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15 mars 2012 4 15 /03 /mars /2012 13:41

Fuzhou

Fuzhou (Chinese: 福 州; pinyin: Fúzhōu, [fǔtʂóʊ] (  listen); Fuzhou dialect: Hók-ciŭ) is the capital and one of the largestcities in Fujian Province, Dell T117C Battery

People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong (闽东, lit. East of Fujian) linguistic and cultural area. Dell P721C Battery

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Fuzhou's core counties lie on the north (or left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, and Ningde's Gutian County lies upriver. Dell T118C Battery

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Fuzhou's counties south of the Min border on Putian,Quanzhou, Sanming and Nanping municipalities. Its population is 7,115,370 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 4,408, Dell 0P891C Battery

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076 inhabitants are urban standing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 standing around 38.05%.[1] Dell 312-0773 Battery

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In older publications, the name "Fuzhou" was variously romanized as Foochow, Fuchow, Fuh-chau, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew orHokchew. Dell T555C Battery

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The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties, a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century AD, says that Fuzhou's name came from "Mt. Fu", Dell W298C Battery

a mountain located northwest of the city. The mountain's name was then combined with -zhou, meaning "settlement" or "prefecture", in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. Dell W303C Battery

During the Warring States Period, the Han Chinese referred to the Fuzhou area as Ye (Chinese: 冶), though they did not conquer the area until the Qin Dynasty.Dell U011C Battery

The city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries AD before finally settling on Fuzhou in 948.[3] Dell 312-0814 Battery

In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng(Chinese: 榕城; Foochow Romanized: Ṳ̀ng-siàng) literally "The Banyan City".Dell 312-0815 Battery

Pre-Qin History (before 221 BC)

See also: Yue peoples and Minyue

The remains of two Neolithic cultures - the Huqiutou Culture (Chinese: 虎丘头文化), from around 5000 BC, and the Tanshi Mountain Culture (Chinese: 昙石山文化), from around 3000 BC - have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou area.Dell 451-10692 Battery

During the Warring States Period (c. 475 - 221 BC), Han Chinese began referring to the modern Fujian area as Min Yue (Chinese: 闽越), suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, Dell WU841 Battery

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a family of non-Chinese tribes who once inhabited most of southern China.[4]In 306 BC, the Yue Kingdom (present-day Zhejiang Province) fell to the state of Chu. Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, Dell MT193 Battery

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where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Chinese and Yue culture to create Minyue.[5] Their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City. Dell MT332 Battery

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Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC - 200 AD)

The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule. The Qin Dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" (Chinese: 郡; pinyin: jùn) - Dell WU852 Battery

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roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture - and the Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery (Chinese: 闽中郡). The area seems to have continued mostly independent of Chinese control for the next century. Dell PW651 Battery

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The Han Dynasty followed the short-lived Qin, andEmperor Gaozu of Han declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. Dell 312-0452 Battery

In 202 BC Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu (Chinese: 无诸, Old Chinese: *Matya) as King of Minyue, and a walled city called Ye (Chinese: 冶, Old Chinese: *Lyaʔ, literally "Beautiful") was built. The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou. Dell 451-10372 Battery

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In 110 BC, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies and annexed its territory and people into China. Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jiangnan area, Dell CG623 Battery

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and the Yue ethnic group was mostly assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants.[4] The area was eventually re-organized as a county in 85 BC. Dell KD476 Battery

During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu, and the Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River fleets. Dell CG036 Battery

In 282 AD, during the Jin Dynasty, two artificial lakes known simply as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system. The core of modern Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. Dell CG039 Battery

In 308 AD, during the War of the Eight Princes at the end of the Jin Dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Han Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China began, Dell HF674 Battery

followed by subsequent waves during later periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Chinese heartland. The administrative and economic center of the Fujian area began to shift to the Ye area during the Sui Dynasty (581 - 618 AD). Dell NF343 Battery

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Tang, Song, and Yuan Dynasties (618 - 1368 AD)

In 725 AD, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang Dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. Dell TC030 Battery

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The later years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian and Guangdong areas. Dell CF623 Battery

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In 879, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou in a rebellion against the Tang Dynasty,Dell YD623 Battery

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successfully gaining control of the entire Fujian Province and eventually proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom in 909. Dell FK890 Battery

The Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945. In 978, Fuzhou was incorporated into the newly founded Song Dynasty, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous. Dell 312-0566 Battery

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Fuzhou prospered greatly during the Tang Dynasty. Buddhism was quickly adopted by the citizens who quickly built many Buddhist temples in the area. The Hualin Temple (Chinese: 华林寺, not to be confused with the temple of the same name in Guangzhou), Dell PU563 Battery

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founded in 964, is one of the oldest surviving wooden structures in China. New city walls were built in 282 AD, 901 AD, 905 AD, and 974 AD, so the city had many layers of walls — more so than the Chinese capital. Dell WR050 Battery

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Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty ordered the destruction of all the walls in Fuzhou in 978 AD but new walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371 AD. Dell 312-0625 Battery

During theSouthern Song Dynasty, Fuzhou became more prosperous; many scholars came to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi (朱熹), the most celebrated Chinese philosopher after Confucius, and Xin Qiji (辛弃疾), the greatest composer of the ci form of poetry. Dell 312-0633 Battery

Marco Polo, an Italian guest of the Emperor Kubilai, transcribed, after the conventions of Italian orthography, the place name asFugiu. This was not the local Min pronunciation but that of the Mandarin administrative class. Dell GW240 Battery

Ming Dynasty

Between 1405 and 1433 AD, a fleet of the Ming Imperial navy under Admiral Zheng He sailed from Fuzhou to the Indian Ocean seven times; on three occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa. Before the last sailing, Zheng erected a stele dedicated to the goddess Tian-Fei (Matsu) near the seaport. Dell HP297 Battery

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The Ming government gave a monopoly over Phillipine trade to Fuzhou, which at times was shared with Quanzhou.[6] Dell XR693 Battery

Galeote Pereira, a Portuguese soldier and trader, was taken prisoner during the pirate extermination campaign of 1549 and imprisoned in Fuzhou. Later transferred to a form of internal exile elsewhere in the province, Pereira escaped to Macau in 1553. Dell RU006 Battery

The record of his experiences in the Ming Empire, logged by the Jesuits at Goain 1561, was the first non-clerical account of China to reach the West since Polo's.[7] Dell TK330 Battery

Qing Dynasty

In the 19th century, Lin Zexu, born in Fuzhou, a high-ranking official of Qing Dynasty, led an attempt to resist British colonialism at Guangzhou. Unsuccessful and reviled by the East India Company, he was internally exiled to Xinjiang near the Russian border. Dell HG307 Battery

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By the 1842 peace treaty which concluded the Opium War I, Fuzhou became one of the five Chinese treaty ports, and it became completely open to Western merchants and missionaries. Dell 312-0867 Battery

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Fuzhou was one of the most important Protestant mission fields in China. On January 2, 1846, the first Protestant missionary, Rev. Stephen Johnson from ABCFM, entered the city and soon set up the first missionary station there.Dell F144M Battery

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ABCFM was followed by the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society that was led by Revs. M. C. White and J. D. Collins, who reached Fuzhou in early September 1847. The Church Missionary Society also arrived in the city in May 1850. Dell J590M Battery

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These three Protestant agencies remained in Fuzhou until the communist revolution in China in the 1950s, leaving a rich heritage in Fuzhou's Protestant culture. Dell 312-0810 Battery

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On August 23, 1884, the Battle of Fuzhou broke out between the French Far East Fleet and the Fujian Fleet of the Qing Dynasty. As the result, the Fujian Fleet, one of the four Chinese regional fleets, was destroyed completely in Mawei Harbor. Dell F707H Battery

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Japanese Occupation

With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, hostilities commenced in Fujian Province. Xiamen (Amoy) fell to a Japanese landing force on May 13, 1938. Dell F805H Battery

"The fall of Amoy instantly threatened the security of Foochow. On May 23, enemy (Japanese) ships bombarded Mei-hua, Huang-chi and Pei-chiao while enemy planes continued to harass our forces. Dell KM904 Battery

Between May 31 and June 1, our gunboats "Fu-ning", "Chen-ning" and "Suming" defending the blockade line in the estuary of the Min River were successively bombed and sunk. Meanwhile, our ship "Chu-tai" berthed at Nan-tai was damaged.Dell KM905 Battery

Our Navy's Harbor Command School, barracks, shipyard, hospital and marine barracks at Ma-wei were successively bombed." (4). Fuzhou is recorded as having fallen to Japanese forces in 1938. (5). Dell MT264 Battery

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The extent of Japanese command and control of the city of Fuzhou itself as opposed to the port at Mawei and the Min River Estuary is uncertain. By 1941 (date unknown), Dell PW773 Battery

the city is recorded as having returned to Nationalist control. The British Consulate in Fuzhou is noted as operational from 1941-1944 after the United Kingdom Declaration of War on Japan in December 1941. Dell WU946 Battery

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Western visitors to Fuzhou in the period 1941-1944 include the Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett in 1942 (6). and the British scientist Dr Joseph Needham in May, 1944. (7). Both visitors record the presence of a British Consul and a Fuzhou Club comprising western businessmen. Dell WU965 Battery

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In 'Bomb, Book & Compass', author Simon Winchester relates the visit of Dr Needham in 1944. Needham encountered the American government agent (John Caldwell) and the British SIS agent (Murray MacLehose working under Dell KM974 Battery

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cover as the British Vice-Consul in Fuzhou) involved in aid to the Nationalist resistance to Japanese forces in Fujian Province. (8). Dell KM978 Battery

As part of Operation Ichi-Go (1944), the last large-scale Japanese offensive in China in World War 2, the Japanese intended to isolate Fuzhou and the Fujian Province corridor to Nationalist forces in western china and the wartime capital of Chongqing. Dell MT335 Battery

One account of the Japanese re-taking of Fuzhou city itself is narrated by American naval officer, Houghton Freeman. (9). The date is given as October 5, 1944. (10). Dell MT342 Battery

Fuzhou remained under Japanese control until the surrender of Japan and its armed forces in China in September 1945. Dell PW823 Battery

Following the restitution of Republic control (1946), the administration divisions of Fuzhou were annexed, and administration level was promoted from county-level to city-level officially. Dell PW824 Battery

The administrative divisions of Fuzhou have been changed frequently throughout history. From 1983, the Fuzhou current administrative divisions were formed officially, namely, Dell PW835 Battery

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5 districts and 8 counties respectively. In 1990 and 1994, Fuqing (Hók-chiăng) and Changle (Diòng-lŏ̤h) counties were promoted to county-level cities. Despite these changes, the administrative image of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still held popularly among local residents. Fuzhou's entire area only covers 9.65% of Fujian Province. Dell RM868 Battery

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Besides Mandarin Chinese, local residents of Fuzhou (Fuzhou people) also speak Fuzhou dialect, a language that is considered to be the standard form of the Min Dong dialect. Dell 312-0711 Battery

Min opera, also known as Fuzhou drama, is one of the major operas in Fujian Province. It enjoys popularity in the Fuzhou area and in neighboring parts of Fujian such as the northeast and northwest areas where the Fuzhou dialect is spoken, Dell 312-0712 Battery

as well as in Taiwanand the Malay Archipelago. It became a fixed opera in the early 20th century. There are more than 1,000 plays of Min opera, most of which originate from folk tales, Dell 312-0708 Battery

historical novels, or ancient legends, including such traditional plays as "Making Seal", "The Purple Jade Hairpin" and "Switching Fairy Peach with Litchi".Dell F287H Battery

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Religion

The two traditional mainstream religions practiced in Fuzhou are Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. Traditionally, many people practice both religions simultaneously. The city is also home to many Buddhist monasteries/Taoist temples and Buddhist monks. Dell 312-0818 Battery

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Apart from mainstream religions, a number of religious worship sites of various local religions are situated in the streets and lanes of Fuzhou. Dell F286H Battery

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The origins of local religion can be dated back centuries. These diverse religions incorporated elements such as gods and doctrines from other religions and cultures, such as totem worship and traditional legends. Dell R988H Battery

For example, Monkey King, originated to monkey worship among local ancients, gradually came to embody the God of Wealth in Fuzhou after the novel Journey to the West was issued in Ming dynasty. Dell 1691P Battery

As the most popular religion in the Min River Valley, the worship of Lady Linshui (临水夫人) is viewed as one of the three most influential local religions in Fujian, the other two being the worship of Mazu (妈祖) and Baosheng Dadi (保生大帝). Dell 1G222 Battery

Fuzhou cuisine is one of the four traditional cooking styles of Fujian cuisine, which in turn is one of the eight Chinese regional cuisines. Dishes are light but flavorful, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as "xiānwèi" (traditional Chinese: 鮮味; simplified Chinese: 鲜味), Dell 1X793 Battery

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as well as retaining the original flavor of the main ingredients instead of masking them. In Fuzhou cuisine, the taste is light compared to that of some other Chinese cooking styles, Dell 310-6321 Battery

and often have a mixed sweet and sour taste. Soup, served as an indispensable dish in meals, is cooked in various ways with local seasonal fresh vegetables and seafood. Dell 310-6322 Battery

Distinctive snack foods are also an important part of Fuzhou culture. Production of raw materials according to classification can be divided into many classes: powder, starch, dry fruit, Dell 312-0068 Battery

meat and seafood, etc., with rice, beans, and sugar as the main raw materials. Red and white rice cakes (年糕) during the Chinese New Year, stuffed yuanxiao (元宵) during the Lantern Festival, Dell 312-0078 Battery

zongzi (粽子) during the Dragon Boat Festival, and sweet soy bean powder-covered plain yuanxiao during the winter solstice are just some of the traditional foods enjoyed by the masses of Fuzhou. Dell 312-0079 Battery

Currently, the main railway is the "Wai Fu Railway", running eastwards through the northern districts towards Jiangxi province. The subline "Fuma railway" runs from the city hub to Mawei district. Two more railways are also under construction: Dell 312-0095 Battery

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The "Wen Fu railway" runs north towards Wenzhou in southern Zhejiang province, while the "Fuxia railway" runs south towards Xiamen. Dell 312-0292 Battery

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This later railway was designed to be a high-speed railway with speeds up to 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph) and was opened in April 2010. There are also plans for 2 metro lines, with the first line to be completed by 2014.[11] Dell 312-0306 Battery

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Railway stations: The Fuzhou Rail Station is located north of city center, near the North Second Ring Road. Construction on the Strait Rail Station, also known as Fuzhou South Station, in Cangshan district, a key landmark of the New City development scheme, began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed in 2010.Dell 312-0341 Battery

In 1867 the Fuzhou seaport was the site of one of China's first major experiments with Western technology, when the Fuzhou Navy Yard was established: A shipyard and an arsenal were built under French guidance and a naval school was opened. Dell 312-0373 Battery

A naval academywas also established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered courses in English, French, engineering, and navigation, produced a generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous scholar-reformer Yan Fu (1854–1921). Dell 312-0518 Battery

The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen China in the wake of the country's disastrous defeat the second Opium War (1856–60). But most talented students continued to pursue a traditional Confucian education, and by the mid-1870s the government began to lose interest in the shipyard, Dell 312-0566 Battery

which had trouble securing funds and declined in importance. Fuzhou remained essentially a commercial center and a port until World War II; it had relatively little industry. The port was occupied by theJapanese during 1940–45. Dell 312-0585 Battery

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Since 1949, Fuzhou has grown considerably. Transportation has been improved by the dredging of the Min River for navigation by medium-sized craft upstream to Nanping. Dell 312-7206 Battery

In 1956 the railway linking Fuzhou with the interior of the province and with the mainChinese railway system began operation. The port has also been improved;Dell 8N544 Battery

Fuzhou itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta anchorage and the outer harbor at Guantou on the coast of the East China Sea have been modernized and improved. The chief exports are timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs. Dell BAT1297 Battery

Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the Gutian hydroelectric scheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a center for industrial chemicalsand has food-processing, timber-working, engineering, papermaking, printing, Dell C7786 Battery

and textile industries. A small iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984 Fuzhou was designated one of China's "open" cities in the newopen-door policy inviting foreign investments.Handicrafts remain important in the rural areas, and the city is famous for its lacquer and wood products. Dell D6400 Battery

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  • Its GDP was ¥43,615 (ca. US$6,240) per capita in 2010,ranked no. 21 among 659 Chinese cities.

Fuzhou is undoubtedly the province’s political, economic and cultural center as well as an industrial center and seaport on the Min River. In 2008, Fuzhou’s GDP amounted to ¥228.4 billion, an increase of 13 percent.[13] Dell HF674 Battery

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Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel, and processed food. Among Fuzhou's exports are fine lacquerware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. Dell XX327 Battery

The city's trade is mainly with Chinese coastal ports. Its exports of timber, food products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) downstream.[14] Dell XX337 Battery

In 2008, exports reached US$13.6 billion, a growth of 10.4 percent while imports amounted to US$6.8 billion. Total retail sales for the same period came to ¥113.4 billion and per capita GDP grew to ¥33,615.[14] Dell FM332 Battery

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During the same period, Fuzhou approved 155 foreign-invested projects. Contracted foreign investment amounted to US$1.489 billion, while utilized foreign investment increased by 43 percent to US$1.002 billion.[14] Dell 312-0822 Battery

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  • Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone

Economic and Technological Zones

The Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in Jan 1985 by State Council, with a total planning area of 22 square kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and now has 10.1 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) built. Dell Y085C Battery

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It is located close to Fuzhou Changle International Airport and Fuzhou Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, trading and distribution, automobile production/assembly, medical equipment and supplies, shipping/warehousing/logistics and heavy industry.[15] Dell 312-0864 Battery

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  • Fuzhou Export Processing Zone

The Fuzhou Export Processing Zone was founded on June 3, 2005 with the approval of the State Council and enjoys all the preferential policies. It is located inside the Chang'an Investment Zone of the Fuzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone (FETDZ) with a planned land area of 1.14 square kilometres (0.44 sq mi).[16] Dell F586J Battery

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  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone

The Fuzhou Free Trade Zone was established in 1992 by the State Council, with a planning area of 1.8 square kilometres (0.69 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the free trade zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, Dell HW355 Battery

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heavy industry, instruments & industrial equipment production, shipping/warehousing/logistics, telecommunications equipment, trading, and distribution.[17] Dell HW358 Battery

  • Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

The Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995, the Fuzhou Municipal Government decided to build Baiyi Electronic Information City, which covers 1.2 square kilometres (0.46 sq mi) in the zone, Dell HW421 Battery

making it the lead electronic industrial zone in Fuzhou. The Administrative Commission of Mawei High-tech Park was set up in the zone in 1999. It covers an area of 5.6 square kilometres (2.2 sq mi), and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin Road and Fuma Road.[18] Dell RK813 Battery

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  • Fuzhou Science and Technology Park

The Fuzhou Science and Technology Park was established in 1988 and was approved to be a national-level zone by the State Council in 1991. The planned area is 5.5 square kilometres (2.1 sq mi) Dell RK818 Battery

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and is divided into 3 parts: the Mawei portion, the Cangshan portion, and the Hongshan portion. The main industries are electronics, information technology, and biotechnology. Dell TR517 Battery

The zone is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away from the China National Highway 316 and 41 kilometres (25 mi) away from the Fuzhou Changle International Airport.[19]Dell TR518 Battery

  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

The Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in the Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a commercial base for Taiwan-related development. Dell TR520 Battery

The current area is 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). The main industries are IT, metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and 52 kilometres (32 mi) away from Fuzhou Changle International Airport.[20] Dell TR653 Battery

Tourist attractions

Lin Zexu (Styled: Yuanfu; 30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing Dynasty. Dell WT866 Battery

He is most recognized for his conduct and his constant position on the "high moral ground" in his fight, as a "shepherd" of his people, against the opium trade in Guangzhou. Dell WT870 Battery

Although the non-medicinal consumption of opium was banned by Emperor Yongzheng in 1729,[1] by the 1830s China's economy and society were being seriously affected by huge imports of opium from British and other traders based in the city. Dell WT873 Battery

Lin's forceful opposition to the trade on moral and social grounds[2] is considered to be the primary catalyst for the First Opium War of 1839–42.[3]Because of this firm stance, he has subsequently been considered as a role model for moral governance, particularly by Chinese people. Dell 312-4000 Battery

Lin was born in Houguan (侯官) (modern day Fuzhou), in Fujian province. In 1811, he received the Jinshi degree, the highest in the imperial examinations, and the same year, Dell U597P Battery

he was appointed to the prestigious Hanlin Academy. He rose rapidly through various grades of provincial service and became Governor-General of Hunan and Hubei in 1837, where he launched an opium suppression campaign.[3] Dell W358P Battery

Campaign to suppress opium

An ever-growing demand for tea and low demand for British products, combined with the acceptance by China of only silver (and not gold) in payment, resulted in large continuous trade deficits.[4] Attempts by the British (Macarthney in 1792), Dell 312-4009 Battery

the Dutch (Van Braam in 1794), Russia (Golovkin in 1805) and the British yet again (Amherst in 1816) to negotiate access to the China market were resounding failures.[5] Dell N998P Battery

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By 1817, the British hit upon counter-trading in a narcotic, Indian opium, as a way to both reduce the trade deficit and finally gain profit from the formerly money-losing Indian colony. Dell Y264R Battery

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The Qing Administration originally tolerated the importation of opium because it imposed an indirect tax on Chinese subjects, while allowing the British to double tea exports from China to England, which profited the monopoly for tea exports of the Qing imperial treasury & its agents.[6] Dell 9JJGJ Battery

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However, by 1820 the planting of tea in the Indian and African colonies, along with accelerated opium consumption, reversed the flow of silver, just when the Imperial Treasury needed to finance suppression of rebellions against the Qing.Dell NKDWV Battery

The Viceroy of Guangdong began efforts to constrain the trade, but due to large increases in the supply of opium and the large coast line of South China and corruption (the Qing coastal navy was one of the largest smugglers of opium), these efforts failed.[7] Dell TRJDK Battery

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A formidable bureaucrat known for his competence and high moral standards, Lin was sent to Guangdong as imperial commissioner by the Daoguang Emperor in late 1838 to halt the illegal importation of opium from the British.[8][9] Dell Vostro 1720 Battery

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He arrived in March 1839 and made a huge impact on the opium trade within a matter of months.[8] He arrested more than 1,700 Chinese opium dealers and confiscated over 70,000 opium pipes. Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

He initially attempted to get foreign companies to forfeit their opium stores in exchange for tea, but this ultimately failed and Lin resorted to using force in the western merchants' enclave. Dell Studio 14 Battery

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It took Lin a month and a half before the merchants gave up nearly 1.2 million kilograms (2.6 million pounds) of opium. Beginning 3 June 1839,[10] 500 workers laboured for 23 days in order to destroy all of it, Dell Studio 1436 Battery

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mixing the opium with lime and salt and throwing it into the ocean outside of Humen Town.[11] 26 June is now the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in honour of Lin Zexu's work. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

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Lin also wrote an extraordinary "memorial" (折奏/摺奏), by way of an open letter published in Canton, to Queen Victoria of Great Britain in 1839 urging her to end the opium trade. Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

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The letter is filled with Confucian concepts of morality and spirituality. As a representative of the Imperial court, Lin adopts a position of superiority and his tone is condescending,[8] Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery

despite the British clearly having the upper hand, military-wise, when the event is examined with hindsight. His primary line of argument is that China is providing Britain with valuable commodities such as tea, porcelain, spices and silk, while Britain sends only "poison" in return.[8] Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery

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He accuses the "barbarians" (i.e. private merchants) of coveting profit and lacking morality. His memorial expressed a desire that Victoria would act "in accordance with decent feeling" and support his efforts.[12] He writes: Dell Latitude E6500 Battery Battery

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We find that your country is sixty or seventy thousand li from China. Yet there are barbarian ships that strive to come here for trade for the purpose of making a great profit. Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery

The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians. That is to say, the great profit made by barbarians is all taken from the rightful share of China. By what right do they then in return use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? Dell Studio XPS 16 Battery

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Even though the barbarians may not necessarily intend to do us harm, yet in coveting profit to an extreme, they have no regard for injuring others. Let us ask, where is your conscience? Dell Studio XPS M1640 Battery

—Lin Zexu, Open letter addressed to the sovereign of England and published in Canton (1839)[12][13][14] Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

The memorial was never delivered to the queen, though it was later published in The Times.[15] Dell Latitude E5500 Battery

Open hostilities between China and Britain started in 1839.[16] A naval skirmish in the autumn of 1839, following the politic afterspell of the opium hand-over, was in fact the very first act of war, in what later should be recalled as "The First Opium War" . Dell XPS M2010 Battery

The immediate effect was that both sides, by the words of Superintendent Captain Charles Elliot, and the Chinese High-commissioner Lin Zexu made a ban to all trade. Before this, Dell Inspiron 1410 Battery

Lin had pressured the Portuguese government of Macau, so the British found themselves without refuge, except for the bare and rocky harbours of Hong Kong.[17] Dell Vostro 1014 Battery

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