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13 février 2011 7 13 /02 /février /2011 11:48

A gaming computer (also gaming PC, gaming machine and gaming rig) is a personal computer that is capable of playing computationally demanding video games. Gaming computers are very similar to conventional PCs, with the main difference being the addition of a performance-oriented video card   (Dell XPS M1210 Batteryhttp://www.hdd-shop.co.uk .

Gaming computers are often associated with enthusiast computing due to an overlap in interests. However, while a gaming PC is built to achieve performance for actual gameplay, enthusiast PCs are built to maximize performance, using games as a benchmark. The difference between the two carries a large discrepancy in the cost of the system   Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery .

Whereas enthusiast PCs are high-end by definition, gaming PCs can be subdivided into low-end, mid-range, and high-end segments. Contrary to the popular misconception that PC gaming is inextricably tied to high-priced enthusiast computing, video card manufacturers earn the bulk of their revenue from their low-end and mid-range offerings  Dell Vostro 1710 Battery .

Because of the large variety of parts that can go into a computer built to play video games, gaming computers are typically custom-made, rather than pre-assembled, either by gaming and hardware enthusiasts or by companies such as Alienware, VoodooPC, LanSlide Gaming PCs and Origin PC that specialize in producing custom gaming machines Dell KM958 battery .

In order to generate interest, gaming computer manufacturers that sell complete systems often produce boutique models, allowing them to compete on aesthetic design in addition to the hardware inside  Dell Studio 1555 battery .

Hardware

Historically, gaming computers had several distinct hardware components that set them apart from a typical PC. The push for better graphics began with color fidelity, from display systems such asCGA eventually graduating to VGA, which was adopted for the mass market   Sony VGP-BPS13 battery .

Gaming also led the push for the adoption of sound cards, a component that is now commonly integrated ontomotherboards.

In the 1980s, several non-IBM PC compatible platforms gained a measure of popularity due to advanced graphics and sound capabilities, most notably the Commodore 64 and Amiga   Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery .

Computer game developers of the time targeted these platforms for their games, though typically they would later port their games to the more common PC and sometimes Apple platforms as well. The MSX was also popular in Japan, where it preceded the video game console revolution   Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery .

LAN parties helped to promote the use of network cards and routers. This equipment is now commonly used by non-gamers with broadband Internet access to share the connection with multiple computers in the home. Like sound cards, network adapters are now commonly integrated on motherboards  Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery .

In modern times, the primary difference between a gaming computer and a typical PC is the inclusion of a performance-oriented video card, which hosts a graphics processor. Some motherboards support up to four video cards through SLI or Crossfire  Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery .

However, such configurations are typically regarded as a curiosity for enthusiasts rather than a useful alternative to single-card upgrade cycles.

Forays into physics processing have also been made, though with Nvidia's buyout of PhysX and Intel's buyout of Havok, plans are that this functionality will be combined with existing CPU or GPU technologies  Sony VGP-BPL9 battery .

Prebuilt gaming PC

While many "hardcore" gamers build their gaming PCs themselves, some choose to go with prebuilt or custom-built gaming PCs. These PCs can often be more expensive than building one's own, with higher premiums attached to high-end brands with varying levels of customer service  Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery .

Different companies offer varying degrees of customization, some almost as much as building it oneself. There are however, drawbacks to building one's own computer. Assembling a computer means being personally responsible for any problems that may arise, both during the assembly phase, and after it's in regular use       Sony VGP-BPL15 battery .

Instead of using a single technical support hotline to cover your entire system, often one will have to deal with individual component manufactures.

Due to the wide inconsistencies in after-purchase support from component manufactures, trying to get support can be a daunting task for even the most patient of people       Dell Inspiron E1505 battery .

Customer support is a major reason why even extreme gaming enthusiasts may look to a system integrator for their custom PC builds. There are many positive aspects in choosing to build one's own system, such as no longer being tied to specific configurations  Dell Latitude E6400 battery .

Pricing on individual components is often better, and thus saves quite a lot of money on a comparable pre-built system.

Gaming laptop

Gaming laptops are the mobile equivalent of gaming desktops and are usually more expensive than their desktop counterparts  HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery .

Currently, most gaming laptops feature more power efficient versions of high end desktop graphics cards, which still drain heavily on battery life, and necessitate more advanced cooling systems. One recent development by NVIDIA is SLI for laptops. Generally, gaming laptops are not considered "rigs" as the term can also refer to the physical size of the system  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery .

Modern gaming laptops can achieve respectable game performance, but never quite match desktops in a class to class comparison, and most do not feature upgradeable graphics cards.

Due to the relatively small size that the hardware has to fit in, cooling the heat intensive components is a major problem affecting the performance of such laptops, usually causing degraded value for money performance wise   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery .

Attempts at using the same performance hardware as desktops usually end in a decreased clock frequency of graphics chips to reduce heat, causing the poor value for money.

A newer trend in the gaming PC industry is to create small form factor desktops that are easy to transport. Several companies provide lines that specialize in these computers    SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery .

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video gametraditionally referred to a raster display device. However, with the popular use of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device       SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery .

The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from largemainframe computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use       SONY VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery .

The input device used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, and varies across platforms. For example, a dedicated console controller might consist of only a button and a joystick. Another may feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery .

Early personal computer games often needed a keyboardfor gameplay, or more commonly, required the user to buy a separate joystick with at least one button. Many modern computer games allow, or even require, the player to use a keyboard and mouse simultaneously       SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery .

Video games typically also use other ways of providing interaction and information to the player. Audio is almost universal, using sound reproduction devices, such as speakers and headphones. Other feedback may come via haptic peripherals, such as vibration or force feedback, with vibration sometimes used to simulate force feedback  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery .

Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on January 25, 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on December 14, 1948, as U.S. Patent 2455992   Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery .

Inspired by radar display tech, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen      Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery .

Other early examples include:

  • The NIMROD computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain
  • OXO a tic-tac-toe Computer game by Alexander S. Douglas for the EDSAC in 1952
  • Tennis for Two, an interactive game engineered by William Higinbotham in 1958  Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery
  • Spacewar!, written by MIT students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen's on a DEC PDP-1 computer in 1961.

Each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, and Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceshipsbattle each other      Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery .

In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game. It used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery .

Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it also used a standard television. These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong; an arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975      Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery .

The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry         SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery .

Platforms

The term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic or computer hardware which, in conjunction with low-level software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is also commonly used. As well, newer video game platforms are also known as next "gen" consoles      SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery .

In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer connected to a high-resolution video monitor. A "console game" is played on a specialized electronic device that connects to a common television set or composite video monitor     SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery .

A "handheld" gaming device is a self contained electronic device that is portable and can be held in a user's hands. "Arcade game" generally refers to a game played on an even more specialized type of electronic device that is typically designed to play only one game and is encased in a specialcabinet       SONY VAIO VGN-FZ430E Battery .

These distinctions are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. Beyond this there are platforms that have non-video game variations such as in the case ofelectro-mechanically based arcade machines  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery .

There are also devices with screens which have the ability to play games but are not dedicated video game machines (examples are mobile phones,PDAs and graphing calculators).

Genres

A video game, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into genres based on many factors such as method of game play, types of goals, art style and more       SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery .

Because genres are dependent on content for definition, genres have changed and evolved as newer styles of video games have come into existence. Ever advancing technology and production values related to video game development have fostered more life-like and complex games which have in turn introduced or enhanced genre possibilities   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ4000 Battery

(e.g., virtual pets), pushed the boundaries of existing video gaming or in some cases add new possibilities in play (such as that seen with titles specifically designed for devices like Sony's EyeToy). Some genres represent combinations of others, such as massively multiplayer online role-playing games, or, more commonly, MMORPGs      SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery .

It is also common to see higher level genre terms that are collective in nature across all other genres such as with action, music/rhythm or horror-themed video games   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery .

Classifications

Core games

In general, discussion about video gaming in both the press and politics revolves around titles found in the core games classification; historically, consisting of video games developed for play onpersonal computers, dedicated video game consoles or handheld game consoles   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery .

Core games are generally defined by their intensity, depth of play or scale of production involved in their creation and can include games across a wide spectrum of genres. For example the Bit.Tripseries for WiiWare, the Fallout series for PC and console or LittleBigPlanet for the PS3, all fall within the core games classification   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery .

Core games are sometimes considered demanding in their gameplay and typically do not appeal to the casual gamer.

Casual games

Casual games derive their name from their ease of accessibility, simple to understand gameplay and quick to grasp rule sets  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery .

Additionally, casual games frequently support the ability to jump in and out of play on demand. Casual games as a format existed long before the term was coined and include video games such as Solitaire or Minesweeper which can commonly be found pre-installed with many versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery .

Examples of genres within this category are hidden object, match three, time management, tetris or many of the tower defense style games. Casual games are generally sold through online retailers such as PopCap, Zylom and GameHouse or provided for free play through web portals such as Newgrounds or AddictingGames   SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery .

While casual games are most commonly played on personal computers, cellphones or PDAs, they can also be found on many of the on-line console system download services (e.g., Xbox Live,PlayStation Network, or WiiWare)      SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery .

Serious games

Serious games are games that are designed primarily to convey information or a learning experience of some sort to the player. Some serious games may even fail to qualify as a video game in the traditional sense of the term   SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery .

Also, educational software does not typically fall under this category (e.g., touch typing tutors, language learning, etc.) and the primary distinction would appear to be based on the title's primary goal as well as target age demographics. As with the other categories, this description is more of a guideline than a rule   SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery .

Serious games are games generally made for reasons beyond simple entertainment and as with the core and casual games may include works from any given genre, although some such asexergames, educational games, or propaganda games (e.g. militainment) may have a higher representation in this group due to their subject matter   SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery .

These games are typically designed to be played by professionals as part of a specific job or for skill set improvement. They can also be created to convey social-political awareness on a specific subject.

One of the longest running serious games franchises would be Microsoft Flight Simulator first published in 1982 under that name  SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery .

The United States military uses virtual reality based simulations for training exercises,as do a growing number of first responder roles (e.g., police, fire fighter, EMT).One example of a non-game environment utilized as a platform for serious game development would be the virtual world of Second Life       Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery ,

which is currently used by several United States governmental departments (e.g., NOAA, NASA, JPL), Universities (e.g., Ohio University, MIT) for educational and remote learning programs and businesses (e.g., IBM, Cisco Systems) for meetings and training  Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery .

Tactical media in video games plays a crucial role in making a statement or conveying a message on important relevant issues. This form of media allows for a broader audience to be able to receive and gain access to certain information that otherwise may not have reached such people         Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery .

An example of tactical media in video games would be newsgames. These are short games related to contemporary events designed to illustrate a point.For example, TAKE ACTION games is a game studio collective that was co-founded by Susana Ruiz and has made very successful and powerful serious games      Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery .

Some of these games include Darfur is Dying, Finding Zoe, and In The Balance. All of these games bring awareness to important issues and events in an intelligent and well thought out manner      Dell Studio 1450 Battery .

Educational games

On September 23, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama launched a campaign called "Educate to Innovate" aimed at improving the technological, mathematical, scientific and engineering abilities of American students     Dell Studio 1457 Battery .

This campaign states that it plans to harness the power of interactive games to help achieve the goal of students excelling in these departments. This campaign has stemmed into many new and exciting opportunities for the video game realm and has contributed to many new competitions         Dell Latitude D610 Battery .

Some of these competitions include the STEM NATIONAL VIDEO GAME COMPETITION and the Imagine Cup.Both of these examples are events that bring a focus to relevant and important current issues that are able to be addressed in the sense of video games to educate and spread knowledge in a new form of media        Toshiba NB100 Battery .

www.NobelPrize.org uses games to entice the user to learn about information pertaining to the Nobel prize achievements while engaging in a fun to play video game. There are many different types and styles of educational games all the way from counting to spelling to games for kids and games for adults        Toshiba Satellite M65 battery .

Some other games do not have any particular targeted audience in mind and intended to simply educate or inform whoever views or plays the game.

Development

Video game development and authorship, much like any other form of entertainment, is frequently a cross-disciplinary field  Toshiba Satellite M60 battery .

Video game developers, as employees within this industry are commonly referred, primarily include programmers and graphic designers. Over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that one might see prevalent in the creation of any movie or television program         Dell Latitude D830 Battery ,

including sound designers, musicians, and other technicians; as well as skills that are specific to video games, such as the game designer. All of these are managed by producers.

In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a video game  Dell Latitude D620 Battery .

As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more. This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone, as this is still sometimes found in the casual gaming and handheld markets      Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery ,

where smaller games are prevalent due to technical limitations such as limited RAM or lack of dedicated 3D graphics rendering capabilities on the target platform (e.g., some cellphones and PDAs). With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry, the problem of cost has increased       Sony VGN-FW11S Battery .

Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly looking to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment. Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding 100  Sony VGN-FW11M Battery .

In May 2009, one game project was reported to have a development staff of 450.The growth of team size combined with greater pressure to get completed projects into the market to begin recouping production costs has led to a greater occurrence of missed deadlines and unfinished products      Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery .

Modifications

Many games produced for the PC are designed such that technically oriented consumers can modify the game. These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest        Dell Latitude E5400 Battery .

Developers such as id Software, Valve Software, Crytek, Bethesda, Epic Games and Blizzard Entertainment ship their games with some of the development tools used to make the game, along with documentation to assist mod developers. The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they may be a factor in the commercial success of some games  Dell Latitude E4200 Battery .

This allows for the kind of success seen by popular mods such as the Half-Life mod Counter-Strike.

Cheating

Cheating in computer games may involve cheat codes and hidden spots implemented by the game developers,modification of game code by third parties,or players exploiting a software glitch      Dell Inspiron 300M Battery .

Modifications are facilitated by either cheat cartridge hardware or a software trainer. Cheats usually make the game easier by providing an unlimited amount of some resource; for example weapons, health, or ammunition; or perhaps the ability to walk through walls        Dell Vostro A840 Battery .

Other cheats might give access to otherwise unplayable levels or provide unusual or amusing features, like altered game colors or other graphical appearances.

Glitches

Software errors not detected by software testers during development can find their way into released versions of computer and video games       Dell Studio 1737 battery .

This may happen because the glitch only occurs under unusual circumstances in the game, was deemed too minor to correct, or because the game development was hurried to meet a publication deadline. Glitches can range from minor graphical errors to serious bugs that can delete saved data or cause the game to malfunction        Dell Inspiron E1505 battery .

In some cases publishers will release updates (referred to as patches) to repair glitches. Sometimes a glitch may be beneficial to the player, these are often referred to asexploits.

Theory

Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities       Dell RM791 battery .

The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama". That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction      Dell XPS M1530 battery .

Murray puts video games in the context of the Holodeck, a fictional piece of technology from Star Trek, arguing for the video game as a medium in which we get to become another person, and to act out in another world. This image of video games received early widespread popular support, and forms the basis of films such as Tron, eXistenZ, and The Last Starfighter Dell XPS M2010 battery .

Ludologists break sharply and radically from this idea. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys. Espen J. Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay  Acer Aspire One battery .

For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the heroine of the game Tomb Raider, saying that "the dimensions of Lara Croft's body, already analyzed to death by film theorists, are irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently...   Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery

When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it." Simply put, ludologists reject traditional theories of art because they claim that the artistic and socially relevant qualities of a video game are primarily determined by the underlying set of rules, demands, and expectations imposed on the player      SONY VGN-FZ210CE Battery .

While many games rely on emergent principles, video games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game. The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player       Dell Precision M70 Battery ."

However, emergent behavior is not limited to sophisticated games. In general, any place where event-driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will exist. For instance, take a racing game in which cars are programmed to avoid crashing, and they encounter an obstacle in the track       Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery :

the cars might then maneuver to avoid the obstacle causing the cars behind them to slow and/or maneuver to accommodate the cars in front of them and the obstacle. The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game            Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery .

Demographics

The November 2005 Nielsen Active Gamer Study, taking a survey of 2,000 regular gamers, found that the U.S. games market is diversifying. The age group among male players has expanded significantly up into the 25–40 age group      Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery .

For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile cell phone games, the gender divide is more or less equal between males and females. Females have also been found to show an attraction to online multi-player games where there is a communal experienceToshiba Satellite A200 Battery .

More recently there has been a growing segment of female players engaged with the aggressive style of games historically considered to fall within traditionally male genres (e.g., first-person shooters). According to the ESRB almost 41% of PC gamers are women  Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery .

When comparing today's industry climate with that of 20 years ago, women and many adults are more inclined to be using products in the industry. While the market for teen and young adult men is still a strong market, it is the other demographics which are posting significant growth    Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery .

In 2008, the average American gamer has been playing for 12 years, and is now, on average, 35 years of age.

Multiplayer

Video gaming has traditionally been a social experience. Multiplayer video games are those that can be played either competitively, sometimes in Electronic Sports, or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by hotseating  SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

Tennis for Two, arguably the first video game, was a two player game, as was its successor Pong. The first commercially available game console, theMagnavox Odyssey, had two controller inputs.

Since then, most consoles have been shipped with two or four controller inputs        SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

Some have had the ability to expand to four, eight or as many as twelve inputs with additional adapters, such as theMultitap. Multiplayer arcade games typically feature play for two to four players, sometimes tilting the monitor on its back for a top-down viewing experience allowing players to sit opposite one another      SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery .

Many early computer games for non-PC descendant based platforms featured multiplayer support. Personal computer systems from Atari and Commodore both regularly featured at least two game ports. PC-based computer games started with a lower availability of multiplayer options because of technical limitations   SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery .

PCs typically had either one or no game ports at all. Network games for these early personal computers were generally limited to only text based adventures or MUDs that were played remotely on a dedicated server. This was due both to the slow speed of modems (300-1200-bit/s)     SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery ,

and the prohibitive cost involved with putting a computer online in such a way where multiple visitors could make use of it. However, with the advent of widespread local area networkingtechnologies and Internet based online capabilities, the number of players in modern games can be 32 or higher, sometimes featuring integrated text and/or voice chat  SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery .

MMOs can offer extremely high numbers of simultaneous players; Eve Online set a record with 54,446 players on a single server in 2010.

Benefits

It has been shown that action video game players have better hand-eye coordination and visuo-motor skills  SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery ,

such as their resistance to distraction, their sensitivity to information in the peripheral visionand their ability to count briefly presented objects, than nonplayers.Researchers found that such enhanced abilities could be acquired by training with action games, involving challenges that switch attention between different locations, but not with games requiring concentration on single objects  SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

It has been suggested by a few studies that online/offline video gaming can be used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different mental health concerns.

In Steven Johnson's book, Everything Bad Is Good For You, he argues that video games in fact demand far more from a player than traditional games like Monopoly SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery .

To experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them. They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and HUDs. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers      SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery ,

video games are based upon the player navigating (and eventually mastering) a highly complex system with many variables. This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function  SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery .

Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books. Some research suggests video games may even increase players' attention capacities  Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery .

Learning principles found in video games have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U.S. education system. It has been noticed that gamers adopt an attitude while playing that is of such high concentration, they do not realize they are learning, and that if the same attitude could be adopted at school, education would enjoy significant benefits  Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

Students are found to be "learning by doing" while playing video games while fostering creative thinking.

The U.S. Army has deployed machines such as the PackBot which make use of a game-style hand controller to make it more familiar for young people  Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery .

According to research discussed at the 2008 Convention of the American Psychological Association, certain types of video games can improve the gamers' dexterity as well as their ability to problem-solve          Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery .

A study of 33 laparoscopic surgeons found that those who played video games were 27 percent faster at advanced surgical procedures and made 37 percent fewer errors compared to those who did not play video games. A second study of 303 laparoscopic surgeons (82 percent men; 18 percent women)        Sony Vaio PCG-5G2L Battery

also showed that surgeons who played video games requiring spatial skills and hand dexterity and then performed a drill testing these skills were significantly faster at their first attempt and across all 10 trials than the surgeons who did not play the video games first      Sony Vaio PCG-5G3L Battery .

Whilst many studies have detected superior mental aptitudes amongst habitual gamers, research by Walter Boot at the University of Illinois found that non-gamers showed no improvement in memory or multitasking abilities after 20 hours of playing three different games       Sony Vaio PCG-5J1L Battery .

The researchers suggested that "individuals with superior abilities are more likely to choose video gaming as an activity in the first place".

Controversy

Like related forms of media, computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship  Sony Vaio PCG-5K2L Battery ,

due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advergaming (a form ofadvertising in games), consumption of drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda, or profanity in some games. Among others, critics of video games often include parents' groups,politicians, organized religious groups        Sony Vaio PCG-5J2L Battery ,

and other advocacy groups, even though all of these can be found in all forms of entertainment and media. Various games have been accused of causingaddiction and even violent behavior, though how much ground this holds is debatable. "Video game censorship" is defined as the use of state or group power to control the playing       Sony Vaio PCG-5K1L Battery ,

distribution, purchase, or sale of video games or computer games. Video game controversy comes in many forms, and censorship is a controversial subject. Proponents and opponents of censorship are often very passionate about their individual views  Sony Vaio PCG-5L1L Battery .

Various national content rating organizations, such as the Entertainment Software Ratings Board or ESRB in North America, rate software for certain age groups and with certain content warnings. Some of these organizations are optional industry self-regulation (such as the ESRB), while others are part of national government censorship organizations  Sony Vaio PCG-6S2L Battery .

Most video games display their rating on the front side of their packaging. However, parents are not always aware of the existence of these ratings. Not all ratings are considered accurate. Organizations such as What They Play and Common Sense Media aim to provide guidance and advice for parents   Sony Vaio PCG-6S3L Battery .

Commercial aspects

Game sales

The three largest producers of and markets for computer and video games (in order) are North America (US and Canada), Japan and the United Kingdom         Sony Vaio PCG-6V1L Battery .

Other significant markets include Australia, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Mexico, France and Italy.Both India and China are considered emerging markets in the video game industry and sales are expected to rise significantly in the coming years. Irish are the largest per capita consumers of video games      Sony Vaio PCG-6W1L Battery .

Sales of different types of games vary widely between these markets due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase console games over computer games, with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes. In South Korea, computer games are preferred, especially MMORPG games and real-time strategy games  Sony Vaio PCG-6W2L Battery .

There are over 20,000 Internet cafés in South Korea where computer games can be played for an hourly charge.

The NPD Group tracks computer and video game sales in the United States. It reported in 2004 that:

  • Console and portable software sales: $6.2 billion, up 8% from 2003 Sony Vaio PCG-6W3L Battery
  • Console and portable hardware and accessory sales: $3.7 billion, down 35% from 2003
  • PC game sales: $1.1 billion, down 15% from 2006

PC games that are digitally distributed either directly or by networks such as Steam are not tracked by the NPD, and Steam does not list sales numbers for games downloaded through their service        Sony Vaio PCG-7111L Battery .

Unauthorized distribution is also rampant on the PC.

These figures are sales in dollars, not units, Unit shipments for each category were higher than the dollar sales numbers indicate, because more software and hardware was discounted than in 2003        Sony Vaio PCG-7112L Battery .

But with the release of the next-generation consoles in 2006, these numbers increased dramatically. The game and film industries are also becoming increasingly intertwined, with companies like Sonyhaving significant stakes in both. A large number of summer blockbuster films spawn a companion game, often launching at the same time to share the marketing costs  Sony Vaio PCG-7113L Battery .

Criticism

In Australia, the United Kingdom and other PAL regions, generally when compared to the US, PAL gamers pay 40% to 50% more for the same product    Sony Vaio PCG-7133L Battery .

As English is the main language in Australia and the UK there is little impetus for translation (although regional differences naturally exist). The differences between PAL and NTSC are these days irrelevant; most video displays run at least 60Hz. But there is a legal problem of regional lockout in Australia, with most DVD players release coming region-free to meet local laws Sony Vaio PCG-7Z2L Battery .

However, video game consoles are still sold fully in Australia. Some effort has been made to increase awareness of the issue, specifically to Nintendo of Australia, was in the form of a formal report outlining the issues, published by Aaron Rex Davies. The report has gone on to gain a lot of attention in the public media   Sony Vaio PCG-8Y1L Battery .

A personal computer game (also known as a computer game or PC game) is a game played on a personal computer, rather than on a video game console or arcade machine. Computer games have evolved from the simple graphics and gameplay of early titles likeSpacewar!, to a wide range of more visually advanced titles   Sony Vaio PCG-8Y2L Battery .

PC games are created by one or more game developers, often in conjunction with other specialists (such as game artists) and either published independently or through a third party publisher. They may then be distributed on physical media such as DVDs and CDs, as Internet-downloadable         Sony Vaio PCG-8Z1L Battery ,

possibly freely redistributable, software, or through online delivery services such as Direct2Drive and Steam. PC games often require specialized hardware in the user's computer in order to play, such as a specific generation of graphics processing unit or an Internet connection for online play, although these system requirements vary from game to game  Sony Vaio PCG-8Z2L Battery .

As of the 2000s, PC games are often regarded as offering a deeper and more immersive experience than console games.

Although personal computers only became popular with the development of the microprocessor, mainframe and minicomputers, computer gaming has existed since at least the 1950s         Sony VAIO PCG-5G2L Battery .

OXO, an adaptation of tic-tac-toe for the EDSAC, debuted in 1952. Another pioneer computer game was developed in 1961, when MIT students Martin Graetz and Alan Kotok, with MIT student Steve Russell, developed Spacewar! on a PDP-1 computer used for statistical calculations     Sony VAIO PCG-5G3L Battery .

The first generation of PC games were often text adventures or interactive fiction, in which the player communicated with the computer by entering commands through a keyboard. An early text-adventure, Adventure, was developed for the PDP-11 by Will Crowther in 1976, and expanded by Don Woods in 1977   Sony VAIO PCG-5J1L Battery .

By the 1980s, personal computers had become powerful enough to run games like Adventure, but by this time, graphics were beginning to become an important factor in games. Later games combined textual commands with basic graphics, as seen in the SSI Gold Box games such as Pool of Radiance, or Bard's Tale Sony VAIO PCG-5K2L Battery .

By the mid-1970s, games were developed and distributed through hobbyist groups and gaming magazines, such as Creative Computing and laterComputer Gaming World. These publications provided game code that could be typed into a computer and played, encouraging readers to submit their own software to competitions   Sony VAIO PCG-5J2L Battery .

Microchess was one of the first games for microcomputers which was sold to the public. First sold in 1977, Microchess eventually sold over 50,000 copies on cassette tape   Sony VAIO PCG-5K1L Battery .

Industry crash

As the video game market became flooded with poor-quality cartridge games created by numerous companies attempting to enter the market, and over-production of high profile releases such as the Atari 2600 adaptation of E.T. and Pacman grossly underperformed       Sony VAIO PCG-5L1L Battery ,

the popularity of personal computers for education rose dramatically. In 1983, consumer interest in console video games dwindled to historical lows, as interest in computer games rose.

The effects of the crash were largely limited to the console market, as established companies such as Atari posted record losses over subsequent years  Sony VAIO PCG-6S2L Battery .

Conversely, the home computer market boomed, as sales of low-cost color computers such as the Commodore 64 rose to record highs and developers such as Electronic Arts benefited from increasing interest in the platform.

The console market experienced a resurgence in the United States with the release of the Nintendo Entertainment System  Sony VAIO PCG-6S3L Battery .

In Europe, computer gaming continued to boom for many years after.

New genres

Increasing adoption of the computer mouse, driven partially by the success of games such as the highly successful King's Quest series    Sony VAIO PCG-6V1L Battery ,

and high resolution bitmap displays allowed the industry to include increasingly high-quality graphical interfaces in new releases. Meanwhile, the Commodore Amiga computer achieved great success in the market from its release in 1985, contributing to the rapid adoption of these new interface technologies   Sony VAIO PCG-6W1L Battery .

Further improvements to game artwork were made possible with the introduction of the first sound cards, such as AdLib's Music Synthesizer Card, in 1987. These cards allowed IBM PC compatiblecomputers to produce complex sounds using FM synthesis, where they had previously been limited to simple tones and beeps   Sony VAIO PCG-6W2L Battery .

However, the rise of the Creative Labs Sound Blaster card, which featured much higher sound quality due to the inclusion of a PCM channel and digital signal processor, led AdLib to file for bankruptcy in 1992.

The year before, id Software had produced one of the first first-person shooter games, Hovertank 3D, which was the company's first in their line of highly influential games in the genre   Sony VAIO PCG-6W3L Battery .

There were other companies that made fps shooters such as Day of the Viper from the company Accolade made in 1989. Id Software went on to develop Wolfenstein 3D in 1992, which helped to popularize the genre, kick-starting a genre that would become one of the highest-selling in modern times  Sony VAIO PCG-7111L Battery .

The game was originally distributed through the shareware distribution model, allowing players to try a limited part of the game for free but requiring payment to play the rest, and represented one of the first uses of texture mapping graphics in a popular game, along with Ultima Underworld Sony VAIO PCG-7112L Battery .

While leading Sega and Nintendo console systems kept their CPU speed at 3-7 MHz, the 486 PC processor ran much faster, allowing it to perform many more calculations per second. The 1993 release of Doom on the PC was a breakthrough in 3D graphics, and was soon ported to various game consoles in a general shift toward greater realism  Sony VAIO PCG-7113L Battery .

In the same time frame, games such asMyst took advantage of the new CD-ROM delivery format to include many more assets (sound, images, video) for a richer game experience.

Many early PC games included extras such as the peril-sensitive sunglasses that shipped with The Hitchhiker's Guide to the GalaxySony VAIO PCG-7Z1L Battery .

These extras gradually became less common, but many games were still sold in the traditional over-sized boxes that used to hold the extra "feelies". Today, such extras are usually found only in Special Edition versions of games, such as Battlechests from Blizzard  Sony VAIO PCG-7Z2L Battery .

Contemporary gaming

By 1996, the rise of Microsoft Windows and success of 3D console titles such as

 Super Mario 64 sparked great interest in hardware accelerated 3D graphics on the IBM PC compatible, and soon resulted in attempts to produce affordable solutions with the ATIRage, Matrox Mystique and Silicon Graphics ViRGE Sony VAIO PCG-8Y1L Battery .

Tomb Raider, which was released in 1996, was one of the first third person shooter games and was praised for its revolutionary graphics. As 3D graphics libraries such as DirectX and OpenGL matured and knocked proprietary interfaces out of the market, these platforms gained greater acceptance in the market, particularly with their demonstrated benefits in games such as Unreal WD passport essential (500GB/640GB).

However, major changes to the Microsoft Windows operating system, by then the market leader, made many older MS-DOS-based games unplayable on Windows NT, and later, Windows XP (without using an emulator, such as DOSbox). The faster graphics accelerators and improving CPU technology resulted in increasing levels of realism in computer games  WD passport essential (250GB/320GB) .

During this time, the improvements introduced with products such as ATI's Radeon R300 and NVidia's GeForce 6 Series have allowed developers to increase the complexity of modern game engines. PC gaming currently tends strongly toward improvements in 3D graphics   WD  passport essential SE (750GB/1TB .

Unlike the generally accepted push for improved graphical performance, the use of physics engines in computer games has become a matter of debate since announcement and 2005 release of thenVidia PhysX PPU, ostensibly competing with middleware such as the Havok physics engine   WD  passport elite(250GB/320GB) .

Issues such as difficulty in ensuring consistent experiences for all players, and the uncertain benefit of first generation PhysX cards in games such as Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter and City of Villains, prompted arguments over the value of such technology   WD passport elite(500GB/640GB) .

Similarly, many game publishers began to experiment with new forms of marketing. Chief among these alternative strategies is episodic gaming, an adaptation of the older concept of expansion packs, in which game content is provided in smaller quantities but for a proportionally lower price      WD  passport studio for Mac(320GB/500GB) .

Titles such as Half-Life 2: Episode One took advantage of the idea, with mixed results rising from concerns for the amount of content provided for the price .

PC game development

Game development, as with console games, is generally undertaken by one or more game developers using either standardized or proprietary tools   WD  passport studio for Mac(500GB/640GB) .

While games could previously be developed by very small groups of people, as in the early example of Wolfenstein 3D, many popular computer games today require large development teams and budgets running into the millions of dollars.

PC games are usually built around a central piece of software, known as a game engine,  that simplifies the development process and enables developers to easily port their projects between platforms   WD  Elements series(250GB/320GB) .

Unlike most consoles, which generally only run major engines such as Unreal Engine 3 and RenderWare due to restrictions on homebrew software, personal computers may run games developed using a larger range of software    WD  Elements SE(500GB/640GB) .

As such, a number of alternatives to expensive engines have become available, including open source solutions such as Crystal Space, OGRE and DarkPlaces   WD Elements SE(750GB/1TB) .

User-created modifications

The multi-purpose nature of personal computers often allows users to modify the content of installed games with relative ease. Since console games are generally difficult to modify without a proprietarysoftware development kit, and are often protected by legal and physical barriers against tampering and homebrew software  WD  Elements desktop(500GB/640GB) ,

it is generally easier to modify the personal computer version of games using common, easy-to-obtain software. Users can then distribute their customised version of the game (commonly known as a mod) by any means they choose   WD  Elements desktop(750GB/1TB) .

The inclusion of map editors such as UnrealEd with the retail versions of many games, and others that have been made available online such as GtkRadiant, allow users to create modifications for games easily, using tools that are maintained by the games' original developers        WD  Elements desktop(1.5 TB/2TB) .

In addition, companies such as id Software have released the source code to older game engines, enabling the creation of entirely new games and major changes to existing ones.

Modding had allowed much of the community to produce game elements that would not normally be provided by the developer of the game, expanding or modifying normal gameplay to varying degrees.   WD  passport essential SE (750GB/1TB)--USB 3.0)

Maybe the most notable example is Counter Strike,a mod for Half Life, counter strike turns the initial adventure FPS into a round based,tactical FPS.

Physical distribution

Computer games are typically sold on standard storage media, such as compact discs, DVD, and floppy disks  WD  passport essential (500GB/640GB) .

These were originally passed on to customers through mail order services, although retail distribution has replaced it as the main distribution channel for video games due to higher sales.Cassette tapes and different formats of floppy disks were initially the staple storage media of the 1980s and early 1990s        WD  passport for Mac(320GB/500GB) ,

but have fallen out of practical use as the increasing sophistication of computer games raised the overall size of the game's data and program files.

The introduction of complex graphics engines in recent times has resulted in additional storage requirements for modern games, and thus an increasing interest in CDs and DVDs as the next compact storage media for personal computer games  WD  passport for Mac(640GB/1TB) .

The rising popularity of DVD drives in modern PCs, and the larger capacity of the new media (a single-layer DVD can hold up to 4.7 gigabytes of data, more than five times as much as a single CD), have resulted in their adoption as a format for computer game distribution  My book essential 4 generation  (640GB/1TB) .

To date, CD versions are still offered for most games, while some games offer both the CD and the DVD versions.

Shareware

Shareware marketing, whereby a limited or demonstration version of the full game is released to prospective buyers without charge  WD  My book essential 4 generation( 1.5TB/2TB) ,

has been used as a method of distributing computer games since the early years of the gaming industry and was seen in the early days of Tanarus as well as many others. Shareware games generally offer only a small part of the gameplay offered in the retail product, and may be distributed with gaming magazines, in retail stores or on developers' websites free of charge  WD  My book elite( 1TB/1.5TB) .

In the early 1990s, shareware distribution was common among fledging game companies such as Apogee Software, Epic Megagames and id Software, and remains a popular distribution method among smaller game developers  WD  My book studio(1TB/2TB) .

However, shareware has largely fallen out of favor among established game companies in favour of traditional retail marketing, with notable exceptions such as Big Fish Games and PopCap Games continuing to use the model today  WD  My book essential 4 generation( 1.5TB/2TB) .

Online delivery

With the increased popularity of the Internet, online distribution of game content has become more common. Retail services such as Direct2Drive and Download.com allow users to purchase and download large games that would otherwise only be distributed on physical media   WD  My book elite(640GB/2TB) ,

such as DVDs, as well as providing cheap distribution of shareware and demonstration games. Companies such as Real Networks provide a service that allows other websites to use their game catalog and ecommerce backend to publish their own game download distribution sites       Seagate  expansion portable (320GB/500GB) .

Other services, allow a subscription-based distribution model in which users pay a monthly fee to download and play as many games as they wish.

The Steam system, developed by Valve Corporation, provides an alternative to traditional online services  Seagate  expansion (1.5TB/2TB) .

Instead of allowing the player to download a game and play it immediately, games are made available for "pre-load" in an encrypted form days or weeks before their actual release date. On the official release date, a relatively small component is made available to unlock the game      Seagate  Freeagent Desktop (500GB/1TB) .

Steam also ensures that once bought, a game remains accessible to a customer indefinitely, while traditional mediums such as floppy disks and CD-ROMs are susceptible to unrecoverable damage and misplacement. The user would however depend on the Steam servers to be online to download its games      Seagate  Freeagent Go(250GB/320GB) .

According to the terms of service for Steam, Valve has no obligation to keep the servers running. Therefore, if the Valve Corporation shut down, so would the servers. However, they have stated that if the service was to be discontinued, games would no longer require authorization from the servers to run. Nevertheless, they are not obligated to do so  Seagate  Freeagent Go(500GB/640GB) .

PC game genres

The real-time strategy genre, which accounts for more than a quarter of all PC games sold, has found very little success on video game consoles, with releases such as Starcraft 64 failing in the marketplace. Real-time strategy games tend to suffer from the design of console controllers, which do not allow fast, accurate movement      Seagate  Freeagent Go(750GB/1TB) .

Hardware

Modern computer games place great demand on the computer's hardware, often requiring a fast central processing unit (CPU) to function properly        Seagate  Freeagent Goflex(250GB/320GB) .

CPU manufacturers historically relied mainly on increasing clock rates to improve the performance of their processors, but had begun to move steadily towards multi-core CPUs by 2005. These processors allow the computer to simultaneously process multiple tasks, called threads, allowing the use of more complex graphics, artificial intelligence and in-game physics  Seagate Freeagent Goflex(500GB/640GB) .

Similarly, 3D games often rely on a powerful graphics processing unit (GPU), which accelerates the process of drawing complex scenes in realtime. GPUs may be an integrated part of the computer's motherboard, the most common solution in laptops,  or come packaged with a discrete graphics card with a supply of dedicated Video RAM, connected to the motherboard through either an AGP or PCI-Express port       Seagate  Freeagent Goflex(750GB/1TB) .

It is also possible to use multiple GPUs in a single computer, using technologies such as NVidia's Scalable Link Interface and ATI's CrossFire.

Sound cards are also available to provide improved audio in computer games       Seagate  Freeagent Goflex Pro(500GB/750GB) .

These cards provide improved 3D audio and provide audio enhancement that is generally not available with integrated alternatives, at the cost of marginally lower overall performance. The Creative Labs SoundBlaster line was for many years the de facto standard for sound cards, although its popularity dwindled as PC audio became a commodity on modern motherboards  Seagate  Freeagent Goflex desktop(1TB/2TB) .

Physics processing units (PPUs), such as the Nvidia PhysX (formerly AGEIA PhysX) card, are also available to accelerate physics simulations in modern computer games. PPUs allow the computer to process more complex interactions among objects than is achievable using only the CPU      Seagate  Freeagent go for Mac(320GB/640GB) ,

potentially allowing players a much greater degree of control over the world in games designed to use the card.

Virtually all personal computers use a keyboard and mouse for user input. Other common gaming peripherals are a headset for faster communication in online games       Samsung  G2 protable (250gb/320GB) ,

joysticks for flight simulators, steering wheels for driving games and gamepads for console-style games.

Software

Computer games also rely on third-party software such as an operating system (OS), device drivers, libraries and more to run  Samsung  G2 protable (500GB/640GB) .

Today, the vast majority of computer games are designed to run on the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems. Whereas earlier games written for MS-DOS would include code to communicate directly with hardware, today Application programming interfaces (APIs) provide an interface between the game and the OS, simplifying game design  Samsung  S2 protable (320GB/500GB) .

Microsoft's DirectX is an API that is widely used by today's computer games to communicate with sound and graphics hardware. OpenGL is a cross-platform API for graphics rendering that is also used. The version of the graphics card's driver installed can often affect game performance and gameplay  Samsung S1 Mini (120GB/160GB) .

It is not unusual for a game company to use a third-party game engine, or third-party libraries for a game's AI or physics.

Multiplayer

Local area network gaming

Multiplayer gaming was largely limited to local area networks (LANs) before cost-effective broadband Internet access became available, due to their typically higher bandwidth and lower latency than the dial-up services of the time  Samsung  S1 Mini (250GB/320GB) .

These advantages allowed more players to join any given computer game, but have persisted today because of the higher latency of most Internet connections and the costs associated with broadband Internet  Samsung story station (1TB/1.5TB) .

LAN gaming typically requires two or more personal computers, a router and sufficient networking cables to connect every computer on the network. Additionally, each computer must have a network card in order to communicate with other computers on the network, and its own copy (or spawn copy) of the game in order to play  Samsung Story station (1.5TB/2TB) .

Optionally, any LAN may include an external connection to theInternet.

Online games

Online multiplayer games have achieved popularity largely as a result of increasing broadband adoption among consumers  Samsung story station Esata(1TB/1.5TB) .

Affordable high-bandwidth Internet connections allow large numbers of players to play together, and thus have found particular use in massively multiplayer online role-playing games, Tanarus and persistent online games such as World War II Online Samsung  G3 station (1TB/1.5TB) .

Although it is possible to participate in online computer games using dial-up modems, broadband internet connections are generally considered necessary in order to reduce the latency between players (commonly known as "lag"). Such connections require a broadband-compatible modem connected to the personal computer through a network interface card   Maxtor  one touch 4 plus (500GB/750GB)

(generally integrated onto the computer's motherboard), optionally separated by a router. Online games require a virtual environment, generally called a "game server." These virtual servers inter-connect gamers, allowing real time, and often fast paced action   Maxtor one touch 4 plus (1TB/1.5TB) .

To meet this subsequent need, Game Server Providers (GSP) have become increasingly more popular over the last half decade. While not required for all gamers, these servers provide a unique "home," fully customizable (such as additional modifications, settings, etc.) - giving the end gamers the experience they desire       Maxtor cool black(640GB/1TB) .

Today there are over 510,000 game servers hosted in North America alone.

Emulation

Emulation software, used to run software without the original hardware, are popular for their ability to play legacy video games without the consoles or operating system for which they were designed   Maxtor Black diamond (320GB/500GB) .

The operating system emulators include DOSBox, a DOS emulator which allows playing games developed originally for this operating system and thus not compatible with a modern day OS. Console emulators such as NESticle and MAME are relatively commonplaceHitachi  simple touch (250GB/320GB) ,

although the complexity of modern consoles such as the Xbox or PlayStation makes them far more difficult to emulate, even for the original manufacturers.

Most emulation software mimics a particular hardware architecture, often to an extremely high degree of accuracy   Hitachi simple touch (320GB/500GB) .

This is particularly the case with classic home computers such as the Commodore 64, whose software often depends on highly sophisticated low-level programming tricks invented by game programmers and the demoscene      Hitachi  life studio (320GB/500GB) .

Controversy

PC games have long been a source of controversy, particularly related to the violence that has become commonly associated with video gaming in general        Hitachi life studio (250GB/320GB) .

The debate surrounds the influence of objectionable content on the social development of minors, with organisations such as the American Psychological Association concluding that video game violence increases children's aggression, a concern that prompted a further investigation by the Center for Disease Control in September 2006   Hitachi  life studio platinum (250GB/320GB).

Industry groups have responded by noting the responsibility of parents in governing their children's activities, while attempts in the United States to control the sale of objectionable games have generally been found unconstitutional.

Video game addiction is another cultural aspect of gaming to draw criticism as it can have a negative influence on health and on social relations   Hitachi life studio platinum (320GB/500GB) .

The problem of addiction and its health risks seems to have grown with the rise of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). Alongside the social and health problems associated with computer game addiction have grown similar worries about the effect of computer games on education   Hitachi life studio desk (500GB/1TB) .

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