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Free University of Berlin The Freie Universität Berlin is a research university in Germany and continental Europe. It is the largest of the four universities in Berlin. Research at the university is focused on the humanities and social sciences, as well as on healthand natural sciences. Founded in West Berlin during the early Cold War period and born out of the increasingly Communist-controlled Humboldt University, its name refers to West Berlin's status as part of the free world, as opposed to theSoviet-occupied areas surrounding the city. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard The Freie Universität Berlin was one of nine German top-universities (also known as elite universities) to win in theGerman Universities Excellence Initiative, a national competition for universities organized by the German Federal Government with the intention of identifying and forming a German Ivy League. Winning a distinction for five doctoral programs, three interdisciplinary research clusters (some of them in cooperation with other universities) and its overall institutional strategy, SAMSUNG X15 Laptop Keyboard the Freie Universität Berlin was the single most successful university in the initiative. In university rankings, the Freie Universität Berlin ranks among the best German universities; it has established a strong international showing in the Arts & Humanities followed by the Social Sciences, making it one of Europe's top institutions in these fields. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Excluding the Charité medical school which is co-administered by the university with the Humboldt University, the Freie Universität is currently the lead university for eight collaborative research centres of the German Research Foundation(DFG) and also has five DFG research units. Fourteen scholars of the Freie Universität have to date been awarded theGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize of the DFG - the most acclaimed award for research achievements in Germany. SONY VAIO VGN-CS110D/Q Laptop Keyboard Most of the university's facilities are located in the Dahlem district of the southwest Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf. The first independent structure to be completed on campus was the Henry Ford Building, funded by the AmericanFord Foundation. To that point, the university was housed in several older structures around the neighbourhood, including theOtto Hahn Building, which houses the biochemistry department to this day. DELL Latitude D820 Laptop Keyboard The largest single complex of university buildings is the Rost- und Silberlaube, which translates roughly to the "Rust and Silver Lodges". This complex consists of a series of interlinked structures corresponding to either a deep bronze (hence, "rust") or shiny white ("silver") hue, surrounding a variety of leafy courtyards. It has recently been complemented by a new centrepiece, the brain-shaped Philological Library, designed by British architect Lord Norman Foster. SONY VAIO VGN NR160E Laptop Keyboard The Freie Universität Berlin was founded by students and scholars on December 4, 1948, with the support of the American Allies and Berlin politicians as a response to the persecution of students critical of the system at Humboldt University in the Soviet sector of the divided city of Berlin. These students and scholars wanted to study and carry out research at the Freie Universität, free of political influence. Thanks to generous donations from the United States, FUJITSU Lifebook T4215 Laptop Keyboard the Freie Universität was able to construct several new central building complexes including the Benjamin Franklin university clinic complex and the Henry Ford Building, the central lecture building. Based on its founding tradition, the Freie Universität’s seal to this day bears the Latin terms for Truth, Justice, and Liberty. In 2007, the Freie Universität dedicated a monument to the founding students who were murdered by the Soviet secret service. The university presents its Freedom Award to personalities who have made a special contribution toward the cause of freedom. HP Pavilion dv3-2312tx Laptop Keyboard The years 1968, 1990 and 2007 mark turning points in the history of the Freie Universität. During the 1960s, the university was the scene of student protests that provided the impulse for more openness, equality, and democracy. After German unification in 1990 and increasingly since 2000, the Freie UniversitätLENOVO 25-008389 Laptop Keyboard Berlin has revamped itself. The university’s research performance increased markedly with regard to the number of graduates, Ph.D.s granted, and publications. Underlying this successful trend were fundamental reforms such as the introduction of modern management systems in the administration, a reorganization of the departments, DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard and an efficient utilization of resources. Prognos, the renowned economic institute in Basel, Switzerland, presented the Freie Universität with an award for its good entrepreneurial principles. Since 2003, the Freie Universität has been regrouping its research capacities into transdisciplinary research focus areas called clusters.  HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard The year 2007 was another crucial year for the Freie Universität: It was the university with the most approved funding applications in the German Universities Excellence Initiative, and it is now one of nine elite German universities to receive funding for its future development strategy.  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The Freie Universität is located in the residential garden district of Dahlem in southwestern Berlin. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Dahlem was established as a centre for research of the highest calibre. Academic activity in Dahlem was supported by Friedrich Althoff, Ministerial Director in the Prussian Ministry of Culture,  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Laptop Keyboard who initially proposed the foundation of "a German Oxford." The first new buildings housed government science agencies and new research institutes of the University of Berlin. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society – forerunner of the present-day Max Planck Society – was founded in 1911 and established several institutes in Dahlem. DELL 0PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard A dynamic group of researchers carried out pioneering research resulting in numerous Nobel Prizes. Since its foundation, The Freie Universität Berlin has been using buildings formerly belonging to the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and, in addition, has added numerous architecturally innovative buildings. The Freie Universität’s central campus consists of building ensembles within walking distance of each other. The planners oriented themselves along the type of campus found in the United States – a novelty in post-war Germany.  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard International Partnership the Freie Universität maintains wide-ranging international contacts to other universities and organizations which provide key impulses for research and teaching: In the 1950s, the Freie Universität had already established partnerships with leading universities in the United States such as the University of California System (including UC Berkeley, UCLA), TOSHIBA Qosmio F45-AV411 Laptop Keyboard Chicago, Cornell, Stanford, Duke, Princeton, Yale and Columbia, as well as with Western European universities like Cambridge, University College London and École Normale Supérieure in Paris. The university is a founding member of the global educational centre for the study of transnational law, the Centre for Transnational Legal Studies in London. the Freie Universität also develops a double degree in Public Policy and Management with the top-ranking European business school, HEC Paris.[1] HP G42-303DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan First contacts with universities in Eastern Europe were made in the 1970s. In particular in the 1990s, links were extended to include growing numbers of institutions in North America, Eastern Europe, and the Far East. The newly established Centre for International Cooperation (CIC) concentrates on identifying new strategic partners for international projects.  IBM 91P9252 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Today, the Freie Universität has 130 partnerships worldwide, and every year some 600 visiting scientists contribute to the university teaching and research. For the grant programs in Germany, the Freie Universität is one of the first choices both for the Erasmus and Tempus as well as for the Fulbright program and the international programs of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). An International Summer University has been set up for foreign students offering internationally accepted credits. Toshiba Satellite A205-S4587 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Freie Universität Berlin operates foreign branch offices in New York City, Brussel, Moscow, Beijing, Cairo and New Delhi. The foreign branch offices work to expand upon cooperation partnerships already existing with universities in the country. HP Pavilion dv5184ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In April 2005 the Freie Universität Berlin, in conjunction with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU), opened a joint representative office in New York. This German University Alliance, located in German House, the seat of the German Consulate General and the German UN Mission, represents the interests of the two universities in the U.S. and Canada and works to increase the exchange of students and scientists. SONY UDQFRZH14CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In addition, the Freie Universität Berlin, as the first German institution of higher education, founded an alumni- and fundraising organization, the Friends of the Freie Universität Berlin (FFUB) in New York. Since 2003 this alumni- and fundraising organization has maintained close contact to alumni and scientists of the Freie Universität in the U.S. and attempts to gain alumni and friends as sponsors, to strengthen the long-lasting trans-Atlantic relations. Some of the proceeds from these fundraising activities were contributed to the renovation of the Henry Ford Building. Toshiba Satellite L305-S5917 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With additional branch offices in Moscow (since 2004), Peking, and New Delhi (opened in February 2008), operated in cooperation with strong partners, large research institutions, or universities, the Freie Universität Berlin is strategically extending its radius of action as an international network university.  Compaq Presario C770BR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In April 2006 Peking University opened its first branch in Germany. Its objectives include the promotion of knowledge of Chinese culture, the cultivation of Chinese-German cooperation, and the spread of Chinese languages. Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, has a Berlin Programm (Duke in Berlin), that is held in cooperation with the Freie Universität and Humboldt Universität. HP Pavilion dv6-2163tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University of California System organizes programs for American students in Berlin and Potsdam. At the Freie Universität the UC System maintains an office to attend to the needs of the exchange students from California. HP Pavilion G72 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Office of Global Programs of Columbia University in New York administrates the Berlin Consortium for German Studies. Students from Columbia University and the other colleges and universities included in the consortium (University of Chicago, Cornell University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Pennsylvania,Princeton University, and Vassar College) can attend classes at the Freie Universität for one or two semesters as external students. This temporary enrollment is preceded by a six-week intensive language program. Compaq Presario CQ40-105au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Born in Bochum as the son of a mining plant director, he grew up in a family of anthroposophists. His younger brother is Konrad Schily, an academic and also a politician. In 1962, he passed his second state exam after having studied law and politics inMunich, Hamburg, and Berlin, thus being admitted to the bar; a year later, he opened his own law practice. SONY Vaio VGN-NW91VS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 1970s, he became a public figure as a trial lawyer, defending several guerilla activists of the left-wing Red Army Faction. In 1971, he represented his then-friend Horst Mahler (who much later would become an advocate of the fascist NPD); during the Stammheim trial (1975–1977), he was the only remaining attorney of Gudrun Ensslin. While he gained popularity and respect for acting according to his own moral principles, some accused him of supporting the radicals' goals. Toshiba Satellite A215-S7416 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1980, he became founding member of the Green Party and was elected to the Bundestag in 1983. Due to the party's then-policy of rotating its representatives, he had to leave parliament in 1986, but he was re-elected in 1987. Increasingly estranged from the fundamentalist wing of the Greens, particularly regarding alliances with larger parties,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard he left the party in 1989, resigned from his seat in parliament, and joined the Social Democrats (SPD) instead – which he represented in the new Bundestag in 1990. In subsequent years, he was active in affairs of the former East Germany and in coordinating various legal policies of the SPD. Packard Bell EasyNote TJ71 Laptop Keyboard After Gerhard Schröder became chancellor in 1998, he appointed Schily Minister of the Interior. He was frequently criticized for conservative policies, such as pushing through German anti-terrorist legislation after the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were seen as contradictory to his earlier beliefs. Political analysts, however, viewed him as an indispensable member of the cabinet, who would insulate Schröder from conservative criticism on issues of crime and immigration. At over 70 years of age, he was the oldest member of the cabinet. DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard After being minister, he became a supervisory board member of two companies for biometric technologies, raising questions as to whether or not he is capitalizing on his work as minister, regarding the implementation of biometric passports.[1][2][3]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard On March 29, 2007, he took responsibility for the handling of the case of Guantanamo detainee Murat Kurnaz, who was arrested in Pakistan in 2001, turned over toU.S. authorities and held at the U.S. prison camp in Cuba as a terror suspect. Kurnaz was released in 2006 and returned to Germany.[4] In 2005, he received theLeo Baeck Medal for his humanitarian work promoting tolerance and social justice. DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, OM Kt. (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company maintains an international design practice, Foster + Partners. SONY Vaio PCG-K25 Laptop Keyboard Foster was raised in Manchester in a working-class family and was intrigued by design and engineering from a young age. His years observing Mancunian architecture subsequently influenced his works, and was inspired to pursue a career in architecture after a treasurer clerk noticed his sketches and interest in Manchester's buildings while he worked atManchester Town Hall.[1]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Foster gained an internship at a local architect's office before submitting a portfolio and winning a place at theUniversity of Manchester School of Architecture. He subsequently won a scholarship to study at the Yale School of Architecture in the United States of America.  SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Foster returned to the United Kingdom in 1963 and set up a practice, Team 4 which became Foster + Partners. His breakthrough building was arguably the Willis Building in Ipswich in 1975 and he has since designed landmark structures such as Wembley Stadium and 30 St Mary Axe. He is one of Britain's most prolific architects of his generation.[2] In 1999 he was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize, often referred to as the Nobel Prize of architecture.[3] In 2009 Foster was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award in the Arts category. In 1994 he received the AIA Gold Medal. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Foster was born to Robert Foster and Lilian Smith[4] in 1935 in Reddish, Stockport. Foster has no recollection of Reddish[4] as his parents rented a terraced house, 4 Crescent Grove in Levenshulme, Manchester for fourteen-shillings a week soon after his birth.[5]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Foster's parents were diligent, hard workers - so diligent that Foster, an only child, felt their heavy workload restricted his relationship with them and he was often looked after by neighbours or other family members.[6] He attended Grammar School in Burnage. He said he always felt 'different' at school and was bullied.[7] He retired into the world of books and was quiet and awkward in his early years making faux pas.[8] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard Manchester was 'one of the workshops of the world'[7] during his childhood, and 'the embodiment of a great city'.[9] His father, Robert, worked at Metropolitan Vickers at Trafford Park which fuelled his interest in engineering and design.[7] As a youngster, he was fascinated with engineering and the process of designing which caused him to pursue a career designing buildings.[10]HP Mini 110-3104sa Laptop Keyboard Specific interests included aircraft, a hobby he maintains today;[10] and trains, generated by viewing passing trains on the railway outside his terraced home during his childhood.[10] Foster was not keen on sports, but frequently cycled to the Lake District from Manchester and back the same day.[11]Toshiba Satellite A215-S5817 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Foster's father convinced him to take the entrance exam for Manchester Town Hall's trainee scheme[12] which he passed in 1951 and took a job as an office junior in the Treasurer's Department.[12] His parents were pleased, but he was disappointed. Bored with office work, he ventured into the city to observe buildings during his lunch breaks and sketched designs while at his desk. Compaq Presario CQ61-330EC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A clerk, Mr Cobb, became aware of Foster's interests. Cobb's son was studying architecture and his interest led to Foster considering a career in architecture.[13] After working in the Manchester City Treasurer's office Foster completed hisNational Service in 1953 serving in the Royal Air Force, a choice inspired by his passion for aircraft.[14]HP Pavilion dv6-2023eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Foster returned to Manchester, not wanting to return to the town hall as his parents wished and unsure of which path to follow.[15] With 7 O-levels, he applied for a job at a duplicating office machine company and when asked by the interviewer why he applied, Foster replied: 'mainly because it offered the prospect of a company car, and a £1,000 salary.'[16] Foster was searching for a world away from his working-class roots which led the alienation of his parents.[17] HP Pavilion dv7-4011so Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After failing to gain a job, Foster was led to John Beardstow, a local architect in Manchester. After a successful interview, he gained a job as an assistant to a contract manager at the practice.[18] Foster was unsure how to become an architect, and if it was even possible coming from a working-class background where money for tuition was slim. Nevertheless, HP Pavilion dv9920us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he queried colleagues at the architecture practice for advice on how to become an architect. Advised to create a portfolio to hand to an architecture school, he took various drawings, such as perspective and shop drawings from Beardstow's practice as inspiration.[19] Foster intended to submit this portfolio to an architectural school in the hope of gaining, HP Pavilion dv7-3164cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan however inadvertently Beardstow was so impressed with the drawings he promoted the young Foster to the drawing department of the practice.[20] However after trying to convince Foster to stay and learn his trade as an architect at Beardstow's, Foster declined and wanted to pursue a place at an architecture school.  TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After he was discharged, in 1956 Foster won a place at the University of Manchester School of Architecture and City Planning. Foster failed to get a grant to help fund his studies, and being from a working-class background money was at a minimum. He took up a number of part-time jobs to fund his studies in Architecture.[21] HP Pavilion dv7-6099ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His jobs in his teenage years included being an ice-cream salesman, night-club bouncer[21] and working night shifts at the local bakery to make crumpets.[7] He combined these with self-tuition via visits to the local library in Levenshulme.[22] Foster took a keen interest in the works of Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Oscar Niemeyer and graduated from Manchester in 1961.[23] HP Pavilion dv7-6160sp Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Foster won the Henry Fellowship to the Yale School of Architecture, where he met future business partner Richard Rogers and earned his Master's degree. Vincent Scully encouraged Foster and Rogers to travel in America for a year.[24] After returning to the UK in 1963 he set up an architectural practice as Team 4 with Rogers and the sisters Georgie and Wendy Cheesman. Georgie (later Wolton) was the only one of the team that had passed her RIBA exams allowing them to set up in practice on their own. Team 4 quickly earned a reputation for high-tech industrial design. SONY Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After Team 4 went their separate ways, Foster and Wendy Cheesman founded Foster Associates, which later became Foster and Partners in 1967. A long period of collaboration with American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller began in 1968 and continued until Fuller's death in 1983. They collaborated on several projects that became catalysts in the development of an environmentally sensitive approach to design – including the Samuel Beckett Theatre project. ACER Aspire 4750 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Originally they concentrated on industrial buildings. The turning point was the 1969 administrative and leisure center forFred. Olsen Lines in London Docklands, where workers and managers are not separated any more.[24] Foster and Partners' breakthrough building in the UK was the Willis Faber & Dumas headquarters in Ipswich, of 1974. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Laptop Keyboard The client was a family run insurance company which wanted to restore a sense of community to the workplace. Foster created open-plan office floors long before open-plan became the norm. In a town not over-endowed with public facilities, the roof gardens, 25 metre swimming pool and gymnasium enhanced the quality of life for the company's 1200 employees.[25]SONY VAIO VGN-NW235D Laptop Keyboard The building has a full-height glass facademoulded to the medieval street plan and contributes drama, subtly shifting from opaque, reflective black to a glowing backlit transparency as the sun sets. The design was inspired by the Daily Express Building in Manchester a work Foster admired in his youth. The building is now Grade II* listed. HP G56-115SA Laptop Keyboard Foster gained a reputation for designing office buildings. In the 1980s he designed the HSBC Main Building in Hong Kong forHSBC. The building is marked by its high level of light transparency, as all 3500 workers have a view to Victoria Peak or Hong Kong bay and the Chinese mainland.[26] Foster said that if the firm had not won the contract it would probably have been bankrupted. Foster believes that attracting young talent is essential, and is proud that the average age of people working for Foster and Partners is 32, just like it was in 1967.[24]Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard

Present day

Foster was assigned the brief for a development on the site of the Baltic Exchange in the 1990s. The Exchange was damaged beyond repair by a bomb left by the IRA. Foster + Partners submitted a plan for a 385 metre tall skyscraper, the London Millenium Tower, but its height was seen as excessive for London's skyline.[27] SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard The proposal was scrapped and instead Foster proposed 30 St Mary Axe, "the gherkin" due to its design which alluded to its shape. Foster worked with engineers to integrate complex computer systems with the most basic physical laws, such asconvection. Green, sustainable energy ideas include the complex facade which lets in air for passive cooling and vents it as it warms and rises. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Foster's earlier designs reflected a sophisticated, machine-influenced high-tech vision. His style has evolved into a more sharp-edged modernity. In 2004, Foster designed the tallest bridge in the world, the Millau Viaduct in southern France, with the Millau Mayor Jacques Godfrain stating; "The architect, Norman Foster, gave us a model of art."[28]SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard In January 2007, The Sunday Times reported that Foster had called in Catalyst, a corporate finance house, to find buyers for Foster + Partners. Foster does not intend to retire, but sell his 80–90% holding in the company valued at £300M to £500M.[29] In 2007, he worked with Philippe Starck and Sir Richard Branson of the Virgin Group for the Virgin Galactic plans.[30]ACER KB.T5007.007 Laptop Keyboard Foster currently sits on the Board of Trustees at architectural charity Article 25 who design, construct and manage innovative, safe, sustainable buildings in some of the most inhospitable and unstable regions of the world. He has also been on the Board of Trustees of The Architecture Foundation. SONY VAIO VGN-FS115M Laptop Keyboard

Recognition

In 1986, he was awarded an honorary degree (Doctor of Science) from the University of Bath.[31] Foster was knighted in 1990 and appointed to the Order of Merit in 1997. In 1999, he was created a life peer, as Baron Foster of Thames Bank, of Reddish in the County of Greater Manchester.[32] As a resident of Switzerland, in 2010 he stepped down from his seat in the House of Lords in order to maintain his non-domiciled status, DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard and so be able to avoid paying UK residents' taxes on income earned abroad.[33][34] Foster was criticised by some in the architecture world for not advocating the importance of high standards of architecture and planning whilst a member of the House of Lords.[35] Foster last spoke in the Lords in 2003 before his resignation in 2010.[35]SONY VAIO VGN NR220ES Laptop Keyboard He is the second British architect to win the Stirling Prize twice: the first time for the American Air Museum at the Imperial War Museum Duxford in 1998, and the second for 30 St Mary Axe in 2004. In consideration of his whole portfolio, Foster was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1999. He is a Fellow of the Chartered Society of Designers and winner of the Minerva Medal, its highest award. Foster is a Senior Fellow of the Design Futures Council.[36]HP G71-448CL Laptop Keyboard Foster received the The Lynn S. Beedle Lifetime Achievement Award from the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat in 2007 to honor his contributions to the advancement of tall buildings.[37]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard He was awarded the Aga Khan Award for Architecture, for the University of Technology Petronas in Malaysia,[38][39] and in 2008 he was granted an honorary degree from the Dundee School of Architecture at the University of Dundee. In 2009 he received the Prince of Asturias Award in the category Arts. SONY Vaio PCG-K25 Laptop Keyboard [2] Foster married business partner Wendy Cheesman who died from cancer in 1989, leaving him with four sons. He was divorced from Sabiha Rumani Malik in 1998 and married Elena Ochoa Foster, Lady Foster of Thames Bank. SONY 148096222 Laptop Keyboard A qualified pilot, Foster flies his private jet and helicopter between his home above the London offices of Foster + Partners to his homes in France and Switzerland.[29] In 2007, Foster bought the Château de Vincy in Gilly, Switzerland from the German industrialist Charles Grohe. It became his home from late 2008.[40] He recently bought a 18 million EUR house on Martha's Vineyard. ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard Hahn was the youngest son of Heinrich Hahn (1845–1922), a prosperous glazier and entrepreneur ("Glasbau Hahn"), and Charlotte Hahn, née Giese (1845–1905). Together with his brothers Karl, Heiner and Julius, Otto was raised in a sheltered environment. At the age of 15, he began to take a special interest in chemistry and carried out simple experiments in the laundry room of the family home. His father wanted Otto to study architecture, as he had built or acquired several residential and business properties. But Otto persuaded him that his ambition was to become an industrial chemist. ACER Aspire 3660 Laptop Keyboard In 1897, after taking his Abitur at the Klinger Oberrealschule in Frankfurt, Hahn began to study chemistry andmineralogy at the University of Marburg. His subsidiary subjects were physics and philosophy. Hahn joined the Students' Association of Natural Sciences and Medicine, a student fraternity and a forerunner of today'sNibelungia Fraternity. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard He spent his third and fourth semester studying under Adolf von Baeyer at the University of Munich. In 1901, Hahn received his doctorate in Marburg for a dissertation entitled On Bromine Derivates of Isoeugenol, a topic in classical organic chemistry. After completing his one year military service, the young chemist returned to the University of Marburg, where for two years he worked as assistant to his doctoral supervisor, Geheimrat Professor Theodor Zincke. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Early research Hahn's intention had been to work in industry. With this in mind, and also to improve his knowledge of English, he took up a post at University College London in 1904, working under Sir William Ramsay, known for having discovered the inert gases. Here Hahn worked on radiochemistry, at that time a very new field. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1905, in the course of his work with salts of radium, Hahn discovered a substance he called radiothorium (thorium 228), which at that time was believed to be a new radioactive element. (In fact, it was a still undiscovered isotope of the known element thorium. The term isotope was only coined in 1913, SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard by the British chemist Frederick Soddy). In the months between late 1905 and early 1906, Hahn visited Montreal, Canada, where he investigated alpha-rays of radiothorium and "radioactinium" (later identified as thorium-227)[3] with Ernest Rutherford who was teaching atMcGill University at the time. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard In 1906, Hahn returned to Germany, where he collaborated with Emil Fischer at the University of Berlin. Fischer placed at his disposal a former woodworking shop ("Holzwerkstatt") in the Chemical Institute to use as his own laboratory. There, in the space of a few months, using extremely primitive apparatus, SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Hahn discoveredmesothorium I, mesothorium II and - independently from Bertram Boltwood - the mother substance of radium,ionium. In subsequent years, mesothorium I (radium-228) assumed great importance because, like radium-226 (discovered by Pierre and Marie Curie), it was ideally suited for use in medical radiation treatment,  COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard while costing only half as much to manufacture. (In 1914, for the discovery of mesothorium I, Otto Hahn was first nominated for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry by Adolf von Baeyer). In June 1907, by means of the traditionalhabilitation thesis, Hahn qualified to teach at the University of Berlin. On 28 September 1907 he made the acquaintance of the young Austrian physicist Lise Meitner, who had transferred from Vienna to Berlin. So began the thirty-year collaboration and lifelong close friendship between the two scientists. TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard After the physicist Harriet Brooks had observed a radioactive recoil in 1904, but interpreted it wrongly, Otto Hahn succeeded, in the winter of 1908/09, in demonstrating the radioactive recoil incident to alpha particle emission and interpreting it correctly. ACER Aspire 4510 Laptop Keyboard In 1910 Hahn was appointed professor, and in 1912 he became head of the Radioactivity Department of the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem (since 1956 "Otto Hahn Building of the Free University", Berlin, Thielallee 63). Succeeding Alfred Stock, Hahn was director of the institute from 1928 to 1946. As early as 1924, Hahn was elected to full membership of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin (proposed by Einstein, Planck, Fritz Haber,Wilhelm Schlenk and von Laue). SONY VAIO PCG-FR215E Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 210-2010tu Laptop Keyboard In June 1911, while attending a conference in Stettin (today Szczecin, Poland) Otto Hahn met Edith Junghans (1887–1968), an art student. On 22 March 1913 the couple married in Edith's native city of Stettin, where her father, Paul Ferdinand Junghans, was a high-ranking law officer and President of the City Parliament until his 1915 death. HP Pavilion DV6-1045ee Laptop Keyboard Their only child, Hanno, born in 1922, became a distinguished art historian and architectural researcher (at the Hertziana in Rome). In 1960, while on a study trip in France, Dr Hanno Hahn was involved in a fatal car accident, together with his wife and assistant Ilse Hahn, née Pletz. They left a fourteen-year-old son, Dietrich. SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard In 1990, the Hanno and Ilse Hahn Prize for outstanding contributions to Italian art history was established in memory of Hanno and Ilse Hahn to support young and talented art historians. It is awarded biennally by the Bibliotheca Hertziana - Max Planck Institute of Art History in Rome. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard During the First World War, Hahn was conscripted into the army, where he was assigned, together with James Franck and Gustav Hertz, to the special unit for chemical warfare under the direction of Fritz Haber. The unit developed, tested and produced poison gas for military purposes, and was sent to both the western and eastern front lines. In December 1916, Hahn was transferred to the "Headquarters of His Majesty" in Berlin, and was able to resume his radiochemical research in his institute.  HP Compaq NX8410 Laptop Keyboard In 1917/18 Hahn and Lise Meitner isolated a long-lived activity, which they named "proto-actinium". Already in 1913, Kazimierz Fajans and Göhring had isolated a short-lived activity from uranium X2 (later known as 234mPa) and called the substance "brevium". The two activities were different isotopes of the same undiscovered element no. 91. Finally in 1949, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named this new element protactinium and confirmed Hahn and Meitner as discoverers. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard In February 1921, Otto Hahn published the first report on his discovery of uranium Z (later known as 234Pa ),[4] the first example of nuclear isomerism. "...a discovery that was not understood at the time but later became highly significant for nuclear physics", as Walther Gerlach remarked. And, indeed, it was not until 1936 that the young physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsäckersucceeded in providing a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of nuclear isomerism. For this discovery, whose full significance was recognized by very few, Hahn was again proposed, in 1923, for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, this time by Max Planck, among others. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard In the early 1920s, Otto Hahn created a new field of work. Using the "emanation method", which he had recently developed, and the "emanation ability", he founded what became known as "Applied Radiochemistry" for the researching of general chemical and physical-chemical questions. In 1933 he published a book in English (and later in Russian) entitled "Applied Radiochemistry", which contains the lectures given by Hahn when he was a visiting professor at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York in 1933. HP Pavilion dv6-2040ev Laptop Keyboard In 1966, Glenn T. Seaborg, co-discoverer of many transuranium elements and President of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, wrote about this book as follows:  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Jointly with Lise Meitner and his pupil and assistant Fritz Straßmann (1902–1980), Otto Hahn furthered the research begun by Enrico Fermi and his team in 1934 when they bombarded uranium with neutrons. Until 1938, it was believed that the elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (known as transuranium elements) arise when uranium atoms are bombarded with neutrons. The German chemist Ida Noddack proposed an exception. She anticipated the paradigm shift of 1938/39 in her article published in the journal Angewandte Chemie, Nr. 47, 1934, in which she speculated:  ACER TravelMate 8215WLHi Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard "It is conceivable that when heavy nuclei are bombarded with neutrons these nuclei could break down into several fairly large fragments, which are certainly isotopes of known elements, but not neighbours of the irradiated elements." But no physicist or chemist really took Noddack's speculation seriously or tested it, not even Ida Noddack herself. The idea that heavy atomic nuclei could break down into lighter elements was regarded as totally inadmissible. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Between 1934 and 1938, Hahn, Meitner, and Strassmann found a great number of radioactive transmutation products, all of which they regarded as transuranic.[5] At that time the existence of actinides was not yet established, and uranium was wrongly believed to be a group 6 element similar to tungsten. It followed that first transuranic elements would be similar to group 7 to 10 elements, i.e. HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard rhenium and platinoids. The Hahn group was indeed able to establish the presence of multiple isotopes of at least four such elements and (mistakenly) identify them as elements with atomic numbers 93 through 96. They were the first scientists to measure the half-life of 239U and to establish chemically that it was an isotope of uranium, but they were unable to continue this work to its logical conclusion and to identify the decay product of 239U - namely, neptunium (the real element 93); this task was only completed by Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson in 1940. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard On 13 July 1938, with the help and support of Hahn, Lise Meitner, who was at great risk as she was of Jewish ancestry and had lost her Austrian citizenship after the Anschluss, emigrated to Stockholm, Sweden by crossing the German-Dutch border illegally.[6] Hahn continued to work with Strassmann. In late 1938 they found evidence of isotopes of an alkaline earth metal in their sample. The metal was detected by the use of an organic barium salt constructed by Wilhelm Traube, SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard a Jewish chemist who was later arrested and murdered despite Hahn's efforts to save him. Finding a group 2 alkaline earth metal was problematic, because it did not logically fit with the other elements found thus far. Hahn initially suspected it to beradium, produced by splitting off two alpha-particles from the uranium nucleus. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard At the time, the scientific consensus was that even splitting off two alpha particles via this process was unlikely. The idea of turning uranium into barium (by removing around 100 nucleons) was seen as preposterous. On 10 November during a visit to Copenhagen, Hahn discussed these results with Niels Bohr and Lise Meitner.[6] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard Further refinements of the technique, leading to the decisive experiment on 16–17 December 1938 (the celebrated "radium-barium-mesothorium-fractionation"), produced puzzling results: the three isotopes consistently behaved not as radium, but as barium. Hahn described the results in a letter to Meitner on 19 December: "...we are more and more coming to the awful conclusion that our Ra isotopes behave not like Ra, but like Ba. ... SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Perhaps you can suggest some fantastic explanation. We ourselves realize that it can't really burst into Ba."[7] In her reply, Meitner concurred that Hahn's conclusion of 'the bursting of the uranium nucleus' was very difficult to accept, but considered it possible. SONY Vaio VGN-AW41MF/H Laptop Keyboard On 22 December 1938, Hahn sent a manuscript to Naturwissenschaften reporting their radiochemical results.[8] On 27 December, Hahn telephoned the editor of Naturwissenschaften and requested to add a paragraph to the article, speculating that someplatinum group elements previously observed in irradiated uranium, TOSHIBA K000049460 Laptop Keyboard which were originally interpreted as transuranium elements, could in fact be technetium (then called "Masurium") and lower platinum group metals (atomic numbers 43 through 46). By January 1939 he was sufficiently convinced that formation of light elements was occurring in his setup that he published a new revision of the article, essentially retracting former claims of observing transuranic elements and neighbors of uranium, and concluding instead that he was seeing light platinoids, barium, lanthanum, and cerium.  HP G61 Laptop Keyboard As a chemist, Hahn was reluctant to propose a revolutionary discovery in physics.[5] However, Lise Meitner and her nephew, the young physicist Otto Robert Frisch, in Sweden, came to the same conclusion and were able to work out the basic mathematics of nuclear fission - the term that was coined by Frisch, and which subsequently became internationally known. Over the next few months, Meitner and Frisch published two articles discussing and experimentally confirming this hypothesis.[9][10]DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard In a later appreciation (1963), Lise Meitner wrote: "The discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann opened up a new era in human history. It seems to me that what makes the science behind this discovery so remarkable is that it was achieved by purely chemical means." And in an interview on West German television (ARD, 8 March 1959), Meitner said: HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard "Hahn and Strassmann were able to do this by exceptionally good chemistry, fantastically good chemistry, which was way ahead of what anyone else was capable of at that time. The Americans learned to do it later. But at that time, Hahn and Strassmann were really the only ones who could do it. And that was because they were such good chemists. Somehow they really succeeded in using chemistry to demonstrate and prove a physical process." HP Pavilion dv6-2150ev Laptop Keyboard Fritz Strassmann responded with this clarification: "Professor Meitner stated that the success could be attributed to chemistry. I have to make a slight correction. Chemistry merely isolated the individual substances, it did not precisely identify them. It took Professor Hahn's method to do this. This is where his achievement lies." HP 431416-001 Laptop Keyboard (Citation sources: Lise Meitner - Recollections of Otto Hahn. Stuttgart 2005). In their second publication on nuclear fission (Die Naturwissenschaften, 10 February 1939) Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann used for the first time the nameUranspaltung (uranium fission) and predicted the existence and liberation of additional neutrons during the fission process, which was proved to be a chain reaction by Frédéric Joliot and his team in March 1939. IBM Thinkpad T61P Laptop Keyboard  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50e-1848 Laptop Keyboard During the war, Otto Hahn - together with his assistants Hans-Joachim Born, Siegfried Flügge, Hans Götte, Walter Seelmann-Eggebert and Fritz Strassmann - worked on uranium fission reactions. By 1945 he had drawn up a list of 25 elements and about 100 isotopes whose existence he had demonstrated. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Laptop Keyboard Thanks to his determined intervention, Hahn, who had always been an opponent of the Nazi dictatorship, was able to support numerous members of his institute whose lives were in danger or were suffering persecution, and prevent them from being sent to the front line or deported. In this, he was assisted by his courageous wife Edith, TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard who had for years collected food for Jews hiding in Berlin. As early as 1934, Hahn resigned from the University of Berlin to protest the dismissal of Jewish colleagues and those with Jewish ancestry, notably Lise Meitner, Fritz Haber, and James Franck. SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard At the end of World War II in 1945 Hahn was suspected of working on the German nuclear energy project to develop an atomic reactor or an atomic bomb. But his only connection was the discovery of fission; he did not work on the program. In early 1945 Hahn gave himself up to T-Force members of the 5th King's Regiment, SONY Vaio PCG-K415B Laptop Keyboard Hahn approaching Private H. Hilton, a member of the intelligence platoon, who had just stopped his vehicle in a town centre, and requested to be taken to the British authorities. Failing to be understood, Hahn then stated; "Perhaps I should introduce myself; I am Professor Hahn, chief scientist for atomic research in Germany". Hilton, not understanding the meaning of this, nevertheless complied with Hahn's request.[11] HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard Hahn, in April 1945, and nine leading German physicists (including Max von Laue, Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker) were taken into custody by the Alsos Mission (see Operation Epsilon) and interned at Farm Hall, Godmanchester, near Cambridge, England from 3 July 1945 to 3 January 1946. While they were there, TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard the German scientists learned of the dropping of the American atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945. Hahn was on the brink of despair, as he felt that because he had discovered nuclear fission he shared responsibility for the death and suffering of tenthousands of innocent Japanese people.[citation needed] Early in January 1946, the group was allowed to return to Germany. DELL XPS M1730 Laptop Keyboard On 15 November 1945 the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced that Hahn had been awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his discovery of the fission of heavy atomic nuclei." [12][13][14] Some historians have documented the history of the discovery of nuclear fission and believe Meitner should have been awarded the Nobel Prize with Hahn.[15][16][17] TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5601 Laptop Keyboard Hahn was still being detained at Farm Hall when the announcement was made; thus, his whereabouts were a secret and it was impossible for the Nobel committee to send him a congratulatory telegram. Instead, he learned about his award through the Daily Telegraph newspaper[18]His fellow interned German scientists celebrated his award on 18 November by giving speeches, making jokes,  HP 640436-001 Keyboard and composing songs.[19] On 4 December, Hahn was persuaded by two of his captors to write a letter to the Nobel committee accepting the prize but also stating that he would not be able to attend the award ceremony.[20] He could not participate in the Nobel festivities on 10 December since his captors would not allow him to leave Farm Hall. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard "There is no doubt at all that Hahn fully deserves the Nobel Prize in Chemistry" wrote Lise Meitner to her friend Eva von Bahr-Bergius in November 1945.[21] And Meitner's former assistant Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker later added: ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard "He certainly did deserve this Nobel Prize. He would have deserved it even if he had not made this discovery. But everyone recognized that the splitting of the atomic nucleus merited a Nobel Prize." [21] Hahn attended the Nobel festivities the year after he was awarded the prize. On 10 December 1946, King Gustav V of Sweden finally presented him with his Nobel Prize medal and d

iploma.[14]HP 640436-001 Keyboard Max Planck Society From 1948 to 1960 Otto Hahn was the founding President of the newly formed Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science, which through his tireless activity and his worldwide respected personality succeeded in regaining the renown once enjoyed by the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. Immediately after the Second World War, Dell Inspiron 2500 Keyboard Hahn reacted to the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by coming out strongly against the use of nuclear energy for military purposes. He saw the application of his scientific discoveries to such ends as a misuse, or even a crime. Consequently, among other things, he initiated theMainau Declaration of 1955, HP 640436-001 Keyboard in which a large number of Nobel Prize-winners called attention to the dangers of atomic weapons and warned the nations of the world urgently against the use of "force as a final resort". He was also instrumental and one of the authors of the Göttingen Manifesto of 1957, in which, together with 17 leading German atomic scientists, ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard Dell Inspiron 2500 Keyboard he protested against a proposed nuclear arming of the new West German armed forces (Bundeswehr). In January 1958, Otto Hahn, together with his friend Albert Schweitzer signed the Pauling Appeal to the United Nations for the "immediate conclusion of an international agreement to stop the testing of nuclear weapons", and in October he signed the international Agreement to call a meeting to draw up a world constitution. Right up to his death, he never tired of warning urgently of the dangers of the nuclear arms race between the great powers and of the radioactive contamination of the planet. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Keyboard From 1957, Hahn was repeatedly nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by a number of international organizations, including the largest French trade union, theConfederation Generale du Travail (CGT). Linus Pauling, the 1962 Nobel Peace laureate, once described Otto Hahn as "an inspiration to me." TOSHIBA Portege 7200 Keyboard Otto Hahn received many governmental honours and academic awards from all over the world. He was elected member or honorary member in 45 Academies and scientific societies (among them the Physical Society, the University College and the Royal Society in London [1] and the Academies in Allahabad (India), Bangalore (India), Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Boston (USA), Bucharest, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Lisbon, Madrid, Rome, Stockholm, Vienna) and received 37 of the highest national and international orders and medals, among them the Goldmedals Emil Fischer, Cannizzaro, Copernicus, Max Planck, Henri Becquerel, Paracelsus and Hugo Grotius, Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard theFaraday Lectureship Prize with Medal from the Royal Society of Chemistry in London and the Adolf Harnack Medal in Gold from the Max Planck Society. In 1956 he received the Greek Order of the Redeemer, in 1957 he was awarded the Order of the British Empire and in 1959 President Charles de Gaulle of France made him an Officer of the Légion d'Honneur. HP G61-103TU Laptop Keyboard He was made a knight of the Peace Class of the Order Pour le Mérite, received the German Distinguished Service Order with star and sash and the Grand Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1961 Pope John XXIII awarded him the Gold Medal of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in theVatican. Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard In 1957 Hahn was elected an honorary citizen of the city of Magdeburg, DDR (German Democratic Republic), and in 1958 an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (today Russian Academy of Sciences) in Moscow, but he declined both honours.  Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard In 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson of the USA, and the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Washington awarded Hahn (together with Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann) the Enrico Fermi Prize. This was the only time the Fermi Prize has been awarded to non-Americans. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S9513RD Laptop Keyboard Hahn was made an honorary citizen of the cities of Frankfurt am Main and Göttingen, and of the land and the city of Berlin. The day after his death, the Max Planck Society published the following obituary notice in all the major newspapers: DELL Latitude D531 Keyboard "On 28 July, in his 90th year, our Honorary President Otto Hahn passed away. His name will be recorded in the history of humanity as the founder of the atomic age. In him Germany and the world have lost a scholar who was distinguished in equal measure by his integrity and personal humility. The Max Planck Society mourns its founder, who continued the tasks and traditions of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society after the war, and mourns also a good and much loved human being, who will live in the memories of all who had the chance to meet him. His work will continue. We remember him with deep gratitude and admiration." IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard Proposals were made at different times, first in 1971 by American chemists, that the newly syntheticized element no. 105 should be named Hahnium in Hahn's honour, although in 1997 the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) finally named it Dubnium, after the Russian research center in Dubna (see element naming controversy). Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard HP 640892-001 Keyboard Although element 108 was given the name Hassium by its officially-recognised German discoverers in 1992, a 1994 IUPAC committee recommended that it be named Hahnium (Hn),[22] in spite of the long-standing convention to give the discoverer the right to suggest a name. This recommendation was not adopted, following protests from the German discoverers, and the name Hassium (Hs) was adopted internationally in 1997.[23] HP Mini 110-1032NR Keyboard In 1964 the only European and one of the world's four nuclear-powered civilian ships, the freighter NS Otto Hahn, was named in his honour. In 1959 there were the opening ceremonies of the "Otto Hahn Institute" in Mainz and the "Hahn-Meitner-Institut" for Nuclear Research (HMI) in Berlin. There are craters on Mars and the Moon, HP Mini 110-3118cl Keyboard and the asteroids No. 3676 Hahn and No. 19126 Ottohahn named in his honour, as well as the "Otto Hahn Prize" of both the German Chemical and Physical Societies, the "Otto Hahn Medal" of the Max Planck Society and the "Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold" of the United Nations Association of Germany (DGVN) in Berlin. HP 605344-001 Keyboard A great many cities and districts in the German speaking countries have named secondary schools of all types after him, and countless streets, squares and bridges throughout Europe bear his name. Several states have honoured Otto Hahn by issuing coins, medals and stamps (among them the Federal Republic of Germany, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Keyboard the German Democratic Republic, Austria, Romania, Moldova, Angola, Cuba, the Commonwealth of Dominica, Madagascar, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Chad, Ghana, Somalia, Guinea and Bissau). An island in the Antarctic (near Mt. Discovery) was also named after him, as were two Intercity trains of the German Federal Railways in 1971,  ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard running between Hamburg and Basel SBB, and the "Otto Hahn Library" in Göttingen. In 1974, in appreciation of the special contribution of Otto Hahn to German-Israeli relations, a wing of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, was given the name "Otto Hahn Wing", and a scientific research center of the Saint Louis University (Baguio) (Philippines) was named the "Otto Hahn Building" . In several cities and districts Otto Hahn busts, DELL 0454RX Keyboard monuments and memorial plaques were unveiled, including Albstadt-Tailfingen, Berlin (East and West), Boston (USA), Frankfurt am Main, Göttingen, Gundersheim, Mainz, Marburg, Munich (in the hall of honour in the Deutsches Museum), Rehovoth (Israel), San Vigilio (Lake Garda, Italy), Springe and Vienna (in the foyer of theInternational Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA). There are public "Otto Hahn Centers" in Göttingen and Ottobrunn (near Munich), HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Keyboard and planned in the next future also in Hahn's native city Frankfurt/Main. - A special honour in 1997 was conferred on Hahn in the Netherlands: after a cactus and an azalea already bore his name (Rhododendron luteum var Otto Hahn), Dutch rose growers named a new variety of rose "rosa ottohahniana" . SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Keyboard Since several years a wellknown coffee-shop and restaurant in the city center of Rotterdam bears the name "Café Otto Hahn" (www.ottohahn.com). And a cocktail "Otto Hahn", created in the 1950s, is still popular today: two equal parts of Whisky and Sherry, mixed together and served in a hot Cognac-glass.  TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard At the end of 1999 the German newsmagazine FOCUS published an inquiry of 500 leading natural scientists, engineers and physicians about the most important scientists of the 20th century. In this poll the experimental chemist Otto Hahn - after the theoretical physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck - was elected third (with 81 points) and thus the most significant empiric researcher of his time. (FOCUS, No. 52, 1999, p. 103-108). SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard In the Second World War some of the signing scientists had been members of the Uranverein, a nuclear research project of the Nazi regime. The war ended with the nuclear destruction of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the USA. After World War II the Cold War began. Germany was divided, and both German states were frontier states in the Cold War. TOSHIBA P205D-S7438 Keyboard After the Korean War (1950 - 1953), West Germany founded its own army, the Bundeswehr, in 1953. There were many protests against the remilitarisation of West Germany. A few months after the foundation of the West German army, the Eastern German state founded an army, too. HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard In 1953 the hydrogen bomb was invented. A short time later both superpowers, the USA and the Soviet Union, had a so-called overkill potential. In the whole world and especially in the frontier states of the Cold War there was a great fear of nuclear war at that time. A few years later, in the Cuban Missile Crisis, it was felt the existence of mankind was under threat.  DELL XPS 15 L502X Keyboard  ASUS F6 Keyboard The undersigned nuclear researchers are deeply concerned with the plans to equip the Bundeswehr with nuclear weapons. Some of us have raised our concerns a few months ago with the appropriate federal minister. Today the debate on this question has become general knowledge. The undersigned therefore feel the requirement to speak up about facts known to experts, but which seem to be inadequately known to the public. SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Keyboard  SONY Vaio PCG-K25 Keyboard SONY VAIO PCG-FR315S Keyboard

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