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French colonial empire In the 19th century, France established a new empire in Africa and Southeast Asia. In this period France's conquest of an Empire in Africa was dressed up as a moral crusade. In 1886 Jules Ferry declared; "The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior races." Full citizenship rights - assimilation- were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding [and] the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens."[1]SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B laptop keyboard Following the First World War, and even more so after the Second World War, anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. France unsuccessfully fought bitter wars in Vietnam and Algeria to keep its empire intact, but by the end of the 1960s many of France's colonies had gained independence. However, some remaining territories – especially islands and archipelagos – were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories. These now total altogether 123,150 km² (47,548 sq. miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2,685,705 people living in them in 2011. All of them enjoy full political representation at the national level, as well as varying degrees of legislative self-governance. (See Administrative divisions of France.) ASUS F3Ja laptop keyboard Excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion. But Spain's jealous protection of its foreign monopoly, SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard and the further distractions caused in France itself in the later 16th century by the French Wars of Religion, prevented any constant efforts by France to settle colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in 1612 at São Luís ("France Équinoxiale"), and inBrazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro ("France Antarctique") and in Florida (including Fort Caroline in 1562) were not successful, due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance.[citation needed]TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard The story of France's colonial empire truly began on 27 July 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony ofAcadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. A few years later, in 1608, Samuel De Champlain foundedQuebec, which was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France (also called Canada).[citation needed]SONY VAIO VGN-CS220J/T laptop keyboard New France had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied heavily on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England for land, and by relying solely on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections. These became the most enduring alliances between the French and the First Nation community. The French were, however, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism.[citation needed]ACER Aspire 3003LMi laptop keyboard Although, through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent, areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies. It is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. But there was relatively little interest in colonialism in France, which concentrated rather on dominance within Europe, and for most of its history, New France was far behind the British North American colonies in both population and economic development. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.[citation needed]HP Mini 210-2170nr laptop keyboard In 1699, French territorial claims in North America expanded still further, with the foundation of Louisiana in the basin of the Mississippi River. The extensive trading network throughout the region connected to Canada through the Great Lakes, was maintained through a vast system of fortifications, many of them centred in the Illinois Country and in present-day Arkansas.[citation needed]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard As the French empire in North America grew, the French also began to build a smaller but more profitable empire in theWest Indies. Settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began in 1624, and a colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625 (the island had to be shared with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was ceded outright). The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and a colony was later founded on Saint Lucia by (1650). The food-producing plantations of these colonies were built and sustained through slavery,  HP 640436-001 laptop keyboard with the supply of slaves dependent on the African slave trade. Local resistance by the indigenous peoples resulted in the Carib Expulsion of 1660.[citation needed] France's most important Caribbean colonial possession was established in 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue (today's Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. The eastern half of Hispaniola (today'sDominican Republic) also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France by Spain in 1795.[citation needed]ASUS F3Sa laptop keyboard French colonial expansion wasn't limited to the New World. In Senegal in West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in 1624. In 1664, the French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east. Colonies were established in India in Chandernagore (1673) and Pondichéryin the south east (1674), and later at Yanam (1723), Mahe (1725), and Karikal (1739) (see French India). Colonies were also founded in the Indian Ocean, on the Île de Bourbon (Réunion, 1664), Isle de France (Mauritius, 1718), and the Seychelles (1756). SAMSUNG R18 laptop keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-N325QE/W laptop keyboard In the middle of the 18th century, a series of colonial conflicts began between France and Britain, which ultimately resulted in the destruction of most of the first French colonial empire. These wars were the War of the Austrian Succession (1744–1748), the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the War of the American Revolution (1778–1783), the French Revolutionary Wars (1793–1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). It may even be seen further back in time to the first of the French and Indian Wars. This cyclic conflict is known as the Second Hundred Years' War. HP HDX18-1114TX Laptop Keyboard Although the War of the Austrian Succession was indecisive – despite French successes in India under the French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix and Europe under Marshal Saxe – the Seven Years' War, after early French successes in Minorca and North America, saw a French defeat, with the numerically superior British (over one million to about 50 thousand French settlers) conquering not only New France (excluding the small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon), but also most of France's West Indian (Caribbean) colonies, and all of the French Indian outposts. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard While the peace treaty saw France's Indian outposts, and the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe restored to France, the competition for influence in India had been won by the British, and North America was entirely lost – most of New France was taken by Britain (also referred to as British North America, except Louisiana, which France ceded to Spain as payment for Spain's late entrance into the war (and as compensation for Britain's annexation of Spanish Florida). Also ceded to the British were Grenada and Saint Lucia in the West Indies. Although the loss of Canada would cause much regret in future generations, it excited little unhappiness at the time; colonialism was widely regarded as both unimportant to France, and immoral.[citation needed]TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution, with Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, but not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention. True disaster came to what remained of France's colonial empire in 1791 when Saint Domingue (the Western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola), France's richest and most important colony, was riven by a massive slave revolt, caused partly by the divisions among the island's elite, which had resulted from the French Revolution of 1789. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard The slaves, led eventually by Toussaint Louverture and then, following his capture by the French in 1801, by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, held their own against French, Spanish, and British opponents, and ultimately achieved independence as Empire of Haiti in 1804 (Haiti became the first black republic in the world,[citation needed] much earlier than any of the future African nations although it was not until the 19th century that Europeans began establishing colonies in Africa). HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In the meanwhile, the newly resumed war with Britain by the French, resulted in the British capture of practically all remaining French colonies. These were restored at the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, but when war resumed in 1803, the British soon recaptured them. France's repurchase of Louisiana in 1800 came to nothing, as the final success of the Haitian revolt convinced Bonaparte that holding Louisiana would not be worth the cost, leading to its sale to the United States in 1803 (the Louisiana Purchase). The French attempt to establish a colony in Egypt in 1798–1801 was not successful.  HP Pavilion DV6-1210sf Laptop Keyboard At the close of the Napoleonic Wars, most of France's colonies were restored to it by Britain, notably Guadeloupe andMartinique in the West Indies, French Guiana on the coast of South America, various trading posts in Senegal, the Île Bourbon (Réunion) in the Indian Ocean, and France's tiny Indian possessions; though Britain finally annexed Saint Lucia, Tobago, the Seychelles, and the Isle de France (now Mauritius). In 1825 Charles X sent an expedition to Haïti, resulting in the Haiti indemnity controversy.[2]HP Pavilion dv4-1241tx Laptop Keyboard The true beginnings of the second French colonial empire, however, were laid in 1830 with the French invasion of Algeria, which was conquered over the next 17 years. During the Second Empire, headed by Napoleon III, an attempt was made to establish a colonial-type protectorate in Mexico, but this came to little, and the French were forced to abandon the experiment. This French intervention in Mexico lasted from 1861 to 1867. FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard In southeast Asia Napoleon III also established French control over Cochinchina (the southernmost part of modernVietnam including Saigon) in 1867 and 1874, as well as a protectorate over Cambodia in 1863. Additionally, France had a sphere of influence during the 19th century and early 20th century in southern China, including a naval base at Kuangchow Bay (Guangzhouwan).[3] ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard It was only after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 and the founding of the Third Republic (1871–1940) that most of France's later colonial possessions were acquired. From their base in Cochinchina, the French took over Tonkin (in modern northern Vietnam) and Annam (in modern central Vietnam) in 1884–1885. These, together with Cambodia and Cochinchina, formed French Indochina in 1887 (to which Laos was added in 1893, and Kwang-Chou-Wan[4] in 1900). In 1849, theFrench concession in Shanghai was established, lasting until 1946.[5]HP G71-448CL Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard Influence was also expanded in North Africa, establishing a protectorate on Tunisia in 1881 (Bardo Treaty). Gradually, French control was established over much of Northern, Western, and Central Africa around the start of the 20th century (including the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Ivory Coast, Benin, Niger, Chad,Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo), and the east African coastal enclave of Djibouti (French Somaliland). The explorer Colonel Parfait-Louis Monteil traveled from Senegal to Lake Chad in 1890–1892, signing treaties of friendship and protection with the rulers of several of the countries he passed through, and gaining much knowledge of the geography and politics of the region.[7]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R52 1870 Laptop Keyboard The Voulet–Chanoine Mission, a military expedition, was sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa. This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions, the Foureau-Lamy and Gentil missions, which advanced from Algeria and Middle Congo respectively. With the death of the Muslim warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, the greatest ruler in the region, and the creation of the Military Territory of Chad in 1900, the Voulet-Chanoine Mission had accomplished all its goals. The ruthlessness of the mission provoked a scandal in Paris. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard As a part of the Scramble for Africa, France had the establishment of a continuous west-east axis of the continent as an objective, in contrast with the British north-south axis. This resulted in the Fashoda Incident, where an expedition led by Jean-Baptiste Marchand was opposed by forces under Lord Kitchener's command. The resolution of the crisis had a part in the bringing forth of the Entente Cordiale. During the Agadir Crisis in 1911, Britain supported France and Morocco became a French protectorate.[citation needed]Compaq Presario CQ62-a11SO laptop keyboard At this time, the French also established colonies in the South Pacific, including New Caledonia, the various island groups which make up French Polynesia (including the Society Islands, the Marquesas, the Tuamotus), and established joint control of the New Hebrides with Britain.[citation needed] The French made their last major colonial gains after World War I, when they gained mandates over the former Turkish territories of the Ottoman Empire that make up what is now Syria and Lebanon, as well as most of the former German colonies of Togo and Cameroon. Compaq Presario CQ62 laptop keyboard A hallmark of the French colonial project in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the civilising mission(mission civilisatrice), the principle that it was Europe's duty to bring civilisation to benighted peoples. As such, colonial officials undertook a policy of Franco-Europeanisation in French colonies, most notably French West Africa. Africans who adopted French culture, including fluent use of the French language and conversion to Christianity, were granted equal French citizenship, including suffrage. In 1848, residents of the "Four Communes" in Senegal were granted citizenship, which was reaffirmed by the Third Republic, leading to the 1914 election to the French Chamber of Deputies of Senegalese politician Blaise Diagne.[8]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 laptop keyboard By this time French conservatives were denouncing such assimilationist policies as products of a dangerous liberal fantasy. In Morocco, France's newest colony, the French administration attempted to use urban planning and colonial education to prevent cultural mixing and to uphold the traditional society upon which the French depended for collaboration, with mixed results. After World War II, the segregationist approach modeled in Morocco had been discredited by its connections to Vichyism, and assimilationism enjoyed a brief renaissance.[8]SONY VAIO VGN-N21M/W laptop keyboard In 1905, the French abolished slavery in most of French West Africa.[9] David P. Forsythe wrote: "From Senegal and Mauritania in the west to Niger in the east (what became French Africa), there was a parallel series of ruinous wars, resulting in tremendous numbers of people being violently enslaved. At the beginning of the twentieth century there may have been between 3 and 3.5 million slaves, representing over 30 percent of the total population, within this sparsely populated region."[10]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Critics of French colonialism gained an international audience in the 1920s, and often used documentary reportage and access to agencies such as the League of Nations and the International Labor Organisation to make their protests heard. The main criticism was the high level of violence and suffering among the natives. Major critics included Albert Londres, Félicien Challaye, and Paul Monet, whose books and articles were widely read.[11]TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard While the first stages of a takeover often involved the destruction of historic buildings in order to use the site for French headquarters, archaeologists and art historians soon engaged in systematic effort to identify, map and preserve historic sites, especially temples such as Angkor Wat, Champa ruins and the temples of Luang Prabang.[12] Many French museums have collections of colonial materials. Since the 1980s the French government has opened new museums of colonial artifacts including the Musée du Quai Branly and the Cité Nationale de l’Histoire de l’Immigration, in Paris; the Centre Culturel Tjibaou in New Caledonia; and the Maison des Civilisations et de l’Unité Réunionnaise in Réunion.[13]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard The French colonial empire began to fall during the Second World War, when various parts were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the United States and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany and Italy in Tunisia). However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle. The French Union, included in the 1946 Constitution of 1946, replaced the former colonial Empire. HP Pavilion dv2-1003ax Laptop Keyboard France was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonisation movement. Paul Ramadier's (SFIO) cabinet repressed the Malagasy Uprising in 1947. In Asia, Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh declared Vietnam's independence, starting the First Indochina War. In Cameroun, the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, was violently repressed. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard When the Indochina War ended with defeat and withdrawal in 1954, France became almost immediately involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in Algeria, the oldest major colony. Ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadj's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalised after the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried out by the French army. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard The Algerian War started in 1954. Algeria was particularly problematic, due to the large number of European settlers (orpieds-noirs) who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule. Charles de Gaulle's accession to power in 1958 in the middle of the crisis ultimately led to the independence of Algeria with the 1962 Evian Accords. The Suez crisis in 1956 also displayed the limitations of French power, as its attempt to retake the canal along with the British was stymied when the United States did not back the plan. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution of 1958 by the French Community. Only Guinea refused by referendum to take part to the new colonial organisation. However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midst of the Algerian War; almost all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums. Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the status of overseas départements (territories). Critics of neocolonialism claimed that theFrançafrique had replaced formal direct rule. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties with the help ofJacques Foccart, his counsellor for African matters. Foccart supported in particular the Nigerian Civil War during the late 1960s. HP Pavilion dv6-2020ev Laptop Keyboard Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of theHuguenots in British or Dutch colonies. France generally had close to the slowest natural population growth in Europe, and emigration pressures were therefore quite small. A small but significant emigration, numbering only in the tens of thousands, of mainly Roman Catholic French populations led to the settlement of the provinces of Acadia, Canada and Louisiana, both (at the time) French possessions, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard as well as colonies in the West Indies, Mascarene islands and Africa. In New France, Huguenots were banned from settling in the territory, and Quebec was one of the most staunchly Catholic areas in the world until the Quiet Revolution. The current French Canadian population, which numbers in the millions, is descended almost entirely from New France's small settler population. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard On 31 December 1687 a community of French Huguenots settled in South Africa. Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony, but have since been quickly absorbed into the Afrikaner population. After Champlain's founding of Quebec City in 1608, it became the capital of New France. Encouraging settlement was difficult, and while some immigration did occur, by 1763 New France only had a population of some 65,000.[16]SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard From 1713 to 1787, 30,000 colonists immigrated from France to the St. Domingue. In 1804 Dessalines, the first ruler of an independent Haiti (St. Domingue), ordered the massacre of whites remaining on the island.[17] Out of the 40,000 inhabitants onGuadeloupe, at the end of the 17th century, there were more than 26,000 blacks and 9,000 whites.[18] Bill Marshall wrote, "The first French effort to colonize Guiana, in 1763, failed utterly when tropical diseases and climate killed all but 2,000 of the initial 12,000 settlers."[19]IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard French law made it easy for thousands of colons, ethnic or national French from former colonies of North and West Africa, India and Indochina to live in mainland France. It is estimated that 20,000 colons were living in Saigon in 1945. 1.6 million European pieds noirs migrated from Algeria, Tunisia andMorocco.[20] In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 French Algerians left Algeria in the largest relocation of population in Europe since World War II.[citation needed] In the 1970s, over 30,000 French colons left Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge regime as the Pol Pot government confiscated their farms and land properties. In November 2004, several thousand of the estimated 14,000 French nationals in Ivory Coast left country after days of anti-white violence.[21]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Apart from French-Canadians (Québécois and Acadians), Cajuns, and Métis other populations of French ancestry outside metropolitan France include the Caldochesof New Caledonia, the so-called ZoreillesPetits-blancs with the Franco-Mauritian of various Indian Ocean islands and the Beke people of the French West Indies. IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard While it was created from the same project (hence the common S-300 designation) different priorities resulted in a design quite different from the other versions. The S-300V system is carried on tracked MT-T transporters, which gives it better cross-country mobility than even the S-300Ps on 8 × 8 wheeled transporters. It is also somewhat more distributed than the S-300P's. For example, while both have mechanically-scanning radar for target acquisition (9S15 BILL BOARD A), the battery level 9S32 GRILL PAN has an autonomous search ability and SARH delegated to illumination radar on TELARs. The early 30N6 FLAP LID on the S-300P handles tracking and illumination, but is not equipped with an autonomous search capability (later upgraded). FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The S-300FM Fort-M (Russian С-300ФМ, DoD designation SA-N-20) is another naval version of the system, installed only on the Kirov class cruiser RFS Pyotr Velikiy, and introduced the new 48N6 missile. It was introduced in 1990 and increased missile speed to approximately Mach 6 for a maximum target engagement speed of up to Mach 8.5, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5097 Laptop Keyboard increased the warhead size to 150 kg (330 lb) and increased the maximum engagement range yet again to 5–150 km (3–93 mi) as well as opening the altitude envelope to 10m-27 km (33–88500 ft). The new missiles also introduced the ultimate track-via-missile guidance method and brought with it the ability to intercept short-range ballistic missiles. This system makes use of the TOMB STONE MOD rather than TOP DOME radar. The export version is called the Rif-M. Two Rif-M systems were purchased by China in 2002 and installed on the Type 051C air-defence guided missile destroyers. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard Both naval versions are believed to include a secondary infrared terminal seeker, similar to the newer US Standard missile system, probably to reduce the system's vulnerability to saturation. This also allows the missile to engage contacts over the radar horizon, such as warships or sea-skimming anti-ship missiles. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The S-300V places a greater emphasis on the ABM, with the dedicated 9M82 (SA-12B Giant) Anti-Ballistic missile. This missile is larger and only two can be held on each TELAR. It also has a dedicated ABM radar – the 9S19 HIGH SCREEN phased array radar at battalion level. A typical S-300V battalion is made up out of a target detection and designation unit, a guidance radar and up to 6 TELARs. The detection and designation unit consists of the 9S457-1 command post, a 9S15MV or 9S15MT BILL BOARD all-round surveillance radar and 9S19M2 HIGH SCREEN sector surveillance radar.[8] The S-300V uses the 9S32-1 GRILL PANmulti-channel guidance radar. Four types of missile-launcher vehicles can be used with the system:[9]SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard The S-300PMU-1 (Russian С-300ПМУ-1,US DoD designation SA-20A, NATO reporting name SA-20 Gargoyle) was also introduced in 1992 with the new and larger 48N6 missiles for the first time in a land-based system and introduced all the same performance improvements from the S300FM version including the increased speed, range, TVM guidance and ABMcapability.[11] The warhead is slightly smaller than the naval version at 143 kg (315 lb). This version also saw the introduction of the new and more capable 30N6E TOMB STONE radar. SONY VAIO VGN-AW11Z Laptop Keyboard The S-300PMU-1 was introduced in 1999 and for the first time introduces several different kinds of missiles in a single system. In addition to the 5V55R and 48N6E missiles the S-300PMU-1 can utilise two new missiles, the 9M96E1 and 9M96E2. Both are significantly smaller than the previous missiles at 330 and 420 kg (728 and 926 lb respectively) and carry smaller 24 kg (53 lb) warhead. The 9M96E1 has an engagement range of 1–40 km (1–25 mi) and the 9M96E2 of 1–120 km (1–75 mi). They are still carried 4 per TEL. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard Rather than just relying on aerodynamic fins for manoeuvring, they use a gas-dynamic system which allows them to have an excellent probability of kill (Pk) despite the much smaller warhead. The Pk is estimated at 0.7 against a tactical ballistic missile for either missile. The S-300PMU-1 typically uses the 83M6E command and control system, although it is also compatible with the older Baikal-1E and Senezh-M1E CCS command and control systems. The 83M6E system incorporates the 64N6E (BIG BIRD) surveillance/detection radar. ACER Aspire 7741ZG Laptop Keyboard The fire control/illumination and guidance radar used is the 30N6E(1), optionally matched with a 76N6 low altitude detection radar and a 96L6E all altitude detection radar. The 83M6E command and control system can control up to 12 TELs, both the self-propelled 5P85SE vehicle and the 5P85TE towed launchers. Generally support vehicles are also included, such as the 40V6M tow vehicle, intended for lifting of the antenna post.[citation needed]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard Iran's status regarding the S-300 system remains controversial. Iran claimed to have signed a contract with Russia on 25 December 2007 on the sales of the S-300PMU-1 missile system.[39] Russian officials have denied this.[40] It has also been claimed that Croatia sold their S-300s to Iran.[41] Later, On 21 December, according to a senior Iranian lawmaker, Russia has started the supply of components for S-300 air defense systems to Iran. Esmaeil Kosari, deputy chairman of the parliamentary commission on national security and foreign policy, told the Iranian news agency IRNA that Iran and Russia had held negotiations for several years on the purchase of S-300 air defense systems and had finalized a deal.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Kosari said the Islamic Republic would deploy S-300 surface-to-air missile systems to strengthen national defense on border areas.[42] On 28 October 2009, if asked when Russia would deliver the systems to Iran, Ivanov said: "There have been no such deliveries to date."[43] Yet on 23 December 2009, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Alexei Borodavkin said Russia sees no reason to cancel a deal to provide S-300s to Iran. He said ""Exports of such weapons is subject to no UN treaty or other bilateral agreements, This is why we see no essential reason to make any change in the deal," indicating that there is a deal.[44] On 8 February 2010, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Iran announced that it had a "domestically-made" system called Bavar 373 with the same capabilities as the S-300. In September 2012 Iran successfully tested Raad Air Defense System a partner for Bavar 373.[45] Alexander Fumin has said that the delay in the delivery is due to a technical problem with the radiowave system.[46] In 19 April 2010, Asr Iran (Iran's Era) website said that Iran could develop a similar air missiles system[47] On 11 June 2010 Russia has stopped sale of the S-300 air defense system to Iran in lieu of U.N. sanctions against Iran stating that the "S-300s fall under these sanctions".[48] HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard On 4 August 2010 Iran claimed it has obtained two S-300PT (SA-10) from Belarus and two others from another unspecified source despite Russian refusal to deliver them.[49] The Belarusian government has denied rumors that Minsk had allegedly sold S-300 air defense systems to Iran. "The State Military-Industrial Committee can officially state that Belarus has never held talks with Iran on the deliveries of the S-300 air defense systems", said committee's spokesman Vladimir Lavrenyuk. " COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Belarus has never supplied S-300 systems or their components to Iran," he said, adding that Minsk strictly complied with international arms control regulations.[50] On 22 September 2010 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree banning the sale of the S-300 and other military equipment to Iran.[51] The sale was canceled because ofUnited Nations Security Council Resolution 1929 sanctions on Iran. On 10 November 2010 Iran announced that it had developed a version of the S-300 missile.[52] HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard However Pieter Wezeman of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute has questioned Iran's ability to duplicate the Russian missile system.[53] And by 2012 the Iranian position had softened to merely considering the production of such a system.[54] In April 2012, Iran filed a lawsuit for $4 billion in damages for failure to deliver the missiles.[55] Then Iran blamed foreign media for inflaming the situation when Russia threatened to reduce diplomatic support for Iran if the lawsuit continued.[56]DELL Inspiron 1520 Laptop Keyboard Although none of the S-300 versions have ever fired a missile in a real conflict, it is considered a very capable SAM system. In April 2005, NATO had a combat exercise in France and Germany called Trial Hammer 05 to practice Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses missions.[60] Participating countries were pleased that theSlovak Air Force brought a S-300PMU along, providing a unique opportunity for NATO to become familiar with the system. DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard Israel's purchase of F-35 Lightning II fighters was allegedly motivated in part to nullify the threat of S-300 missiles that were, at the time the fighters were initially sought, subject to a potential arms sale to Iran.[61][62]HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard In may 2012 a large exercise took place in Slovakia under the code name MACE XIII, where SA-300PMU was challenged by modern NATO ECM/ESM sets under complex SEAD procedures. Several NATO countries took part in this exercise, French Mirage and Raffale, danish F-16, Norway with DA-20, NATO E-3 AWACS, Turkish F-4, German Learjet with ECM/ESM set and approximately 4 others ground jammers with some partial success, with the result, that S-300PMU with professionally trained crew is capable of effective operations under complex ECM/ESM environment with high level of success.[citation needed]HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard Missiles are guided by the 30N6 FLAP LID or naval 3R41 Volna (TOP DOME) radar using command guidance with terminal semi-active radar homing. Later versions use the 30N6 FLAP LID B or TOMB STONE radar to guide the missiles via command guidance/seeker-aided ground guidance (SAGG). SAGG is similar to the Patriot's TVM guidance scheme. The earlier 30N6 FLAP LID A can guide up to four missiles at a time to up to four targets, and can track up to 24 targets at once. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The 30N6E FLAP LID B can guide up to two missiles per target to up to six targets simultaneously. Targets flying at up to Mach 2.5 can be successfully engaged or around Mach 8.5 for later models. One missile can be launched every three seconds. The mobile control centre is able to manage up to 12 TELs simultaneously. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The original warhead weighed 100 kg (220 lb), intermediate warheads weighed 133 kg (293 lb) and the latest warhead weighs 143 kg (315 lb). All are equipped with a proximity fuze and contact fuze. The missiles themselves weigh between 1,450 kg (3,200 lb) and 1,800 kg (3,970 lb). Missiles are catapulted clear of the launching tubes before their rocket motor fires, ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard which can accelerate at up to 100 g (1 km/s²). They launch straight upwards and then tip over towards their target, removing the need to aim the missiles before launch. The missiles are steered with a combination of control fins and through thrust vectoring vanes. The sections below give exact specifications of the radar and missiles in the different S-300 versions. It should be noted that since the S-300PM most vehicles are interchangeable across variations. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard The 30N6 FLAP LID A is mounted on a small trailer. The 64N6 BIG BIRD is mounted on a large trailer along with a generator and typically towed with the now familiar 8-wheeled truck. The 76N6 CLAM SHELL is mounted on a large trailer with a mast which is between 24 and 39 m (79 and 128 ft) tall. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The original S-300P utilises a combination of the 76N6 CLAM SHELL continuous-wave Doppler radar for target acquisition and the 30N6 FLAP LID A I/J-band phased array digitally steered tracking and engagement radar. Both are mounted on trailers. In addition there is a trailer-mounted command centre and up to twelve trailer-mounted erector/launchers with four missiles each. The S-300PS/PM is similar but uses an upgraded 30N6 tracking and engagement radar with the command post integrated and has truck-mounted TELs. SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/T Laptop Keyboard If employed in an anti-ballistic missile or anti-cruise missile role, the 64N6 BIG BIRD E/F-band radar would also be included with the battery. It is capable of detecting ballistic missile class targets up to 1,000 km (620 mi) away travelling at up to 10000 km/h (6200 mph) and cruise missile class targets up to 300 km (190 mi) away. It also employs electronic beam steering and performs a scan once every twelve seconds.  SONY VAIO VGN-N325QE/W Laptop Keyboard The 36D6 TIN SHIELD radar can also be used to augment the S-300 system to provide earlier target detection than the FLAP LID radar allows. It can detect a missile-sized target flying at an altitude of 60 meters (200 ft) at least 20 km (12 mi) away, at an altitude of 100 meters (330 ft) at least 30 km (19 mi) away, and at high altitude up to 175 km (109 mi) away. In addition a 64N6 BIG BIRD E/F band target acquisition radar can be used which has a maximum detection range of 300 km (190 mi). DELL Inspiron 1525 Laptop Keyboard The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, all based on the initial S-300P version. The S-300 system was developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles for the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Subsequent variations were developed to interceptballistic missiles.  IBM 42T3737 Laptop Keyboard The S-300 system was first deployed by the Soviet Union in 1979, designed for the air defense of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases, and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft. HP Pavilion dv6-2020ev Laptop Keyboard The project-managing developer of the S-300 is Russian Almaz corporation (government owned, aka "KB-1") which is currently a part of "Almaz-Antei" Air Defense Concern. S-300 uses missiles developed by MKB "Fakel" design bureau(a separate government corporation, aka "OKB-2"). FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The S-300 is regarded as one of the most potent anti-aircraft missile systems currently fielded.[3] Its radars have the ability to simultaneously track up to 100 targets while engaging up to 12. S-300 deployment time is five minutes.[3] The S-300 missiles are sealed rounds and require no maintenance over their lifetime. An evolved version of the S-300 system is the S-400 (NATO reporting name SA-21 Growler), entering limited service in 2004. ACER Aspire 1410-742G16n Laptop Keyboard The S-300P (transliterated from Russian С-300П, NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is the original version of the S-300 system which became operational in 1978.[1] In 1987 over 80 of these sites were active, mainly in the area around Moscow. TheP suffix stand for PVO-Strany (country air defence system). An S-300PT unit consists of a 36D6 (NATO reporting name TIN SHIELD) surveillance radar, a 30N6 (FLAP LID) fire control system and 5P85-1 launch vehicles. The 5P85-1 vehicle is a semi-trailer truck. Usually a 76N6 (CLAM SHELL) low altitude detection radar is also a part of the unit.[4]HP Mini 210-1095NR Laptop Keyboard This system broke substantial new ground, including the use of a phased array radar and multiple engagements on the sameFire-control system (FCS). Nevertheless, it had some limitations. It took over one hour to set up this semi-mobile system for firing and the hot vertical launch method employed scorched the TEL.[5]TOSHIBA NB100-11G Laptop Keyboard model. However, the TVM system had problems tracking targets below 500 m. Rather than accept the limitation, the Soviets decided that the tracking of low altitude targets was a must and decided to use a pure command-guidance system until the TVM head was ready.[5] This allowed the minimum engagement altitude to be set at 25 m. Compaq Presario CQ42-305AU Laptop Keyboard Improvements to the S-300P have resulted in several major subversions for both the internal and the export market. The S-300PT-1 and S-300PT-1A (SA-10b/c) are incremental upgrades of the original S300PT system. They introduce the 5V55KD missile and the cold launch method thereafter employed. Time to readiness was reduced to 30 minutes (broadly comparable to Patriot) and trajectory optimizations allowed the 5V55KD to reach a range of 75 km.[5]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The S-300PS/S-300PM (Russian С-300ПC/С-300ПМ, NATO reporting name SA-10d/e) was introduced in 1985 and is the only version thought to have been fitted with a nuclear warhead. This model saw the introduction of the modern TEL and mobile radar and command-post vehicles that were all based on the MAZ-7910 8 × 8 truck.[1] This model also featured the new 5V55R missiles which increased maximum engagement range to 90 km (56 mi) and introduced a terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH) guidance mode. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The surveillance radar of these systems was designated 30N6. Also introduced with this version was the distinction between self-propelled and towed TELs. The towed TEL is designated 5P85T. Mobile TELs were the 5P85S and 5P85D. The 5P85D was a "slave" TEL, being controlled by a 5P85S "master" TEL. The "master" TEL is identifiable thanks to the large equipment container behind the cabin; in the "slave" TEL this area is not enclosed and is used for cable or spare tyre storage. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard The next modernisation, called the S-300PMU (Russian С-300ПМУ, US DoD designation SA-10f) was introduced in 1992 for the export market and featured the upgraded 5V55U missile which still utilised the intermediate SARH terminal guidance method and smaller warhead of the 5V55R but increased the engagement envelope to give this missile roughly the same range and altitude capabilities as the newer 48N6 missile (max. range 150 km/93 mi). The radars were also upgraded, with the surveillance radar for the S-300PMU being designated 64N6 (BIG BIRD) and the illumination and guidance radar being designated 30N6-1 in the GRAU index.[citation needed]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The S-300F Fort (Russian С-300Ф Форт, DoD designation SA-N-6F suffix for Flot, Russian for fleet) was introduced in 1984 as the original ship-based (naval) version of the S-300P system developed by Altair with the new 5V55RM missile with range extended to 7–90 km (4–56 mi, equal to 3.8–50 nautical miles) and maximum target speed up to Mach 4 while engagement altitude was reduced to 25–25,000 m (100-82,000 ft). The naval version utilises the TOP SAIL or TOP STEER, SONY VAIO VGN-FS620P/W Laptop Keyboard TOP PAIR and 3R41 Volna (TOP DOME) radar and utilises command guidance with a terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH) mode. Its first installation and sea trials were on a Kara class cruiser and it is also installed on Slava class cruisers and Kirov class battlecruisers. It is stored in eight (Slava) or twelve (Kirov) 8-missile rotary launchers below decks. The export version of this system is known as Rif (Russian Риф – reef). The NATO name, found also in colloquial use, is "Grumble".ACER Aspire One A150-1905 Laptop Keyboard The 9K81 S-300V Antey-300 (Russian 9К81 С-300В Антей-300 – named after Antaeus, NATO reporting name SA-12Gladiator/Giant) varies from the other designs in the series. It was built by Antey as opposed to Almaz.[7] The V suffix stands for Voyska (ground forces). It was designed to act as the top tier army air defence system, providing a defence against ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and aircraft, replacing the SA-4 'Ganef'. The "GLADIATOR" missiles have a maximum engagement range of around 75 km (47 mi) while the "GIANT" missiles can engage targets out to 100 km (62 mi) and up to altitudes of around 32 km (100,000 ft). In both cases the warhead is around 150 kg (331 lb). SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B Laptop Keyboard Languages The five top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Berber, and Kurdish. Arabic and Berber represent the Afro-Asiaticlanguage family. Persian and Kurdish belong to the Indo-European language family. And Turkish belongs to Turkic language family. About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East. HP Pavilion dv3-2154ca laptop keyboard Arabic (with all its dialects) is the most widely spoken and/or written language in the Middle East, being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. It is also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. DELL NSK-DP101 laptop keyboard Persian is the second most spoken language. While it is confined to Iran and some border areas in neghbouring countries, the country is one of the region's largest and most populous. It belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the family of Indo-European languages.  Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard The third-most widely spoken language, Turkish, is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region's largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the Turkic languages, which have their origins in Central Asia. ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard Other languages spoken in the region include Semitic languages such as Hebrew and Mesopotamian Aramaic dialects spoken mainly by Assyrians and Mandeans. Also to be found are Armenian, Azerbaijani, Berber which is spoken across North Africa, Circassian, smaller Iranian languages, Kurdish, smaller Turkic languages (such as Gagauz), Shabaki, Yazidi, Roma, Georgian, Greek, and several Modern South Arabian languages such as Geez. Maltese is also linguistically and geographically a Middle Eastern language. DELL NSK-DP101 laptop keyboard English is commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Iran, Iraq,Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait.[27][28] It is also a main language in some of the Emirates of the United Arab Emirates. SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Lebanon. It is taught in some primary and secondary schools of Egypt, Israel and Syria. Urdu is widely spoken by migrant communities in many Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia (where 20-25% of the population is South Asian), the United Arab Emirates (where 50-55% of the population is South Asian), Israel, and Qatar, which have large numbers of Pakistani immigrants. The largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in Israel, where as of 1995 Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population.[29][30][31] Russian is also spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of emigration in the late 1990s. HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard Economy Main articles: Economy of the Middle East and Middle East economic integration Middle Eastern economies range from being very poor (such as Gaza and Yemen) to extremely wealthy nations (such as Qatar, UAE and Saudi Arabia). Overall, as of 2007, according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth. SONY VAIO VGN-NW130D Laptop Keyboard According to the World Bank's World Development Indicators database published on July 1, 2009, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2008 were Turkey ($ 794,228,000,000), Saudi Arabia ($ 467,601,000,000) and Iran ($ 385,143,000,000) in terms of Nominal GDP.[32] In regards to nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745).[33] Turkey ($ 1,028,897,000,000), Iran ($ 839,438,000,000) and Saudi Arabia ($ 589,531,000,000) had the largest economies in terms of GDP-PPP.[34]HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($86,008), Kuwait ($39,915), the UAE ($38,894), Bahrain ($34,662) and Cyprus ($29,853). The lowest-ranking country in the Middle East, in terms of per capita income (PPP), is the autonomous Palestinian Authority of Gaza and the West Bank ($1,100). HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard The economic structure of Middle Eastern nations are differ

ent in the sense that while some nations are heavily dependent on export of only oil and oil-related products (such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait), others have a highly diverse economic base (such as Cyprus, Israel, Turkey and Egypt). Industries of the Middle Eastern region include oil and oil-related products, agriculture, cotton, cattle, dairy, textiles, leather products, surgical instruments, defence equipment (guns, ammunition, tanks, submarines, fighter jets, UAVs, and missiles). Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. In recent years, however, countries such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Jordan have begun attracting greater number of tourists because of improving tourist facilities and the relaxing of tourism-related restrictive policies. HP Mini 110-3000 CTO Laptop Keyboard Unemployment is notably high in the Middle East and North Africa region, particularly among young people aged 15–29, a demographic representing 30% of the region's total population. The total regional unemployment rate in 2005, according to the International Labor Organization, was 13.2%,[35] and among youth is as high as 25%,[36] up to 37% in Morocco and 73% in Syria.[37]ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard The worlds earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) and ancient Egypt, originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East. These were followed by the Hittite, Greek and Urartian civilisations ofAsia Minor, Elam in pre-Iranian Persia, as well as the civilizations of the Levant (such as Ebla, Ugarit, Canaan, Aramea, Phoeniciaand Israel), Persian and Median civilizations in Iran, North Africa (Carthage/Phoenicia) and the Arabian Peninsula (Magan, Sheba,Ubar). DELL Inspiron 8500 Laptop Keyboard The Near East was first largely unified under the Neo Assyrian Empire, then the Achaemenid Empire followed later by theMacedonian Empire and after this to some degree by the Iranian empires (namely the Parthian and Sassanid Empires), the Roman Empireand Byzantine Empire. However, it would be the later Arab Caliphates of the Middle Ages, or Islamic Golden Age which began with the Arab conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant Islamic ethnic identity that largely (but not exclusively) persists today. The Mongols, the Turkish Seljuk and Ottomanempires, the Safavids and the British Empire would also later dominate the region. DELL Latitude E6500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the 1960s. They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the 1970s onwards. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard HP G71-343US laptop keyboard In the 20th century, the region's significant stocks of crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. Mass production of oil began around 1945, with Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates having large quantities of oil.[24] Estimated oil reserves, especially in Saudi Arabia and Iran, are some of the highest in the world, and the international oil cartel OPEC is dominated by Middle Eastern countries. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-128 laptop keyboard During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers and their allies: NATOand the United States on one side, and the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact on the other, as they competed to influence regional allies. Of course, besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. Moreover, as Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, DELL Latitude D510 laptop keyboard were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two thirds of the world's oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world [...][25] Within this contextual framework, the United States sought to divert the Arab world from Soviet influence. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict and war. ASUS F5Z laptop keyboard According to the International Organization for Migration, there are 13 million first-generation migrants from Arab nations in the world, of which 5.8 reside in other Arab countries. Expatriates from Arab countries contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In 2009 Arab countries received a total of 35.1 billion USD in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan, Egypt andLebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries.[26]SONY 147963021 laptop keyboard Non-Arab Middle Eastern countries such as Turkey, Israel and Iran are also subject to important migration dynamics. A fair proportion of those migrating from Arab nations are from ethnic and religious minorities facing racial and or religious persecution and are not necessarily ethnic Arabs, Iranians or Turks.[citation needed] Large numbers of Kurds, Jews, Assyrians, Greeks and Armenians as well as many Mandeans have left nations such as Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey for these reasons during the last century. In Iran, many religious minorities such as Christians, Baha'is andZoroastrians have left since the Islamic Revolution of 1979.[citation needed]SONY VGN-FE41Z laptop keyboard The Middle East is very diverse when it comes to religions, many of which originated there. Islam in its many forms is by far the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths that originated there, such as Judaism and Christianity, are also well represented. There are also important minority religions like theBahá'í Faith, Yazdânism, Zoroastrianism, Mandeanism, Druze, Yarsan, Yazidism and Shabakism, and in ancient times the region was home to Mesopotamian Religion,Canaanite Religion, Manicheanism, Mithraism and various Monotheist Gnostic sects. DELL PVDG3 laptop keyboard HP Pavilion dv6-2119el laptop keyboard HP Pavilion dv6-2151cl laptop keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FS620P/W laptop keyboard ACER Aspire One A150-1905 laptop keyboard

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