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George Stephenson George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public railway line in the world to use steam locomotives. Renowned as being the "Father of Railways", the Victoriansconsidered him a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement, SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard with self-help advocate Samuel Smilesparticularly praising his achievements. His rail gauge of 4 feet 812 inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge. HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard George Stephenson was born in Wylam, Northumberland, 9.3 miles (15.0 km) west of Newcastle upon Tyne. He was the second child of Robert and Mabel,[1] neither of whom could read or write. Robert was the fireman for Wylam Colliery pumping engine, earning a very low wage, so that there was no money for schooling. At 17, Stephenson became an engineman at Water Row Pit, HP Pavilion G60-118EM Laptop Keyboard Newburn. George realised the value of education and paid to study at night school to learn reading, writing and arithmetic—he was illiterate till the age of 18. In 1801 he began work at Black Callerton colliery as a 'brakesman',  ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard controlling the winding gear of the pit. In 1802 he married Frances (Fanny) Henderson and moved to Willington Quay, east of Newcastle. There he worked as a brakesman while they lived in one room of a cottage. George made shoes and mended clocks to supplement his income. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1803 their son Robert was born, and in 1804 they moved to West Moor, near Killingworth while George worked as a brakesman at Killingworth pit. His wife gave birth to a daughter, who died after a few weeks, and in 1806 Fanny died of consumption (tuberculosis). George then decided to find work in Scotland, and he left Robert with a local woman while he went to work in Montrose. Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard After a few months he returned, probably because his father was blinded in a mining accident. George moved back into his cottage at West Moor and his unmarried sister Eleanor moved in to look after Robert. In 1811 the pumping engine at High Pit, TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard Killingworth was not working properly and Stephenson offered to fix it. He did so with such success that he was soon promoted to enginewright for the neighbouring collieries at Killingworth, responsible for maintaining and repairing all of the colliery engines. He soon became an expert in steam-driven machinery.[2]  HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard In 1815, aware of the explosions often caused in mines by naked flames, Stephenson began to experiment with a safety lampthat would burn without causing an explosion. At the same time, Cornishman Sir Humphry Davy, the eminent scientist was also looking at the problem. Despite his lack of any scientific knowledge, Stephenson, HP CT1A Laptop Keyboard by trial and error, devised a lamp in which the air entered via tiny holes. Stephenson demonstrated the lamp himself to two witnesses by taking it down Killingworth colliery and holding it directly in front of a fissure from which fire damp was issuing. This was a month before Davy presented his design to the Royal Society. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EE Laptop Keyboard The two designs differed in that, the Davy's lamp was surrounded by a screen of gauze, whereas Stephenson's lamp was contained in a glass cylinder. For his invention Davy was awarded £2,000, whilst Stephenson was accused of stealing the idea from Davy. A local committee of enquiry exonerated Stephenson, proved that he had been working separately and awarded him £1,000 but Davy and his supporters refused to accept this. HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard They could not see how an uneducated man such as Stephenson could come up with the solution that he had. In 1833 a House of Commons committee found that Stephenson had equal claim to having invented the safety lamp. Davy went to his grave believing that Stephenson had stolen his idea.  DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard The Stephenson lamp was used exclusively in the North East, whereas the Davy lamp was used everywhere else. The experience with Davy gave Stephenson a lifelong distrust of London-based, theoretical, scientific experts.[2] HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard There is a theory that it was Stephenson who indirectly gave the name of Geordies to the people of Tyneside. By this theory, the name of the Geordie lamp attached to the pit men themselves. By 1866 any native of Tyneside could be called a Geordie.[3]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Cornishman Richard Trevithick is credited with the first realistic design of the steam locomotive in 1802. Later, he visited Tyneside and built an engine there for a mine-owner. Several local men were inspired by this, and designed engines of their own. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard Stephenson designed his first locomotive in 1814, a travelling engine designed for hauling coal on the Killingworth wagonway, and named Blücher after the Prussian general Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. It was constructed in the colliery workshop behind Stephenson's home, Dial Cottage, on Great Lime Road. ASUS Z9100L Laptop Keyboard This locomotive could haul 30 tons of coal up a hill at 4 mph (6.4 km/h), and was the first successful flanged-wheel adhesion locomotive: its traction depended only on the contact between its flanged wheels and the rail. Altogether, Stephenson is said to have produced 16 locomotives at Killingworth,[2] HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard although it has never proved possible to produce a convincing list of all 16. Of those that have been identified most were built for use at Killingworth itself or for the Hetton colliery railway. A six-wheeled locomotive was built for the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway in 1817 but it was soon withdrawn from service because of damage to the cast iron rails.[4] ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard A further locomotive was supplied to Scott's Pit railroad at Llansamlet, near Swansea in 1819 but it too was soon withdrawn, apparently because it was under-boilered and also because of damage to the track.[5]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The new engines were too heavy to be run on wooden rails, and iron rails were in their infancy, with cast iron exhibiting excessive brittleness. Together with William Losh, Stephenson improved the design of cast iron rails to reduce breakage; these were briefly made by Losh, Wilson and Bell at their Walker ironworks. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard According to Rolt, he also managed to solve the problem caused by the weight of the engine upon these primitive rails. He experimented with a 'steam spring' (to 'cushion' the weight using steam pressure), but soon followed the new practice of 'distributing' weight by utilising a number of wheels. For the Stockton and Darlington Railway, however, Stephenson would use only wrought iron rails, notwithstanding the financial loss he would suffer from not using his own, patented design (see below).[6]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Stephenson was hired to build an 8-mile (13-km) railway from Hetton colliery to Sunderland in 1820. The finished result used a combination of gravity on downward inclines and locomotives for level and upward stretches. It was the first railway using no animal power. DELL TR334 Laptop Keyboard Other locomotives include:

Stockton and Darlington Railway

n 1821, a parliamentary bill was passed to allow the building of the Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR). The 25-mile (40 km) railway was intended to connect various collieries situated near Bishop Auckland to the River Tees at Stockton, passing through Darlington on the way. The original plan was to use horses to draw coal carts on metal rails, SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard but after company director Edward Pease met Stephenson he agreed to change the plans. Stephenson surveyed the line in 1821, assisted by his eighteen-year-old son Robert. That same year construction of the line began.[2]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard A manufacturer was now needed to provide the locomotives for the new line. As it turned out, Pease and Stephenson jointly established a company in Newcastle to manufacture locomotives. The company was set up as Robert Stephenson and Company, and George's son Robert was the managing director. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard A fourth partner was Michael Longridge of Bedlington Ironworks.[2] On an early trade card, Robert Stephenson & Co were described as "Engineers, Millwrights & Machinists, Brass & Iron Founders".[7] In September 1825 the works at Forth Street, Newcastle completed the first locomotive for the new railway: originally namedActive,  APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard it was soon renamed Locomotion. It was followed by "Hope", "Diligence" and "Black Diamond". The Stockton and Darlington Railway opened on 27 September 1825. Driven by Stephenson, Locomotion hauled an 80-ton load of coal and flour nine miles (15 km) in two hours, reaching a speed of 24 miles per hour (39 km/h) on one stretch. The first purpose-built passenger car, dubbed Experiment, was attached, and carried dignitaries on the opening journey. It was the first time passenger traffic had been run on a steam locomotive railway.[2]TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard The rails used for the new line were wrought-iron ones, produced by John Birkinshaw at the Bedlington Ironworks. Wrought-iron rails could be produced in much longer lengths than the cast-iron ones and were much less liable to crack under the weight of heavy locomotives. ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard William Losh of Walker Ironworks had thought that he had an agreement with Stephenson to use his cast-iron rails, and Stephenson's decision caused a permanent rift between the two men. The gauge that Stephenson chose for the line was 4 feet 812 inches (1,435 mm), and this subsequently came to be adopted as the standard gauge for railways, not only in Britain, but also throughout the world.[2]SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

Liverpool and Manchester Railway

Stephenson had ascertained by experiments at Killingworth that half of the power of the locomotive was consumed by a gradient as little as 1 in 260.[8] He came to the conclusion that railways should be kept as level as possible. He used this knowledge while working on the Bolton and Leigh Railway, and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR), HP Mini 210-2006sa Laptop Keyboard executing a series of difficult cuts, embankments and stone viaducts to smooth the route the railways took. Defective surveying of the original route of the L&MR caused by the hostility of some of the affected landowners meant that Stephenson encountered difficulty during Parliamentary scrutiny of the original bill, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Laptop Keyboard especially under cross-examination by Edward Hall Alderson. The Bill was rejected. A revised bill with a new alignment was submitted and passed in a subsequent session. The revised alignment presented a considerable problem: the crossing of Chat Moss, an apparently bottomless peat bog, which Stephenson eventually overcame by unusual means, HP Pavilion dv6-2110sf Laptop Keyboard effectively floating the line across it.[2] The method he used was almost exactly the same as that used by John Metcalf during his construction of many miles of road through marshes in the Pennines. He would lay a foundation of heather and branches bound together by the weight of the passing coaches with a layer of stones on top. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard As the L&MR approached completion in 1829, its directors arranged for a competition to decide who would build its locomotives, and the Rainhill Trials were run in October 1829. Entries could weigh no more than six tons and had to travel along the track for a total distance of 60 miles (97 km). Stephenson's entry was Rocket, HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard and its performance in winning the contest made it famous. George's son Robert had been working in South America from 1824 to 1827 and had returned to run the Forth Street Works while George was living in Liverpool and overseeing the construction of the new line. Robert was very much responsible for the detailed design of Rocket, SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard although he was in constant postal communication with George, who made many suggestions on the design. One significant innovation was the use of a fire-tube boiler, invented by French engineer Marc Seguin that gave improved heat exchange. This was suggested by Henry Booth, the treasurer of the L&MR.[2]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard The opening ceremony of the L&MR, on 15 September 1830, was a considerable event, drawing luminaries from the government and industry, including the Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington. The day started with a procession of eight trains setting out from Liverpool. The parade was led by "Northumbrian" driven by George Stephenson, and included "Phoenix" driven by his son Robert, DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard "North Star" driven by his brother Robert and "Rocket" driven by assistant engineer Joseph Locke. The day was marred by the death of William Huskisson, tACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard he Member of Parliament for Liverpool, who was struck and killed by Rocket. Stephenson in person evacuated the injured Huskisson to Eccles with a train, but the injury was beyond help. Despite this tragedy the railway was a resounding success. Stephenson became famous, and was offered the position of chief engineer for a wide variety of other railways.[2]Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard 1830 also saw the grand opening of the skew bridge in Rainhill as part of the grand opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The bridge was the first to cross any railway at an angle.[9] This required the structure to be constructed as two flat planes (overlapping in this case by 6') between which the stonework forms a parallelogram shape when viewed from above. HP G61-445SI Laptop Keyboard This has the effect of flattening the arch and the solution is to lay the bricks forming the arch at an angle to the abutments (the piers on which the arches rest). This technique, which results in a spiral effect in the arch masonry, provides extra strength in the arch to compensate for the angled abutments.[10]DELL 3C048 Laptop Keyboard The bridge is still in use at Rainhill railway station, and carries traffic on the busy A57 (Warrington Road). The bridge is now a listed structure.

Later career

The next ten years were the busiest of Stephenson's life, as he was besieged with requests from railway promoters. Many of the first American railroad builders came to Newcastle to learn from Stephenson, and indeed, the first dozen or so locomotives utilized in the U.S. were purchased from the Stephenson shops. SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard

Other talented men were starting to make their marks, such as his son Robert, his pupil Joseph Locke and finally Isambard Kingdom Brunel. His conservative views on the capabilities of locomotives meant that he favoured circuitous routes and civil engineering that were more costly than his successors thought necessary. DELL Studio 14 Keyboard

For example, rather than the West Coast Main Line taking the direct route favoured by Joseph Locke over Shap between Lancaster and Carlisle, Stephenson was in favour of a longer sea-level route via Ulverston and Whitehaven. Locke's route was the one built. Stephenson also tended to be more casual in estimating costs and paperwork in general. DELL Studio 1440 Keyboard

He worked with Joseph Locke on the Grand Junction Railway with one half of the line allocated to each man. Stephenson's estimates and organising ability proved to be inferior to those of Locke and the board's dissatisfaction led to Stephenson's resignation. This caused a rift between Stephenson and Locke, which was never healed.[2]DELL Studio 1450 Keyboard

Despite Stephenson's losing some routes to competitors due to his caution, he was offered more work than he could cope with, and was unable to accept offers for additional work. He worked on the North Midland line from Derby to Leeds, the York and North Midland line from Normanton to York, the Manchester and Leeds, theBirmingham and Derby, the Sheffield and Rotherham among many others.[2]DELL Studio 1457 Keyboard

Stephenson tended to become a reassuring name, rather than a cutting-edge technical adviser. He was the first president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on its formation in 1847. He had by this time settled into semi-retirement, supervising his mining interests in Derbyshire - tunnelling work for theNorth Midland Railway had revealed unworked coal seams, and Stephenson put much of his money into their exploitation. DELL Studio 1458 Keyboard

Personal life

George first courted Elizabeth (Betty) Hindmarsh, a farmer's daughter from Black Callerton, whom he would meet secretly in her orchard. Her father Thomas refused marriage because of Stephenson's lowly status as a miner.[11] George next paid attention to Anne Henderson where he lodged with her family, but when she also rejected him he transferred his attentions to her sister Frances (Fanny), who was nine years his senior. DELL Studio 14z Keyboard

George and Fanny married at Newburn Church on 28 November 1802. They had two children Robert (1803) and Fanny (1805) but the girl died within months, and George's wife died, probably of tuberculosis or, the year after. While George was away working in Scotland, Robert was brought up by a succession of neighbors and then by George's unmarried sister Eleanor (Nelly), who continued living with them in Killingworth on George's return. DELL Studio 15 Keyboard

On 29 March 1820, George (now considerably wealthier) was finally allowed to marry Betty Hindmarsh at Newburn. The marriage seems to have been a happy one, but there were no children from this union, and Betty died in 1845. DELL Studio 1535 Keyboard

On 11 January 1848, at St John's Church in Shrewsbury, George married for the third time, to Ellen Gregory, another farmer's daughter originally from Bakewellin Derbyshire, who had been his housekeeper. Six months after his wedding, George contracted pleurisy and died, aged 67, on 12 August 1848 at Tapton House inChesterfield, Derbyshire. He was buried at Holy Trinity Church, Chesterfield, alongside his second wife.[2]DELL Studio 1536 Keyboard

Britain led the world in the development of railways and this acted as a stimulus for the industrial revolution, by facilitating the transport of raw materials and manufactured goods. George Stephenson cannot claim to have invented the locomotive. Richard Trevithick deserves that credit. George Stephenson, DELL Studio 1537 Keyboard

with his work on the Stockton and Darlington Railway and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, paved the way for the railway engineers who were to follow, such as his son Robert, his assistant Joseph Locke who went on to carry out much work on his own account and Isambard Kingdom Brunel. DELL Studio 1555 Keyboard

These men were following in his footsteps. Stephenson was also farsighted in realising that the individual lines being built would eventually join together, and would need to have the same gauge. The standard gauge used throughout much of the world is due to him. DELL Studio 1557 Keyboard


Chesterfield Museum in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, has a gallery of Stephenson memorabilia, including the straight thick glass tubes that he invented for the purpose of growing straight cucumbers. The museum is located within the Stephenson Memorial Hall[12] (which also incorporates the Pomegranate Theatre, DELL Studio 1558 Keyboard

formerly the Chesterfield Civic Theatre) and adjacent to Stephensons Place, located roughly mid distance between Stephenson's final home at Tapton House and his resting place in Trinity Church. In Liverpool, where he lived at 34 Upper Parliament Street, a City of Liverpool Heritage Plaque is situated next to the front door of the property which has now been divided into private flats. DELL Studio 17 Keyboard

George Stephenson College, founded in 2001 on the University of Durham's Queen's Campus in Stockton-on-Tees, is named after him, with the student union bar being named The Rocket. Also named after him and his son is George Stephenson High School in Killingworth, Stephenson Memorial Primary School in Howdon, the Stephenson Railway Museum in North Shields and the Stephenson Locomotive Society. The Stephenson Centre, an SEBD Unit of Beaumont Hill School in Darlington, is also named after George Stephenson. DELL Studio 1735 Keyboard

As a tribute to his life and works, a bronze statue of Stephenson was unveiled at Chesterfield railway station (which is overlooked by Tapton House, where Stephenson spent the last ten years of his life) on 28 October 2005, marking the completion of improvements to the station. At the event a full-size working replica of the Rocket was on show, DELL Studio 1736 Keyboard

which then spent two days on public display at the Chesterfield Market Festival. A statue of George dressed in classical robes stands in Neville Street, Newcastle, facing the building that houses the Literary and Philosophical Society and the Mining Institute, and near to Newcastle railway station. DELL Studio 1737 Keyboard

Track gauge

Track gauge or rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the heads of the two load bearingrails that make up a single railway line. Sixty percent of the world's railways use a standard gauge of 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm). Wider gauges are called broad gauge; smaller gauges, narrow gauge. Break-of-gaugerefers to the meeting of different gauges. DELL Studio 1745 Keyboard

Some stretches of track are dual gauge, with three or four rails, allowing trains of different gauges to share them. Gauge conversion can resolve break-of-gauge problems. Some electrified railways use non load bearing third rail and occasionally a fourth rail. These additional rails are positioned between or outside the “running rails” to feed and return electrical current; they do not define the rail gauge. DELL Studio 1747 Keyboard

Monorails superficially have no gauge, but in practice the dimensions of the rail, trough, or overhead support, including power supplies, govern whether one line is compatible with another. DELL Studio 1749 Keyboard

Gauge tolerances specify how much the actual gauge may vary from the nominal gauge. For example, the U.S.Federal Railroad Administration specifies that the actual gauge of track that is rated for a maximum of 60 mph (96.6 km/h) must be between 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) and 4 ft 9½ in (1,460 mm).[1]DELL Vostro 1014 Keyboard

Early origins of the standard gauge

There is an urban legend that Julius Caesar specified a legal width for chariots at the width of standard gauge this also being the normal width of the two horses used to pull it, causing road ruts at that width, so all later wagons had to have the same width or else risk having one set of wheels suddenly fall into one deep rut but not the other.[2][3]DELL Vostro 1015 Keyboard

In fact, the origins of the standard gauge considerably pre-date the Roman Empire, and may even pre-date the invention of the wheel. The width of prehistoric vehicles was determined by a number of interacting factors which gave rise to a fairly standard vehicle width of a little under 2 m (6.6 ft). DELL Vostro 1088 Keyboard

These factors have changed little over the millennia, and are still reflected in today's motor vehicles. Road rutting was common in early roads, even with stone pavements. DELL Vostro 1310 Keyboard

The initial impetus for the ruts probably came from the grooves made by sleds and slide cars dragged over the surfaces of ancient trackways. Since early carts had no steering and no brakes, negotiating hills and curves was dangerous, and cutting ruts into the stone helped them negotiate the hazardous parts of the roads.[4]DELL Vostro 1400 Keyboard

Neolithic wheeled carts found in Europe had gauges varying from 1.30 to 1.75 m (4 ft 3 in to 5 ft 9 in). By the Bronze age, wheel gauges appeared to have stabilized between 1.40 to 1.45 m (4 ft 7 in to 4 ft 9 in) which was attributed to a tradition in ancient technology which was perpetuated throughout European history.[5] DELL Vostro 1500 Keyboard

The ancient Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians and Greeks constructed roads with artificial wheelruts cut in rock spaced the wheelspan of an ordinary carriage. Such ancient stone rutways connected major cities with sacred sites, such as Athens to Eleusis, Sparta to Ayklia, or Elis to Olympia. The gauge of these stone grooves was 1.38 to 1.44 m (4 ft 6 in to 4 ft 9 in). The largest number of preserved stone trackways, over 150, are found on Malta.[6]DELL Vostro 1510 Keyboard

Some of these ancient stone rutways were very ambitious. Around 600 BC the citizens of ancient Corinth constructed the Diolkos, which some consider the world's first railway, a hard poros limestone road with grooved tracks along which large wooden flatbed cars carrying ships and their cargo were pulled by slaves or draft animals. The grooves were at 1.67 m (5 ft 6 in) centres.[7]DELL Vostro 2510 Keyboard

The Roman Empire actually made less use of stone trackways than the prior Greek civilization because the Roman roads were much better than those of previous civilizations. However, there is evidence that the Romans used a more or less consistent wheel gauge adopted from the Greeks throughout Europe, DELL Vostro 3300 Keyboard

and brought it to England with the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43. After the Roman departure from Britain, this more-or-less standard gauge continued in use, DELL Vostro 3350 Keyboard

so the wheel gauge of animal drawn vehicles in 19th century Britain was 1.4 to 1.5 m (4 ft 7 in to 4 ft 10 in). In 1814 George Stephenson copied the gauge of British coal wagons in his area (about 1.42 m or 4 ft 8 in) for his new locomotive, and for technical reasons widened it slightly to achieve the modern railway standard gauge of 1.435 m (4 ft 812 in).[4]DELL Vostro 3400 Keyboard

What became the standard gauge of 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) was chosen for the first main-line railway, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR), by the British engineer George Stephenson; the de facto standard for the colliery railways where Stephenson had worked was 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm). Whatever the origin of the gauge, it seemed to be a satisfactory choice: not too narrow and not too wide. DELL Vostro 3450 Keyboard

Isambard Kingdom Brunel, engineer of the Great Western Railway, chose the broader gauge of 7 ft 0 14 in (2,140 mm) because it offered greater stability and capacity at high speed. Brunel's first locomotives were exactly 7 foot gauge and had no slack, hence the extra quarter inch. The Eastern Counties Railway chose5 ft  (1,524 mm) gauge, DELL Vostro 3500 Keyboard

but soon realised that lack of compatibility was a mistake and changed to Stephenson's gauge. The conflict between Brunel and Stephenson is often referred to as the Gauge War. Several non-interconnecting lines in Scotland were 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) but were changed to standard gauge for compatibility reasons. DELL Vostro 3550 Keyboard

In 1845 a British Royal Commission recommended adoption of 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) as standard gauge in Great Britain, 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) in Ireland. The following year the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Gauge Act, which required that new railways use the standard gauge. Except for the Great Western Railway's broad gauge, few main-line railways in Great Britain used a different gauge. The last Great Western line was converted to standard gauge in 1892. DELL Vostro 3700 Keyboard

From time to time the most common gauge in a country is called a standard gauge, such as 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) in Tasmania or 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) in India, to distinguish it from other narrower gauges. DELL Vostro A840 Keyboard

In many areas narrow gauge railways have been built. As the gauge of a railway is reduced the costs of construction can also be reduced since narrow gauges allow a smaller radius curves allowing obstacles to be avoided rather than having to be built over or through (valleys and hills); the reduced cost is particularly noticeable in mountainous regions. DELL Vostro A860 Keyboard

For example, many narrow gauge railways were built in Wales and the Rocky Mountains of North America. The disadvantage of tight turns and steep gradients is a reduced line speed and smaller trains leading to higher operating costs. DELL Vostro PP37L Keyboard

Many narrow gauge railways have been abandoned or converted to standard gauge. Industrial railways are often constructed using narrow gauge. Sugar cane and banana plantations are often served by narrow gauges such as 2 ft  (610 mm), as there is little through-traffic to other systems. DELL Vostro PP38L Keyboard

When a railway line of one gauge meets a line of another gauge there is a break of gauge. A break of gauge adds cost and inconvenience to traffic that passes from one system to another. DELL Vostro V3300 Keyboard

An example of this is on the Transmongolian Railway, where Russia and Mongolia use broad gauge while China uses standard gauge. At the border, each carriage has to be lifted in turn to have its bogies changed. The whole operation, combined with passport and customs control, can take several hours. DELL Vostro V3350 Keyboard

Other examples include crossings into or out of the former Soviet Union: Ukraine/Slovakia border on the Bratislava-L'viv train, and from the Romania/Moldova border on the Chişinău-Bucharest train.[10]DELL Vostro V3450 Keyboard

This can be avoided however by implementing a system similar to that used in Australia, where some lines between states using different gauges were converted todual gauge with three rails, DELL Vostro V3550 Keyboard

one set of two forming a standard gauge line, with the third rail either inside or outside the standard set forming rails at either narrow or broad gauge. As a result, trains built to either gauge can use the line. However gauges must differ a minimum of twice the width of a rail to allow such a system. DELL XPS 15 L502X Keyboard

Dual gauge allows trains of different gauges to share the same track. This can save considerable expense compared to using separate tracks for each gauge, but introduces complexities in track maintenance and signalling, as well as requiring speed restrictions for some trains. If the difference between the two gauges is large enough, DELL XPS Gen 2 Keyboard

for example between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm), three-rail dual-gauge is possible, but if the difference is not large enough, for example between 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) and 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in), four-rail dual-gauge is used. Dual-gauge rail lines are used in the railway networks of Switzerland, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, North Korea, Spain, Tunisia and Vietnam. DELL XPS M1330 Keyboard

When a third rail was proposed to allow dual gauge between Irish gauge and Standard gauge in Australia, the gauge difference of 6.5 inches was considered too small to allow the third rail to operate safely.[11] However a four-rail solutions seems to be conspicuous by its absence. DELL XPS M140 Keyboard


Further standardisation of rail gauges seems likely, as individual countries seek to build inter-operable national networks, and international organisations seek to build macro-regional and continental networks. National projects include the Australian and Indian efforts mentioned above to create a uniform gauge in their national DELL XPS M1530 Keyboard

The European Union has set out to develop inter-operable freight and passenger rail networks across the EU area, and is seeking to standardise track gauge, signalling and electrical power systems. EU funds have been dedicated to assist Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia in the construction of some key railway lines (Rail Baltica) in the standard gauge instead of their 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 56 in) gauge, DELL XPS M170 Keyboard

and to assist Spain and Portugal in the construction of high-speed rail lines to connect Iberian cities to one another and to the French high-speed lines. The EU has developed plans for improved freight rail links between Spain, DELL XPS M1710 Keyboard

Portugal, and the rest of Europe. The problem within the EU is not only rail gauge but also loading gauge especially for the United Kingdom which has standard rail gauge but generally one of the smallest loading gauges in the world (relative to rail gauge). DELL XPS M1720 Keyboard

The Permanent Way is so called because there is often a "Temporary Way" used for construction purposes and which is replaced by the "Permanent Way" when construction of the right of way nears completion. DELL XPS M1721 Keyboard

The actual gauge of this temporary way is poorly documented, but it would generally be narrower than the permanent gauge.

In restricted spaces such as tunnels, the temporary way might be double track, even though the tunnel will ultimately be single track. Thus the Airport Rail Link in Sydney had construction trains of 900 mm (2 ft 11 12 in) gauge which were replaced by the permanent tracks of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge. DELL XPS M1730 Keyboard


The narrower the temporary way, the quicker it can be built. During World War II, it was proposed to expedite a Yunnan-Burma railway using a tiny "toy" 1 ft 3.3in gauge, since such a small gauge can have the tightest of curves in difficult terrain.[22]SONY 1-417-802-21 Keyboard

Standard gauge

The standard gauge (also named the Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, or normal gauge) is a widely-used track gauge. Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge (see the list of countries that use the standard gauge). Except for Russia and Finland, all high-speed lines have been built to this gauge. SONY 1-480-240-22 Keyboard

The distance between the inside edges of the rails of standard gauge track is usually called 1,435 mm but in the United States it is still called 4 ft 8½ in.

As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the track gauge (the distance, or width, between the inner sides of the rails) that should be used. The eventual result was the adoption throughout a large part of the world of a “standard gauge” of 4 ft 8½ in allowing inter-connectivity and the inter-operability of trains. SONY 1-480-442-21 Keyboard

In England some early lines in colliery (coal mining) areas in the northeast of the country were built to a gauge of 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm); and in Scotland some early lines were 4 ft 6 in (1,372 mm) (Scotch gauge). By 1846, in both countries, these lines were widened to standard gauge. Parts of the United States rail system, SONY 1-487-385-21 Keyboard

mainly in the northeast, adopted the same gauge because some early trains were purchased from Britain. However, until well into the second half of the 19th century Britain and the USA had several different track gauges. SONY 141780221 Keyboard

The American gauges converged over time as the advantages of equipment interchange became increasingly apparent; notably, the South's 5 ft  (1,524 mm) broad gauge system was converted to be compatible with standard gauge over two days, beginning May 31, 1886.[1] See Track gauge in North America. SONY 147664712 Keyboard

With the advent of metrication, standard gauge was redefined as 1,435 mm,[2] a reduction of 0.1 mm, but well within existing tolerance limits. The exception is the United States. SONY 147859712 Keyboard


A popular legend, which has been around since at least 1937,[3] traces the origin of the 4 ft 8½ in gauge even further back than the coalfields of northern England, pointing to the evidence of rutted roads marked by chariot wheels dating from the Roman Empire.Snopes categorized this legend as false but commented that “... SONY 147859811 Keyboard

t is perhaps more fairly labeled as 'True, but for trivial and unremarkable reasons.'"[4] The historical tendency to place the wheels of horse-drawn vehicles approximately 5 feet (1,500 mm) apart probably derives from the width needed to fit a carthorsein between the shafts.[4] In addition, while road-traveling vehicles are typically measured from the outermost portions of the wheel rims (and there is someevidence that the first railroads were measured in this way as well),[citation needed] SONY 147915321 Keyboard

it became apparent that for vehicles travelling on rails, it was better to have the wheel flanges located inside the rails, and thus the distance measured on the inside of the wheels (and, by extension, the inside faces of the rail heads) was the important one. SONY 147963021 Keyboard

There was no standard gauge for horse railways, but there were rough groupings: in the north of England none were less than 4 ft  (1,219 mm).[5] SONY 147977821 Keyboard

Wylam colliery's system, built before 1763, was 5 ft  (1,524 mm); as was John Blenkinsop's Middleton Railway, the old 4 ft  (1,219 mm) plateway was relaid to 5 ft  (1,524 mm) so that Blenkinsop's engine could be used.[5] Others were 4 ft 4 in (1,321 mm) Beamish or 4 ft 7½ in (Bigges Main and Kenton and Coxlodge).[5]SONY 147996611 Keyboard

The English railway pioneer George Stephenson spent much of his early engineering career working for the coal mines of County Durham. He favoured4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) for wagonways in Northumberland and Durham and used it on his Killingworth line.[5] The Hetton and Springwell wagonways also used the gauge. SONY 147998121 Keyboard

Stephenson's Stockton and Darlington railway (S&DR) was built primarily to transport coal from several mines near Shildon to the port at Stockton-on-Tees. The S&DR's initial track gauge of 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) was set to accommodate the existing gauge of hundreds of horse-drawn chaldron wagons[6] that were already in use on the wagonways in the mines. It was built and used at this gauge for fifteen years before being changed to 4 ft 8½ in gauge.[5][7]SONY 148023121 Keyboard

George Stephenson used the 4 ft 8½ in gauge (with a belated extra 0.5 in/13 mm of free movement to reduce binding on curves[7]) for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, authorised in 1826 and opened 30 September 1830. The success of this project led to George Stephenson and his son Robert being employed to engineer several other larger railway projects. SONY 148024022 Keyboard

 However, the Chester and Birkenhead Railway, authorised on 12 July 1837, was 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm);[17] the Eastern Counties Railway, authorised on 4 July 1836, was 5 ft  (1,524 mm);[18] London and Blackwall Railway, authorised on 28 July 1836, was 5 ft  (1,524 mm);[19] theLondon and Brighton Railway, SONY 148024421 Keyboard

authorised on 15 July 1837, was 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm);[20] the Manchester and Birmingham Railway, authorised on 30 June 1837, was4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm);[21] the Manchester and Leeds Railway, SONY 148044221 Keyboard

authorised on 4 July 1836, was 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm)[22] and the Northern and Eastern Railway, authorised on 4 July 1836, was 5 ft  (1,524 mm).[23] The 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm) railways were intended to take 4 ft 8½ in gauge vehicles and allow a (second) running tolerance. SONY 148057921 Keyboard

The influence of the Stephensons appears to be the main reason that the 4 ft 8½ in gauge became the standard, and its use became more widespread than any other gauge.[citation needed]SONY 148084122 Keyboard

The Royal Commission

In 1845, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, a Royal Commission reported in favour of a standard gauge. In Great Britain, Stephenson's gauge was chosen as the standard gauge on the grounds that lines already built to this gauge were eight times longer than that of the rival 7 ft 0 14 in (2,140 mm) gauge, SONY 148084521 Keyboard

adopted principally by the Great Western Railway. The subsequent Gauge Act ruled that new passenger-carrying railways in Great Britain should be built to a standard gauge of 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm); and those in Ireland to a new standard gauge of 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) SONY 148084721 Keyboard

. It allowed the broad gauge companies in Great Britain to continue repairing their tracks and expanding their networks within the Limits of Deviation and the exceptions defined in the Act. After an intervening period of mixed-gauge operation (tracks were laid with three running-rails), the Great Western Railway finally converted its entire network to standard gauge in 1892. SONY 148084811 Keyboard

The Royal Commission made no comment about small to-be-called "narrow" such as the Festiniog Railway, which was to allow a future multiplicity of small gauges in UK; it also made no comments about gauges for future gauges in British Colonies. SONY 148088721 Keyboard

John Whitton, the longest serving engineer of the New South Wales Railways in Australia, was always being pressured to cut costs on new construction, by using horses or by using a narrower gauge. He resisted as much as possible so as to avoid any wasteful breaks-of-gauge, but did eventually introduce so-called pioneer lines for more remote and lightly trafficked areas to reduce costs. SONY 148096221 Keyboard

These lines eliminated extravagances like fencing, used half-round sleepers, light rails and replaced ballast with earth or ash. Only light locomotives were allowed. Speeds and axleloads and train loads were thus limited. SONY 148096222 Keyboard

Pioneer rolling stock would have light and thus weak drawgear and couplings limited the length and weight of trains, forcing these waggons at best to be marshalled at the rear of trains containing ordinary strength drawgear and couplings. SONY 148701322 Keyboard

Only if traffic increased would these lines be upgraded to normal standards of construction. Indeed as the country was developed, many lines including those not of the pioneer type have seen their rail weights increase to allow heavier axleload, heavier engines and heavier and faster trains, all of which can be done progressively and incrementally without any need to change the gauge. SONY 148701522 Keyboard

Born in Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland, the son of Samuel Smiles of Haddington and Janet Wilson of Dalkeith, Smiles was one of eleven surviving children.[1] The family were strict Cameronians, though when Smiles grew up he was not one of them.[1] He left school at the age of 14 and was apprenticed to a doctor, SONY 148738121 Keyboard

an arrangement that eventually enabled Smiles to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh.[1] His father died in the cholera epidemic of 1832, but Smiles was enabled to continue with his studies, supported by his mother who kept running the family shop selling hardware, books, etc., firm in the belief that "The Lord will provide".SONY 148738411 Keyboard

Her example, working ceaselessly to support herself and his nine younger siblings, was a strong influence on his future life, though he developed a more benign and tolerant outlook somewhat at odds with his Cameronian forebears. While studying and after graduating, he campaigned for parliamentary reform, contributing articles to the Edinburgh Weekly Chronicle and the Leeds Times. SONY 148755811 Keyboard

Samuel married Sarah Ann Holmes Dixon in Leeds on 7 December 1843. They had three daughters, Janet, Edith and Lillian, and two sons, William and Samuel. In his late teens, Samuel junior contracted a lung disease, and his father was advised to send him on a long sea voyage. The letters young Samuel wrote home, SONY 148781311 Keyboard

and the log he kept of his journey to Australia and America between February 1869 and March 1871, were later edited by his father and published in London in 1877, under the title 'A Boy's Voyage Round the World'. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Keyboard

Samuel senior's grandchildren include Sir Walter Smiles, an Ulster Unionist Party MP. Through this family, Samuel Smiles is also the great-great-grandfather of popular explorer Bear Grylls. SONY 550102H01-035-G Keyboard


In November 1838, he was invited to become the editor for the Leeds Times, a position which he accepted and filled until 1842.[1] In May 1840, Smiles became Secretary to the Leeds Parliamentary Reform Association, an organisation that held to the six objectives of Chartism: universal suffrage for all men over the age of 21; SONY 6DT00966 Keyboard

equal-sized electoral districts; voting by secret ballot; an end to the need of MPs to qualify for Parliament, other than by winning an election; pay for MPs; and annual Parliaments. SONY 79R81644 Keyboard

As editor of the Leeds Times, he advocated radical causes ranging from women's suffrage to free trade to parliamentary reform. But by the late 1840s, Smiles became concerned about the advocation of physical force by Chartists Feargus O'Connor and George Julian Harney, though he seems to have agreed with them that the movement's current tactics were not effective, SONY 79T04029 Keyboard

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saying that "mere political reform will not cure the manifold evils which now afflict society." In the 1850s he seems to have completely given up on parliamentary reform and other structural changes as a means of social advance. For the rest of his career, he advocated individual self improvement. SONY 81-31105002-03 Keyboard


The origins of Smiles' most famous book, Self-Help, lay in a speech he gave in March 1845 in response to a request by a Mutual Improvement Society, published asThe Education of the Working Classes. In it he said: SONY 81-31105002-04 Keyboard

I would not have any one here think that, because I have mentioned individuals who have raised themselves by self-education from poverty to social eminence, and even wealth, these are the chief marks to be aimed at. That would be a great fallacy. Knowledge is of itself one of the highest enjoyments. SONY 81-31105002-08 Keyboard

The ignorant man passes through the world dead to all p

leasures, save those of the senses...Every human being has a great mission to perform, noble faculties to cultivate, a vast destiny to accomplish. He should have the means of education, and of exerting freely all the powers of his godlike nature.[2]SONY 81-31105003-02 Keyboard

Routledge rejected publishing Self-Help in 1855.[3] Twenty years later Smiles was seated next to George Routledge at a dinner, and he said to him: "And when, Dr. Smiles, are we to have the honour of publishing one of your books?" Smiles replied that Mr. Routledge had had the honour of rejecting Self-Help.[4] SONY 81-31205001-03 Keyboard

Although John Murray was willing to publish Self-Help on a half-profits system, Smiles rejected this as he did not want the book to lose its anecdotes. In 1859 he published the book at his own expense and risk, retaining the copyright and paying John Murray ten per cent. commission.[4] SONY 81-31205001-04 Keyboard

It sold 20,000 copies within one year of its publication. By the time of Smiles' death in 1904 it had sold over a quarter of a million.[5] Self-Help "elevated [Smiles] to celebrity status: almost overnight, he became a leading pundit and much-consulted guru".[5] Smiles "suddenly became the fashion and he was deluged with requests that he should lay foundation stones, SONY 81-31405001-08 Keyboard

sit for his portrait, present prizes to orphan children, make speeches from platforms. The simple fellow was pleased with these invitations, but naturally he could not accept. He had his work to do...his duty did not lie on any public platform...It lay in his office with his Work".[6]SONY 813110500141 Keyboard

Smiles wrote articles for the Quarterly. In an article on railways he argued that the railways should be nationalised and that third-class passengers should be encouraged.[7] In 1861 Smiles published an article from the Quarterly, renamed Workers Earnings, Savings and Strikes. He claimed poverty in many instances was caused by habitual improvidence: SONY 91160363 Keyboard

Times of great prosperity, in which wages are highest and mills running full time are not times in which Mechanics' Institutes and Schools flourish, but times in which publicans and beer sellers prosper and grow rich...A workman earning 50s. to 60s. a week (above the average pay of bankers' clerks) was content to inhabit a miserable one-roomed dwelling in a bad neighbourhood, SONY 92501392 Keyboard

the one room serving as parlour, kitchen and sleeping-room for the whole family, which consisted of husband, wife, four sons, two cats and a dog. The witness was asked: Do you think this family was unable to get better lodgings, or were they careless? They were careless, was the reply.[8]SONY 99.N1782.001 Keyboard

In 1866 he resigned as secretary to the Leeds and Thirsk Railway to be president of the National Provident Institution, but left in 1871, after suffering a debilitating stroke. He recovered from the stroke, eventually learning to read and write again, and he even wrote books after his recovery. SONY 9J.N0A82.101 Keyboard

In 1875 his book Thrift was published. In it he said that "riches do not constitute any claim to distinction. It is only the vulgar who admire riches as riches".[9] He claimed that the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 was "one of the most valuable that has been placed on the statute-book in modern times".[10] He also criticised laissez-faire: SONY 9J.N0Q82.101 Keyboard

When typhus or cholera breaks out, they tell us that Nobody is to blame. That terrible Nobody! How much he has to answer for. More mischief is done by Nobody than by all the world besides. Nobody adulterates our food. Nobody poisons us with bad drink. Nobody supplies us with foul water. Nobody spreads fever in blind alleys and unswept lanes. SONY 9J.N0U82.001 Keyboard

Nobody leaves towns undrained. Nobody fills gaols, penitentiaries, and convict stations. Nobody makes poachers, thieves, and drunkards. Nobody has a theory too—a dreadful theory. It is embodied in two words—Laissez faire—Let alone. When people are poisoned by plaster of Paris mixed with flour, “Let alone” is the remedy. SONY 9J.N0U82.10 Keyboard

When Cocculus indicus is used instead of hops, and men die prematurely, it is easy to say, “Nobody did it.” Let those who can, find out when they are cheated: Caveat emptor. When people live in foul dwellings, let them alone. Let wretchedness do its work; do not interfere with death.[11]SONY 9J.N0U82.101 Keyboard

Labour is toilsome and its gains are slow. Some people determine to live by the labour of others, and from the moment they arrive at that decision, become the enemies of society. It is not often that distress drives men to crime. In nine cases out of ten, it is choice not necessity. Moral cowardice is exhibited as much in public as in private life. SONY 9J.N0U82.10U Keyboard

Snobbism is not confined to toadying of the rich, but is quite as often displayed in the toadying of the poor...Now that the “masses” exercise political power, there is a growing tendency to fawn upon them, flatter them, speak nothing but smooth words to them. They are credited with virtues they themselves know they do not possess. SONY 9J.N0U82.A01 Keyboard

To win their favour sympathy is often pretended for views, the carrying out of which is known to be hopeless. The popular agitator must please whom he addresses, and it is always highly gratifying to our self-love to be told that someone else is to blame for what we suffer. SONY 9J.N0U82.B0U Keyboard

So it rarely occurs to these orators to suggest that those whom they address are themselves to blame for what they suffer, or that they misuse the means of happiness which are within their reach...The capitalist is merely a man who does not spend all that is earned by work.[12]SONY 9Z.N3S82.001 Keyboard

When in 1892 Gladstone returned to power and introduced his Second Irish Home Rule Bill, Smiles wrote to his son in Ulster: "Don't you rebel. Keep quiet, though I see your name among the agitators...Your letter is frightfully alarming...Gladstone has come into power and we are threatened with Civil War. SONY 9Z.N3S82.A01 Keyboard

This cannot be the result of good statesmanship. Yet there are Liberal members to cheer on the maniac. Alas, alas for Liberalism!...Must I give you six months notice to withdraw my loans to the B.R. Co., for I want to keep the little money I have for wife and bairns, not for arming the Ulstermen".[13] Smiles wrote to Lucy Smiles in 1893: SONY A1565184C Keyboard

"This Home Rule Bill is horrid...I am quite appalled at that wretched hound, miscalled statesman, throwing the country into a state of turmoil. I cannot understand how so many persons in this part of Britain follow that maniac, just like a flock of sheep. He is simply bursting with self-conceit. Alas! Alas for Liberalism!"[14]SONY A1731834A Keyboard

Smiles intended to publish a book on Conduct in 1896 but John Murray declined. In 1898 publication was again denied. After his death the manuscript of Conductwas found in his desk and on the advice of John Murray was destroyed.[15]

He died in Kensington and was buried in Brompton Cemetery. SONY AEGD1E00010 Keyboard


The Liberal MP J. A. Roebuck in 1862 called Smiles' Workmen's Earnings, Strikes and Savings "a very remarkable book" and quoted passages from it in a speech.[16]

George Bernard Shaw, in his Fabian Essays in Socialism (1889), called Smiles "that modern Plutarch".[17]SONY AEGD1U00020 Keyboard

The late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century saw the rise of New Liberalism, Keynesian economics and socialism, which all viewed thrift unfavourably.[18] SONY KFRGBA028B Keyboard

The New Liberal economists J. A. Hobson and A. F. Mummery in their Physiology of Industry (1889) claimed that saving resulted in the underemployment of capital and labour during trade depressions. John Maynard Keynes' General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936) attempted to replace classical liberal economics. SONY KFRGBA028C Keyboard

In 1905 the Bishop of Ripon, William Boyd Carpenter, praised Smiles: "The Bishop said he had noticed a little tendency in some quarters to disparage the homely energies of life which at one time were so highly thought of. He recalled the appearance of "Self-Help," by Samuel Smiles, who 40 or 50 years ago gave lectures at Leeds encouraging young men to engage in self-improvement. SONY KFRMBA151B Keyboard

His books were read with extraordinary avidity, but there arose a school which taught the existence of the beautiful and to do nothing. That school disparaged thrift and did not pay much attention to character and, perhaps, not much attention to duty".[19]SONY KFRMBA152A Keyboard

The Labour MP David Grenfell, in a debate on the Transitional Payments (Determination of Need) Bill, claimed that the Bill "discriminated not against the unthrifty, the idler, and the waster, but against the industrious, thrifty person, who had to pay a heavy penalty. The Minister of Labour penalized self-help. He poured contempt on Samuel Smiles and all his works".[20]SONY KFRMBA152B Keyboard

The liberal Ernest Benn invoked Smiles when praising the virtues of self-help.[21]

In 1962 the director of the British Institute of Management, John Marsh, said that young men who entered industry needed a sense of service and duty; they must be "men of character who know how to behave well as in phases of success"; they must possess self-discipline in thinking and behaviour: "There is something still to be said for Samuel Smiles's doctrine of self-help".[22]SONY KFRMBA220A Keyboard

The liberal economist F. A. Hayek wrote in 1976 that: "It is probably a misfortune that, especially in the USA, popular writers like Samuel Smiles...have defended free enterprise on the ground that it regularly rewards the deserving, SONY KFRMBA221A Keyboard

and it bodes ill for the future of the market order that this seems to have become the only defence of it which is understood by the general public. That it has largely become the basis of the self-esteem of the businessman often gives him an air of self-righteousness which does not make him more popular".[23]SONY KFRSBA019A Keyboard

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