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Government of Japan The government of Japan is a constitutional monarchy where the power of the Emperor is limited, relegated primarily to ceremonial duties. His role is defined by the 1947 constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people".Acer eMachines G730Z laptop keyboard Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister of Japan and other elected members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in theJapanese people.[1] The Emperor effectively acts as the head of state on diplomatic occasions. Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan. Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan, stands as next in line to the throne. Packard Bell PEW72 laptop keyboard Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives, containing 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved and a House of Councillors of 242 seats, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 20 years of age,[2] with asecret ballot for all elective offices.[1] In 2009, the social liberal Democratic Party of Japan took power after 54 years of the liberal conservative Liberal Democratic Party's rule. Packard Bell NEW95 laptop keyboard The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government. The position is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet (the literal translation of his Japanese title is "Prime Minister of the Cabinet") and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State, a majority of whom must be Diet members. Shinzo Abe currently serves as the Prime Minister of Japan.[3]Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard Japan has a unitary system of government in which local jurisdictions largely depend on national government financially. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications intervenes significantly in local government, as do other ministries. This is done chiefly financially because many local government jobs need funding initiated by national ministries. This is dubbed as "thirty-percent autonomy."[6]Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard The result of this power is a high level of organizational and policy standardization among the different local jurisdictions allowing them to preserve the uniqueness[citation needed] of their prefecture, city, or town. Some of the more collectivist jurisdictions, such as Tokyo and Kyoto, have experimented with policies in such areas as social welfare that later were adopted by the national government. TOSHIBA NB205-N313/P laptop keyboard Japan is divided into forty-seven administrative divisions, the prefectures: one metropolitan district (Tokyo), two urban prefectures (Kyoto and Osaka), forty-three rural prefectures, and one "district", Hokkaidō. Large cities are subdivided into wards, and further split into towns, or precincts, or subprefecture and counties. Lenovo 45N2071 Laptop Keyboard Cities are self-governing units administered independently of the larger jurisdictions within which they are located. In order to attain city status, a jurisdiction must have at least 30,000 inhabitants, 60 percent of whom are engaged in urban occupations. There are self-governing towns outside the cities as well as precincts of urban wards. Like the cities, each has its own elected mayor and assembly. Villages are the smallest self-governing entities in rural areas. They often consist of a number of rural hamlets containing several thousand people connected to one another through the formally imposed framework of village administration. Villages have mayors and councils elected to four-year terms. ACER K032130A1 Laptop Keyboard All prefectural and municipal governments in Japan are organized following the Local Autonomy Law, a statute applied nationwide in 1947. Each jurisdiction has a chief executive, called a governor (知事 chiji?) in prefectures and a mayor (町長 chōchō?) in municipalities. Most jurisdictions also have a unicameral assembly (議会 gikai?), although towns and villages may opt for direct governance by citizens in a general assembly (総会 sōkai?). Both the executive and assembly are elected by popular vote every four years. DELL V-0604BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard Local governments follow a modified version of the separation of powers used in the national government. An assembly may pass a vote of no confidence in the executive, in which case the executive must either dissolve the assembly within ten days or automatically lose their office. Following the next election, however, the executive remains in office unless the new assembly again passes a no confidence resolution. SONY 147915321 Laptop Keyboard The primary methods of local lawmaking are local ordinance (条例 jōrei?) and local regulations (規則 kisoku?). Ordinances, similar to statutes in the national system, are passed by the assembly and may impose limited criminal penalties for violations (up to 2 years in prison and/or 1 million yen in fines). Regulations, similar to cabinet orders in the national system, are passed by the executive unilaterally, are superseded by any conflicting ordinances, and may only impose a fine of up to 50,000 yen. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Local governments also generally have multiple committees such as school boards, public safety committees (responsible for overseeing the police), personnel committees, election committees and auditing committees. These may be directly elected or chosen by the assembly, executive or both. All prefectures are required to maintain departments of general affairs, finance, welfare, health, and labor. Departments of agriculture, fisheries, forestry, commerce, and industry are optional, depending on local needs. The governor is responsible for all activities supported through local taxation or the national government. ACER Aspire 5810T-8929 Laptop Keyboard Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. However, since the late 19th century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably France and Germany. For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on the German model. With post–World War II modifications, the code remains in effect in present-day Japan.[4] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Statutory law originates in Japan's legislature, the National Diet of Japan, with the rubber stamp approval of the Emperor. The current constitution requires that the Emperor promulgates legislation passed by the Diet, without specifically giving him the power to oppose the passing of the legislation.[1] Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.[5] The main body of Japanese statutory law is a collection called the Six Codes.[4]COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard Hatoyama comes from a prominent Japanese political family which has been likened to theKennedy family of the United States.[3] Hatoyama, who was born in Bunkyō, Tokyo, is a fourth generation politician. His paternal great-grandfather, Kazuo Hatoyama, was speaker of the House of Representatives of theDiet of Japan from 1896 to 1897 during the Meiji era.[4] Kazuo later served as the president of Waseda University.[4] His paternal great-grandmother, Haruko Hatoyama, was a co-founder of what is known today as Kyoritsu Women's University. His paternal grandfather, Ichirō Hatoyama, was a major politician; he served as Prime Minister and was a founder and the first President of the Liberal Democratic Party in 1956. As Prime Minister, he restored diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, which cleared the way for Japan's membership in the United Nations.[4]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Hatoyama is the son of Iichirō Hatoyama, who was Foreign Minister for a time. His mother, Yasuko Hatoyama, is a daughter of Shojiro Ishibashi, the founder of Bridgestone Corporation and heir to his significant inheritance.[3] Yasuko Hatoyama is known as the "Godmother" within the Japanese political world for her financial contributions to both of her sons' political ambitions.[4] In particular, Yasuko donated billions of yen when Kunio and Yukio co-created their previous Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) in 1996 to help establish her sons' fledgling political party.[4]HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard His younger brother, Kunio Hatoyama, served as Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications under Prime Minister Taro Aso until 12 June 2009. His younger sister-in-law Emily Hatoyama (鳩山エミリ?) who is Kunio's wife, an Australian Japanese, was a TV personality in Japan. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Laptop Keyboard Hatoyama graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1969 and received a PhD in Industrial Engineering from Stanford University in 1976.[5] He met his wife, Miyuki Hatoyama, while studying at Stanford (Miyuki was working at a Japanese restaurant).[4] The couple married in 1975 after Miyuki divorced her ex-husband.[3] The couple's son, Kiichirō (紀一郎?), graduated from the urban engineering department of the University of Tokyo, is a visiting engineering researcher at Moscow State University.[4]HP Compaq G50-126NR Laptop Keyboard Hatoyama worked as assistant professor (1976–1981) at Tokyo Institute of Technology and later transferred to Senshu University as associate professor (1981–1984). Hatoyama ran for a seat in Hokkaidō's 9th district and was elected to the House of Representatives in 1986 representing the ruling LDP. In 1993 he left the LDP to form the New Party Sakigake with Naoto Kan, Masayoshi Takemura and Shūsei Tanaka (田中秀征?). He and Kan then left to join the newly formed Democratic Party of Japan (1996). DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard Hatoyama and his younger brother, Kunio Hatoyama, co-created the party, using billions of yen donated by their mother, Yasuko.[4] Kunio Hatoyama eventually left the DPJ, saying the party had drifted too far to the left from its original centrist roots, and rejoined the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).[4] Yukio remained with the party through its merger with several other opposition parties in 1998. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard The elder Hatoyama became the Democratic Party of Japan's chairman and leader of the opposition from 1999 to 2002, after which he resigned to take responsibility for the confusion that arose from rumors of mergers with Ichirō Ozawa's then Liberal Party. He was Secretary-General of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ)[5] before he succeeded Ozawa as party leader following Ozawa's resignation on 11 May 2009. Hatoyama was chosen by fellow party representatives on 16 May 2009, winning 124 of the 219 votes and defeating rival Katsuya Okada.[6]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Because of his quirky hairstyle, prominent eyes, and eccentric manner, he is known by his supporters and his opposition alike as "ET" or "The Alien",[7] a nickname his wife states he earned because of how different he is from old-style Japanese politicians.[8] Another nickname commonly used by the Japanese public in press was Popo, after a children's song about a pigeon that starts with the lyric "popopo, hato popo"; the first character in Hatoyama's last name is the Japanese word for 'pigeon'. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard Hatoyama, representing the policies DPJ campaigned on, wanted to shift Japan's focus from a more America-centric foreign policy to a more Asia-focused policy. Also, he wanted to make foreign policy decisions with America more transparent, from a popular perception that Japanese foreign policy was determined by insiders behind closed doors.[20]Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard The DPJ's election platform called for re-examining its ties with the United States.[10] As the 1960 Japan–U.S. security treaty celebrated its 50 year anniversary, Hatoyama called for a "close and equal" Japan–U.S. relationship, meaning giving Japan a more independent role.[21]HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard Hatoyama ended an eight-year refueling mission in Afghanistan, a highly symbolic move because the mission had long been criticized for violating the nation's pacifist Constitution. Yet, in order to not anger Washington, Hatoyama offered $5 billion in civilian aid for Afghanistan reconstruction.[22]ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard Hatoyama was also faced with the issue of the relocation of the American Futenma Marine Corps Air Base. The United States government hoped that Hatoyama would honor a 2006 agreement to relocate the base to a less populated part of Okinawa and move 8,000 marines to Guam.[23] Some voices in the DPJ demanded that America move its military bases off Okinawa islands altogether.[20] Hatoyama was torn between public opinion on Okinawa and the desire to retain strong ties with Washington. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard In moving towards a more Asia-centered foreign policy, Hatoyama worked towards making relations better with nearby East Asian countries. Hatoyama worked to deepen economic integration with the East Asian region, pushing for a free trade zone in Asia by 2020 and proposing Haneda airport as a 24-hour hub for international flights.[24] In January 2010, he welcomed South Korea's president, calling for 'future-oriented' ties, as opposed to recalling the past, in which Japan colonized Korea.[25]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Relations between China also warmed under Hatoyama. The first few months saw an exchange of visits, including one by favored successor to China's leadership Xi Jinping, for whom Hatoyama hastily arranged an appointment with Emperor Akihito.[26] On 7 January, the Daily Yomiuri reported high-level discussion over a further exchange of visits between the two countries to promote reconciliation over history issues. "Beijing aims to ease anti-Japan sentiment among the Chinese public by having Hatoyama visit Nanjing and express a sense of regret about the Sino-Japanese War", the paper reported.[27]TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard After stepping down as prime minister Hatoyama continued to serve as a DPJ diet member. When Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda introduced legislation to raise the consumption tax from 5% to 10% Hatoyama was one of 57 DPJ lower house lawmakers who voted against the bill.[35] His membership in the DPJ was suspended for six months, which was subsequently reduced to three.[36] Lenovo 45N2240 laptop keyboard Unlike some of the consumption tax rebels, Hatoyama did not leave the DPJ to join Ichiro Ozawa's People's Life First party, but continued to act within the DPJ to oppose both the consumption tax increase and the restart of nuclear plants. On 20 July 2012 he addressed a crowd of protesters outside the prime minister's residence, saying it was premature to restart nuclear reactors.[37]Lenovo 45N2036 laptop keyboard In the lead-up to the 16 December 2012 general election the DPJ announced that it would not endorse candidates who did not agree to follow its current policies, including the consumption tax hike and support for joining the negotiations to enter the Trans Pacific Partnership. On 21 November Hatoyama announced that he would retire from politics.[38]SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard A Japanese politician, he has been President of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)[2] and the chairman of the Oyagaku propulsion parliamentary group. Abe was the 90th Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on 26 September 2006. He was then Japan's youngest post–World War II prime minister and the first born after the war. He served as prime minister for less than a year, resigning on 12 September 2007.[3] He was replaced by Yasuo Fukuda, beginning a string of Prime Ministers who did not maintain the position for more than one year.[4] On 26 September 2012, Abe defeated former Minister of DefenseShigeru Ishiba in a run-off vote to win the LDP presidential election.[5]ACER Aspire 7736ZG Laptop Keyboard Abe was born in Nagato, Yamaguchi, and soon moved to Tokyo. He attended Seikei Elementary School and Seikei High School.[6] He studied political science atSeikei University, graduating in 1977. He later moved to the United States and studied public policy at the University of Southern California's School of Public Policy.[7] In April 1979, Abe began working for Kobe Steel.[8] He left the company in 1982 and pursued a number of governmental positions including executive assistant to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, private secretary to the chairperson of the LDP General Council, and private secretary to the LDP secretary-general.[9]DELL 0454RX Laptop Keyboard Abe was born into a political family of significance. His grandfather, Kan Abe, and father, Shintaro Abe, were both politicians. Abe's mother, Yoko Kishi,[10] is the daughter of Nobusuke Kishi, prime minister of Japan from 1957 to 1960. Kishi had been a member of the Tōjō Cabinet during the Second World War. Since GHQ'spolicy changed and became more anti-communist, Kishi was released from Sugamo Prison, and later established the Japan Democratic Party. In 1950 Shigeru Yoshida's Liberal Party and Kishi's Democratic Party merged as an anti-leftist coalition and became the Liberal Democratic Party of today. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Shinzō Abe was elected to the first district of Yamaguchi Prefecture in 1993 after his father's death in 1991, winning the most votes of the four Representatives elected in the SNTV multi-member district. In 1999, he became Director of the Social Affairs Division, Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary in the Yoshirō Mori and Junichiro Koizumi Cabinets from 2000–2003, after which he was appointed Secretary General of the Liberal Democratic Party. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Laptop Keyboard Abe is a member of the Mori Faction (formally, the Seiwa Seisaku Kenkyū-kai) of the Liberal Democratic Party. This faction is headed by former prime minister Yoshirō Mori. Junichiro Koizumi was a member of the Mori Faction prior to leaving it, as is the custom when accepting a high party post. From 1986 to 1991, Abe's father, Shintaro, headed the same faction. The Seiwa Seisaku Kenkyū-kai has 60 members in the House of Representatives and 26 in the House of Councillors. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard In 2000 Abe's home and the office of his supporters in Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi, were attacked with molotov cocktails on numerous occasions. The perpetrators were several yakuza members belonging to the Kudo-kai, a Kitakyushu-based designated boryokudan syndicate. The reason for the attacks was believed to be that Abe's local aide refused to give cash to a Shimonoseki real estate broker in return for supporting a Shimonoseki mayoral candidate in 1999.[11] HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Abe was chief negotiator for the Japanese government on behalf of the families of Japanese abductees taken to North Korea. As a part of the effort, he accompanied Koizumi to meet Kim Jong‑il in 2002. He gained national popularity when he demanded that Japanese abductees visiting Japan remain, in defiance of North Korea.[12]SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/V Laptop Keyboard On 31 October 2005, he was nominated Chief Cabinet Secretary of the fifth Koizumi Cabinet, succeeding Hiroyuki Hosoda. He was the leader of a project team within the LDP that did a survey on "excessive sexual education and gender-free education". Among the items to which this team raised objections were anatomical dolls and other curricular materials "not taking into consideration the age of children", school policies banning traditional boys' and girls' festivals, and mixed-gender physical education. The team sought to provide contrast to the Democratic Party of Japan, which it alleged supported such policies.[13]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard On 20 September 2006, Abe was elected as the president of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party.[14] His chief competitors for the position were Sadakazu Tanigakiand Taro Aso. Yasuo Fukuda was a leading early contender but ultimately chose not to run. Former Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori, to whose faction both Abe and Fukuda belonged, stated that the faction strongly leant toward Abe.[15]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Since 1997, as the bureau chief of "Institute of Junior Assembly Members Who Think About The Outlook of Japan and History Education", Abe supported the controversial Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform and the New History Textbook. He denies the abduction of comfort women by Japanese troops, claims that a history textbook must contribute to the formation of national consciousness, and cites South Korean criticism of the New History Textbook as foreign interference in Japanese domestic affairs.[19]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard In March 2007, Abe along with right-wing politicians have proposed a bill to encourage nationalism and a "love for one's country and hometown" among the Japanese youth (Specific wording from the revised 'fundamental law of education - 教育基本法', which was revised to include 'love of country' despite much criticism). TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Shinzō Abe has generally taken a hard-line stance with respect to North Korea, especially regarding the North Korean abductions of Japanese citizens. In 2002 negotiations between Japan and North Korea, Prime Minister Koizumi and General Secretary Kim Jong-il agreed to give abductees permission to visit Japan. A few weeks into the visit, the Japanese government decided that the abductees would be restricted from returning to North Korea where their families live. Abe took credit for this policy decision in his best-selling book, Toward a Beautiful Nation (美しい国へ Utsukushii kuni e?). North Korea criticized this Japanese decision as a breach of a diplomatic promise, and the negotiations aborted. TOSHIBA NB100-11G Laptop Keyboard On 7 July 2006, North Korea conducted missile tests over the Sea of Japan. Abe, as Chief Cabinet Secretary, cooperated with Foreign Minister Taro Aso to seek sanctions against North Korea in the United Nations Security Council.[citation needed]DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard Abe has publicly recognized the need for improved relations with the People's Republic of China and, along with Foreign Minister Taro Aso, seeks an eventual summit meeting with Chinese paramount leader Hu Jintao.[20] Abe has also said that China–Japan relations should not continue to be based on emotions.[21]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard On 4 August 2006, the Japanese media reported that Shinzō Abe had visited the Yasukuni Shrine (a shrine that includes convicted Class A war criminals in its honored war dead) in April of that year. Abe claimed the visit was of a personal and non-official nature, as Former Prime Minister Koizumi has in the past. The Chinese and South Korean governments expressed concern over the visit.[22][23] Both Abe and Foreign Minister Taro Aso have stated that any visits to Yasukuni are a domestic matter.[17] Abe visited the Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery on 15 August 2007 and abstained from visiting the Yasukuni shrine.[24]HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard Moreover, Abe is respected among politicians in Taiwan who are part of the Pan-Green Coalition seeking Taiwanese independence. Chen Shui-bian welcomed Abe's ministership.[25] Part of Abe's appeal in Taiwan is historical: his grandfather Nobusuke Kishi was pro-Taiwan, and his great-uncle Eisaku Satō was the last prime minister to visit Taiwan while in office.[25]Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard Abe has expressed the need to strengthen political, security, and economic ties within the Southeast Asian region. Abe has increased its allies in its international campaign to counter the North Korean nuclear cards. So far, Abe has successfully visited the Philippines and Indonesia, and although China is not within the Southeast Asian region, Japan has also sought for their support. TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1216 laptop keyboard Shinzō Abe's three-day visit to India in August 2007 was said to be the start of a new Asian alliance, building on the long history of strong, friendly bilateral relations enjoyed by India and Japan. Abe proposed a "Broader Asia" alliance of democracies as a counterweight to China's growing influence in the realm of economics and military power.[citation needed] Abe's initiative was seen to be the "fifth" bilateral link in this emerging scenario whereas the U.S.-Australia, U.S.-Japan, Japan-Australia, and U.S.-India links are already established. A sixth link of the India-Australia is said to be the logical corollary in an attempt to create a new quadrilateral of military cooperation which China has labeled the "Asian NATO".[26]HP Mini 210-2130nr laptop keyboard Abe's India foreign policy was pragmatic, as it was based on boosting Japan's resurgent economic indicators, while gaining a crucial partner in Asia. India, alone amongst all major Asian countries, does not have a history of serious military dispute with Japan. During World War II, Japan became involved in theIndian freedom struggle through supporting Subhas Chandra Bose (a.k.a. Netaji) in order to mould large numbers of Indian British army deserters into the Indian National Army. This, coupled with the lone dissenting judgement by the Indian judge Radhabinod Pal during the War Crime tribunal of Japanese Class A war criminals and the cultural impact of Buddhism, which originated in India, has endeared India to the Japanese.[27]HP Mini 210-2006sa laptop keyboard Abe also sought to revise or broaden the interpretation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution in order to permit Japan to maintain de jure military forces. He had stated that "we are reaching the limit in narrowing down differences between Japan's security and the interpretation of our constitution".[28] During his first period as prime minister he upgraded the Japan Defense Agency to full ministry status.[29] Like his predecessors, he supported the Japanese alliance with the United States.[16]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7206 laptop keyboard After Agricultural Minister Toshikatsu Matsuoka committed suicide, Abe's approval rating remained below 30% for months according to opinion polls of Jiji Press. Abe's ruling Liberal Democratic Party suffered great losses in the upper house election. Another agricultural minister, Norihiko Akagi, who was involved in a political funding scandal, resigned after the election. SONY VAIO VGN-NW Series laptop keyboard In an attempt to revive his administration, Abe announced a new cabinet on 27 August 2007. However, the new agricultural minister Takehiko Endo, involved in a finance scandal, resigned only 7 days later. On 12 September 2007, only three days after a new parliamentary session had begun, Abe announced his intention to resign his position as prime minister at an unscheduled press conference.[30][31] Abe said his unpopularity was hindering the passage of an anti-terrorism law, involving among other things Japan's continued military presence in Afghanistan. Party officials also said the embattled prime minister was suffering from poor health.[32] On 26 September 2007 Abe officially ended his term as Yasuo Fukuda became the new Prime Minister of Japan.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard On 26 September 2012, Abe won election to again become president of the opposition Liberal Democratic Party. A record number of five candidates ran in the presidential election.[33] He had taken a tough stance against China in the Senkaku Islands dispute. Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda dissolved the house on 16 November 2012 for an early election, and under the leadership of Abe the LDP won an absolute majority in the December 16, 2012 general election. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard On 26 December 2012, Abe was elected Prime Minister by the Diet in a landslide victory, winning the support of 328 members of the 480-seat lower house.[34] Abe's first priority will be to revive the weak Japanese economy."With the strength of my entire cabinet, I will implement bold monetary policy, flexible fiscal policy and a growth strategy that encourages private investment, and with these three policy pillars, achieve results," said Abe at a news conference following his victory.[35] Abe has also said he is in favour of building Japan's nuclear reactors following the Fukushima disaster,[36] and has also announced plans to strengthen relations with the United States. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard His first budget saw an increase in defense spending and manpower and a cut in foreign aid.[37] Abe is widely viewed as a right-wing nationalist.[38][39][40] Rupert Wingfield-Hayes of BBC described him as "far more right wing than most of his predecessors."[41] Since 1997, as the bureau chief of the 'Institute of Junior Assembly Members Who Think About the Outlook of Japan and History Education', Abe led the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform. On his official homepage[42] he questions the extent to which coercion was applied toward the Comfort Women, SONY VAIO VGN-CS115J/R laptop keyboard dismissing Korean "revisionism" as foreign interference in Japanese domestic affairs. In a Diet session on 6 October 2006, Abe revised his statement regarding comfort women, and said that he accepted the report issued in 1993 by the sitting cabinet secretary,Yōhei Kōno, where the Japanese government officially acknowledged the issue. Later in the session, Abe stated his belief that Class A war criminals are not criminals under Japan's domestic law.[43]HP Mini 311-1042TU laptop keyboard In a meeting of the Lower House Budget Committee in February 2006, Shinzō Abe said, 'There is a problem as to how to define aggressive wars; we cannot say it is decided academically',[44] and 'It is not the business of the government to decide how to define the last world war. I think we have to wait for the estimation of historians'.[44] However, on a TV program in July 2006[45] he denied that Manchukuo was a puppet state. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard Abe published a book called Toward a Beautiful Nation (美しい国へ Utsukushii kuni e?) in July 2006, which became a bestseller in Japan. In this book, he says that Class A war criminals (those charged with crimes against peace) who were adjudicated in the Tokyo Tribunal after World War II were not war criminals in the eye of domestic law.[citation needed] The Korean and Chinese governments, as well as noted academics and commentators, have voiced concern about Abe's historical views.[46][47][48]Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard In March 2007, in response to a United States Congress resolution by Mike Honda, Abe denied any government coercion in the recruitment of comfort women duringWorld War II,[49] in line with a statement made almost ten years before on the same issue, in which Abe voiced his opposition to the inclusion of the subject of military prostitution in several school textbooks and then denied any coercion in the "narrow" sense of the word, environmental factors notwithstanding.[50]Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard However, it provoked negative reaction from Asian and Western countries, for example, a New York Times editorial on 6 March 2007: What part of 'Japanese Army sex slaves' does Japan's prime minister, Shinzo Abe, have so much trouble understanding and apologizing for? ... These were not commercial brothels. Force, explicit and implicit, was used in recruiting these women. What went on in them was serial rape, not prostitution. The Japanese Army's involvement is documented in the government's own defense files. A senior Tokyo official more or less apologized for this horrific crime in 1993... HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Yesterday, [Abe] grudgingly acknowledged the 1993 quasi-apology, but only as part of a pre-emptive declaration that his government would reject the call, now pending in the United States Congress, for an official apology. America isn't the only country interested in seeing Japan belatedly accept full responsibility. Korea and China are also infuriated by years of Japanese equivocations over the issue.[51]HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard A Washington Post editorial, "Shinzo Abe's Double Talk" (24 March 2007), also criticized him: "he's passionate about Japanese victims of North Korea—and blind to Japan's own war crimes".[52] The Asahi Shimbun also accused Abe and Shōichi Nakagawa of censoring a 2001 NHK program concerning "The Women's International War Crimes Tribunal".[53] The "tribunal" was a private committee to adjudicate comfort women; about 5,000 people including 64 casualties from Japan and abroad attended. The committee members, HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard who claimed to be specialists of international law, claimed that Emperor Hirohito and the Japanese government were responsible for the use of comfort women. The TV program, however, did not mention the full name of the tribunal and keywords such as 'Japanese troops' or 'sexual slavery', and it also cut the sight of the tribunal, the host grouping, statements of the organizer, and the judgement itself. Instead, it presented criticism against the tribunal by a right-wing academic and his statement that 'there was no abduction of sex slaves and they were prostitutes'.[54]SONY VAIO VGN-FS640 Laptop Keyboard On the day following the Asahi Shimbun report, Akira Nagai, the chief producer and primary person responsible for the program, held a press conference and ensured the report of the Asahi Shimbun. Abe stated that the content "had to be broadcasted from a neutral point of view" and "what I did is not to give political pressure". Abe said "It was a political terrorism by Asahi Shimbun and it was tremendously clear that they had intention to inhume me and Mr. Nakagawa politically, HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard and it is also clear that it was complete fabrication." He also characterized the tribunal as a "mock trial" and raised objection to the presence of North Korean prosecutors singling them out as agents of North Korean government.[55] Abe's actions in the NHK incident have been criticized as being both illegal (violating the Broadcast Law) and unconstitutional (violating the Japanese Constitution).[56]HP Mini 210-1190NR Laptop Keyboard A news program aired on TBS on 21 July 2006 about a secret biological weapons troop of Imperial Japanese Army called 'Unit 731', along with a picture panel of Shinzō Abe, who has no relation to the report. Abe said in a press conference, "It is a truly big problem if they want to injure my political life". TheMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications inquired into fact relevance and stated that there had been an omission in editing the TV program fairly, making an administrative direction of exceptional stringent warning based upon Broadcast Law. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard On 24 October 2006, a report emerged that Abe's new administration had called on the NHK to "pay attention" to the North Korean abductees issue.[57] Critics, some even within Abe's own LDP party, charged that the government was violating freedom of expression by meddling in the affairs of the public broadcaster. SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard In December 2006, it was revealed that former Prime-Minister Junichiro Koizumi's government, in which Abe was Chief Cabinet Secretary, had influenced town hall style meetings, during which paid performers would ask government officials favorable questions.[58]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard On 22 November 2012, it was reported that Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS) early morning TV show "Asazuba" accidentally displayed Abe's photo alongside a news report about an NHK announcer's arrest for a sex offense. Despite having no relation to the incident whatsoever, Abe's face filled viewers' screens along with the name of NHK announcer Takeshige Morimoto, who anchors NHK's "Ohayo Nippon" program on Saturday and Sunday. Morimoto was arrested for allegedly groping a woman on the train. Abe posted on his public Facebook page "SONY 147915321 Laptop Keyboard This morning on the TBS show 'Asazuba,' when a newscaster reported on a story regarding the apprehension of a molester, a photo of me was shown. Images of this blunder can now be seen clearly across the Internet, Have the slander campaigns already begun!? If this were merely an accident, it would be proper for the TV station to give me a personal apology, but as yet I haven't heard a single word." The newscaster acknowledged that the incorrect image had been displayed, but merely stated that the photo was "unrelated" and did not refer to the politician by name. Neither Abe nor his office have received any form of apology.[59]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Abe has visited the controversial Yasukuni Shrine on many occasions. While serving as Chief Cabinet Secretary in the government of Junichiro Koizumi he visited in April 2006, prompting South Korea to describe the trip as "regrettable".[60] He didn't visit while Prime Minister from September 2006 – September 2007, unlike Kouizumi, who had visited yearly while in office. Abe not visiting the shrine prompted a Japanese nationalist named Yoshihiro Tanjo to cut off his own little finger in protest and mail it to the LDP.[61]DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard In 2012 Abe visited the shrine on 15 August, the anniversary of the end of the World War II. While campaigning for the presidency of the LDP, Abe said that he regretted not visiting the shrine while Prime Minister.[62] After winning the presidency, he visited it again on 17 October. He said this was in an official capacity as the president of the Liberal Democratic Party.[63]TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi is a third-generation politician. His father, Junya Koizumi, was director general of the Japan Defense Agency and a member of the Diet. His grandfather, Koizumi Matajirō, was Minister of Posts and Telecommunications under Prime Ministers Hamaguchi and Wakatsuki and an early advocate of postal privatization. See Koizumi family. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Born in Yokosuka, Kanagawa prefecture on 8 January 1942, Koizumi was educated at Yokosuka High School and Keio University, where he studied economics. He attended University College London before returning to Japan in August 1969 upon the death of his father. GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard He stood for election to the lower house in December; however, he did not earn enough votes to win election as a Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) representative. In 1970, he was hired as a secretary to Takeo Fukuda, who was Minister of Finance at the time and was elected as Prime Minister in 1976. In the general elections of December 1972, Koizumi was elected as a member of the Lower House for the Kanagawa 11th district. He joined Fukuda's faction within the LDP. Since then, he has been re-elected ten times. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi gained his first senior post in 1979 as Parliamentary Vice Minister of Finance, and his first ministerial post in 1988 as Minister of Health and Welfare under Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita. He held cabinet posts again in 1992 (Minister of Posts and Telecommunications in the Miyazawa cabinet) and 1996–1998 (Minister of Health and Welfare in theUno and Hashimoto cabinets). DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard In 1994, with the LDP in opposition, Koizumi became part of a new LDP faction, Shinseiki, made up of younger and more motivated parliamentarians led by Taku Yamasaki, Koichi Kato and Koizumi, a group popularly dubbed "YKK" (after the YKK Group well known for manufacturing zippers). He competed for the presidency of the LDP in September 1995 and July 1998, but he gained little support losing decisively to Ryutaro Hashimoto and then Keizō Obuchi, both of whom had broader bases of support within the party. However, after Yamasaki and Kato were humiliated in a disastrous attempt to force a vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori in 2000, Koizumi became the last remaining credible member of the YKK trio, which gave him leverage over the reform-minded wing of the party. GATEWAY MT3422 Laptop Keyboard On 24 April 2001, Koizumi was elected president of the LDP. He was initially considered an outside candidate against Hashimoto, who was running for his second term as Prime Minister. However, in the first poll of prefectural party organizations, Koizumi won 87 to 11 percent; in the second vote of Diet members, Koizumi won 51 to 40 percent. He defeated Hashimoto by a final tally of 298 to 155 votes.[2] He was made Prime Minister of Japan on 26 April, and his coalition secured 78 of 121 seats in the Upper House elections in July. DELL NSK-DG101 Laptop Keyboard DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard commercial banks, privatize the postal savings system, and reorganize the factional structure of the LDP. He spoke of the need for a period of painful restructuring in order to improve the future. SONY KFRSBA019A laptop keyboard In the fall of 2002, Koizumi appointed Keio University economist and frequent television commentator Heizō Takenaka as Minister of State for Financial Services and head of the Financial Services Agency (FSA) to fix the country's banking crisis. Bad debts of banks were dramatically cut with the NPL ratio of major banks approaching half the level of 2001. The Japanese economy has been through a slow but steady recovery, and the stock market has dramatically rebounded. The GDP growth for 2004 was one of the highest among G7 nations, according to theInternational Monetary Fund and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.[citation needed] Takenaka was appointed as a Postal Reform Minister in 2004 for the privatization of Japan Post, operator of the country's Postal Savings system. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard Koizumi moved the LDP away from its traditional rural agrarian base toward a more urban, neoliberal core, as Japan's population grew in major cities and declined in less populated areas, although under current purely geographical districting, rural votes in Japan are still many times more powerful than urban ones. In addition to the privatization of Japan Post (which many rural residents fear will reduce their access to basic services such as banking), Koizumi also slowed down the LDP's heavy subsidies for infrastructure and industrial development in rural areas. These tensions made Koizumi a controversial but popular figure within his own party and among the Japanese electorate. HP Pavilion dv6-2180ep laptop keyboard Koizumi has often been noted for his controversial visits to the Yasukuni Shrine, starting on 13 August 2001. He visited the shrine six times as prime minister. Because the shrine honors Japan's war dead, which also include many convicted Japanese war criminals and 14 executed Class A war criminals, these visits drew strong condemnation and protests from both Japan's neighbours, HP Pavilion dv6-2015sw laptop keyboard mainly China and South Korea, and many Japanese citizens. China and South Korea's people hold bitter memories of Japanese invasion and occupation during the first half of the 20th century. China and South Korea refused to have their representatives meet Koizumi in Japan and their countries. There were no mutual visits between Chinese and Japanese leaders from October 2001, and between South Korean and Japanese leaders from June 2005. The standstill ended when the next prime minister Abe visited China and South Korea in October 2006. SONY VAIO VGN NR430E laptop keyboard In China, the visits led to massive anti-Japanese riots. The president, ruling and opposition parties, and much of the media of South Korea openly condemned Koizumi's pilgrimages.[5] Many Koreans applauded the president's speeches criticizing Japan, despite the South Korean President'slow popularity. When asked about the reaction, Koizumi said the speeches were "for the domestic (audience)". GATEWAY M-6851 laptop keyboard Although Koizumi signed the shrine's visitor book as "Junichiro Koizumi, the Prime Minister of Japan", he claimed that his visits were as a private citizen and not an endorsement of any political stance.[6] China and Korea found the claims weak as excuses. Several journals and news reports in Japan, such as one published by Kyodo News Agency on 15 August 2006, questioned Koizumi's statement of private purpose, as he recorded his position on the shrine's guestbook as prime minister. He visited the shrine annually in fulfillment of a campaign pledge. Koizumi's last visit as prime minister was on 15 August 2006, fulfilling a campaign pledge to visit on the anniversary of Japan's surrender in World War II.[7]DELL NSK-DG101 laptop keyboard Eleven months after his resignation as prime minister, Koizumi revisited the shrine on 15 August 2007, to mark the 62nd anniversary of Japan's surrender inWorld War II. His 2007 visit attracted less attention from the media than his prior visits while he was in office.[8][9]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi was at certain points in his tenure an extremely popular leader. Most people know him very well due to his trademark wavy grey hair. His outspoken nature and colourful past contributed to that; his nicknames included "Lionheart", due to his hair style and fierce spirit, and "Maverick".[2] During his tenure in office, the Japanese public referred to him as Jun-chan(the suffix "chan" in the Japanese language is used as a term of familiarity, typically between children, "Jun" is a contraction of Junichiro). In June 2001, he enjoyed an approval rating of 85 percent.[11]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In January 2002, Koizumi sacked his popular Foreign Minister Makiko Tanaka, replacing her with Yoriko Kawaguchi. Following an economic slump and a series of LDP scandals that claimed the career of YKK member Koichi Kato, by April Koizumi's popularity rating had fallen 40 percentage points since his nomination as prime minister.[12]HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard Koizumi was re-elected in 2003 and his popularity surged as the economy recovered. His proposal to cut pension benefits as a move to fiscal reform turned out to be highly unpopular. Two visits to North Korea to solve the issue of abducted Japanese nationals only somewhat raised his popularity, as he could not secure several abductee's returns to Japan. In the House of Councilors elections in 2004, the LDP performed only marginally better than the opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard In 2005, the House of Councilors rejected the contentious postal privatization bills. Koizumi previously made it clear that he would dissolve the lower house if the bill failed to pass. The Democratic Party, while expressing support for the privatization, made a tactical vote against the bill. Fifty-one LDP members also either voted against the bills or abstained.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard On 8 August 2005, Koizumi, as promised, dissolved the House of Representatives and called for snap elections. He expelled rebel LDP members for not supporting the bill. The LDP's chances for success were initially uncertain; the secretary general of New Komeito (a junior coalition partner with Koizumi's Liberal Democratic Party) said that his party would entertain forming a coalition government with the Democratic Party of Japan if the DPJ took a majority in the House of Representatives.[13]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi's popularity rose almost twenty points after he dissolved the House and expelled rebel LDP members. Opinion polls ranked the government's approval ratings between 51 and 59 percent. The electorate saw the election in terms of a vote for or against reform of the postal service, which the Democratic Party and rebel LDP members were seen as being against.[citation needed]HP G56-118CA Laptop Keyboard The September 2005 elections were the LDP's largest victory since 1986, giving the party a large majority in the House of Representatives and nullifying opposing voices in the House of Councilors. In the following Diet session, the last to be held under Koizumi's government, the LDP passed 82 of its 91 proposed bills, including postal privatization.[4] HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard practice known as omiai. The wedding ceremony at the Tokyo Prince Hotel was attended by about 2,500 people, including Takeo Fukuda (then Prime Minister), and featured a wedding cake shaped like the National Diet Building.[15]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard The marriage ended in divorce in 1982, as Kayoko was reportedly unhappy with her married life for several reasons.[15] After this divorce, Koizumi never married again, saying that divorce consumed ten times more energy than marriage.[16]SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi had custody of two of his three sons: Kōtarō Koizumi and Shinjirō Koizumi, who were reared by one of his sisters. Shinjiro is the representative forKanagawa's 11th district, a position his father has also fi

lled. The youngest son, Yoshinaga Miyamoto, now a graduate of Keio University, was born following the divorce[17] and has never met Koizumi. The third son is known to have attended one of Koizumi's rallies, but was turned away from trying to meet his father. He was also turned away from attending his paternal grandmother's funeral.[18]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Koizumi is a fan of Richard Wagner, the heavy metal band X Japan [19] and has released a CD of his favorite pieces by contemporary Italian composer Ennio Morricone.[20] Koizumi is also a noted fan of Elvis Presley, with whom he shares a birthday (8 January). In 2001 he released a collection of his favorite Elvis songs on CD, with his comments about each song. His brother is Senior Advisor of the Tokyo Elvis Fan Club. Koizumi and his brother helped finance a statue of Elvis in Tokyo's Harajuku district. On 30 June 2006, Koizumi visited Presley's estate, Graceland, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard accompanied by U.S. President George W. Bush, and First Lady Laura Bush. After arriving inMemphis aboard Air Force One, they headed to Graceland. While there, Koizumi briefly sang a few bars of his favourite Elvis tunes, whilst warmly impersonating Presley, and wearing Presley's trademark oversized golden sunglasses.[21]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Koizumi also appreciates Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. On 8 September 2006, he and Finnish Prime Minister Matti Vanhanenvisited the Sibelius' home, where Koizumi showed respect to the late composer with a moment of silence. He owns reproductions of the manuscripts of all seven symphonies by Sibelius.[citation needed]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, Koizumi made a voice acting appearance in an Ultraman feature film, Mega Monster Battle: Ultra Galaxy Legend The Movie, playing the voice of Ultraman King. Koizumi said he took on the role at the urging of his son Shinjiro.[22] His political career is parodied in a seinen manga, Mudazumo Naki Kaikaku, which re-interprets his life as a mahjong master.[citation needed]TOSHIBA Satellite A105 Series laptop keyboard He has been compared many times to American actor Richard Gere, because of their similar hair style.[23] In 2005, he used the latter as a boost for his falling popularity, by staging an "impromptu ballroom dance performance".[24]TOSHIBA Satellite P100-188 laptop keyboard Yasuo Fukuda (福田 康夫 Fukuda Yasuo?, born 16 July 1936) was the 91st Prime Minister of Japan, serving from 2007 to 2008. He was previously the longest-serving Chief Cabinet Secretary in Japanese history, serving for three and a half years (2000–2004) under Prime Ministers Yoshirō Mori and Junichiro Koizumi.[1]HP Pavilion dv5-1046tx laptop keyboard Following the resignation of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Fukuda was elected as President of the Liberal Democratic Partyand became Prime Minister in September 2007. Fukuda was the first son of a former Japanese Prime Minister (Takeo Fukuda) to also take up the post. TOSHIBA Satellite M305 laptop keyboard On 1 September 2008, Fukuda announced his resignation, triggering another LDP leadership election.[2] Although Japan hosted the G8 summit meeting without mishap during Fukuda's time in office, he himself earned little or no credit from ordinary Japanese, and when he resigned, he became the first of the G8 leaders to leave office.[3]TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST5701 laptop keyboard He is a member of the Club de Madrid, a group of more than 80 former Presidents and Prime ministers of democratic countries, which works to strengthen democratic leadership and governance.[4] Fukuda ran for the House of Representatives in 1990 and won a seat.[1] He was elected deputy director of the Liberal Democratic Party in 1997 and became Chief Cabinet Secretary to Yoshirō Mori in October 2000. He resigned his position as Chief Cabinet Secretary on 7 May 2004 amid a large political scandal related to the Japanese pension system. SAMSUNG N148 laptop keyboard Fukuda was considered a contender for the leadership of the LDP in 2006, but on 21 July he decided that he would not seek the nomination. Instead, Shinzō Abe succeeded Junichiro Koizumi as leader of the LDP and Prime Minister of Japan. HP Mini 210-2030ez laptop keyboard One of his most noted policy goals is to end prime ministerial visits to Yasukuni Shrine. In June 2006, Fukuda joined 134 other lawmakers in proposing a secular alternative to the shrine, citing constitutional concerns.[6] On 1 September 2008, Fukuda announced his resignation, citing reasons related to improving the flow of the political process. FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 laptop keyboard The announcement was sudden, with the call for an emergency press conference issued at 6:00 pm, and the purpose not disclosed until 10 minutes prior to the scheduled start of the press conference. The resignation was widely compared to the sudden resignation of Abe a year earlier. Fukuda said that while Abe's resignation was due to health reasons, his own resignation was motivated by a desire to remove impediments to legislative and political process due to deadlock between his party and the opposition-controlled upper house of the Diet.[2]HP Mini 110-1119NR laptop keyboard The resignation led to another leadership election within the LDP. Taro Aso was viewed as the likely front-runner to replace Fukuda, and was elected a week later.[13] Fukuda's popularity was hit by a controversial medical plan for elderly people, falling below 30% at one stage. He said:[14][15][16] SONY VAIO VGN-SZ440 Laptop Keyboard Today, I have decided to resign. We need a new line-up to cope with a new session of parliament. My decision is based on what I thought the future political situation ought to be. The Democratic Party has tried to stall every bill so it has taken a long time to implement any policies. For the sake of the Japanese people, this should not be repeated. If we are to prioritize the people's livelihoods, there cannot be a political vacuum from political bargaining, or a lapse in policies. We need a new team to carry out policies. HP Pavilion dv6-3167ca Laptop Keyboard Taro Aso was elected to succeed Fukuda as LDP President on 22 September. Fukuda and his cabinet resigned en masse on 24 September 2008, to make way for a new Cabinet headed by Aso. Aso was elected as Prime Minister by the House of Representatives on the same day.[17][18] DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard Following Abe's resignation in September 2007, Fukuda announced that he would run in the Liberal Democratic Party leadership election, which would also determine the prime minister, given the LDP's majority in the House of Representatives. Fukuda received a great deal of support in his bid, including that of the LDP's largest faction, led by Foreign Minister Nobutaka Machimura, of which Fukuda is a member.[1] Finance Minister Fukushiro Nukaga, who initially had intended to run for the leadership, also backed Fukuda.[7] Fukuda's only competitor for the leadership, Taro Aso, publicly acknowledged the likelihood of his own defeat a week before the election.[8] HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard In the election, on 23 September, Fukuda defeated Aso, receiving 330 votes against Aso's 197.[9] Fukuda was formally elected as Japan's 91st prime minister on 25 September.[10] He received 338 votes, almost 100 more than necessary for a majority, in the House of Representatives; although the House of Councillors (the upper house), led by the opposition Democratic Party, elected Ichirō Ozawa over Fukuda by a margin of 133 to 106. This deadlock was then resolved in favor of the lower house's choice, according to Article 67 of the Constitution.[10][11]ACER Aspire 5535 Laptop Keyboard HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard One of the major issues during Fukuda's first months in office was the status of Japan's Indian Ocean refueling mission.[23] After the 11 September attacks and the subsequent invasion of Afghanistan, the Diet passed a bill that allowed Japanese oil tankers to provide fuel for American ships involved in military operations. When Fukuda became Prime Minister he vowed to continue the mission, this despite the fact that the DPJ which opposed the authorization bill now had a majority in the upper house. After several months of debate and aborted attempts at compromise the upper house rejected the bill to continue the mission. However, the bill ultimately became law as Fukuda used the LDP's 2/3 majority in the lower house to win successful passage for the bill.[24]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FS715F Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion DV6-1128tx Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard

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