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12 octobre 2012 5 12 /10 /octobre /2012 09:25

Gothic Revival architecture

The French Gothic revival was set on sounder intellectual footings by a pioneer, Arcisse de Caumont, who founded the Societé des Antiquaires de Normandy at a time when antiquaire still meant a connoisseur of antiquities, and who published his great work on Norman architecture in 1830 (Summerson 1948). Compaq Presario CQ57-218 Laptop Keyboard The following year Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame appeared, in which the great Gothic cathedral of Paris was at once a setting and a protagonist in a hugely popular work of fiction. Hugo intended his book to awaken a concern for the surviving Gothic architecture, however, rather than to initiate a craze for neo-Gothic in contemporary life. In the same year that Nôtre-Dame de Paris appeared,  Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard the new French monarchy established a post of Inspector-General of Ancient Monuments, a post filled in 1833 by Prosper Merimée, who became the secretary of a new Commission des Monuments Historiques in 1837. This was the Commission that instructed Eugène Viollet-le-Duc to report on the condition of the abbey of Vézelay in 1840. Following this, HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard Viollet le Duc set to restore most of the symbolic buildings in France –Notre Dame de Paris, Vézelay, Carcassonne, Roquetaillade castle, Mont Saint-Michel,Pierrefonds, Palais des Papes à Avignon . . . . HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard When France's first prominent neo-Gothic church[4] was built, the Basilica of Saint-Clotilde,[5] Paris, begun in September 1846 and consecrated 30 November 1857, the architect chosen was, significantly, of German extraction, François-Christian Gau (1790–1853); the design was significantly modified by Gau's assistant, Théodore Ballu, in the later stages, to produce the pair of flêches that crown the west end. COMPAQ Presario V3621AU Laptop Keyboard Meanwhile, in Germany, interest in the Cologne Cathedral, which had begun construction in 1248 and was still unfinished at the time of the revival, began to reappear. The 1820s Romantic movement brought back interest, and work began once more in 1842, significantly marking a German return of Gothic architecture.[6]SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Because of Romantic nationalism in the early 19th century, the Germans, French and English all claimed the original Gothic architecture of the 12th century as originating in their own country. The English boldly coined the term "Early English" for Gothic, a term that implied Gothic architecture was an English creation. In his 1832 edition of Notre Dame de ParisIBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard Victor Hugo said "Let us inspire in the nation, if it is possible, love for the national architecture", implying that Gothic is France's national heritage. In Germany with the completion of Cologne Cathedral in the 1880s, at the time the world's tallest building, the cathedral was seen as the height of Gothic architecture. Other major completions of Gothic cathedrals were ofRegensburger Dom (with twin spires from 1869–1872), Ulm Münster (with 161 meter tower from 1890) and St. Vitus Cathedral(1844–1929). TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard In Belgium, a 15th-century church in Ostend burnt down in 1896. King Leopold II supported its replacement by a cathedral-like church after the also Neo-Gothic Votive Church in Vienna and the Saint Peter's and Saint Mary's High Cathedral in Cologne: the Saint Peter's and Saint Paul's Church.[7] In Mechelen, the largely unfinished building drawn in 1526 as the seat of theGreat Council of the Netherlands, finally got built in the early 20th century strictly following Rombout II Keldermans'sBrabantine Gothic design, and became the 'new' north wing of the City Hall.[8][9]HP 413554-001 Laptop Keyboard In Florence, the Duomo's temporary façade erected for the Medici-House of Lorraine nuptials in 1588–1589, was dismantled, and the west end of the cathedral stood bare again until 1864, when a competition was held to design a new facade suitable toArnolfo di Cambio's structure and the fine campanile next to it. This competition was won by Emilio De Fabris, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard and work on his polychrome design and panels of mosaic was begun in 1876 and completed in 1887, creating Neo-Gothic facade. In Indonesia, the Jakarta Cathedral was begun in 1891 and completed in 1901 by Dutch architect Antonius Dijkmans; while in the Philippines, the San Sebastian Church, designed by Arch. Genaro Palacios and Gustave Eiffel was consecrated in 1891. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In Scotland, while a similar Gothic style to that used in England was adopted by figures inclusing Frederick Thomas Pilkington (1832–98)[10] in secular architecture it was marked by the re-adoption of the Scots baronial style.[11] Important for the adoption of the style in the early 19th century was Abbotsford House, the residence the novelist and poet, HP Pavilion DV3510nr Laptop Keyboard Sir Walter Scott. Re-built for him from 1816, it became a model for the modern revival of the baronial style. Common features borrowed from 16th and 17th century houses included battlemented gateways, crow-stepped gables, pointed turrets and machicolations. The style was popular across Scotland and was applied to many relatively modest dwellings by architects such as William Burn (1789–1870), David Bryce (1803–76),[12] Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard Edward Blore (1787–1879), Edward Calvert (c. 1847–1914) and Robert Stodart Lorimer (1864–1929) and in urban contexts, including the building of Cockburn Street in Edinburgh (from the 1850s) as well as the National Wallace Monument at Stirling (1859–69).[13] The rebuilding of Balmoral Castle as a baronial palace and its adoption as a royal retreat from 1855-8 confirmed the popularity of the style.[14]FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard In the late 1820s, A.W.N. Pugin, still a teenager, was working for two highly visible employers, providing Gothic detailing for luxury goods. For the Royal furniture makers Morel and Seddon he provided designs for redecorations for the elderlyGeorge IV at Windsor Castle in a Gothic taste suited to the setting. For the royal silversmiths Rundell Bridge and Co., Pugin provided designs for silver from 1828, using the 14th-century Anglo-French Gothic vocabulary that he would continue to favour later in designs for the new Palace of Westminster (see right).[15]HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard Between 1821 and 1838 Pugin and his father published a series of volumes of architectural drawings, the first two entitled, Specimens of Gothic Architecture, and the following three, Examples of Gothic Architecture, that were to remain both in print and the standard references for Gothic revivalists for at least the next century. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard In Contrasts (1836), Pugin expressed his admiration not only for medieval art but for the whole medieval ethos, claiming that Gothic architecture is the product of a purer society. In The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841), he suggested that modern craftsmen seeking to emulate the style of medieval workmanship should also reproduce its methods. Pugin believed Gothic is true Christian architecture, and even claimed "The pointed arch was produced by the Catholic faith".TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard Pugin's most famous project is The Houses of Parliament in London. His part in the design consisted of two campaigns, 1836–1837 and again in 1844 and 1852, with the classicist Charles Barry as his nominal superior (whether the pair worked as a collegial partnership or if Barry acted as Pugin's superior is not entirely clear). Pugin provided the external decoration and the interiors, while Barry designed the symmetrical layout of the building, causing Pugin to remark, "All Grecian, Sir; Tudor details on a classic body".SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard Ruskin and Venetian Gothic John Ruskin supplemented Pugin's ideas in his two hugely influential theoretical works, The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and The Stones of Venice (1853). Finding his architectural ideal in Venice, Ruskin proposed that Gothic buildings excelled above all other architecture because of the "sacrifice" of the stone-carvers in intricately decorating every stone. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard By declaring the Doge's Palace to be "the central building of the world", Ruskin argued the case for Gothic government buildings as Pugin had done for churches, though only in theory. When his ideas were put into practice, Ruskin despised the spate of public buildings built with references to the Ducal Palace, including the University Museum in Oxford. TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard Main article: Ecclesiology In England, the Church of England was undergoing a revival of Anglo-Catholic and ritualist ideology in the form of theOxford Movement and it became desirable to build large numbers of new churches to cater for the growing population, and cemeteries for their hygienic burials. This found ready exponents in the universities, where the ecclesiological movementwas forming. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Its proponents believed that Gothic was the only style appropriate for a parish church, and favoured a particular era of Gothic architecture—the "decorated". The Cambridge Camden Society, through its journal The Ecclesiologist, was so savagely critical of new church buildings that were below its exacting standards and its pronouncements were followed so avidly that it became the epicentre of the flood of Victorian restoration that affected most of the Anglican cathedrals and parish churches in England and Wales.[16] HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard The development of the private major metropolitan cemeteries was occurring at the same time as the movement; Sir William Tite pioneered the first cemetery in the Gothic style at West Norwood in 1837, with chapels, gates, and decorative features in the Gothic manner, attracting the interest of contemporary architects such as Street, Barry, and Burges. The style was immediately hailed a success and universally replaced the previous preference for classical design.[17]HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard However, not every architect or client was swept away by this tide. Although Gothic Revival succeeded in becoming an increasingly familiar style of architecture, the attempt to associate it with the notion of high church superiority, as advocated by Pugin and the ecclesiological movement, was anathema to those with ecumenical or nonconformist principles.  FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard They looked to adopt it solely for its aesthetic romantic qualities, to combine it with other styles, or look to northern European Brick Gothic for a more plain appearance; or in some instances all three of these, as at the non-denominational Abney Park Cemetery designed by William Hosking FSA in 1840. Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard Viollet-le-Duc and Iron Gothic If France had not been quite as early on the neo-Gothic scene, she produced a giant of the revival in Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. As well as being a powerful and influential theorist, Viollet-le-Duc was a leading architect whose genius lay in restoration. He believed in restoring buildings to a state of completion that they would not have known even when they were first built,  HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard theories he applied to his restorations of the walled city of Carcassonne, and to Notre-Dame andSainte Chapelle in Paris. In this respect he differed from his English counterpart Ruskin as he often replaced the work of mediaeval stonemasons. His rational approach to Gothic was in stark contrast to the revival's romanticist origins. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Throughout his career he remained in a quandary as to whether iron and masonry should be combined in a building. Iron had in fact been used in Gothic buildings since the earliest days of the revival. It was only with Ruskin and the archaeological Gothic's demand for structural truth that iron, whether it was visible or not, was deemed improper for a Gothic building. FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard This argument began to collapse in the mid-19th century as great prefabricated structures such as the glass and iron Crystal Palace and the glazed courtyard of the Oxford University Museum were erected, which appeared to embody Gothic principles through iron. Between 1863 and 1872 Viollet-le-Duc published hisEntretiens sur l'architecture, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard a set of daring designs for buildings that combined iron and masonry. Though these projects were never realised, they influenced several generations of designers and architects, the notable ones being Antoni Gaudí in Spain and, in England, Benjamin Bucknall, Viollet's foremost English follower and translator, whose masterpiece was Woodchester Mansion. ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard The flexibility and strength of cast iron freed neo-Gothic designers to create new structural gothic forms impossible in stone, as in Calvert Vaux's cast-iron bridge in Central Park, New York (1860s; illustration, below). Vaux enlists openwork forms derived from Gothic blind-arcading and window tracery to express the spring and support of the arching bridge, in flexing forms that presage Art Nouveau. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard In the USA, Charles Donagh Maginnis's early buildings at Boston College, Ralph Adams Cram's design for the Princeton University Graduate College, and James Gamble Rogers' reconstruction of the campus of Yale University helped establish the prevalence of Collegiate Gothic architecture on American university campuses. Charles Klauder's Gothic revival skyscraper on the University of Pittsburgh's campus, the Cathedral of Learning used very Gothic stylings both inside and out, while using modern technologies to make the building taller. HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard Collegiate Gothic style buildings appear on many other academic campuses including Bryn Mawr College, Loyola University Maryland, Washington University in St. Louis, Lehigh University, University of Richmond, University of Arkansas, Boston College, The Mary Louis Academy, West Chester University, University of Pennsylvania, HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Cornell University, University of Chicago, Indiana University, Fordham University, Duke University, and McGill University. In 2002, Demetri Porphyrios was commissioned to design a neo-Gothic residential college at Princeton University to be known as Whitman College. SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard adapted Gothic elements such as pointed arches, steep gables, and towers to traditional American light-frame construction. The invention of the scroll saw and mass-produced wood moldings allowed a few of these structures to mimic the florid fenestration of the High Gothic. But, in most cases, Carpenter Gothic buildings were relatively unadorned, retaining only the basic elements of pointed-arch windows and steep gables. Probably the best-known example of Carpenter Gothic is a house inEldon, Iowa, that Grant Wood used for the background of his famous painting American Gothic.[19]SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard Benjamin Mountfort of Canterbury, New Zealand imported the Gothic Revival style to New Zealand, and designed Gothic Revival churches in both wood and stone. Frederick Thatcher in New Zealand designed wooden churches in the Gothic Revival style, e.g.Old St. Paul's, Wellington. St Mary of the Angels, Wellington by Frederick de Jersey Clere is in the French Gothic style, and was the first Gothic design church built in ferro-concrete. ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard Other Gothic Revival churches were built in Australia, in particular in Melbourne and Sydney, see Category:Gothic Revival architecture in Australia. In 19th-century northwestern Bulgaria, the informal Slavine Architectural School introduced Gothic Revival elements into its vernacular ecclesiastical and residential Bulgarian National Revival architecture. These included geometric decorations based on the triangle on apses, domes and external narthexes, as well as sharp-pointed window and door arches.  HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard The largest project of the Slavine School is the Lopushna Monastery cathedral (1850–1853), though later churches like those in Zhivovtsi (1858), Mitrovtsi (1871), Targovishte (1870–1872), Gavril Genovo (1873), Gorna Kovachitsa (1885) and Bistrilitsa (1887–1890) display more prominent vernacular Gothic Revival features.[20]SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard The 20th century The Gothic style dictated the use of structural members in compression, leading to tall, buttressed buildings with interior columns of load-bearing masonry and tall, narrow windows. But, by the turn of the 19th to 20th century, technological developments such as the steel frame, the incandescent light bulb and the elevator led many to see this style of architecture as obsolete. Steel framing supplanted the non-ornamental functions of rib vaults and flying buttresses, providing wider open interiors with fewer columns interrupting the view. ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard Some architects persisted in using Neo-Gothic tracery as applied ornamentation to an iron skeleton underneath, for example in Cass Gilbert's 1913 Woolworth Building skyscraper in New York and Raymond Hood's 1922 Tribune Tower in Chicago. But, over the first half of the century, Neo-Gothic became supplanted byModernism. Some in the Modern Movement saw the Gothic tradition of architectural form entirely in terms of the "honest expression" of the technology of the day, and saw themselves as the rightful heir to this tradition, with their rectangular frames and exposed iron girders. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard In spite of this, the Gothic revival continued to exert its influence, simply because many of its more massive projects were still being built well into the second half of the 20th century, such as Giles Gilbert Scott's Liverpool Cathedral and the Washington National Cathedral (1907–1990). Ralph Adams Cram became a leading force in American Gothic, TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard with his most ambitious project the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York (claimed to be the largest Cathedral in the world), as well as Collegiate Gothic buildings at Princeton University. Cram said "the style hewn out and perfected by our ancestors [has] become ours by uncontested inheritance." SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Though the number of new Gothic revival buildings declined sharply after the 1930s, they continue to be built. The cathedral of Bury St. Edmunds was constructed between the late 1950s and 2005.[21] A new church in the Gothic style is planned for St. John Vianney Parish in Fishers, Indiana.[22][23]SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard In computing, multi-touch refers to a touch sensing surface's (trackpad or touchscreen) ability to recognize the presence of two or more points of contact with the surface. This plural-point awareness is often used to implement advanced functionality such as pinch to zoom or activating predefined programs. HP 444635-B31 Laptop Keyboard In an effort of disambiguation or marketing classification some companies further break down the various definitions of multi-touch. An example of this is 3M, defining multi-touch as a touch-screen's ability to register three or more distinct positions. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP07 Laptop Keyboard The use of touchscreen technology to control electronic devices pre-dates multi-touch technology and the personal computer. Early synthesizer and electronic instrument builders like Hugh Le Caine and Bob Moog experimented with using touch-sensitive capacitance sensors to control the sounds made by their instruments.[2] IBM began building the first touch screens in the late 1960s, and, in 1972, Control Data released the PLATO IV computer, a terminal used for educational purposes that employed single-touch points in a 16x16 array as its user interface. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard One of the early implementations of mutual capacitance touchscreen technology was developed at CERN in 1977[4][5] based on their capacitance touch screens developed in 1972 by Danish electronics engineer Bent Stumpe. This technology was used to develop a new type of human machine interface (HMI) for the control room of the Super Proton Synchrotron particle accelerator. ACER Aspire 5710 Laptop Keyboard In a handwritten note dated 11 March 1972, Stumpe presented his proposed solution – a capacitive touch screen with a fixed number of programmable buttons presented on a display. The screen was to consist of a set of capacitors etched into a film of copper on a sheet of glass, each capacitor being constructed so that a nearby flat conductor, such as the surface of a finger, HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard would increase the capacity by a significant amount. The capacitors were to consist of fine lines etched in copper on a sheet of glass – fine enough (80 μm) and sufficiently far apart (80 μm) to be invisible (CERN Courier April 1974 p117). In the final device, a simple lacquer coating prevented the fingers from actually touching the capacitors. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Multi-touch technology began in 1982, when the University of Toronto's Input Research Group developed the first human-input multi-touch system. The system used a frosted-glass panel with a camera placed behind the glass. When a finger or several fingers pressed on the glass, the camera would detect the action as one or more black spots on an otherwise white background, allowing it to be registered as an input. Since the size of a dot was dependent on pressure (how hard the person was pressing on the glass), the system was somewhat pressure-sensitive as well.[2]FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard In 1983, Bell Labs at Murray Hill published a comprehensive discussion of touch-screen based interfaces.[6] In 1984, Bell Labs engineered a touch screen that could change images with more than one hand. In 1985, the University of Toronto group including Bill Buxton developed a multi-touch tablet that used capacitance rather than bulky camera-based optical sensing systems.[2]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard A breakthrough occurred in 1991, when Pierre Wellner published a paper on his multi-touch "Digital Desk", which supported multi-finger and pinching motions.[7][8]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard Various companies expanded upon these inventions in the beginning of the twenty-first century. The company Fingerworks developed various multi-touch technologies between 1999 and 2005, including Touchstream keyboards and the iGesture Pad. Several studies of this technology were published in the early 2000s by Alan Hedge, professor of human factors and ergonomics at Cornell University.[9][10][11]  HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard Apple acquired Fingerworks and its multi-touch technology in 2005. Mainstream exposure to multi-touch technology occurred in 2007 when the iPhone gained popularity, with Apple stating they 'invented multi touch' as part of the iPhone announcement,[12] however both the function and the term predate the announcement or patent requests, HP 633183-001 Laptop Keyboard except for such area of application as capacitive mobile screens, which did not exist before Fingerworks/Apple's technology (Fingerworks filed patents in 2001-2005[13], subsequent multitouch refinements were patented by Apple[14]). Microsoft's table-top touch platform Microsoft PixelSense, which started development in 2001, TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard interacts with both the users touch and their electronic devices. Similarly, in 2001, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories (MERL) began development of a multi-touch, multi-user system calledDiamondTouch, also based on capacitance but able to differentiate between multiple simultaneous users (or rather, the chairs in which each user is seated or the floorpad the user is standing on); the Diamondtouch became a commercial product in 2008.  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Small-scale touch devices are rapidly becoming commonplace, with the number of touch screen telephones expected to increase from 200,000 shipped in 2006 to 21 million in 2012.[15] Apple has retailed and distributed numerous products using multi-touch technology; most prominently including its iPhonesmartphone and iPad tablet. Additionally, Apple also holds several patents related to the implementation of multi-touch in user interfaces[16] Apple additionally attempted to register "Multi-touch" as a trademark in the United States—however its request was denied by the United States Patent and Trademark Office because it considered the term generic.[17]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Multi-touch sensing and processing occurs via an ASIC sensor that is attached to the touch surface. Usually, separate companies make the ASIC and screen that combine into a touch screen; conversely, a trackpad's surface and ASIC are usually manufactured by the same company. There have been large companies in recent years that have expanded into the growing multi-touch industry, with systems designed for everything from the casual user to multinational organizations. HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard It is now common for laptop manufacturers to include multi-touch trackpads on their laptops, and tablet computers respond to touch input rather than traditional stylus input and it is supported by many recent operating systems. SONY VAIO VGN-NR32M/S Laptop Keyboard A few companies are focusing on large-scale surface computing rather than personal electronics, either large multi-touch tables or wall surfaces. These systems are generally used by government organizations, museums, and companies as a means of information or exhibit display. SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard The optical touch technology functions when a finger or an object touches the surface, causing the light to scatter, the reflection is caught with sensors or cameras that send the data to software which dictates response to the touch, depending on the type of reflection measured. Touch surfaces can also be made pressure-sensitive by the addition of a pressure-sensitive coating that flexes differently depending on how firmly it is pressed, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard altering the reflection.[19]Handheld technologies use a panel that carries an electrical charge. When a finger touches the screen, the touch disrupts the panel's electrical field. The disruption is registered and sent to the software, which then initiates a response to the gesture.[20]Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard In the past few years, several companies have released products that use multi-touch. In an attempt to make the expensive technology more accessible, hobbyists have also published methods of constructing DIY touchscreens.[21]SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard

Multi-touch gestures

Multi-touch gestures are standardized motions used to interact with multitouch devices. Multitouch gestures are tightly integrated into many Apple products, and in laptop and desktop computing systems. Multi-touch gestures are also a part of most modern smartphones and multitouch tablets, including the iPhone, iPad,Android phones or tablets, and some BlackBerry devices. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Popular culture has also portrayed potential uses of multi-touch technology in the future, including several installments of the Star Trek franchise. The television series CSI: Miami introduced both surface and wall multi-touch displays in its sixth season. Another television series, NCIS: Los Angeles, make use of multi-touch surfaces and wall panels as an initiative to go digital. Another form of a multi-touch computer was seen in the film The Island, where the professor, played by Sean Bean, has a multi-touch desktop to organize files, Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard based on an early version of Microsoft PixelSense[1]. Multitouch technology can also be seen in the James Bond film Quantum of Solace, where MI6 uses a touch interface to browse information about the criminal Dominic Greene.[22] In an episode of the television series The Simpsons, when Lisa Simpson travels to the underwater headquarters of Apple to visit Steve Jobs, who is shown to be performing multiple multi-touch hand gestures on a large touch wall. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard A device similar to the Microsoft PixelSense was seen in the 1982 Disney sci-fi film Tron. It took up an executive's entire desk and was used to communicate with the Master Control computer. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) anddifferentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, andadult stem cells, HP G62-b12SA Laptop Keyboard which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells (these are called pluripotent cells), but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.  Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard There are three accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. HP Pavilion dv4-1120us Laptop Keyboard Highly plastic adult stem cells are routinely used in medical therapies, for example in bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. Embryonic cell lines andautologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.[1] Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at theUniversity of Toronto in the 1960s.[2][3]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The practical definition of a stem cell is the functional definition—a cell that has the potential to regenerate tissue over a lifetime. For example, the defining test for a bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is the ability to transplant one cell and save an individual without HSCs. In this case, a stem cell must be able to produce new blood cells and immune cells over a long term, demonstrating potency. It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew.[7][8] Stem cells can also be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers. However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells will behave in a similar manner in vivo. There is considerable debate as to whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are cultures of cells derived from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass (ICM) of ablastocyst or earlier morula stage embryos.[9] A blastocyst is an early stage embryo—approximately four to five days old in humans and consisting of 50–150 cells. ES cells are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: DELL XPS M1530 Laptop Keyboard ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta. The endoderm is composed of the entire gut tube and the lungs, the ectoderm gives rise to the nervous system and skin, and the mesoderm gives rise to muscle, bone, blood—in essence, everything else that connects the endoderm to the ectoderm.  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Nearly all research to date has made use of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES). Both have the essential stem cell characteristics, yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state. Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin as an extracellular matrix (for support) and require the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF).[10]  TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Human ES cells are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and require the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2).[11] Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation,[12] embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard A human embryonic stem cell is also defined by the expression of several transcription factors and cell surface proteins. The transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 form the core regulatory network that ensures the suppression of genes that lead to differentiation and the maintenance of pluripotency.[13] The cell surface antigens most commonly used to identify hES cells are the glycolipids stage specific embryonic antigen 3 and 4 and the keratan sulfate antigens Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. The molecular definition of a stem cell includes many more proteins and continues to be a topic of research.[14]TOSHIBA Satellite L770D Series Laptop Keyboard There are currently no approved treatments using embryonic stem cells. The first human trial was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009.[15] However, the human trial was not initiated until October 13, 2010 in Atlanta for spinal injury victims. On November 14, 2011 the company conducting the trial announced that it will discontinue further development of its stem cell programs.[16] ES cells, being pluripotent cells, require specific signals for correct differentiation—if injected directly into another body, HP Pavilion DV6-1190ev Laptop Keyboard ES cells will differentiate into many different types of cells, causing a teratoma. Differentiating ES cells into usable cells while avoiding transplant rejection are just a few of the hurdles that embryonic stem cell researchers still face.[17] Many nations currently have moratoria on either ES cell research or the production of new ES cell lines. Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard Also known as somatic (from Greek Σωματικóς, "of the body") stem cells and germline (giving rise to gametes) stem cells, they can be found in children, as well as adults.[19]TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number but can be found in a number of tissues including umbilical cord blood.[20] Bone marrow has been found to be one of the rich sources of adult stem cells [21] which have been used in treating several conditions including Spinal cord injury [22], Liver Cirrhosis [23], Chronic Limb Ischemia [24] and Endstage heart failure [25]. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard The bone marrow stem cell quantity has been found to be declining with age and in reproductive age group of females it is relatively lesser than in males of same age group [26]. A great deal of adult stem cell research to date has had the aim of characterizing the capacity of the cells to divide or self-renew indefinitely and their differentiation potential.[27] In mice, pluripotent stem cells are directly generated from adult fibroblast cultures. Unfortunately, many mice do not live long with stem cell organs.[28]TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).[29][30] SONY VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Laptop Keyboard Adult stem cell treatments have been successfully used for many years to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants.[31] Adult stem cells are also used in veterinary medicine to treat tendon and ligament injuries in horses.[32]Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Additionally, in instances where adult stem cells are obtained from the intended recipient (an autograft), the risk of rejection is essentially non-existent. Consequently, more US government funding is being provided for adult stem cell research.[33]HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa Laptop Keyboard An extremely rich source for adult mesenchymal stem cells is the developing tooth bud of the mandibular third molar.[34] The stem cells eventually form enamel (ectoderm), dentin, periodontal ligament, blood vessels, dental pulp, nervous tissues, and a minimum of 29 different end organs. Because of extreme ease in collection at 8–10 years of age before calcification and minimal to no morbidity, these will probably constitute a major source of cells for personal banking, research and current or future therapies. These stem cells have been shown capable of producing hepatocytes.[citation needed] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard

Amniotic

Multipotent stem cells are also found in amniotic fluid. These stem cells are very active, expand extensively without feeders and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, hepatic and also neuronal lines.[35] All over the world, universities and research institutes are studying amniotic fluid to discover all the qualities of amniotic stem cells, and scientists such as Anthony Atala[36][37] and Giuseppe Simoni [38][39][40] have discovered important results. SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard Use of stem cells from amniotic fluid overcomes the ethical objections to using human embryos as a source of cells. Roman Catholic teaching forbids the use of embryonic stem cells in experimentation; accordingly, the Vatican newspaper "Osservatore Romano" called amniotic stem cells "the future of medicine".[41]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard It is possible to collect amniotic stem cells for donors or for autologuous use: the first US amniotic stem cells bank [42][43] was opened in 2009 in Medford, MA, by Biocell Center Corporation[44][45][46] and collaborates with various hospitals and universities all over the world.[47]TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard These are not adult stem cells, but rather adult cells (e.g. epithelial cells) reprogrammed to give rise to pluripotent capabilities. Using genetic reprogramming with protein transcription factors, pluripotent stem cells equivalent to embryonic stem cells have been derived from human adult skin tissue.[48][49][50] Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues at Kyoto University used the transcription factors Oct3/4, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4[48] in their experiments on cells from human faces. Junying Yu, James Thomson, and their colleagues at the University of Wisconsin–Madison used a different set of factors, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28,[48] and carried out their experiments using cells from human foreskin. GATEWAY M-6750 Laptop Keyboard As a result of the success of these experiments, Ian Wilmut, who helped create the first cloned animal Dolly the Sheep, has announced that he will abandonsomatic cell nuclear transfer as an avenue of research.[51] Frozen blood samples can be used as a source of induced pluripotent stem cells, opening a new avenue for obtaining the valued cells.[52]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties. Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before terminally differentiating into a mature cell. It is possible that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells.[53]SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard An alternative theory is that stem cells remain undifferentiated due to environmental cues in their particular niche. Stem cells differentiate when they leave that niche or no longer receive those signals. Studies in Drosophila germarium have identified the signals decapentaplegic and adherens junctions that prevent germarium stem cells from differentiating.[54][55]HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard Main article: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell The signals that lead to reprogramming of cells to an embryonic-like state are also being investigated. These signal pathways include several transcription factors including the oncogene c-Myc. Initial studies indicate that transformation of mice cells with a combination of these anti-differentiation signals can reverse differentiation and may allow adult cells to become pluripotent.[28] However, the need to transform these cells with an oncogene may prevent the use of this approach in therapy. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard Main article: Induced stem cells Challenging the terminal nature of cellular differentiation and the integrity of lineage commitment, it was recently determined that the somatic expression of combined transcription factors can directly induce other defined somatic cell fates; researchers identified three neural-lineage-specific transcription factors that could directly convert mouse fibroblasts (skin cells) into fully functional neurons. This "induced neurons" (iN) cell research inspires the researchers to induce other cell types implies that all cells are totipotent: with the proper tools, all cells may form all kinds of tissue.[56]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Medical researchers believe that stem cell therapy has the potential to dramatically change the treatment of human disease. A number of adult stem cell therapies already exist, particularly bone marrow transplants that are used to treat leukemia.[58] In the future, medical researchers anticipate being able to use technologies derived from stem cell research to treat a wider variety of diseases including cancer, HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Parkinson's disease,spinal cord injuries, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and muscle damage, amongst a number of other impairments and conditions.[59][60] However, there still exists a great deal of social and scientific uncertainty surrounding stem cell research, which could possibly be overcome through public debate and future research, and further education of the public. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard One concern of treatment is the risk that transplanted stem cells could form tumors and become cancerous if cell division continues uncontrollably.[61] Stem cells are widely studied, for their potential therapeutic use and for their inherent interest.[62] Supporters of embryonic stem cell research argue that such research should be pursued because the resultant treatments could have significant medical potential. It has been proposed that surplus embryos created for in vitro fertilization could be donated with consent and used for the research. HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard The recent development of iPS cells has been called a bypass of the legal controversy. Laws limiting the destruction of human embryos have been credited for being the reason for development of iPS cells, but it is still not completely clear whether hiPS cells are equivalent to hES cells. Recent work demonstrates hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in hiPS cells (Lister, R., et al., 2011). HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The patents covering a lot of work on human embryonic stem cells are owned by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF). WARF does not charge academics to study human stem cells but does charge commercial users. WARF sold Geron Corp. exclusive rights to work on human stem cells but later sued Geron Corp. to recover some of the previously sold rights. The two sides agreed that Geron Corp. would keep the rights to only three cell types. In 2001, WARF came under public pressure to widen access to human stem-cell technology.[64]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard A request for reviewing the WARF patents 5,843,780; 6,200,806; 7,029,913 US Patent and Trademark Office were filed by non-profit patent-watchdogs The Foundation for Taxpayer & Consumer Rights, and the Public Patent Foundation as well as molecular biologist Jeanne Loring of the Burnham Institute. According to them,  HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard two of the patents granted to WARF are invalid because they cover a technique published in 1993 for which a patent had already been granted to an Australian researcher. Another part of the challenge states that these techniques, developed by James A. Thomson, are rendered obvious by a 1990 paper and two textbooks. Based on this challenge, patent 7,029,913 was rejected in 2010. The two remaining hES WARF patents are due to expire in 2015. SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and also of Hanover from the death of his father, George III, on 29 January 1820 until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's relapse into mental illness. HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard George IV led an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the British Regency. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style, and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, and Sir Jeffry Wyatville to rebuild Windsor Castle. He was instrumental in the foundation of the National Gallery, London and King's College London. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard He had a poor relationship with both his father and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, whom he even forbade to attend his coronation. He introduced the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful, attempt to divorce his wife. SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister. George's governments, with little help from the King, presided over victory in the Napoleonic Wars, negotiated the peace settlement, and attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. He had to accept George Canning as foreign minister and later prime minister, and drop his opposition to Catholic Emancipation. TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard His charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his bad relations with his father and wife, and his dissolute way of life earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending in time of war. He did not provide national leadership in time of crisis, nor a role model for his people. His ministers found his behaviour selfish, unreliable, and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites.[1]allkeyboard.co.uk/packard-bell-easynote-tm97-keyboard.html">Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard

Early life

George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762. As the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth; he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a few days afterwards.[2] On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury.[3] Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard His godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (his maternal uncle, for whom the Duke of Devonshire, Lord Chamberlain, stood proxy), the Duke of Cumberland (his twice-paternal great-uncle), and the Dowager Princess of Wales (his paternal grandmother).[4] George was a talented student, quickly learning to speak French, German and Italian in addition to his native English.[5] HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, and in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades. He was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, and showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. This was particularly in poor judgement in light of the extraordinary poverty of many London residents including large numbers of children and adults living on the streets with no hope of shelter, freezing to death in winter or dying of starvation. HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard The Prince turned 21 in 1783, and obtained a grant of £60,000 (equal to £5,744,000 today) from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 (equal to £4,786,000 today) from his father. It was far too little for his needs. (The stables alone cost £31,000 a year.) He then established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life.[6] Animosity developed between the Prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir-apparent.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard Soon after he reached the age of 21, the Prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, and a Roman Catholic.[8] Despite her complete unsuitability, the Prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, and theRoyal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the consent of the King, which would never have been granted. ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard Nevertheless, the couple contracted a marriage on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. Legally the union was void, as the King's consent was not granted (and never even requested).[9] However, Mrs. Fitzherbert believed that she was the Prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Mrs. Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it.[10]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard The Prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Mrs. Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the Prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant. The Prince's relationship with Mrs. Fitzherbert was suspected, and revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the Prince's authority, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard theWhig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny.[11] Mrs. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the Prince. He appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, meanwhile, granted the Prince £161,000 (equal to £16,775,000 today) to pay his debts and £60,000 (equal to £6,252,000 today) for improvements to Carlton House.[5][12][13]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Regency crisis of 1788 It is now conjectured that King George III suffered from the hereditary disease porphyria.[14] In the summer of 1788 his mental health deteriorated, but he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament proroguedfrom 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation George III became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard and when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver the customary Speech from the Throne during the State Opening of Parliament. Parliament found itself in an untenable position; according to long-established law it could not proceed to any business until the delivery of the King's Speech at a State Opening.[11][15] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Although arguably barred from doing so, Parliament began debating a Regency. In the House of Commons, Charles James Foxdeclared his opinion that the Prince of Wales was automatically entitled to exercise sovereignty during the King's incapacity. A contrasting opinion was held by the Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, who argued that, SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard in the absence of a statute to the contrary, the right to choose a Regent belonged to Parliament alone.[16] He even stated that, without parliamentary authority "the Prince of Wales had no more right...to assume the government, than any other individual subject of the country."[17] Though disagreeing on the principle underlying a Regency, Pitt agreed with Fox that the Prince of Wales would be the most convenient choice for a Regent.[11][15]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard The Prince of Wales—though offended by Pitt's boldness—did not lend his full support to Fox's approach. The prince's brother, Prince Frederick, Duke of York, declared that the prince would not attempt to exercise any power without previously obtaining the consent of Parliament.[18] Following the passage of preliminary resolutions Pitt outlined a formal plan for the Regency, TOSHIBA A000014900 Laptop Keyboard suggesting that the powers of the Prince of Wales be greatly limited. Among other things, the Prince of Wales would not be able either to sell the King's property or to grant a peerageto anyone other than a child of the King. The Prince of Wales denounced Pitt's scheme, declaring it a "project for producing weakness, disorder, and insecurity in every branch of the administration of affairs."[19] In the interests of the nation, both factions agreed to compromise.[15]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard A significant technical impediment to any Regency Bill involved the lack of a Speech from the Throne, which was necessary before Parliament could proceed to any debates or votes. The Speech was normally delivered by the King, but could also be delivered by royal representatives known as Lords Commissioners; but no document could empower the Lords Commissioners to act unless the Great Seal of the Realm was affixed to it. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The Seal could not be legally affixed without the prior authorisation of the Sovereign. Pitt and his fellow ministers ignored the last requirement and instructed the Lord Chancellor to affix the Great Seal without the King's consent, as the act of affixing the Great Seal in itself gave legal force to the Bill. Thislegal fiction was denounced by Edmund Burke as a "glaring falsehood",[20] as a "palpable absurdity",[20] and even as a "forgery, fraud".[21] The Prince of Wales's brother, the Duke of York, HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard described the plan as "unconstitutional and illegal."[19] Nevertheless, others in Parliament felt that such a scheme was necessary to preserve an effective government. Consequently on 3 February 1789, more than two months after it had convened, Parliament was formally opened by an "illegal" group of Lords Commissioners. The Regency Bill was introduced, but before it could be passed the King recovered. The King declared retroactively that the instrument authorising the Lords Commissioners to act was valid.[11][15]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The Prince of Wales's debts continued to climb, and his father refused to aid him unless he married his cousin PrincessCaroline of Brunswick.[22] In 1795, the Prince of Wales acquiesced, and they were married on 8 April 1795 at the Chapel Royal,St James's Palace. The marriage, however, was disastrous; each party was unsuited to the other. The two were formally separated after the birth of their only child, Princess Charlotte, in 1796, and remained separated thereafter. The Prince of Wales remained attached to Mrs. Fitzherbert for the rest of his life, despite several periods of estrangement.[23]HP G42-466LA Laptop Keyboard George's mistresses included Mary Robinson, an actress who was bought off with a generous pension when she threatened to sell his letters to the newspapers;[24] Grace Elliott, the divorced wife of a physician;[25] and Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, who dominated his life for some years.[23] In later life, his mistresses were the Marchioness of Hertford and theMarchioness Conyngham, who were both married to aristocrats.[26]HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard George may have fathered several illegitimate children. James Ord (born 1786)—who moved to the United States and became a Jesuit priest—was reportedly his son by Mrs. Fitzherbert.[27] The King, late in life, told a friend that he had a son who was a naval officer in the West Indies, whose identity has been tentatively established as Capt. HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard Henry A. F. Hervey (1786–1824), reportedly George's child by the songwriter Lady Anne Lindsay (later Barnard), a daughter of the 5th Earl of Balcarres.[28]Other reported offspring include Major George Seymour Crole, the son of theatre manager's daughter Eliza Crole or Fox; William Hampshire, the son of publican's daughter Sarah Brown; TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard and Charles "Beau" Candy, the son of a Frenchwoman with that surname.[29] Anthony Camp, Director of Research at the Society of Genealogists, has dismissed the claims that George IV was the father of Ord, Hervey, Hampshire and Candy as fictitious.[30]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The problem of the Prince of Wales's debts, which amounted to the extraordinary sum of £630,000 (equal to £49,820,000 today) in 1795,[31] was solved (at least temporarily) by Parliament. Being unwilling to make an outright grant to relieve these debts, it provided him an additional sum of £65,000 (equal to £5,140,000 today) per annum.[32] In 1803, a further £60,000 (equal to £4,486,000 today) was added, and the Prince of Wales's debts of 1795 were finally cleared in 1806, although the debts he had incurred since 1795 remained.[13][33]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard In 1804 a dispute arose over the custody of Princess Charlotte, which led to her being placed in the care of the King, George III. It also led to a Parliamentary Commission of Enquiry into Princess Caroline's conduct after the Prince of Wales accused her of having an illegitimate son. The investigation cleared Caroline of the charge but still revealed her behaviour to be extraordinarily indiscreet.[34]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Regency

In late 1810, George III was once again overcome by his malady following the death of his youngest daughter, Princess Amelia. Parliament agreed to follow the precedent of 1788; without the King's consent, the Lord Chancellor affixed the Great Seal of the Realm to letters patent naming Lords Commissioners. The Lords Commissioners, HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard in the name of the King, signified the granting of the Royal Assent to a bill that became the Regency Act of 1811. Parliament restricted some of the powers of the Prince Regent (as the Prince of Wales became known). The constraints expired one year after the passage of the Act.[35] The Prince of Wales became Prince Regent on 5 February 1811.[36]ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard The Regent let his ministers take full charge of government affairs, playing a far lesser role than his father. The principle that the crown accepts as prime minister the person supported by a majority in the House of Commons, whether the king personally favours him or not, became established.[37] His governments, DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard with little help from the Regent, presided over victory in the Napoleonic Wars, negotiated the peace settlement, and attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. One of the most important political conflicts facing the country concerned Catholic emancipation, the movement to relieve Roman Catholics of various political disabilities. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard The Tories, led by the Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, were opposed to Catholic emancipation, while the Whigs supported it. At the beginning of the Regency, the Prince of Wales was expected to support the Whig leader, William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville. He did not, however, immediately put Lord Grenville and the Whigs in office. Influenced by his mother, he claimed that a sudden dismissal of the Tory government would exact too great a toll on the health of the King (a steadfast supporter of the Tories), thereby eliminating any chance of a recovery.[38]ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard  DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard In 1812, when it appeared highly unlikely that the King would recover, the Prince of Wales again failed to appoint a new Whig administration. Instead, he asked the Whigs to join the existing ministry under Spencer Perceval. The Whigs, however, refused to co-operate because of disagreements over Catholic emancipation. Grudgingly, the Prince of Wales allowed Perceval to continue as Prime Minister.[39]SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard On 10 May 1812, Spencer Perceval was assassinated by John Bellingham. The Prince Regent was prepared to reappoint all the members of the Perceval ministry under a new leader. The House of Commons formally declared its desire for a "strong and efficient administration",[40] so the Prince Regent then offered leadership of the government to Richard Wellesley, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard 1st Marquess Wellesley, and afterwards to Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Earl of Moira. He doomed the attempts of both to failure, however, by forcing each to construct a bipartisan ministry at a time when neither party wished to share power with the other. Possibly using the failure of the two peers as a pretext, the Prince Regent immediately reappointed the Perceval administration, with Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, as Prime Minister.[41]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The Tories, unlike Whigs such as Earl Grey, sought to continue the vigorous prosecution of the war in Continental Europe against the powerful and aggressive Emperor of the French, Napoleon I.[42] An anti-French alliance, which included Russia,Prussia, Austria, Britain and several smaller countries, defeated Napoleon in 1814. In the subsequent Congress of Vienna, it was decided that the Electorate of Hanover,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-AR770 Laptop Keyboard a state that had shared a monarch with Britain since 1714, would be raised to a Kingdom, known as the Kingdom of Hanover. On 30 December 1814 the Prince Regent signed and ratified the Treaty of Ghent which ended the War of 1812 with the United States. Napoleon returned from exile in 1815, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, brother of Marquess Wellesley. SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard During this period George took an active interest in matters of style and taste, and his associates such as the dandy Beau Brummell and the architect John Nash created the Regency style. In London Nash designed the Regency terraces of Regent's Parkand Regent Street. George took up the new idea of the seaside spa and had the Brighton Pavilion developed as a fantastical seaside palace, adapted by Nash in the "Indian Gothic" style inspired loosely by the Taj Mahal, with extravagant "Indian" and "Chinese" interiors.[43] SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard When George III died in 1820, the Prince Regent, then aged 57, ascended the throne as George IV, with no real change in his powers.[44] By the time of his accession, he was obese and possibly addicted to laudanum.[5]HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard George IV's relationship with his wife Caroline had deteriorated by the time of his accession. They had lived separately since 1796, and both were having affairs. In 1814, Caroline left the United Kingdom for continental Europe, but she chose to return for her husband's coronation, and to publicly assert her rights as Queen Consort. However, George IV refused to recognise Caroline as Queen, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard and commanded British ambassadors to ensure that monarchs in foreign courts did the same. By royal command, Caroline's name was omitted from the Book of Common Prayer, the liturgy of the Church of England. The King sought a divorce, but his advisors suggested that any divorce proceedings might involve the publication of details relating to the King's own adulterous relationships. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Therefore, he requested and ensured the introduction of the Pains and Penalties Bill 1820, under which Parliament could have imposed legal penalties without a trial in a court of law. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard The bill would have annulled the marriage and stripped Caroline of the title of Queen. The bill proved extremely unpopular with the public, and was withdrawn from Parliament. George IV decided, nonetheless, to exclude his wife from his coronation at Westminster Abbey, on 19 July 1821. Caroline fell ill that day and died on 7 August; during her final illness she often stated that she thought she had been poisoned.[45]FUJITSU Lifebook T4215 Laptop Keyboard George's coronation was a magnificent and expensive affair, costing about £243,000 (approximately £18,994,000 as of 2012;[46]for comparison, his father's coronation had only cost about £10,000, equal to £1,457,000 today). TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Despite the enormous cost, it was a popular event.[5] In 1821 the King became the first monarch to pay a state visit to Ireland since Richard II of England.[47] The following year he visited Edinburgh for "one and twenty daft days."[48] His visit to Scotland, organised bySir Walter Scott, was the first by a reigning British monarch since the mid-17th century.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

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