direct. HP HDX18-1058CA Keyboard

This last clause, while seemingly redundant given the President's position as Commander-in-chief, is a codification of the expeditionary duties of the Marine Corps. It derives from similar language in theCongressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, HP HDX18-1070EE Keyboard

and "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps." HP HDX18-1080ED Keyboard

It noted that the corps has more often than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, Chapultepec, and numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties (such as those in Central America),World War I, HP HDX18-1080EG Keyboard

and the Korean War. While these actions are not accurately described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests.[18] HP HDX18-1080EL Keyboard

In addition to its primary duties, the Marine Corps has missions in direct support of the White House and the State Department. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House.[19] Marines guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, HP HDX18-1080EP Keyboard

and the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, using the call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two" respectively.[20] By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies, legations, and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.[21] HP HDX18-1080ES Keyboard

Historical mission

The Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny; to the latter end, their quarters on ship were often strategically positioned between the officers' quarters and the rest of the vessel. HP HDX18-1080ET Keyboard

Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, HP HDX18-1080EW Keyboard

a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas. The role of the Marine Corps has expanded significantly since then; as the importance of its original naval mission declined with changing naval warfare doctrine and the professionalization of the naval service, HP HDX18-1088EZ Keyboard

the corps adapted by focusing on what was former secondary missions ashore. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. HP HDX18-1090EZ Keyboard

Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, battleships and carriers. Marine detachments (generally one platoon per cruiser, a company for battleships or carriers) served their traditional duties as ship's landing force, HP HDX18-1099UX Keyboard

manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, and continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Keyboard

Marines would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II.[22] During World War II, Marines continued to serve on capital ships. They often were assigned to man anti-aircraft batteries. HP HDX18-1100EO Keyboard

When gun cruisers were retired by the 1960s, the remaining Marine detachments were only seen on battleships and carriers. Its original mission of providing shipboard security finally ended in the 1990s when nuclear weapons were withdrawn from active deployment and the battleships were retired. HP HDX18-1101EA Keyboard

The Marine Corps fulfills a vital role in national security as an amphibious, expeditionary, air-ground combined arms task force, capable of forcible entry from the air, land, and sea. It is capable of asymmetric warfare with conventional,irregular, and hybrid forces. HP HDX18-1101EG Keyboard

While the Marine Corps does not employ any unique combat arms, as a force it can rapidly deploy a combined-arms task force to almost anywhere in the world within days. The basic structure for all deployed units is a Marine Air-Ground Task Force(MAGTF) that integrates a ground combat element, HP HDX18-1101TX Keyboardan aviation combat element and a logistics combat element under a commoncommand element. While the creation of joint commands under the Goldwater–Nichols Act has improved inter-service coordination between each branch, the Corps' ability to permanently maintain integrated multi-element task forces under a single command provides a smoother implementation of combined-arms warfare principles.[11HP HDX18-1102EA Keyboard

The close integration of disparate Marine units stems from an organizational culture centered around the infantry. Every other Marine capability exists to support the infantry. Unlike some Western militaries, the Corps remained conservative against theories proclaiming the ability of new weapons to win wars independently. HP HDX18-1102TX Keyboard

For example, Marine aviation has always been focused on close air support and has remained largely uninfluenced by air power theories proclaiming that strategic bombing can single-handedly win wars.[22]

This focus on the infantry is matched with the doctrine that "Every Marine is a rifleman", a focus of Commandant Alfred M. HP HDX18-1103EA Keyboard

Gray, Jr., emphasizing the infantry combat abilities of every Marine. All Marines, regardless of military specialization, receive training as a rifleman; and all officers receive additional training as infantry platoon commanders.[23]HP HDX18-1103TX Keyboard

For example, at Wake Island, when all of the Marine aircraft were shot down, pilots continued the fight as ground officers, leading supply clerks and cooks in a final defensive effort.[24] As a result, a large degree of initiative and autonomy is expected of junior Marines, HP HDX18-1104TX Keyboard

particularly the NCOs (corporals and sergeants), as compared with many other military organizations. The Marine Corps emphasizes authority and responsibility downward to a greater degree than the other military services. Flexibility of execution is implemented via an emphasis on "commander's intent" as a guiding principle for carrying out orders; HP HDX18-1105TX Keyboard

specifying the end state but leaving open the method of execution.[25] The amphibious assault techniques developed for World War II evolved, with the addition of air assault and maneuver warfare doctrine, into the current "Operational Maneuver from the Sea" doctrine of power projection from the seas.[6]HP HDX18-1106TX Keyboard

The Marines are credited with the development of helicopter insertion doctrine and were the earliest in the American military to widely adopt maneuver-warfare principles which emphasize low-level initiative and flexible execution. In light of recent warfare that has strayed from the Corps' traditional missions,[26] it has renewed an emphasis on amphibious capabilities.[27] HP HDX18-1107TX Keyboard

The Marine Corps relies on the Navy for sealift to provide its rapid deployment capabilities. In addition to basing a third of the Fleet Marine Force in Japan,Marine Expeditionary Units (MEU) are typically stationed at sea. This allows the ability to function as first responders to international incidents. HP HDX18-1108TX Keyboard

The United States Army now maintains light infantry units capable of rapid worldwide deployment, but those units do not match the combined-arms integration of a MAGTF and lack the logistics that the Navy provides.[11]HP HDX18-1109TX Keyboard

For this reason, the Marine Corps is often assigned to non-combat missions such as the evacuation of Americans from unstable countries and providing humanitarian relief during natural disasters. In larger conflicts, Marines act as a stopgap, to get into and hold an area until larger units can be mobilized. HP HDX18-1110EG Keyboard

The Corps performed this role in World War I and the Korean War, where Marines were the first significant combat units deployed from the United States and held the line until the country could mobilize for war.[28]HP HDX18-1111TX Keyboard

To aid rapid deployment, the Maritime Pre-Positioning System was developed: fleets of container ships are positioned throughout the world with enough equipment and supplies for a Marine Expeditionary Force to deploy for 30 days. HP HDX18-1110TX Keyboard

Doctrine

Two small manuals published during the 1930s would establish USMC doctrine in two areas. The Small Wars Manual laid the framework for Marine counter-insurgencyoperations from Vietnam to Iraq and Afghanistan while the Tentative Landing Operations Manual established the doctrine for the amphibious operations of World War II. HP HDX18-1112TX Keyboard

"Operational Maneuver from the Sea" is the current doctrine of power projection.[6]

As an expeditionary force, the USMC is planning to reduce its logistical requirements and by 2025 eliminate all liquid fuel use other than for highly efficient vehicles.[29] HP HDX18-1113TX Keyboard

The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War, formed by Captain Samuel Nicholas by a resolution of the Second Continental Congress on 10 November 1775, to raise 2battalions of Marines. HP HDX18-1114TX Keyboard

That date is regarded and celebrated as the date of the Marine Corps' "birthday". At the end of the American Revolution, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded in April 1783. The institution itself would not be resurrected until 11 July 1798. HP HDX18-1115TX Keyboard

At that time, in preparation for the Quasi-War with France, Congress created the United States Marine Corps.[30] Marines had been enlisted by the War Department as early as August 1797[31] for service in the new-build frigates authorized by the Congressional "Act to provide a Naval Armament" of 18 March 1794,[32]HP HDX18-1116TX Keyboard

which specified the numbers of Marines to be recruited for each frigate.

The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War (1801–1805) against the Barbary pirates,[33] HP HDX18-1120LA Keyboard

when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led eight Marines and 500 mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli. Though they only reached Derna, the action at Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' hymn and theMameluke Sword carried by Marine officers.[34] HP HDX18-1150EE Keyboard

During the War of 1812, Marine naval detachments took part in the great frigate duels that characterized the war, which were the first American victories in the conflict. Their most significant contributions were delaying the British march to Washington, D.C. at the Battle of Bladensburg and holding the center of Gen.Andrew Jackson's defensive line at the defense of New Orleans. HP HDX18-1150EF Keyboard

By the end of the war, the Marines had acquired a well-deserved reputation as expert marksmen, especially in ship-to-ship actions.[34]

After the war, the Marine Corps fell into a depression that ended with the appointment of Archibald Henderson as its fifth Commandant in 1820. HP HDX18-1155EE Keyboard

Under his tenure, the Corps took on expeditionary duties in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Key West, West Africa, the Falkland Islands, and Sumatra. Commandant Henderson is credited with thwarting President Jackson's attempts to combine and integrate the Marine Corps with the Army.[34] HP HDX18-1175EE Keyboard

Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps in 1834,

stipulating that the Corps was part of the Department of the Navy as a sister service to the Navy.[35] This would be the first of many times that the existence of the Corps was challenged. HP HDX18-1180 Keyboard

Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines for service in the Seminole Wars of 1835, personally leading nearly half of the entire Corps (two battalions) to war. A decade later, in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), the Marines made their famedassault on Chapultepec Palace in Mexico City, HP HDX18-1180CA Keyboard

which would be later celebrated by the phrase "From The Halls of Montezuma" in Marines' hymn. In the 1850s, the Marines would see further service in Panama and Asia, escorting Matthew Perry's East India Squadron on its historic trip to the Far East.[36] HP HDX18-1180EB Keyboard

With their vast service in foreign engagements, the Marine Corps played a moderate role in the Civil War (1861–1865); their most prominent task was blockade duty. As more and more states seceded from the Union, about half of the Corps' officers left the Union to join the Confederacy and form the Confederate States Marine Corps, which ultimately played little part in the war. HP HDX18-1180ED Keyboard

The battalion of recruits formed for the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) performed poorly, retreating with the rest of the Union forces.[28] Blockade duty included sea-based amphibious operations to secure forward bases. HP HDX18-1180EF Keyboard

In late November, 1861, Marines and sailors landed a reconnaissance in force from the USS Flag at Tybee Island, Georgia, to occupy the Lighthouse and Martello Tower on the northern end of the island. It would later be the Army base for bombardment of Fort Pulaski.[37] HP HDX18-1180EL Keyboard

The remainder of the 19th century was marked by declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. The Navy's transition from sail to steam put into question the need for Marines on naval ships. HP HDX18-1180EP Keyboard

Meanwhile, Marines served as a convenient resource for interventions and landings to protect American lives and interests overseas. The Corps was involved in over 28 separate interventions in the 30 years from the end of the American Civil War to the end of 19th century. They would be called upon to stem political and labor unrest within the United States.[38]HP HDX18-1180ES Keyboard

Under Commandant Jacob Zeilin's tenure, Marine customs and traditions took shape: the Corps adopted the Marine Corps emblem on 19 November 1868. It was during this time that "The Marines' Hymn" was first heard. Around 1883, the Marines adopted their current motto "Semper Fidelis" (Always Faithful).[34] HP HDX18-1180EW Keyboard

John Philip Sousa, the musician and composer, enlisted as a Marine apprentice at the age of 13, serving from 1867 until 1872, and again from 1880 to 1892 as the leader of the Marine Band. HP HDX18-1180US Keyboard

During the Spanish–American War (1898), Marines led American forces ashore in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, demonstrating their readiness for deployment. At Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the Marines seized an advanced naval base that remains in use today. HP HDX18-1190EW Keyboard

Between 1899 and 1916, the Corps continued its record of vigorous participation in foreign expeditions, including the Philippine–American War, the Boxer Rebellion in China (1899–1901), Panama, the Cuban Pacifications, the Perdicaris Incident in Morocco, HP HDX18-1190EZ Keyboard

Veracruz, Santo Domingo, and the Banana Wars in Haiti and Nicaragua; the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period were consolidated into the Small Wars Manual.[39] HP HDX18-1200 CTO Keyboard

During World War I veteran Marines served a central role in the late American entry into the conflict. Unlike the Army, the Marine Corps had a deep pool of officers and NCOs with battle experience, and experienced a smaller expansion. HP HDX18-1200EO Keyboard

Here, the Marines fought their famed battle at Belleau Wood, creating the Marines' reputation in modern history. While its previous expeditionary experiences had not earned it much acclaim in the Western world, the Marines' ferocity and toughness in France earned them the respect of the Germans, who rated them of stormtrooper quality. HP HDX18-1201EA Keyboard

Though Marines and American media reported that Germans had nicknamed them Teufel Hunden as meaning "Devil Dogs", there is no evidence of this in German records (asTeufelshunde would be the proper German phrase), nevertheless, the name stuck.[40]HP HDX18-1201TX Keyboard

The Corps had entered the war with 511 officers and 13,214 enlisted personnel, and by 11 November 1918 had reached a strength of 2,400 officers and 70,000 men.[41]

Between the World Wars, the Marine Corps was headed by Commandant John A. Lejeune, and under his leadership, HP HDX18-1202TX Keyboard

the Corps presciently studied and developed amphibious techniques that would be of great use in World War II. Many officers, including Lt. Col. Earl Hancock "Pete" Ellis, foresaw a war in the Pacific with Japan and took preparations for such a conflict. Through 1941, as the prospect of war grew, the Corps pushed urgently for joint amphibious exercises and acquired amphibious equipment that would prove of great use in the upcoming conflict.[42] HP HDX18-1204TX Keyboard

In World War II, the Marines played a central role in the Pacific War. The battles of Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Tarawa,Guam, Tinian, Saipan, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between Marines and the Imperial Japanese Army. HP HDX18-1205TX Keyboard

Philip Johnston proposed the use of Navajo as a code language to the Corps. The idea was accepted, and the Navajo code was formally developed and modeled on the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet.

During the battle of Iwo Jima, HP HDX18-1206TX Keyboard

photographer Joe Rosenthal took the famous photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima of five Marines and one Navy Corpsman raising the American flag on Mt. Suribachi. Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, having come ashore earlier that day, said of the flag-raising, "...HP HDX18-1207TX Keyboard

the raising of that flag on Suribachi means a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years." The acts of the Marines during the war added to their already significant popular reputation. By the end of the war, the Corps expanded from two brigades to six divisions, HP HDX18-1222EG Keyboard

HP HDX18-1250EF Keyboard

five air wings, and supporting troops, totaling about 485,000 Marines. In addition, 20 defense battalions and a parachute battalion were set raised.[43] Nearly 87,000 Marines were casualties during World War II (including nearly 20,000 killed), and 82 were awarded the Medal of Honor.[44] HP HDX18-1250EO Keyboard

Despite Secretary Forrestal's prediction, the Corps faced an immediate institutional crisis following the war due to the low budget. Army generals pushing for a strengthened and reorganized defense establishment attempted to fold the Marine mission and assets into the Navy and Army. Drawing on hastily assembled Congressional support, HP HDX18-1250ER Keyboard

and with the assistance of the so-called "Revolt of the Admirals,"the Marine Corps rebuffed such efforts to dismantle the Corps, resulting in statutory protection of the Marine Corps in theNational Security Act of 1947.[45]HP HDX18-1255EE Keyboard

Shortly afterward, in 1952 the Douglas-Mansfield Bill afforded the Commandant an equal voice with the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters relating to the Marines and established the structure of three active divisions and air wings that remain today. HP HDX18-1275EE Keyboard

Korean War

The Korean War (1950–1953) saw

the hastily formed Provisional Marine Brigade holding the defensive line at the Pusan Perimeter. To execute a flanking maneuver, General Douglas MacArthur called on Marine air and ground forces to make an amphibious landing atInchon. HP HDX18-1275EZ Keyboard

The successful landing resulted in the collapse of North Korean lines and the pursuit of North Korean forces north near theYalu River until the entrance of the People's Republic of China into the war. Chinese troops surrounded, surprised and overwhelmed the overextended and outnumbered American forces. HP HDX18-1277EZ Keyboard

X Corps, which included the 1st Marine Division and the Army's 7th Infantry Division, regrouped and inflicted heavy casualties during their fighting withdrawal to the coast, now known as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. HP HDX18-1280ED Keyboard

The fighting calmed after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir, but late in March 1953 the relative quiet of the war was broken when the Chinese Army launched a massive offensive on three outposts manned by the 5th Marine Regiment. HP HDX18-1280EL Keyboard

These outposts were codenamed "Reno", "Vegas", and "Carson". The campaign was collectively known as the Nevada Cities Campaign. There was brutal fighting on Reno hill, which was eventually captured by the Chinese. HP HDX18-1280EP Keyboard

Although Reno was lost, the 5th Marines held both Vegas and Carson through the rest of the campaign. In this one campaign, the marines suffered approximately 1,000 casualties, while the Chinese suffered at least twice as many. HP HDX18-1280ES Keyboard

Marines would continue a battle of attrition around the 38th Parallel until the 1953 armistice.[46] The Korean War saw the Corps expand from 75,000 regulars to a force of 261,000 Marines, mostly reservists. 30,544 Marines were killed or wounded during the war and 42 were awarded the Medal of Honor.[47] HP HDX18-1280EW Keyboard

The Marine Corps served an important role in the Vietnam War taking part in such battles as Da Nang, Hue City, Con Thien and Khe Sanh. Individuals from the USMC operated in the Northern I Corps Regions of South Vietnam. HP HDX18-1290EW Keyboard

While there, they were constantly engaged in a guerrilla war against the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam(NLF) and an intermittent conventional war against the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). HP HDX18-1299EB Keyboard

Portions of the Corps were responsible for the less-known Combined Action Program (CAP) that implemented unconventional techniques for counter-insurgency and worked as military advisors to the Republic of Vietnam Marine Corps. HP HDX18-1290EZ Keyboard

Marines were withdrawn in 1971, and returned briefly in 1975 to evacuate Saigon and attempt a rescue of the crew of the Mayagüez.[48] HP HDX18T Keyboard

Vietnam was the longest war for Marines; by its end, 13,091[49][50] had been killed in action, 51,392 had been wounded, and 57 Medals of Honor had been awarded.[51][52] Due to policies concerning rotation, more Marines were deployed for service during Vietnam than World War II.[53] HP HDX18T-1000 Keyboard

While recovering from Vietnam, the Corps hit a detrimental low point in its service history caused by courts-martial and non-judicial punishments related partially to increased unauthorized absences and desertions during the war. HP HDX18T-1100 Keyboard

Overhauling of the Corps began in the late 1970s, discharging the most delinquent, and once quality of new recruits improved, the Corps focused on reforming the NCO Corps, a vital functioning part of its forces.[11] HP HDX18T-1100 CTO Keyboard

HP HDX18T-1200 CTO Keyboard

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