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Furthermore, The river goddesses Ganga and Saraswati were both born from Brahma's pot, containing the celestial waters.[75]In her earliest depictions at temple entrances, the goddess Ganga appeared standing beneath the overhanging branch of a tree, as seen as well in the Udayagiri caves.[76] However, soon the tree cover had evolved into a chatra or parasol held by an attendant, for example, in the seventh-century Dasavatara temple at Deogarh.[76] DELL Latitude E5500 CPU FAN (The parasol can be clearly seen in frame 3 above; its stem can be seen in frame 4, but the rest has broken off.) The cover undergoes another transformation in the temple at Kharod, Bilaspur (ninth or tenth century), where the parasol is lotus-shaped,[76] and yet another at the Trimurti temple at Badoli where the parasol has been replaced entirely by a lotus.[76] DELL Latitude E6400 Series CPU FAN

As the iconography evolved, sculptors in the central India especially were producing animated scenes of the goddess, replete with an entourage and suggestive of a queen en route to a river to bathe.[77] A relief similar to the depiction in frame 4 above, is described in Pal 1997, p. 43 as follows:A typical relief of about the ninth century that once stood at the entrance of a temple, the river goddess Ganga is shown as a voluptuously endowed lady with a retinue. DELL Latitude E6410 CPU FAN
Following the iconographic prescription, she stands gracefully on her composite makara mount and holds a water pot. The dwarf attendant carries her cosmetic bag, and a ... female holds the stem of a giant lotus leaf that serves as her mistress's parasol. The fourth figure is a male guardian. Often in such reliefs the makara's tail is extended with great flourish into a scrolling design symbolizing both vegetation and water. DELL Latitude E6410 Series CPU FAN

Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage in which Hindus gather at the Ganges river. The normal Kumbh Mela is celebrated every 3 years, the Ardh (half) Kumbh is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Prayag,[78] the Purna (complete) Kumbh takes place every twelve years[79] at four places (Prayag (Allahabad), Haridwar, Ujjain, and Nashik). DELL Latitude E6420 CPU FAN

The Maha (great) Kumbh Mela which comes after 12 'Purna Kumbh Melas', or 144 years, is held at Prayag (Allahabad).[79]The major event of the festival is ritual bathing at the banks of the river. Other activities include religious discussions, devotional singing, mass feeding of holy men and women and the poor, and religious assemblies where doctrines are debated and standardized. DELL Latitude E6500 CPU FAN
Kumbh Mela is the most sacred of all the pilgrimages.[80][81] Thousands of holy men and women attend, and the auspiciousness of the festival is in part attributable to this. The sadhus are seen clad in saffron sheets with ashes and powder dabbed on their skin per the requirements of ancient traditions. Some, called naga sanyasis, may not wear any clothes. DELL Latitude E6500 Series CPU FAN

Megasthenes, a Greek ethnographer who visited India during third century BCE when Mauryans ruled India described the existence of canals in the gangetic plain. Kautilya (also known as Chanakya), an advisor to Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of Maurya empire, included the destruction of dams and levees as a strategy during war.[84DELL Latitude E6510 CPU FAN

] Firuz Shah Tughlaq had many canals built, the longest of which, 240 km (150 mi), was built in 1356 on the Yamuna River. Now known as the Western Yamuna Canal, it has fallen into disrepair and been restored several times. The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan built an irrigation canal on the Yamuna River in the early 17th century. It fell into disuse until 1830, when it was reopened as the Eastern Yamuna Canal, under British control. DELL Latitude E6510 Series CPU FAN
The reopened canal became a model for the Upper Ganges Canal and all following canal projects.

The first British canal in India—with no Indian antecedents—was the Ganges Canal built between 1842 and 1854.[85] Contemplated first by Col. John Russell Colvin in 1836, it did not at first elicit much enthusiasm from its eventual architect Sir Proby Thomas Cautley, DELL Precision M4400 Series CPU FAN
who balked at idea of cutting a canal through extensive low-lying land in order to reach the drier upland destination. However, after the Agra famine of 1837–38, during which the East India Company's administration spent Rs.2,300,000 on famine relief, the idea of a canal became more attractive to the Company's budget-conscious Court of Directors. DELL Precision M4500 CPU FAN
In 1839, the Governor General of India, Lord Auckland, with the Court's assent, granted funds to Cautley for a full survey of the swath of land that underlay and fringed the projected course of the canal. The Court of Directors, moreover, considerably enlarged the scope of the projected canal, which, in consequence of the severity and geographical extent of the famine, they now deemed to be the entire Doab region.[ DELL Precision M6400 Series CPU FAN

The enthusiasm, however, proved to be short lived. Auckland's successor as Governor General, Lord Ellenborough, appeared less receptive to large-scale public works, and for the duration of his tenure, withheld major funds for the project. Only in 1844, when a new Governor-General, Lord Hardinge, was appointed, did official enthusiasm and funds return to the Ganges canal project.DELL Precision M65 CPU FAN
Although the intervening impasse had seemingly affected Cautley's health and required him to return to Britain in 1845 for recuperation, his European sojourn gave him an opportunity to study contemporary hydraulic works in the United Kingdom and Italy. By the time of his return to India even more supportive men were at the helm, both in the North-Western Provinces, DELL Precision M70 Series CPU FAN
withJames Thomason as Lt. Governor, and in British India with Lord Dalhousie as Governor-General. Canal construction, under Cautley's supervision, now went into full swing. A 350-mile long canal, with another 300 miles of branch lines, eventually stretched between the headworks in Hardwar, splitting into two branches below Aligarh, and its two confluences with the Yamuna(Jumna in map) mainstem in Etawah and the Ganges in Kanpur (Cawnpore in map). DELL Precision M90 CPU FAN
The Ganges Canal, which required a total capital outlay of £2.15 million, was officially opened in 1854 by Lord Dalhousie.[ According to historian Ian Stone:It was the largest canal ever attempted in the world, five times greater in its length than all the main irrigation lines of Lombardy and Egypt put together, and longer by a third than even the largest USA navigation canal, the Pennsylvania Canal. DELL Pricision M6300 CPU FAN

A major barrage at Farakka was opened on 21 April 1975,[86] It is located close to the point where the main flow of the river enters Bangladesh, and the tributary Hooghly (also known as Bhagirathi) continues in West Bengal past Kolkata. This barrage, which feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a 26-mile (42 km) long feeder canal, and its water flow management has been a long-lingering source of dispute with Bangladesh.[87] DELL Studio 1435 CPU FAN
Indo-Bangladesh Ganges Water Treatysigned in December 1996 addressed some of the water sharing issues between India and Bangladesh.[86]Tehri Dam was constructed on Bhagirathi River, tributary of the Ganges. It's located 1.5 km downstream of Ganesh Prayag, the place where Bhilangana meets Bhagirathi. Bhagirathi is called Ganges after Devprayag.[88] Construction of the dam in an earthquake prone area[89] was controversial.[90] DELL Studio 1450 CPU FAN

Bansagar Dam was built on the Son River, a tributary of the Ganges, for both irrigation and hydroelectric power generation.

The Ganges Basin with its fertile soil is instrumental to the agricultural economies of India and Bangladesh. The Ganges and its tributaries provide a perennial source of irrigation to a large area. Chief crops cultivated in the area include rice,sugarcane, lentils, oil seeds, potatoes, and wheat. DELL Studio 1457 CPU FAN
Along the banks of the river, the presence of swamps and lakes provide a rich growing area for crops such as legumes, chillies, mustard, sesame, sugarcane, and jute. There are also many fishing opportunities to many along the river, though it remains highly polluted. Kanpur, largest leather producing city in the world is situated on the banks of this river.[ DELL Studio 1458 CPU FAN

Tourism is another related activity. Three towns holy to Hinduism – Haridwar, prayag (Allahabad), and Varanasi – attract thousands of pilgrims to its waters. Thousands of Hindu pilgrims arrive at these three towns to take a dip in the Ganges, which is believed to cleanse oneself of sins and help attain salvation. The rapids of the Ganges also are popular for river rafting, attracting hundreds of adventure seekers in the summer months. DELL Studio 1535 Series CPU FAN
Street vendors sell homemade bowls of flowers with tea light for visitors to set on the water at sunset.

The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin has a huge hydroelectric potential, on the order of 200,000 to 250,000 megawatts, nearly half of which could be easily harnessed. As of 1999, India tapped about 12% of the hydroelectric potential of the Ganges and just 1% of the vast potential of the Brahmaputra. DELL Studio 1536 Series CPU FAN

The Ganges suffers from extreme pollution levels, which affect the 400 million people who live close to the river.[93][94] Sewage from many cities along the river's course, industrial waste and religious offerings wrapped in non-degradable plastics add large amounts of pollutants to the river as it flows through densely populated areas.[14][95] DELL Studio 1537 Series CPU FAN
The problem is exacerbated by the fact that many poorer people rely on the river on a daily basis for bathing, washing, and cooking.[95] The World Bank estimates that the health costs of water pollution in India equal three percent of India's GDP.[96] It has also been suggested that eighty percent of all illnesses in India and one-third of deaths can be attributed to water-borne diseases.[97] DELL Studio 1555 Series CPU FAN

Varanasi, a city of one million people that many pilgrims visit to take a "holy dip" in the Ganges, releases around 200 million litres of untreated human sewage into the river each day, leading to large concentrations of faecal coliform bacteria.[95]According to official standards, water safe for bathing should not contain more than 500 faecal coliforms per 100ml, DELL Studio 17 CPU FAN
yet upstream of Varanasi's ghats the river water already contains 120 times as much, 60,000 faecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml.After the cremation of the deceased at Varanasi's ghats the bones and ashes are thrown into the Ganges. However, in the past thousands of uncremated bodies were thrown into the Ganges during cholera epidemics, spreading the disease. DELL Studio 1735 CPU FAN
Even today, holy men, pregnant women, people with leprosy/chicken pox, people who had been bitten by snakes, people who had committed suicide, the poor, and children under 5 are not cremated at the ghats but are floated free to decompose in the waters. In addition, those who can not afford the large amount of wood needed to incinerate the entire body, leave behind a lot of half burned body parts.[99][100] DELL Studio 1736 CPU FAN

After passing through Varanasi, and receiving 32 streams of raw sewage from the city, the concentration of fecal coliforms in the river's waters rises from 60,000 to 1.5 million,[11][98] with observed peak values of 100 million per 100 ml.[95] Drinking and bathing in its waters therefore carries a high risk of infection.[95]

Between 1985 and 2000, Rs. 1,000 crore (Rs. 10 billion, around US$ 226 million, DELL Studio 1737 CPU FAN
or less than 4 cents per person per year were spent on the Ganga Action Plan,[14] an environmental initiative that was "the largest single attempt to clean up a polluted river anywhere in the world."[16] The Ganga Action Plan has been described variously as a "failure,"[101][102][103] a "major failure,[12] a "colossal failure,"[13] and a "widely recognized failure."[96] DELL Studio XPS 1340 CPU FAN
The Ganga Action Plan, which was taken on priority and with much enthusiasm, was delayed for two years. The expenditure was almost doubled. But the result was not very appreciable. Much expenditure was done over the political propaganda. The concerning governments and the related agencies were not very prompt to make it a success. DELL Studio XPS 1640 CPU FAN
The public of the areas was not taken into consideration. The releasing of urban and industrial wastes in the river was not controlled fully. The flowing of dirty water through drains and sewers were not adequately diverted. The continuing customs of burning dead bodies, throwing carcasses, washing of dirty clothes by washermen, and immersion of idols and cattle wallowing were not checked. DELL Studio XPS 1645 CPU FAN
Very little provision of public latrines was made and the open defecation of lakhs of people continued along the riverside. All these made the Action Plan a failure.The failure of the Ganga Action Plan, has also been variously attributed to "environmental planning without proper understanding of the human–environment interactions,"[16] Indian "traditions and beliefs,"[104] "corruption and a lack of technical knowledge"[15] and "lack of support from religious authorities."[17] DELL Studio XPS 1647 CPU FAN

In December 2009 the World Bank agreed to loan India US$ 1 billion over the next five years to help save the river.[105] According to 2010 Planning Commission estimates, an investment of almost Rs. 7,000 crore (Rs. 70 billion, approximately US$ 1.5 billion) is needed to clean up the river.[14]

In November 2008, the Ganges, alone among India's rivers, was declared a "National River",DELL Vostro 1000 Series CPU FAN

facilitating the formation of a National Ganga River Basin Authoritythat would have greater powers to plan, implement and monitor measures aimed at protecting the river.[106]

The incidence of water-borne and enteric diseases – such as gastrointestinal disease, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A and typhoid – among people who use the river's waters for bathing, washing dishes and brushing teeth is high, at an estimated 66% per year.[95] DELL Vostro 1014 Series CPU FAN

Recent studies by ICMR say, It's so full of killer pollutants that those living along its banks in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal are more prone to cancer than anywhere else in the country.

Conducted by the National Cancer Registry Programme under the Indian Council of Medical Research, the study throws up shocking findings. The river is thick with heavy metals and lethal chemicals that cause cancer, it says. DELL Vostro 1015 Series CPU FAN
"We know that the incidence of cancer was highest in the country in areas drained by the Ganga. We also know why. Now, we are going deeper into the problem. Hopefully, we'll be able to present a report to the health ministry in a month or two," NCRP head A Nandkumar said.

Human development, mostly agriculture, has replaced nearly all of the original natural vegetation of the Ganges basin. DELL Vostro 1018 Series CPU FAN

More than 95% of the upper Gangetic Plain has been degraded or converted to agriculture or urban areas. Only one large block of relatively intact habitat remains, running along the Himalayan foothills and including Rajaji National Park, Jim Corbett National Park, and Dudhwa National Park.[108] As recently as the 16th and 17th centuries the upper Gangetic Plain harbored impressive populations of wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), tigers (Panthera tigris), Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), gaurs (Bos gaurus), DELL Vostro 1088 Series CPU FAN

barasinghas (Rucervus duvaucelii), sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) and Indian lions.[108] In the 21st century there are few large wild animals, mostly deer, boars, wildcats, and small numbers of wolves, jackals, and foxes. Bengal tigers survive only in the Sundarbans area of the Ganges Delta. Crocodiles and barasingha are also found in the Sundarbans.[18] The Sundarbands freshwater swamp ecoregion, however, is nearly extinct.[109] DELL Vostro 1310 CPU FAN

Threatened mammals in the upper Gangetic Plain include the tiger, elephant, sloth bear, and chousingha (Tetracerus quadricornis).

Fish are found in all the major rivers of the Ganges basin, and are a vital food source for many people. In the Bengal area common fish include featherbacks (Notopteridae family), barbs (Cyprinidae), walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), gouramis(Anabantidae), and milkfish (Chanos chanos).[18] DELL Vostro 1400 Series CPU FAN

The critically endangered Ganges shark (Glyphis gangeticus) is also found in the river and other places in south Asia.[110]

Many types of birds are found throughout the basin, such as myna, parrots, crows, kites, partridges, and fowls. Ducks and snipesmigrate across the Himalayas during the winter, attracted in large numbers to wetland areas.[18DELL Vostro 1510 CPU FAN

] There are no endemic birds in the upper Gangetic Plain. The Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) and Lesser Florican (Sypheotides indicus) are considered globally threatened.[108]

The natural forest of the upper Gangetic Plain has been so thoroughly eliminated it is difficult to assign a natural vegetation type with certainty. DELL Vostro 1700 CPU FAN

There are a few small patches of forest left, and they suggest that much of the upper plains may have supported a tropical moist deciduous forest with sal (Shorea robusta) as a climax species.

The Ganges River itself supports the mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) and the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). The river's most famed fauna is the freshwater dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica, the Ganges River dolphin,[108] recently declared India's national aquatic animal.[111] DELL Vostro 2510 CPU FAN
A similar situation is found in the lower Gangetic Plain, which includes the lower Brahmaputra River. The lower plains contain more open forests, which tend to be dominated by Bombax ceiba in association with Albizzia proceraDuabanga grandiflora, andSterculia vilosa. There are early seral forest communities that would eventually become dominated by the climax species sal (Shorea robusta), if forest succession was allowed to proceed. DELL Vostro 3300 CPU FAN

In most places forests fail to reach climax conditions due to human causes.[112] The forests of the lower Gangetic Plain, despite thousands of years of human settlement, remained largely intact until the early 20th century. Today only about 3% of the ecoregion is under natural forest and only one large block, south of Varanasi, remains. There are over forty protected areas in the ecoregion, but over half of these are less than 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi).[112DELL Vostro 3350 CPU FAN

] The fauna of the lower Gangetic Plain is similar to the upper plains, with the addition of a number of other species such as the Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) and the Large Indian Civet (Viverra zibetha).

The Ganges River Dolphin, which used to exist in large schools near to urban centres in both the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, is now seriously threatened by pollution and dam construction. DELL Vostro 3400 CPU FAN
Their numbers have now dwindled to a quarter of their numbers of fifteen years before, and they have become extinct in the Ganges's main tributaries.[113] A recent survey by the World Wildlife Fund found only 3,000 left in the water catchment of both river systems.[114]

The Ganges river dolphin is one of only four freshwater dolphins in the world. DELL Vostro 3450 CPU FAN
The other three are the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) of the Yangtze River in China, now likely extinct, the bhulan of the Indus River in Pakistan, and the boto of the Amazon River in Brazil. There are several marine dolphines whose ranges include some freshwater habitats, but these four are the only dolphins who live only in freshwater rivers and lakes.

Along with ever-increasing pollution, water shortages are getting noticeably worse. Some sections of the river are already completely dry. DELL Vostro 3500 CPU FAN

Around Varanasi the river once had an average depth of 60 metres (200 ft), but in some places it is now only 10 metres (33 ft).[115]"To cope with its chronic water shortages, India employs electric groundwater pumps, diesel-powered tankers and coal-fed power plants. If the country increasingly relies on these energy-intensive short-term fixes, the whole planet's climate will bear the consequences. DELL Vostro 3700 CPU FAN
India is under enormous pressure to develop its economic potential while also protecting its environment—something few, if any, countries have accomplished. What India does with its water will be a test of whether that combination is possible."

The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. DELL Vostro 3700 Series CPU FAN
Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said that the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term; but issued a strong warning:

"Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world.... DELL Vostro 3750 CPU FAN
In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows... In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, including the Indus and the Ganges. Once they vanish, water supplies in those regions will be in peril."

In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in its Fourth Report, stated that the Himalayan glaciers which feed the river, were at risk of melting by 2035.[118] DELL Vostro A840 CPU FAN
The IPCC has now withdrawn that prediction, as the original source admitted that it was speculative and the cited source was not a peer reviewed finding.[119] In its statement, the IPCC stands by its general findings relating to the Himalayan glaciers being at risk from global warming (with consequent risks to water flow into the Gangetic basin). DELL Vostro A860 CPU FAN

Illegal mining in the Ganges river bed for stones and sand for construction work has been a long problem in Haridwar district, Uttarakhand, where it touches the plains for the first time. This is despite the fact that quarrying has been banned in Kumbh Mela area zone covering 140 km2 area in Haridwar.[120] DELL XPS L501X CPU FAN
On 14 June,Swami Nigamanada, a 34-year-old monk who was fasting since 19 February 2011 against illegal mining and stone crushing along the Ganges near Haridwar, died at the Himalayan Hospital in Jollygrant in Dehradun, after prolonged coma in the hospital's intensive care unit.[120][121] His death put a spotlight on the activity and resulted in the intervention of the Union Environment minister. DELL XPS L502X CPU FAN

In Hinduism, the river Ganges is referred to as Ga (Sanskrit: गङ्गा, Hindi: गंगा Ga, Burmese: ဂင်္ဂါ,IPA: [ɡɪ́ɴɡà] Ginga; ഗംഗ in മലയാളം, gangkai Tamil: கங்கை kangkai, Thai: คงคา Khongkha) and is considered sacred. Personified as a goddess, Gaṅgā is worshiped by Hindus who believe that bathing in the river causes the remission of sins and facilitates liberation from the cycle of life and death. DELL XPS M1210 CPU FAN
Pilgrims travel long distances to immerse the ashes of their kin in the waters of the Ganges, bringing their spirits closer to moksha.Several places sacred to Hindus lie along the banks of the river Ganges, including Gangotri, Haridwar, Allahabad andVaranasi. During the Loy Krathong festival in Thailand, candlelit floats are released into waterways to honor the Buddhaand the goddess DELL XPS M1330 CPU FAN
Ganga (พระแม่คงคา, คงคาเทวี) for good fortune and washing away sins (pāpa in Sanskrit, used to describe actions that create negative karma by violating moral and ethical codes, which brings negative consequences.)

Bhagavata Purana depicts the birth of river Ganges. According to Bhagavata Purana, Lord Vishnu in one of his incarnations, appeared as Vamana in the sacrificial arena of Asura King Mahabali. DELL XPS M140 CPU FAN

DELL XPS M1710 CPU FANQin  Then in order to measure the universe, he extended his left foot to the end of the universe and pierced a hole in its covering with the nail of his big toe. Through the hole, the pure water of the Causal Ocean (Divine Brahm-Water) entered this universe as the Ganges River. Having washed the lotus feet of the Lord, which are covered with reddish saffron, the water of the Ganges acquired a very beautiful pink color.
DELL XPS M170 CPU FAN

Because the Ganges directly touches the lotus feet of Lord Vishnu (Narayana) before descending within this universe, Ganges is known as Bhagavat-Padi which means Emanating from the lotus feet of Bhagavan (God). It finally settles in Brahmaloka or Brahmapura, abode of Lord Brahma before descending to planet Earth at the request ofBhagiratha and held safely by Lord Shiva on his head to prevent destruction of Bhumi (Mother Earth).[1] DELL XPS M1530 CPU FAN

Then, the river Ganges was released from Lord Shiva 's hair to meet the needs of the country according to Hindu mythology.In other legends , Himavat fathered Parvati and Ganga .

Several years later, a king named Sagara magically acquired sixty thousand sons. One day,King Sagar performed a ritual of worship for the good of the kingdom. HP 052907A CPU FAN

One of the integral parts of the ritual was a horse, which was stolen by the jealous Indra. Sagara sent all his sons all over the earth to search for the horse. They found it in the nether-world (or Underworld) next to a meditating sage Kapila. Believing that the sage had stolen the horse, they hurled insults at him and caused his penance to be disturbed. HP 13.V1.B3403.GN CPU FAN

The sage opened his eyes for the first time in several years, and looked at the sons of Sagara. With this glance, all sixty thousand were burnt to death.[2]The souls of the sons of Sagara wandered as ghosts since their final rites had not been performed. When Bhagiratha, one of the descendants of Sagara, son of Dilip, learnt of this fate, he vowed to bring Ganga down to Earth so that her waters could cleanse their souls and release them to heaven. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU FAN

Bhagiratha prayed to Brahma that Ganga come down to Earth. Brahma agreed, and he ordered Ganga to go down to the Earth and then on to the nether regions so that the souls of Bhagiratha's ancestors would be able to go to heaven. Ganga felt that this was insulting and decided to sweep the whole Earth away as she fell from the heavens. Alarmed, Bhagiratha prayed to Shiva that he break up Ganga's descent. HP 344872-001 CPU FAN

Ganga arrogantly fell on Shiva's head. But Shiva calmly trapped her in his hair and let her out in small streams. The touch of Shiva further sanctified Ganga. As Ganga travelled to the nether-worlds, she created a different stream to remain on Earth to help purify unfortunate souls there. She is the only river to follow from all the three worlds – Swarga (heaven), Prithvi (Earth) and, Patala (netherworld or hell). HP 367795-001 CPU FAN

Thus is called "Tripathagā" (one who travels the three worlds) in Sanskrit language.

Because of Bhagiratha's efforts Ganga descended to Earth and hence the river is also known as Bhagirathi, and the term "Bhagirath prayatna" is used to describe valiant efforts or difficult achievements.

Another name that Ganga is known by is Jahnavi. HP 384622-001 CPU FAN

Story has it that once Ganga came down to Earth, on her way to Bhagiratha, her rushing waters created turbulence and destroyed the fields and the sadhana of a sage called Jahnu. He was angered by this and drank up all of Ganga's waters. Upon this, the Gods prayed to Jahnu to release Ganga so that she could proceed on her mission. Pleased with their prayers, Jahnu released Ganga (her waters) from his ears. HP 3MLX6TATPH0 CPU FAN

Hence the name "Jahnavi" (daughter of Jahnu) for Ganga.

It is sometime believed that the river will finally dry up at the end of Kali Yuga (the era of darkness, the current era) just as with the Sarasvati river, and this era will end. Next in (cyclic) order will be the Satya Yuga or the era of Truth.

The Ganges is mentioned in the Rigveda, the earliest and theoretically the holiest of the Hindu scriptures. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU FAN

The Ganges is mentioned in the nadistuti (Rigveda 10.75), which lists the rivers from east to west. In RV 6.45.31, the word Ganga is also mentioned, but it is not clear if the reference is to the river.

RV 3.58.6 says that "your ancient home, your auspicious friendship, O Heroes, your wealth is on the banks of the Jahnavi (JahnAvyAm)". This verse could possibly refer to the Ganges.[3] In RV 1.116.18–19, the Jahnavi and the Ganges River Dolphin occur in two adjacent verses. HP 3MLX8TATP40 CPU FAN

According to the Hindu scriptures like Skanda Purana, the goddess Ganga is foster-mother to Karttikeya (Murugan), who was actually a son of Shiva and Parvati.

Parvati who created an image of Ganesha (son of Shiva and Parvati) out of her bodily impurities but which became endowed with life after immersion in the sacred waters of the Ganges. HP 3MLX9TATP70 CPU FAN

Therefore Ganesha is said to have two mothers—Pārvati and Gangā and hence calledDvaimātura and also Gāngeya (the son of Ganga).[6]

The Hindu epic, Mahabharata tells that the Vasus, cursed by Vashishta had requested Ganga to be their mother. Ganga incarnated and became the wife of King Santanu on condition that at no stage shall he question her actions, or she would leave him. HP 407862-001 CPU FAN

As seven Vasus were born as their children, one after the other, Ganga drowned them in her own waters, freeing them from their punishment and the king made no opposition. Only when the eighth was born did the king finally oppose his wife, who therefore left him. So the eighth son, HP 414226-001 CPU FAN

Dyausincarnated, remained alive, imprisoned in mortal form, and later became known in his mortal incarnation as Bhishma (Devavrata), who is one of the most respected characters of the Mahābhārata. HP 418409-001 CPU FAN,HP 431312-001 CPU FAN,HP 434678-001 CPU FAN

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