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4 août 2011 4 04 /08 /août /2011 03:24

Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

There are two branches of government in the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Sony VAIO VGN-CS51B/W Battery

The "revolutionary sector" comprises Revolutionary Leader Gaddafi, the Revolutionary Committees and the remaining members of the 12-person Revolutionary Command Council, which was established in 1969. The historical revolutionary leadership is not elected and cannot be voted out of office; they are in power by virtue of their involvement in the revolution.Sony VAIO VGN-CS52JB/W Battery

The second sector, the Jamahiriya sector, comprises Basic People's Congresses in each of the 1,500 urban wards, 32 Sha'biyat People's Congresses for the regions, and the National General People's Congress. These legislative bodies are represented by corresponding executive bodies Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/P Battery

(Local People's Committees, Sha'biyat People's Committees and the National General People's Committee/Cabinet).

Every four years, the membership of the Basic People's Congresses elects their own leaders and the secretaries for the People's Committees, sometimes after many debates and a critical vote. Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/Q Battery

The leadership of the Local People's Congress represents the local congress at the People's Congress of the next level. The members of the National General People's Congress elect the members of the National General People's Committee (the Cabinet) at their annual meeting.Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/R Battery

The government controls both state-run and semi-autonomous media. In cases involving a violation of "certain taboos", the private press, like The Tripoli Post has been censored, although articles that are critical of policies have been requested and intentionally published by the revolutionary leadership itself as a means of initiating reforms.Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/P Battery

Libya is the most censored country in the Middle East and North Africa, according to the Freedom of the Press Index.[90]

Political parties were banned by the 1972 Prohibition of Party Politics Act Number 71.According to the Association Act of 1971, the establishment of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) is allowed. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/Q Battery

However, because they are required to conform to the goals of the revolution, their numbers are small in comparison with those in neighbouring countries. Trade unions do not exist, but numerous professional associations are integrated into the state structure as a third pillar, along with the People's Congresses and Committees. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/R Battery

These associations do not have the right to strike. Professional associations send delegates to the General People's Congress, where they have a representative mandate.

The Libyan Army numbered 25,000 men—before the uprise—plus the same number of conscripts. Its equipment comprises weapons mainly of Soviet/Russian origin.Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/P Battery

National Transitional Council

The National Transitional Council is a political body formed to represent Libya by anti-Gaddafi forces during the 2011 Libyan civil war. On 5 March 2011 the council declared itself to be the "sole representative of all Libya". Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/Q Battery

By July of that year it had become recognized by at least 32 countries, including France,  Qatar, Italy,  Germany, Canada[99] and Turkey.[100] It is also supported by several other Arab[101] and European countries.  The council formed an interim governing body, the Executive Board, on 23 March 2011 with Mahmoud Jibril as the Chairman.Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/R Battery

TheUnited States switched official recognition from the Gaddafi government to the National Transitional Council on 15 July 2011.

Libya's foreign policies have fluctuated since 1951. As a Kingdom, Libya maintained a definitively pro-Western stance,Sony VAIO VGN-CS71B/W Battery

and was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States (the present-day Arab League), of which it became a member in 1953.  The government was also friendly towards Western countries such as the United Kingdom, United States, France, Italy, Greece, and established full diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1955.Sony VAIO VGN-CS72JB/W Battery

Although the government supported Arab causes, including the Moroccan and Algerian independence movements, it took little active part in the Arab-Israeli dispute or the tumultuous inter-Arab politics of the 1950s and early 1960s. The Kingdom was noted for its close association with the West, while it steered a conservative course at home.Sony VAIO VGN-CS90HS Battery

Libya under Gaddafi

After the 1969 coup, Muammar Gaddafi closed American and British bases and partly nationalized foreign oil and commercial interests in Libya.

On 11 June 1972, Gaddafi announced that any Arab wishing to volunteer for Palestinian armed groups "can register his name at any Libyan embassy will be given adequate training for combat". He also promised financial support for attacks.Sony VAIO VGN-CS90NS Battery

On 7 October 1972, Gaddafi praised the Lod Airport massacre, carried out by the Japanese Red Army, and demanded Palestinian terrorist groups to carry out similar attacks.

Gaddafi created the Islamic Legion, a mercenary group associated with Arab supremacism.Sony VAIO VGN-CS90S Battery

He also played a key role in promoting oil embargoes as a political weapon, hoping that an oil price rise and embargo in 1973 would persuade the West to end support for Israel.

In 1973 the Irish Naval Service intercepted the vessel Claudia in Irish territorial waters, which carried Soviet arms from Libya to the Provisional IRA.Sony VAIO VGN-CS91HS Battery

In 1976 after a series of terror attacks by theProvisional IRA, Gaddafi announced that "the bombs which are convulsing Britain and breaking its spirit are the bombs of Libyan people. We have sent them to the Irish revolutionaries so that the British will pay the price for their past deeds".Sony VAIO VGN-CS91NS Battery

Gaddafi was a close supporter of Ugandan President Idi Amin. Gaddafi was not alone – the Soviet Union armed Amin and East German Stasi agents came to build Amin's repression machinery.  Gaddafi shipped troops to fight against Tanzania on behalf of Idi Amin.Sony VAIO VGN-CS91S Battery

About 600 Libyan soldiers lost their lives attempting to defend the collapsing presidency of Amin,[117]during which Amin's government killed hundreds of thousands of Ugandans.

Gaddafi aided Jean-Bedel Bokassa, the Emperor of the Central African Empire.Sony VAIO VGN-CS92DS Battery

Together with Moscow and Fidel Castro, Gaddafi supported Soviet protege Haile Mariam Mengistu,[118] who was later convicted for a genocide that killed thousands at least.

In October 1981 Egypt's President Anwar Sadat was assassinated. Gaddafi applauded the murder and remarked that it was a punishment.Sony VAIO VGN-CS92JS Battery

Neighboring Arab countries and the United States became concerned of Gaddafi's policies, and they made a deal to increase in military credits and training.

In April 1984, Libyan refugees in London protested against execution of two dissidents. Libyan diplomats shot at 11 people and killed a British policewoman.Sony VAIO VGN-CS92XS Battery

The incident led to the breaking off ofdiplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Libya for over a decade.

Gaddafi asserted in June 1984 that he wanted his agents to assassinate dissident refugees even when they were on pilgrimage in the holy city of Mecca. In August 1984, one Libyan plot in Mecca was thwarted by Saudi Arabian police.Sony VAIO VGN-FW11E Battery

After December 1985 Rome and Vienna airport attacks, which killed 19 and wounded around 140, Gaddafi indicated that he would continue to support the Red Army Faction, the Red Brigades, and the Irish Republican Army as long as European countries support anti-Gaddafi Libyans.Sony VAIO VGN-FW11L Battery

The Foreign Minister of Libya also called the massacres "heroic acts".

In 1986 Libyan state television announced that Libya was training suicide squads to attack American and European interests.

Gaddafi claimed the Gulf of Sidra as his territorial water and his navy was involved in a conflict from January to March 1986.Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery

On 5 April 1986, Libyan agents bombed "La Belle" nightclub in West Berlin, killing three people and injuring 229 people who were spending the evening there. Gaddafi's plan was intercepted by Western intelligence. More detailed information was retrieved years later when Stasi archives were investigated by the reunited Germany. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S Battery

Libyan agents who had carried out the operation from the Libyan embassy in East Germany were prosecuted by reunited Germany in the 1990s.

Germany and the United States learned that the bombing in West Berlin had been ordered from Tripoli. On 14 April 1986, the United States carried out Operation El Dorado Canyon against Gaddafi and members of his regime. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery

Air defenses, three army bases, and two airfields in Tripoli and Benghazi were bombed. The surgical strikes failed to kill Gaddafi but he lost a few dozen military officers.

Gaddafi announced that he had won a spectacular military victory over the United States and the country was officially renamed the "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah".Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H Battery

However, his speech appeared devoid passion and even the "victory" celebrations appeared unusual. Criticism of Gaddafi by ordinary Libyan citizens became more bold, such as defacing of Gaddafi posters.[122]The raids against Gaddafi had brought the regime to its the weakest point in 17 years.Sony VAIO VGN-FW140AE Battery

Many Western European countries took action against Libyan terror and other activities following years.

Gaddafi fueled a number of Islamist and communist terrorist groups in the Philippines. The country still struggles with their murders and kidnappings.Sony VAIO VGN-FW140D Battery

Gaddafi fueled paramilitaries in the Oceania. He attempted to radicalized New Zealand's Maoris.[45] In Australia he financed trade unions and some politicians. In May 1987, Australia deported diplomats and broke off relations with Libya because of the activities in the Oceania.Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E Battery

In late 1987 French authorities stopped a merchant vessel, the MV Eksund, which was delivering a 150 ton Libyan arms shipment to European terrorist groups.

In 1991, two Libyan intelligence agents were indicted by prosecutors in the United States and United Kingdom for their involvement in the December 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E/H Battery

Six other Libyans were put on trial in absentia for the 1989 bombing of UTA Flight 772 over Chad and Niger. The UN Security Council demanded that Libya surrender the suspects, cooperate with the Pan Am 103 and UTA 772 investigations, pay compensation to the victims' families, and cease all support for terrorism. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E/W Battery

Libya's refusal to comply led to the approval of Security Council Resolution 748 on March 31, 1992, imposing international sanctions on the state designed to bring about Libyan compliance. Continued Libyan defiance led to further sanctions by the UN against Libya in November 1993. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140FE Battery

Gaddafi trained and supported Charles Taylor, who was indicted by the Special Court for Sierra Leone for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the conflict in Sierra Leone.

Libya had close ties with Slobodan Miloševi?'s regime. Gaddafi aligned himself with the Orthodox Serbs against Bosnia's Muslims and Kosovo's Albanians. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140N Battery

Gaddafi supported Miloševi? even when Miloševi? was charged with large-scale ethnic cleansing against Albanians in Kosovo.

In 1999, less than a decade after the sanctions were put in place, Libya began to make dramatic policy changes in regard to the Western world, including turning over the Lockerbie suspects for trial.Sony VAIO VGN-FW140N/W Battery

This diplomatic breakthrough followed years of negotiation, including a visit by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to Libya in December 1998, and personal appeals by Nelson Mandela. Eventually UK Foreign Secretary Robin Cook persuaded the Americans to accept a trial of the suspects in the Netherlands under Scottish law, Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E Battery

with the UN Security Council agreeing to suspend sanctions as soon as the suspects arrived in the Netherlands for trial.

Following the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003, Gaddafi decided to abandon his weapons of mass destruction programmes and pay almost 3 billion US dollars in compensation to the families of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772.Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E/W Battery

The decision was welcomed by many western nations and was seen as an important step toward Libya rejoining the international community. Since 2003 the country has made efforts to normalize its ties with the European Union and the United States and has even coined the catchphrase,Sony VAIO VGN-FW160AE Battery

'The Libya Model', an example intended to show the world what can be achieved through negotiation, rather than force, when there is goodwill on both sides. By 2004 George W. Bush had lifted the economic sanctions and official relations resumed with the United States. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160D Battery

Libya opened a liaison office in Washington, and the United States opened an office in Tripoli. In January 2004, Congressman Tom Lantos led the first official Congressional delegation visit to Libya.

Libya has supported Sudan's President Omar al-Beshir despite charges of a genocide in Darfur.Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E Battery

The release, in 2007, of five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor, who had been held since 1999, charged with conspiring to deliberately infect over 400 children with HIV, was seen as marking a new stage in Libyan-Western relations.

The United States removed Gaddafi's regime, after 27 years, from its list of states sponsoring terrorism.Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E/H Battery

On October 16, 2007, Libya was elected to serve on the United Nations Security Council for two years starting in January 2008.In February 2009, Gaddafi was selected to be chairman of theAfrican Union for one year.

In 2009 the United Kingdom and Libya signed a prisoner-exchange agreement and then Libya requested the transfer of the convicted Lockerbie bomber, who finally returned home in August 2009.Sony VAIO VGN-FW160F/E Battery

As of October 25, 2009, Canadian visa requests were being denied and Canadian travelers were told they were not welcome in Libya, in an apparent reprisal for Canada's near tongue-lashing[vague] of Gaddafi.[141] Specifically, Harper's government was planning to publicly criticize Gadhafi for praising the convicted Lockerbie bomber.Sony VAIO VGN-FW170J/H Battery

Libyan-Swiss relations strongly suffered after the arrest of Hannibal Gadhafi for beating up his domestic servants in Geneva in 2008. In response, Gaddafi removed all his money held in Swiss banks and asked the United Nations to vote to abolish Switzerland as a sovereign nation.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180AE Battery

Libya still provides bounties for heads of refugees who have criticized Gaddafi, including 1 million dollars for Ashur Shamis, a Libyan-British journalist.

Cooperation with Italy

On August 30, 2008, Gaddafi and Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi signed a historic cooperation treaty in Benghazi.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180D Battery

Under its terms, Italy will pay $5 billion to Libya as compensation for its former military occupation. In exchange, Libya will take measures to combat illegal immigration coming from its shores and boost investments in Italian companies.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E Battery

The treaty was ratified by Italy on February 6, 2009,  and by Libya on March 2, during a visit to Tripoli by Berlusconi. In June Gaddafi made his first visit to Rome, where he met Prime Minister Berlusconi, President Giorgio Napolitano,Senate President Renato Schifani, and Chamber President Gianfranco Fini, among others.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E/H Battery

The Democratic Party and Italy of Values opposed the visit, and many protests were staged throughout Italy by human rights organizations and the Italian Radicals. Gaddafi also took part in the 35th G8 summit in L'Aquila in July 2009 asChairman of the African Union.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180FU Battery

Since 2008, Italy is Libya's principal commercial partner. Numerous commercial agreements have been signed in the oil, infrastructural and financial sectors between both countries. Italy gets a quarter of its oil from Libya.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190EBH Battery

On 4 April 2011, Italy formally switched its diplomatic recognition of the Libyan government from the Tripoli-based jamahiriya to the Benghazi-based National Transitional Council. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190ECH Battery

During the Libyan civil war

Amidst the 2011 Libyan civil war, at least 32 countries as of 29 July 2011 have formally switched their diplomatic recognition from Gaddafi's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to the National Transitional Council, which claims to lead the self-declared Libyan Republic  and represent all of Libya.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190EDH Battery

Officials of the National Transitional Council have asked for foreign aid, including medical supplies,  money, and weapons,  and have promised to pay off their debt to donor countries with oil deals and frozen assets belonging to Gaddafi and his confidants after the civil war ends. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NAH Battery

They have also suggested that countries that were early to offer recognition and countries participating in the international military intervention in Libya may receive more favorable oil contracts and trade deals.[163] Libyan embassy staff are being expelled from the UK as part of efforts to increase pressure on Colonel Gaddafi's regime.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NBH Battery

Human rights

According to the US Department of State’s annual human rights report for 2007, Libya’s authoritarian regime continued to have a poor record in the area of human rights. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NCH Battery

Some of the numerous and serious abuses on the part of the government include poor prison conditions, arbitrary arrest and prisoners held incommunicado, and political prisoners held for many years without charge or trial. The judiciary is controlled by the government, and there is no right to a fair public trial.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NDH Battery

Libyans do not have the right to change their government. Freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, and religion are restricted. Independent human rights organizations are prohibited. Ethnic and tribal minorities suffer discrimination, and the state continues to restrict the labor rights of foreign jobs.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NEH Battery

In 2005 Freedom House rated both political rights and civil liberties in Libya as "7" (1 representing the most free and 7 the least free rating), and gave it the freedom rating of "Not Free".

In May, 2010, Libya was elected by the UN General Assembly to a three-year term on the UN's Human Rights Council.[167] It was suspended from the Human Rights Council in March, 2011.Sony VAIO VGN-FW198U/H Battery

Libya's human rights record was put in the spotlight in February 2011, due to the government's violent response to pro-democracy protesters, which killed hundreds of demonstrators.Sony VAIO VGN-FW260J/B Battery

Administrative divisions and cities

Historically the area of Libya was considered three provinces (or states), Tripolitania in the northwest, Barka (Cyrenaica) in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest.Sony VAIO VGN-FW280J/H Battery

It was the conquest by Italy in theItalo-Turkish War that united them in a single political unit. Under the Italians Libya, in 1934, was divided into four provinces and one territory (in the south): Tripoli, Misrata, Benghazi, Al Bayda, and the Territory of the Libyan Sahara.Sony VAIO VGN-FW290JRB Battery

After independence, Libya was divided into three governorates (muhafazat) and then in 1963 into ten governorates. The governorates were legally abolished in February 1975, and nine "control bureaus" were set up to deal directly with the nine areas, respectively: Sony VAIO VGN-FW290JTB Battery

education, health, housing, social services, labor, agricultural services, communications, financial services, and economy, each under their own ministry.[174] However, the courts and some other agencies continued to operate as if the governorate structure were still in place.Sony VAIO VGN-FW290JTH Battery

In 1983 Libya was split into forty-six districts (baladiyat), then in 1987 into twenty-five.  In 1995, Libya was divided into thirteen districts (shabiyah),[178] in 1998 into twenty-six districts, and in 2001 into thirty-two districts.

The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which constitute practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of gross domestic product (GDP).Sony VAIO VGN-FW290JTW Battery

The discovery of the oil and natural gas reserves in the country in 1959 led to the transformation of Libya's economy from a poor country to (then) Africa's richest. The World Bank defines Libya as an 'Upper Middle Income Economy', along with only seven other African countries.Sony VAIO VGN-FW355J/H Battery

In the early 1980s, Libya was one of the wealthiest countries in the world; its GDP per capita was higher than that of developed countries such as Italy, Singapore, South Korea, Spain and New Zealand. Sony VAIO VGN-FW373J/B Battery

Today, high oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest GDPs per capita in Africa and have allowed the Libyan state to provide an extensive level of social security, particularly in the fields of housing and education. Many problems still beset Libya's economy however; Sony VAIO VGN-FW30B Battery

unemployment is the highest in the region at 21%, according to the latest census figures.

Compared to its neighbors, Libya enjoys a low level of both absolute and relative poverty. Libyan officials in the past six years have carried out economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the global capitalist economy.Sony VAIO VGN-FW50B Battery

This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003, and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programmes to build weapons of mass destruction.[186]

Libya has begun some market-oriented reforms. Initial steps have included applying for membership of the World Trade Organization, reducingsubsidies, and announcing plans for privatisation.Sony VAIO VGN-FW51B/W Battery

Authorities have privatised more than 100 government owned companies since 2003 in industries including oil refining, tourism and real estate, of which 29 are 100% foreign owned. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP,Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF Battery

have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production ofpetrochemicals, iron, steel and aluminum.

Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food.Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

Water is also a problem, with some 28% of the population not having access to safe drinking water in 2000.[189] The Great Manmade River project is tapping into vast underground aquifers of fresh water discovered during the quest for oil, and is intended to improve the country's agricultural output.Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF Battery

Under the previous Prime Minister, Shukri Ghanem, and current Prime Minister Baghdadi Mahmudi, Libya is undergoing a business boom. Many government-run industries are being privatised. Many international oil companies have returned to the country, including oil giants Shell and ExxonMobil.Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery

Tourism is on the rise, bringing increased demand for hotel accommodation and for capacity at airports such as Tripoli International. A multi-million dollar renovation of Libyan airports has recently[when?] been approved by the government to help meet such demands.Sony VAIO VGN-FW52JB Battery

At present 130,000 people visit the country annually; the Libyan government hopes to increase this figure to 10,000,000 tourists. However there is little evidence to suggest the current administration is taking active steps to meet this figure. Libya has long been a notoriously difficult country for western tourists to visit due to stringent visa requirements. Sony VAIO VGN-FW54FB Battery

Since the 2011 protests there has been revived hope that an open society will encourage the return of tourists. Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi, the second-eldest son of Muammar Gaddafi, is involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which seeks to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area.Sony VAIO VGN-FW70DB Battery

Demographics

Fareed Zakaria said in 2011 that "The unusual thing about Libya is that it's a very large country with a very small population, but the population is actually concentrated very narrowly along the coast."Sony VAIO VGN-FW71DB/W Battery

Population density is about 50 persons per km² (130/sq. mi.) in the two northern regions of Tripolitania andCyrenaica, but falls to less than one person per km² (2.6/sq. mi.) elsewhere. Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area, primarily along the coast.Sony VAIO VGN-FW72JGB Battery

About 88% of the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the three largest cities, Tripoli, Benghazi and Misrata. Libya has a population of about 6.5 million, around half of whom are under the age of 15. In 1984 the population reached 3.6 million and was growing at about 4% a year, one of the highest rates in the world. Sony VAIO VGN-FW73JGB Battery

The 1984 population total was an increase from the 1.54 million reported in 1964.

Native Libyans are primarily Arab or a mixture of Arab and Berber ethnicities, with a small minority of Berber-speaking tribal groups and small black African groups like Tuareg and Tebu, which are nomadic or seminomadic.Sony VAIO VGN-FW74FB Battery

Among foreign residents, the largest groups are citizens of other African nations, including North Africans (primarily Egyptians), and Sub-Saharan Africans. In 2011, there were also an estimated 60,000 Bangladeshis, 30,000 Chinese and 30,000 Filipinos in Libya.Sony VAIO VGN-FW81HS Battery

Libya is home to a large illegal population which numbers more than one million, mostly Egyptians and Sub-Saharan Africans. Libya has a small Italian minority. Previously, there was a visible presence of Italian settlers, but many left after independence in 1947 and many more left in 1970 after the accession of Muammar Gaddafi.Sony VAIO VGN-FW81NS Battery

The main language spoken in Libya is Arabic (Libyan dialect) by 95% of the Libyans, and Modern Standard Arabic is also the official language; the Berber languages spoken by 5% (i.e. Berber and Tuareg languages), which do not have official status, are spoken by Berbers and Tuaregs in the south part of the country beside Arabic language.Sony VAIO VGN-FW81S Battery

Berber speakers live above all in the Jebel Nafusa region (Tripolitania), the town of Zuwarah on the coast, and the city-oases of Ghadames, Ghat and Awjila. In addition, Tuaregs speak Tamahaq, the only known Northern Tamasheq language, also Toubou is spoken in some pockets in Qatroun village and Koffra city. Sony VAIO VGN-FW82DS Battery

Italian and English are sometimes spoken in the big cities, although Italian speakers are mainly among the older generation.

There are about 140 tribes and clans in Libya. Family life is important for Libyan families, the majority of which live in apartment blocks and other independent housing units, with precise modes of housing depending on their income and wealth. Sony VAIO VGN-FW82JS Battery

Although the Libyan Arabs traditionally lived nomadic lifestyles in tents, they have now settled in various towns and cities. Because of this, their old ways of life are gradually fading out. An unknown small number of Libyans still live in the desert as their families have done for centuries. Sony VAIO VGN-FW82XS Battery

Most of the population has occupations in industry and services, and a small percentage is in agriculture.

According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Libya hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 16,000 in 2007. Sony VAIO VGN-FW83DS Battery

Of this group, approximately 9,000 persons were from the Former Palestine, 3,200 from Sudan, 2,500 from Somalia and 1,100 from Iraq. Libya reportedly deported thousands of illegal entrants in 2007 without giving them the opportunity to apply for asylum. Refugees faced discrimination from Libyan officials when moving in the country and seeking employment.Sony VAIO VGN-FW83JS Battery

Education

Libya's population includes 1.7 million students, over 270,000 of whom study at the tertiary level.  Basic education in Libya is free for all citizens, and compulsory to secondary level. The literacy rate is the highest in North Africa; over 82% of the population can read and write.Sony VAIO VGN-FW83XS Battery

After Libya's independence in 1951, its first university, the University of Libya, was established in Benghazi by royal decree. In academic year 1975/76 the number of university students was estimated to be 13,418. As of 2004, this number has increased to more than 200,000, with an extra 70,000 enrolled in the higher technical and vocational sector.Sony VAIO VGN-FW90HS Battery

The rapid increase in the number of students in the higher education sector has been mirrored by an increase in the number of institutions of higher education.

Since 1975 the number of universities has grown from two to nine and after their introduction in 1980, Sony VAIO VGN-FW90NS Battery

the number of higher technical and vocational institutes currently stands at 84 (with 12 public universities). Libya's higher education is mostly financed by the public budget, although a small number of private institutions has been given accreditation lately. In 1998 the budget allocated for education represented 38.2% of the national budget.Sony VAIO VGN-FW90S Battery

Religion

By far the predominant religion in Libya is Islam with 97% of the population associating with the faith. The vast majority of Libyan Muslims adhere to Sunni Islam, which provides both a spiritual guide for individuals and a keystone for government policy,Sony VAIO VGN-FW91NS Battery

but a minority (between 5 and 10%) adhere to Ibadism (a branch of Kharijism), above all in the Jebel Nefusa and the town of Zuwarah, west of Tripoli.

Before the 1930s, the Senussi Movement was the primary Islamic movement in Libya. Sony VAIO VGN-FW91S Battery

This was a religious revival adapted to desert life. Its zawaaya(lodges) were found in Tripolitania and Fezzan, but Senussi influence was strongest in Cyrenaica. Rescuing the region from unrest and anarchy, the Senussi movement gave the Cyrenaican tribal people a religious attachment and feelings of unity and purpose.Sony VAIO VGN-FW92DS Battery

This Islamic movement, which was eventually destroyed by both Italian invasion and later the Gaddafi government,  was very conservative and somewhat different from the Islam that exists in Libya today. Gaddafi asserts that he is a devout Muslim, and his government is taking a role in supporting Islamic institutions and in worldwide proselytizing on behalf of Islam.Sony VAIO VGN-FW92JS Battery

A Libyan form of Sufism is also common in parts of the country.Other than the overwhelming majority of Sunni Muslims, there are also small foreign communities of Christians. Coptic Orthodox Christianity, which is the Christian Church of Egypt, is the largest and most historical Christian denomination in Libya. Sony VAIO VGN-FW93DS Battery

There are over 60,000 Egyptian Copts in Libya, as they comprise over 1% of the population.[213][214] There are an estimated 40,000 Roman Catholics in Libya who are served by two Bishops, one in Tripoli (serving the Italian community) and one in Benghazi (serving the Maltese community). Sony VAIO VGN-FW93JS Battery

There is also a small Anglican community, made up mostly of African immigrant workers in Tripoli; it is part of the Anglican Diocese of Egypt.

Libya was until recent times the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BC.Sony VAIO VGN-FW93XS Battery

In 1942 the Italian Fascist authorities set up forced labour camps south of Tripoli for the Jews, including Giado (about 3,000 Jews) and Gharyan, Jeren, and Tigrinna. In Giado some 500 Jews died of weakness, hunger, and disease. Sony VAIO VGN-FW94FS Battery

In 1942, Jews who were not in the concentration camps were heavily restricted in their economic activity and all men between 18 and 45 years were drafted for forced labour. In August 1942, Jews from Tripolitania were interned in a concentration camp at Sidi Azaz. Sony VAIO VGN-FW94GS Battery

In the three years after November 1945, more than 140 Jews were murdered, and hundreds more wounded, in a series of pogroms.  By 1948, about 38,000 Jews remained in the country. Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated.Sony VAIO VGN-FW94HS Battery

Culture

Libya is culturally similar to its neighboring Maghrebian states. Libyans consider themselves very much a part of a wider Arab community. The Libyan state tends to strengthen this feeling by considering Arabic as the only official language, and forbidding the teaching and even the use of the Berber language.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery

Libyan Arabs have a heritage in the traditions of the nomadic Bedouin and associate themselves with a particular Bedouin tribe.

Libya boasts few theatres or art galleries. For many years there have been no public theatres, and only a few cinemas showing foreign films. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery

The tradition of folk culture is still alive and well, with troupes performing music and dance at frequent festivals, both in Libya and abroad.

The main output of Libyan television is devoted to showing various styles of traditional Libyan music. Tuareg music and dance are popular in Ghadames and the south. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery

Libyan television programmes are mostly in Arabic with a 30-minute news broadcast each evening in English and French. The government maintains strict control over all media outlets. A new analysis by the Co

mmittee to Protect Journalists has found Libya’s media the most tightly controlled in the Arab world.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/L Battery

To combat this, the government plans to introduce private media, an initiative intended to update the country's media.

Many Libyans frequent the country's beach and they also visit Libya's archaeological sites—especially Leptis Magna, which is widely considered to be one of the best preserved Roman archaeological sites in the world.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/S Battery

The nation's capital, Tripoli, boasts many museums and archives; these include the Government Library, the Ethnographic Museum, the Archaeological Museum, the National Archives, the Epigraphy Museum and the Islamic Museum. The Jamahiriya Museum, built in consultation with UNESCO, may be the country's most famous.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/W Battery

Contemporary travel

The most common form of public transport between cities is the bus, but many people travel by automobile.  There are no railway services in Libya.Sony VAIO VGN-NS115N/S Battery

Libyan cuisine

Libyan cuisine is generally simple, and is very similar to Sahara cuisine. In many undeveloped areas and small towns, restaurants may be nonexistent, and food stores may be the only source to obtain food products.Sony VAIO VGN-NS11J/S Battery

Some common Libyan foods include couscous, bazeen, which is a type of unsweetened cake, and shurba, which is soup.  Libyan restaurants may serve international cuisine, or may serve simpler fare such as lamb, chicken, vegetable stew, potatoes and macaroni.Alcohol consumption is illegal in the entire country.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/L Battery

There are four main ingredients of traditional Libyan food: olives (and olive oil), palm dates, grains and milk.[225] Grains are roasted, ground, sieved and used for making bread, cakes, soups and bazeen. Dates are harvested, dried and can be eaten as they are, made into syrup or slightly fried and eaten with bsisa and milk. Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/S Battery

After eating, Libyans often drink black tea. This is normally repeated a second time (for the second glass of tea), and in the third round the tea is served with roasted peanuts or roasted almonds (mixed with the tea in the same glass).Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/W Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/L Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/S Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/W Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/L Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/S Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/W Battery

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