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15 mars 2012 4 15 /03 /mars /2012 13:45
  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

The Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in the Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a commercial base for Taiwan-related development. Dell TR520 Battery

The current area is 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). The main industries are IT, metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and 52 kilometres (32 mi) away from Fuzhou Changle International Airport.[20] Dell TR653 Battery

Tourist attractions

Lin Zexu (Styled: Yuanfu; 30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing Dynasty. Dell WT866 Battery

He is most recognized for his conduct and his constant position on the "high moral ground" in his fight, as a "shepherd" of his people, against the opium trade in Guangzhou. Dell WT870 Battery

Although the non-medicinal consumption of opium was banned by Emperor Yongzheng in 1729,[1] by the 1830s China's economy and society were being seriously affected by huge imports of opium from British and other traders based in the city. Dell WT873 Battery

Lin's forceful opposition to the trade on moral and social grounds[2] is considered to be the primary catalyst for the First Opium War of 1839–42.[3]Because of this firm stance, he has subsequently been considered as a role model for moral governance, particularly by Chinese people. Dell 312-4000 Battery

Lin was born in Houguan (侯官) (modern day Fuzhou), in Fujian province. In 1811, he received the Jinshi degree, the highest in the imperial examinations, and the same year, Dell U597P Battery

he was appointed to the prestigious Hanlin Academy. He rose rapidly through various grades of provincial service and became Governor-General of Hunan and Hubei in 1837, where he launched an opium suppression campaign.[3] Dell W358P Battery

Campaign to suppress opium

An ever-growing demand for tea and low demand for British products, combined with the acceptance by China of only silver (and not gold) in payment, resulted in large continuous trade deficits.[4] Attempts by the British (Macarthney in 1792), Dell 312-4009 Battery

the Dutch (Van Braam in 1794), Russia (Golovkin in 1805) and the British yet again (Amherst in 1816) to negotiate access to the China market were resounding failures.[5] Dell N998P Battery

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By 1817, the British hit upon counter-trading in a narcotic, Indian opium, as a way to both reduce the trade deficit and finally gain profit from the formerly money-losing Indian colony. Dell Y264R Battery

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The Qing Administration originally tolerated the importation of opium because it imposed an indirect tax on Chinese subjects, while allowing the British to double tea exports from China to England, which profited the monopoly for tea exports of the Qing imperial treasury & its agents.[6] Dell 9JJGJ Battery

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However, by 1820 the planting of tea in the Indian and African colonies, along with accelerated opium consumption, reversed the flow of silver, just when the Imperial Treasury needed to finance suppression of rebellions against the Qing.Dell NKDWV Battery

The Viceroy of Guangdong began efforts to constrain the trade, but due to large increases in the supply of opium and the large coast line of South China and corruption (the Qing coastal navy was one of the largest smugglers of opium), these efforts failed.[7] Dell TRJDK Battery

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A formidable bureaucrat known for his competence and high moral standards, Lin was sent to Guangdong as imperial commissioner by the Daoguang Emperor in late 1838 to halt the illegal importation of opium from the British.[8][9] Dell Vostro 1720 Battery

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He arrived in March 1839 and made a huge impact on the opium trade within a matter of months.[8] He arrested more than 1,700 Chinese opium dealers and confiscated over 70,000 opium pipes. Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

He initially attempted to get foreign companies to forfeit their opium stores in exchange for tea, but this ultimately failed and Lin resorted to using force in the western merchants' enclave. Dell Studio 14 Battery

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It took Lin a month and a half before the merchants gave up nearly 1.2 million kilograms (2.6 million pounds) of opium. Beginning 3 June 1839,[10] 500 workers laboured for 23 days in order to destroy all of it, Dell Studio 1436 Battery

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mixing the opium with lime and salt and throwing it into the ocean outside of Humen Town.[11] 26 June is now the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in honour of Lin Zexu's work. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

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Lin also wrote an extraordinary "memorial" (折奏/摺奏), by way of an open letter published in Canton, to Queen Victoria of Great Britain in 1839 urging her to end the opium trade. Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

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The letter is filled with Confucian concepts of morality and spirituality. As a representative of the Imperial court, Lin adopts a position of superiority and his tone is condescending,[8] Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery

despite the British clearly having the upper hand, military-wise, when the event is examined with hindsight. His primary line of argument is that China is providing Britain with valuable commodities such as tea, porcelain, spices and silk, while Britain sends only "poison" in return.[8] Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery

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He accuses the "barbarians" (i.e. private merchants) of coveting profit and lacking morality. His memorial expressed a desire that Victoria would act "in accordance with decent feeling" and support his efforts.[12] He writes: Dell Latitude E6500 Battery Battery

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We find that your country is sixty or seventy thousand li from China. Yet there are barbarian ships that strive to come here for trade for the purpose of making a great profit. Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery

The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians. That is to say, the great profit made by barbarians is all taken from the rightful share of China. By what right do they then in return use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? Dell Studio XPS 16 Battery

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Even though the barbarians may not necessarily intend to do us harm, yet in coveting profit to an extreme, they have no regard for injuring others. Let us ask, where is your conscience? Dell Studio XPS M1640 Battery

—Lin Zexu, Open letter addressed to the sovereign of England and published in Canton (1839)[12][13][14] Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

The memorial was never delivered to the queen, though it was later published in The Times.[15] Dell Latitude E5500 Battery

Open hostilities between China and Britain started in 1839.[16] A naval skirmish in the autumn of 1839, following the politic afterspell of the opium hand-over, was in fact the very first act of war, in what later should be recalled as "The First Opium War" . Dell XPS M2010 Battery

The immediate effect was that both sides, by the words of Superintendent Captain Charles Elliot, and the Chinese High-commissioner Lin Zexu made a ban to all trade. Before this, Dell Inspiron 1410 Battery

Lin had pressured the Portuguese government of Macau, so the British found themselves without refuge, except for the bare and rocky harbours of Hong Kong.[17] Dell Vostro 1014 Battery

Exile in Xinjiang

Lin made significant preparation for war against the possible British invasion. The British sailed north to attack Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The governors of these two provinces failed to heed a warning from Lin, however, and were unprepared when the British easily landed and occupied Dinghai. Dell Vostro 1015 Battery

Because of this defeat, and also because of the intrinsic behaviour of Chinese imperial political structure of the Qing Dynasty, Lin was popularized as a scapegoat for these losses. His position was then given to Qishan in September 1840. As punishment for his failures, Lin was sent to the remote Ili in Xinjiang. Dell Vostro A840 Battery

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The Chinese government ultimately considered Lin to be an official of rare virtue, however, and in 1845 he was appointed as governor-general of Shaanxi-Gansu. Dell Vostro A860n Battery

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In 1847 he became governor-general of Yunnan-Guizhou. But these posts were less prestigious than his previous position in Canton, and his career did not fully recover from the failures there .[18] Dell Studio 1735 Battery

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While in Xinjiang, Lin was the first Chinese scholar to take note of several aspects of Muslim culture there. In 1845 he noted in a poem that the Muslims in Ili did not worship idols, but bowed and prayed to tombs decorated with poles that had the tails of cows and horses attached to them. Dell Studio 1535 Battery

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This was the widespread shamanic practice of erecting a tugh, but this was its first recorded appearance in Chinese writings. He also recorded several Kazakh oral tales, such as one concerning a green goat spirit of the lake whose appearance is a harbinger of hail or rain.[19] Dell Studio 1537 Battery

He died in 1850 while on the way to Guangxi, where the government was sending him to help put down the Taiping Rebellion. He was a patriot of ability who attained an international reputation as "Commissioner Lin." He was opposed to the opening of the country but felt the need of a better knowledge of foreigners, Dell Studio 1555 Battery

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which drove him to collect much material for a geography of the world. He later gave this material to Wei Yuan, who published an Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms (Hǎiguó túzhì 海國圖志) in 1844. Dell Studio PP33L Battery

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June 3, the day when Lin confiscated the chests of opium, is celebrated as Anti-Smoking Day in the Republic of China in Taiwan.Manhattan's Chatham Square, in Chinatown, contains a statue of Lin, commemorating his early struggle against drug use. Dell Mini 12 Battery

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Although he has in essence led the war against the debilitating drug with some initial success, with the arrest of 1,700 opium dealers and destruction of 2.6 million pounds of opium, he had been made the scapegoat for the actions leading to British retaliation, Dell Mini 10 Battery

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and ultimately failing to stem the tide of opium import and use in China.[20]Nevertheless, Lin Zexu is popularly viewed as a hero of superlative conduct and national service, and whose likeness have been immortalized at various locations around the world.[21][22][23][24] Dell Mini 1010n Battery

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Despite the antagonism between the Chinese and the British at the time, the renowned English sinologist Herbert Giles, who was active in the later part of the 19th century and was the co-creator of Wade-Giles transliteration, praised and admired Lin. Dell Mini 1011 Battery

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He wrote: "He was a fine scholar, a just and merciful official and a true patriot." A wax statue of Lin also appeared in Madame Tussauds Wax Museum in London.[8] Dell Mini 1011v Battery

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More recently, Lin Zexu has appeared as a character in River of Smoke, the second novel in the Ibis trilogy by Amitav Ghosh, which takes the Opium Wars as its setting to shed new light on a much-repressed history while offering a contemporary critique of globalization.[25] Dell D630 Battery Battery

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The novel takes place in 1838-1839, during which time Commissioner Lin arrived in Canton and tensions escalated between the foreigners and the Chinese officials. Dell D820 Battery Battery

Although he was not seen as such until well into the twentieth century, Lin Zexu is now seen as a national hero for Chinese people; three films have been made on his role in the Opium Wars such that he is now one of the symbols of modern China's resistance to European imperialism. Dell D830 Battery Battery

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A statue of Lin stands in the United States in Chatham Square (Kimlau Square) in New York's Chinatown. Dell Vostro 1000 Battery Battery

Wang Shenzhi

Wang Shenzhi (Chinese: 王審知) (862–December 30, 925), courtesy name Xintong(信通) or Xiangqing (詳卿), formally Prince[6] Zhongyi of Min(閩忠懿王) and later further posthumously honored as Emperor Taizu of Min (閩太祖), Dell Vostro 1310 Battery Battery

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was the founder of Min on the southeast coast of China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period ofChinese history. He was from Gushi in modern day Henan. Dell Vostro 1520 Battery Battery

Wang Shenzhi was born in 862, during the reign of Emperor Yizong.[1] His fifth-generation ancestor Wang Ye (王曄) served as the magistrate of Gushi County (固始, in modern Xinyang, Henan), and because the people loved him, he settled his family in Gushi. Dell Vostro 2510 Battery Battery

The family subsequently became known for their family business.[7] His father's name was Wang Nin (王恁),[1] and his mother was a Lady Dong.[8] He had two older brothers, Wang Chao and Wang Shengui (王審邽).[9] Dell Vostro 1400 Battery Battery

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In 881, the bandit leader Wang Xu, along with his brother-in-law Liu Xingquan (劉行全), captured Guang Prefecture (光州, in modern Xinyang); he was subsequently commissioned the prefect of Guang Prefecture by Qin Zongquan the military governor (Jiedushi) of Fengguo Circuit (奉國, headquartered in modern Zhumadian, Henan). Dell INSPIRON 1525 Battery

Wang Xu forced the men of Guang Prefecture to join his army, and he made Wang Chao, who had previously been a government worker at the Gushi County government, his discipline officer.[9] Dell INSPIRON 1100 Battery

Later on, however, Qin turned against the Tang imperial government and was on the cusp of claiming imperial title himself. He ordered Wang Xu to pay taxes to him. When Wang Xu was unable to do so, he launched an army to attack Wang. Dell Inspiron 1200 Battery

Wang Xu, in fear, gathered 5,000 soldiers from Guang and Shou Prefectures and forced the people to cross the Yangtze River to the south. By spring 885, Wang had continued south and captured Ting (汀洲, in modern Longyan, Fujian) Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery

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and Zhang (漳州, in modern Zhangzhou, Fujian) Prefectures, but was not able to hold either for long. By the time that Wang Xu reached Zhang Prefecture, his army was running low on food. As the terrain in Fujian Circuit (福建, headquartered in modern Fuzhou, Fujian), Dell Inspiron 1521 Battery

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which Zhang Prefecture belonged to, was rugged, he ordered that the old and the weak be abandoned. However, in violation of his order, Wang Chao and his brothers continued to take their mother Lady Dong with them. Dell Inspiron 1721 Battery

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Wang Xu rebuked them and threatened to put Lady Dong to death. They begged for Lady Dong's life, offering to die in her stead. Other officers also spoke on their behalf, and Wang Xu relented.[8] Dell INSPIRON 2100 SERIES Battery

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Meanwhile, by this point, Wang Xu had also become extremely paranoid, as he had been warned by a sorcerer that there was qibelonging to a king in his army, so he began to put to death anyone whom he considered to have talents surpassing his own — going as far as putting Liu Xingquan to death. Dell INSPIRON 2600 SERIES Battery

The fact that Wang was willing to put someone as close to him as Liu to death terrified the other officers. When the army reached Na'an (南安, in modern Quanzhou, Fujian), Dell INSPIRON 2650 SERIES Battery

Wang Chao persuaded Wang Xu's forward commander, who feared that he would be Wang Xu's next target, into turning against Wang Xu. The forward commander and Wang Chao thus laid an ambush for Wang Xu and, when he was caught off-guard, arrested him. Dell INSPIRON 2800 SERIES Battery

Wang Chao initially wanted to support the forward commander to be the new leader, but the forward commander pointed out that it was Wang Chao's idea that allowed them to survive Wang Xu's cruelty, and so the army agreed to have Wang Chao become their leader. Dell INSPIRON 3700 SERIES Battery

Wang Chao subsequently took over Quan Prefecture (泉州, in modern Quanzhou, Fujian) and obtained a commission from Chen Yan the governor (觀察使, Guanchashi) of Fujian Circuit (福建, headquartered in modern Fuzhou, Fujian) as the prefect of Quan Prefecture.[8] Dell INSPIRON 3800 SERIES Battery

Service under Wang Chao

In 891, Chen Yan grew deathly ill. Chen sent an order to Wang Chao, summoning him to the circuit capital Fu Prefecture (福州), intending to entrust the matters of the circuit to him. Before he could depart, Dell INSPIRON 4000 SERIES Battery

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however, Chen died, and Chen's brother-in-law Fan Hui (范暉) got the soldiers at Fu Prefecture to support him as acting governor to resist Wang.[10] Dell INSPIRON 4150 SERIES Battery

Fan, however, soon lost the support of the soldiers, and Wang Chao sent his cousin Wang Yanfu (王彥復) and Wang Shenzhi as Wang Yanfu's deputy to lead an army to attack Fu Prefecture. However, they could not capture it quickly, Dell INSPIRON 500M SERIES Battery

and Fan sought aid from Dong Chang the military governor of Weisheng Circuit (威勝, headquartered in modern Shaoxing, Zhejiang), who dispatched an army to aid him. Dell INSPIRON 5100 Battery

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Hearing that news, Wang Yanfu and Wang Shengui submitted a report to Wang Chao, requesting to withdraw. Wang Chao refused. When they requested that he come to the front to oversee the attack, he responded:[11] Dell INSPIRON 600M SERIES Battery

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If soldiers die, I will replace the soldiers. If the generals die, I will replace the generals. If the soldiers and the generals all are dead, I will go myself. Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery

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Wang Yanfu and Wang Shenzhi, fearful of the rebuke, intensified their attacks. By summer 893, the food supply in Fu Prefecture ran out. Fan abandoned it and fled, and the Weisheng army, Dell INSPIRON 8000 SERIES Battery

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still on the way, hearing that Fan had fled, returned to Weisheng. Fan was killed by his soldiers in flight. Wang entered Fu Prefecture and claimed the title of acting governor.[11] Dell INSPIRON 8200 SERIES Battery

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After Wang Chao was subsequently made governor of Fujian, and then the military governor (with the circuit's name upgraded from Fujian to Weiwu (威武)), Dell INSPIRON 8600 Battery

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Wang Shenzhi served as deputy military governor.[12] It was said that whenever Wang Shenzhi had faults, Wang Chao would batter him, but Wang Shenzhi would not complain. Dell Inspiron 910 (all 8.9 series) Battery

In 897, when Wang Chao grew ill, he did not try to pass his authorities to any of his sons; rather, he entrusted the matters of the circuit to Wang Shenzhi. After Wang Chao died around the new year 898, Dell INSPIRON 9200 Battery

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Wang Shenzhi offered the authorities to Wang Shengui, who was then the prefect of Quan Prefecture, but Wang Shengui declined on the account that he considered Wang Shenzhi more accomplished. Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery

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Wang Shenzhi thus claimed the title of acting military governor of Weiwu and submitted a report of what occurred to then-ruling Emperor Zhaozong, who commissioned him as acting military governor and later in the year made him full military governor.[13] Dell Inspiron E1705 Battery

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As military governor of Weiwu

In 900, Emperor Zhaozong bestowed the honorary chancellor designation of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事) on Wang Shenzhi.[14] Dell Inspiron Mini 9N (all 8.9 series) Battery

He was later successively given the honorary titles of acting Sikong (司空) and acting Situ (司徒) (two of the Three Excellencies. In 902, Wang built an outer wall for Fu Prefecture. In 904, Emperor Zhaozong created him the Prince of Langye.[15] Dell Inspiron XPS Gen 2 Battery

In 907, the major warlord Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan) forced Emperor Zhaozong's son and successor Emperor Ai to yield the throne to him, ending Tang and starting a new Later Liang Dynasty with him as its Emperor Taizu. Dell Inspiron XPS M140 Battery

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Wang Shenzhi recognized the new emperor, and was subsequently given the greater chancellor title of Shizhong (侍中).[16] In 909, Emperor Taizu created him the Prince of Min,[4] and also gave him the chancellor title of Zhongshu Ling (中書令).[15] Dell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery

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Early reign

Meanwhile, also in 909, after Wang Shenzhi felt slighted by Zhang Zhiyuan (張知遠), the emissary from Hongnong (predecessor state to Wu, then ruled by Yang Wo the Prince of Hongnong, who did not recognize the Later Liang emperor), Wang decapitated Zhang and broke off diplomatic relations with Hongnong.[4] Dell Latitude 110L Battery

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As prince, Wang was said to be frugal, often wearing hemp shoes, with his mansion remaining small and unexpanded. His criminal penalties were relaxed and tax rates were low; these policies were said to lead to both the government and the people becoming wealthy, Dell LATITUDE C500 Battery

and his realm to be calm. He submitted yearly tributes to the Later Liang emperor by sea route, via Later Liang's Deng (登州) and Lai (萊州, both in modern Yantai, Shandong) Prefectures, but the sea route was said to be so treacherous that 40-50% casualties were common.[4] Dell LATITUDE C510 Battery

In 916, Wang Shenzhi gave a daughter to Qian Chuanxiang (錢傳珦, later known as Qian Yuanxiang (錢元珦)), the son of Qian Liu, the prince of Min's neighbor to the north, Wuyue, in marriage. Dell LATITUDE C540 Battery

Qian Chuanxiang personally went to Min for the marriage, and it was said that after the wedding, the relationship between Min and Wuyue became more friendly.[17] Also in 916, Wang Shenzhi began to make lead coins, and thereafter, lead coins were circulated along with the traditional copper coins.[15] Dell LATITUDE C600 Battery

Late reign

In 917, Wang Shenzhi took a daughter of Liu Yan, the emperor of Min's southwestern neighbor Yue (which would later be known as Southern Han), whose title was Princess of Qingyuan, as the wife of his second son Wang Yanjun.[18][19]Dell LATITUDE C610 Battery

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In 918, Wu, which was then ruled by Yang Wo's brother and successor Yan Longyan, launched a major attack, commanded by the general Liu Xin (劉信), Dell LATITUDE C800 Battery

on Tan Quanbo the military governor of Baisheng Circuit (百勝, headquartered in modern Ganzhou, Jiangxi), who was ruling the circuit in independence but whose nominal allegiance had vacillated between Wu and Later Liang. Dell LATITUDE C810 Battery

Tan sought aid from Min, as well as Wuyue and Chu. Min forces advanced to Yudu (雩都, in modern Ganzhou) to try to aid Tan, while Wuyue and Chu also sent troops. Dell LATITUDE C840 Battery

After Liu then defeated Chu troops, Min and Wuyue forces also withdrew. Subsequently, Liu captured Tan's capital Qian Prefecture (虔州), allowing Wu to directly take over Baisheng Circuit.[18] Dell Latitude CP Battery

Apparently sometime after Wang Shengui's death (the date of which was not recorded in traditional histories, but appeared to be 903), Wang Shenzhi allowed Wang Shengui's son Wang Yanbin (王延彬) to take over governance of Quan Prefecture, Dell LATITUDE CP SERIES Battery

and later bestowed on him the title of military governor of Pinglu Circuit (平盧, whose territory was not under Min control, being headquartered in modern Weifang, Shandong). Wang Yanbin initially governed the prefecture well.Dell LATITUDE CPI Battery

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However, later, after he received a white deer and a purple lingzhi, he became arrogant, believing in the prophecies of the Buddhist monk Haoyuan (浩源) that he would become prince in the future. He further secretly sent emissaries to Later Liang, Dell Latitude CPID Battery

seeking to be a Later Liang vassal independently of Wang Shenzhi. When Wang Shenzhi discovered this in920, he had Haoyuan and his associates executed and removed Wang Yanbin from his posts, sending him back to his mansion.[20] Dell LATITUDE CPIR Battery

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In 922, there was an incident where Liu Yan (whose state had been renamed Han by that point and thereafter was known as Southern Han in traditional Chinese sources), believing in sorcerers who told him that he should go to Meikou (梅口, in modern Meizhou, Guangdong) to avoid a disaster. Dell LATITUDE CPM Battery

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With Meikou on the border between Southern Han and Min,[20] the Min general Wang Yanmei (王延美), who might have been either a son of Wang Shenzhi's[21] or Yang Shengui's,[19] decided to launch an ambush on Liu. However, Liu received news of the ambush and left Meikou before Min forces could attack.[20] Dell LATITUDE CPTC Battery

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In 923, Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin, whose state was a rival of Later Liang's to its north, declared himself the emperor of a new Later Tang Dynasty (as Emperor Zhuangzong), and later that year captured Later Liang's capital Daliang. Dell LATITUDE CPTV Battery

The Later Liang emperor Zhu Zhen (son of Emperor Taizu) committed suicide), ending Later Liang.[22] Subsequently, emissaries were exchanged between Min and Later Tang, and Wang Shenzhi recognized Emperor Zhuangzong's suzerainty.[15] Dell LATITUDE CPX Battery

In 924, Southern Han launched an attack on Min, with Liu Yan himself commanding the troops and reaching the borders of Min's Ting and Zhang Prefectures. A Min counterattack defeated Southern Han forces, however, and Liu Yan withdrew.[23]Dell LATITUDE CPXH Battery

In 925, Wang Shenzhi grew ill, and he put his oldest son Wang Yanhan, then the deputy military governor of Weiwu, in charge of the affairs of the state.[23]Dell LATITUDE CPXJ Battery

(A rumor at that time was that Wang Shenzhi's illness was due to poisoning by Wang Yanhan's wife Lady Cui.)[19] Later in the year, Wang Shenzhi died, and Wang Yanhan took over the state, although at that time claiming only the title of acting military governor of Weiwu.[2] Dell LATITUDE D400 SERIES Battery

Ma Yin (馬殷) (853[1]-December 2, 930[2][3]), courtesy name Batu (霸圖), formally King Wumu of Chu (楚武穆王), was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who became the first ruler of the Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsPeriod state Chu and the only one who carried the title of "king."[7] Dell Latitude D505 Battery

He initially took control of the Changsharegion in 896 after the death of his predecessor Liu Jianfeng, and subsequently increased his territorial hold to roughly modern Hunan and northeastern Guangxi, which became the territory of Chu. Dell LATITUDE D505 SERIES Battery

Background and early career

Ma Yin was born in 853, during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong. He was known to be from Yanling (鄢陵, in modern Xuchang, Henan),[8] but all that is known about his ancestors is that his great-grandfather was named Ma Yun (馬筠), his grandfather was named Ma Zheng (馬正), Dell Latitude D510 Series Battery

and his father was named Ma Yuanfeng (馬元豐).[9] HIs family claimed ancestry from the great Han Dynasty general Ma Yuan.[1] Ma Yin was a carpenter in his youth.[8] He had at least two younger brothers, Ma Cong (馬賨) and Ma Cun (馬存).[10] Dell LATITUDE D600 SERIES Battery

At one point, when Zhongwu Circuit (忠武, headquartered in modern Xuchang) stationed an army at Cai Prefecture (蔡州, in modern Zhumadian, Henan) Dell Latitude D610 Series Battery

to defend against the major agrarian rebel Huang Chao, Ma Yin served in the Zhongwu army stationed at Cai, under the officers Sun Ru and Liu Jianfeng. By that time, Ma had become known for his abilities and bravery. Dell Latitude D620 Battery

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Later, when Qin Zongquan the military governor of Fengguo Circuit (奉國, headquartered at Cai Prefecture) rebelled against the rule of Emperor Xuānzong's grandson Emperor Xizong, Sun and Liu, as well as their army, came under Qin's rule.[11] Dell LATITUDE LS 400 Battery

Service under Sun Ru

In 887, Qin Zongquan sent his brother Qin Zongheng (秦宗衡), with Sun as his deputy, to advance into Huainan Circuit (淮南, headquartered in modern Yangzhou,Jiangsu), Dell LATITUDE LS SERIES Battery

to contend for control of the circuit, which by that point had fallen into an internecine struggle between Qin Yan and Bi Shiduo on one side, and Yang Xingmi on the other. Dell Latitude LSH Battery

Liu and Mawere both in this army commanded by Qin Zongheng. When they arrived at Huainan's capital Yang Prefecture (揚州), Yang Xingmi had captured it and forced Qin Yan and Bi to flee. Qin Yan and Bi then joined forces with Qin Zongheng as well. Dell LATITUDE LST Battery

Soon thereafter, when Qin Zongquan, himself facing military pressure from Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan), Dell LATITUDE PP01 Battery

tried to recall Qin Zongheng's army, Sun assassinated Qin Zongheng and took over the army, thereafter executing Qin Yan and Bi. Sun soon defeated Yang Xingmi and took over Yang Prefecture, claiming the title of military governor of Huainan.[12] Dell LATITUDE PP01L Battery

(Yang subsequently took Ningguo Circuit (寧國, headquartered in modern Xuanzhou, Anhui and became its military governor.)[12][13] Dell LATITUDE PP01X Battery

In spring 891, Sun launched the initial phase of an ambitious plan to first destroy Yang Xingmi and then Zhu. He took all of the army available to him and headed for Xuanshe's capital Xuan Prefecture (宣州).[13] Liu was part of Sun's army. Dell LATITUDE PPL Battery

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Sun's army was initially victorious, and by spring 892 had put Xuan Prefecture under siege. However, Sun was unable to capture Xuan, and soon got bogged down, with Yang sending raiders to cut off his food supplies. Further, Dell Latitude X1 Battery

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his army was soon troubled by torrential floods and illnesses, and Sun himself was suffering from malaria. He was forced to send Liu and Ma out to raid the nearby regions for food. Meanwhile, Yang, hearing that Sun was suffering from malaria, attacked. He crushed Sun's army and killed Sun. Dell LATITUDE X300 Battery

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Most of Sun's soldiers surrendered to Yang. Liu and Ma took 7,000 soldiers and headed south, toward Zhennan Circuit (鎮南, headquartered in modern Nanchang, Jiangsi); Dell M170 Battery

the soldiers supported Liu as their leader, with Ma as his forward commander and Zhang Ji (張佶) as his strategist. The army's size eventually ballooned to over 100,000.[14] Dell PRCISION M60 MOBILE WORKSTATION Battery

Service under Liu Jianfeng

Instead of attacking Zhennan Circuit, Liu's army continued to head southwest, toward Wu'an Circuit, which was then ruled by Deng Chuna. When Liu reached Liling (醴陵, in modern Zhuzhou, Hunan) in summer 894, Dell Precision M Series Battery

Deng sent his subordinates Jiang Xun (蔣勛) and Deng Jichong (鄧繼崇) to defend Longhui Pass (龍回關, in modern Shaoyang,Hunan) against Liu's advance. Ma Yin advanced to the pass and sent a messenger to Jiang and Deng Jichong. Dell Precision M20 Series Battery

The messenger persuaded Jiang and Deng Jichong that Liu's arrival was foretold by the stars and that their army would be unable to resist his. At the suggestion of the messenger, Dell PRECISION M40 Battery

Jiang and Deng Jichong disbanded their army. Liu then had his soldiers put on the uniforms that Jiang's and Deng Jichong's army wore, and then quickly advanced to Wu'an's capital Tan Prefecture (潭州). Dell PRECISION M50 Battery

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When they arrived there, the Tan Prefecture's defenders mistook them for Jiang's and Deng Jichong's army, and therefore took no precautions. Liu's army directly headed for the headquarters, where Deng Chuna was holding a feast. Dell PRECISION WORKSTATION M50 Battery

They captured Deng Chuna, and Liu executed him and claimed the title of acting military governor.[14] In summer 895, then-reigning Emperor Zhaozong commissioned Liu as the military governor of Wu'an.[15] Dell Precision Mobile Workstation M20 Battery

In winter 895, after Jiang's request to be the prefect of Shao Prefecture (邵州, in modern Shaoyang) was rebuffed by Liu, he and Deng Jichong rose to oppose Liu.Dell SMART PC100N Battery

They quickly captured Shao Prefecture and tried to pressure Tan Prefecture. In spring 896, Liu sent Ma Yin to attack Jiang and Deng, and Ma had initial successes. However, during this campaign, Liu was assassinated by his officer Chen Zhan (陳瞻), Dell Vostro 1400 Battery

whose wife Liu had been having an affair with. The soldiers initially supported Zhang to succeed Liu. However, as Zhang was riding a horse to headquarters, the horse suddenly got spooked and bit Zhang in the left leg. Dell Vostro 1500 Battery

This caused Zhang to believe that his succeeding Liu was not in accordance with divine will. He thus issued an order to Ma to return to Tan Prefecture, offering to support him as Liu's successor. Dell Vostro 1700 Battery

Ma thus left his subordinate Li Qiong (李瓊) at Shao to continue the campaign, while he himself returned to Tan. Once Ma returned to Tan, Zhang turned the governance of the circuit over to him, and Ma accepted; Zhang then left to take over the campaign at Shao. Emperor Zhaozong subsequently confirmed Ma as acting military governor.[15] Dell Winbook N4 Battery

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