Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
31 juillet 2013 3 31 /07 /juillet /2013 07:00

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau  i/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/ (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau, pronounced: [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Senegalto the north and Guinea to the south and east, Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard

with the Atlantic Ocean to its west. It covers 36,125 km² (nearly 14,000 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,600,000. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were part of the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard

It then became the Portuguese colony of Portuguese Guinea in the 19th century. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea. Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since gaining independence, DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term. On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard

The military has yet to declare a current leader for the country.[4] However, former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma has taken care of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties.[5][6] HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

Only 14% of the population speaks the official language, Portuguese. A plurality of the population (44%) speaks Kriol, a Portuguese-based creole language, and the remainder speak native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam, and there is a Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world.  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

Guinea-Bissau is a member of the African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Latin Union, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and theSouth Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone.SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while others were part of the Portuguese Empire.[7] Portuguese Guinea was known also, from its main economic activity, as the Slave Coast. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455,[8] the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse,[9] and Diogo Cão who in the 1480s reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up thus the foundations of modern Angola, some 1200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau.[10] HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, since the 16th century, the interior was not explored until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea,  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, had no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place.[11] African communities that fought back against slave traders had even greater incentives to distrust European adventurers and would-be settlers. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard

The Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore largely limited to the port of Bissau and Cacheu, although isolated European farmer-settlers established farms along Bissau's inland rivers. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

For a brief period in the 1790s, the British attempted to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, atBolama.[12] But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea.[13] DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries.[14] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians.[15] The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated.[16]  HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard

Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following the 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime.[17]  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence local Guinean soldiers that fought along with the Portuguese Army against the PAIGC guerrillas were slaughtered by the thousands. Some managed to escape and settled in Portugal or other African nations.[18] Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC admitted in its newspaper "Nó Pintcha" (dated 29 November 1980) that many were executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard

The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994, but an army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999.[19] Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president.[20] HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

In September 2003, a coup took place in which the military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems".[21] After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira,HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard

deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election, but Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau.[22] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Despite reports that there had been an influx of arms in the weeks leading up to the election and reports of some "disturbances during campaigning"—including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen—foreign election monitors labelled the election as "calm and organized".[23] PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008.[24] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5216 laptop keyboard

In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed.[25] On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai.  HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

Tagme died in an explosion on Sunday, 1 March 2009 in an assassination. Military leaders in the country have pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009,[26] which was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá.  HP Pavilion dv6-3142se laptop keyboard

Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized, and multiparty governance has been in effect since mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-ST3712 laptop keyboard

At the legislative level, there is a unicameral "Assembleia Nacional Popular" (National People's Assembly) made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. At the judicial level, there is a "Tribunal Supremo da Justiça" (Supreme Court) which consists of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president.[27] HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

Until March 2009 João Bernardo "Nino" Vieira was President of Guinea-Bissau. Elected in 2005 as an independent candidate, being declared winner of the second round by the CNE (Comité Nacional de Eleições). SONY VAIO VGN-FS620 laptop keyboard

Vieira returned to power in 2005 after winning the presidential election only six years after being ousted from office during a civil war. Previously, he held power for 19 years after taking power in 1980 in a bloodless coup. In that action, HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard

he toppled the government of Luís Cabral. He was killed on 2 March 2009, possibly by soldiers in retaliation for the killing of the head of the joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Waie.[28] This did not trigger additional violence, but there were signs of turmoil in the country, according to the advocacy group swisspeace.[29] TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard

In 2012, President Rachide Sambu-balde Malam Bacai Sanhá died. He belonged to PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) – one of two major political parties in Guinea-Bissau along with the PRS (Party for Social Renewal) and alongside over twenty smaller parties.[30] SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard

In the 2009 election to replace the assassinated Vieira, Sanhá was the presidential candidate of the PAIGC while Kumba Ialá was the presidential candidate of the PRS.

Guinea-Bissau lies mostly between latitudes 11° and 13°N (a small area is south of 11°), and longitudes 13° and 17°W. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

At 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi), the country is larger in size than Taiwan,Belgium, or the U.S. state of Maryland. This small, tropical country lies at a low altitude; its highest point is 300 metres (984 ft). The interior is savanna, and the coastline is plain with swamps of Guinean mangroves. Its monsoon-like rainy season alternates with periods of hot, dry harmattan winds blowing from the Sahara. The Bijagos Archipelago extends out to sea.[31] HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

Guinea-Bissau's GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and its Human Development Index is one of the lowest on earth. More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line.[33] The economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

A long period of political instability has resulted in depressed economic activity, deteriorating social conditions, and increased macroeconomic imbalances. It takes longer on average to register a new business in Guinea-Bissau (233 days or about 33 weeks) than any other country in the world except Suriname. [The Economist, Pocket World in Figures, 2008 Edition, London: Profile Books] HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

Guinea-Bissau has started to show some economic advances after a pact of stability was signed by the main political parties of the country, leading to an IMF-backed structural reform program.[34] HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

The key challenges for the country in the period ahead would be to achieve fiscal discipline, rebuild public administration, improve the economic climate for private investment, and promote economic diversification. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

After becoming independent from Portugal in 1974 due to the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution, the exodus of the Portuguese civilian, military, and political authorities brought tremendous damage to the country's economic infrastructure, social order, and standard of living. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

After several years of economic downturn and political instability, in 1997, Guinea-Bissau entered the CFA franc monetary system, bringing about some internal monetary stability.[35] The civil war that took place in 1998 and 1999 and a military coup in September 2003 again disrupted economic activity,  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

leaving a substantial part of the economic and social infrastructure in ruins and intensifying the already widespread poverty. Following the parliamentary elections in March 2004 and presidential elections in July 2005, the country is trying to recover from the long period of instability despite a still-fragile political situation. HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard

Beginning around 2005, drug traffickers based in Latin America began to use Guinea-Bissau, along with several neighboring West African nations, HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard

as a transshipment point to Europe for cocaine.[36] The nation was described by a United Nations official as being at risk for becoming a "narco-state". The government and the military have done little to stop drug trafficking, SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

which has increased since the 2012 coup d'état.[37][38]

The population of Guinea-Bissau is ethnically diverse and has many distinct languages, customs, and social structures. Guinea-Bissauans can be divided into the following ethnic groups: Fula and the Mandinka-speaking people, ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard

who comprise the largest portion of the population and are concentrated in the north and northeast; the Balanta and Papel people, who live in the southern coastal regions; and the Manjaco and Mancanha, who occupy the central and northern coastal areas. Most of the remainder are mestiços of mixed Portuguese and African descent, including a Cape Verdean minority.[40] SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

Portuguese natives comprise a very small percentage of Guinea-Bissauans. This deficit was directly caused by the exodus of Portuguese settlers that took place after Guinea-Bissau gained independence. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard

The country has a tiny Chinese population,[41]including those of mixed Portuguese and Chinese ancestry from Macau, a former Asian Portuguese colony.

The WHO estimates that there are fewer than 5 physicians per 100,000 persons in the country,[46] down from 12 per 100,000 in 2007.[47] ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

 The prevalence of HIV-infection among the adult population is 1.8%,[48] with only 20% of infected pregnant women receiving anti retroviral coverage.[49]Malaria is an even bigger killer; 9% of the population have reported infection,[50]  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

and it is the specific mortality cause almost three times as often as AIDS.[51] (In 2008, fewer than half of children younger than five slept under antimalaria nets or had access to antimalarial drugs).[52] ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard

Life expectancy at birth has climbed since 1990, but remains short: the WHO's estimate of life expectancy for a child born in 2008 was 49 years (and only 47 years for a boy).[53] TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

Despite lowering rates in surrounding countries, cholera rates were reported in November 2012 to be on the rise, with 1,500 cases reported and nine deaths. A 2008 cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau affected 14,222 people and killed 225.[54] ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

Education is compulsory from the age of 7 to 13.[57] The enrollment of boys is higher than that of girls.[57] Child labor is very common.[57] A significant minority of the population are illiterate.[58] ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

On the other side, Guinea-Bissau has several secondary schools (general as well as technical) and a surprising number of universities, to which an institutionally autonomous Faculty of Law as well as a Faculty of Medicine[59] have to be added. SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

In 1998, the gross primary enrollment rate was 53.5%, with higher enrollment ratio for males (67.7%) compared to females (40%).[60] Since 2001, Guinea-Bissau has been recovering from the civil conflict of 1999, and later conflicts, which displaced one-third of the population, destroyed many schools, and prevented most young children from attending school for at least half a year.[60] HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery.[55] It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Guinea Bissau is 1000. This is compared with 804.3 in 2008 and 966 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 195 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 24.  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal death. In Guinea Bissau the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 3; one out of eighteen pregnant women die as a result of pregnancy.[56] HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

The music of Guinea-Bissau is usually associated with the polyrhythmic gumbe genre, the country's primary musical export. However, civil unrest and other factors have combined over the years to keep gumbe, and other genres, out of mainstream audiences, even in generally syncretist African countries.[61] GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

The calabash is the primary musical instrument of Guinea-Bissau,[62] and is used in extremely swift and rhythmically complexdance music. Lyrics are almost always in Guinea-Bissau Creole, a Portuguese-based creole language, and are often humorous and topical, revolving around current events and controversies, especially AIDS.[63]  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard

The word gumbe is sometimes used generically, to refer to any music of the country, although it most specifically refers to a unique style that fuses about ten of the country's folk music traditions.[64] Tina and tinga are other popular genres,  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

while extent folk traditions include ceremonial music used in funerals,initiations and other rituals, as well as Balanta brosca and kussundé, Mandinga djambadon, and the kundere sound of the Bissagos Islands.[65] HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most famous film is "Nha Fala", English: "My Voice".[66] Gomes' Mortu Nega (Death Denied) (1988)[67] was the first fiction film and the second feature film ever made in Guinea-Bissau. (The first feature film was N’tturudu, by director Umban u’Kestin 1987.) ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

At FESPACO 1989, Mortu Nega won the prestigious Oumarou Ganda Prize. Mortu Nega is in Creole language with English subtitles. In 1992, Gomes directedUdju Azul di Yonta,[68] which was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival.[69] Gomes has also served on the boards of many Africa-centric film festivals.[70]  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

The Portuguese Crown commissioned its navigators to explore the Atlantic coast of West Africa to find the sources of gold. The gold trade was controlled by Morocco, and Muslim caravan routes across the Sahara also carried salt, kola, textiles, fish, grain, and slaves.[1] APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

 The navigators first passed the obstruction of Cape Bojador in 1437 and were able to explore the West African coast as far as Sierra Leone by 1460 and colonize the Cape Verde islands from 1456. The gold ultimately came from the upper reaches of the Niger River and Volta River and the Portuguese crown aimed to divert the gold trade towards the coast. SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard

To control this trade, the king ordered the building of a castle, called São Jorge da Mina (now Elmina Castle) on the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1482 and other trading posts. The Portuguese government instituted the Company of Guinea to deal with the trading and to fix the prices of the goods.[2] Besides gold, ivory, SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard

Melegueta pepper and slaves were traded. It is estimated that the Atlantic Slave trade transported around 11 million people from Africa between 1440 and 1870, including 2 million from Senegambia or Upper Guinea.[3]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

This area was the source of an estimated 150,000 African slaves transported by the Portuguese, mainly from Upper Guinea before 1500, some used to grow cotton and indigo in the previously uninhabited Cape Verde islands.[4] HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

Portuguese traders and exiled criminals penetrated the rivers and creeks of Upper Guinea forming a mulatto population using Portuguese-based Creole language as their lingua franca. However, after 1500 the main area of Portuguese interest, both for gold and slaves, was further south in the Gold Coast.[5] HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard

At the start of the 17th century, the main Portuguese bases for the export of slaves were Santiago, Cape Verde for the Upper Guinea traffic, and São Tomé Island for the Gulf of Guinea. In the 1630s and 1640s, SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

the Dutch drove the Portuguese from most of the Gold Coast, but they retained a foothold at São João de Ajuda, now called Ouidah inBenin, as they preferred to acquire slaves from the Gulf of Guinea rather than Upper Guinea before the 1750s. HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard

In the 17th century, the French at Saint-Louis, Senegal, the English at Kunta Kinteh Island on the Gambia River and Dutch atGorée had established bases in Upper Guinea.[6] HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

The very weak Portuguese position in Upper Guinea was strengthened by the first Marquess of Pombal who promoted the supply of slaves from this area to the provinces of Grão-Pará andMaranhão in northern Brazil, and between 1757 and 1777, over 25,000 slaves were transported from the “Rivers of Guinea”, HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

which approximates Portuguese Guinea and parts of Senegal, although this area had been largely neglected by the Portuguese for the previous 200 years. Bissau, founded in 1765, became the centre of Portuguese control.[7] SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

However, further British interest in the area led to a brief attempt in the 1790s to establish a base on the island of Bolama, where there was no evidence of any continuous Portuguese presence. Between the retreat of the British settlers in 1793 and the official Portuguese occupation of the island in 1837 there were several attempts to establish a European presence on the island.  HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

Even after the Portuguese had asserted their claim in 1837, Afro-Portuguese lived and worked there alongside Afro-British from Sierra Leone, since Britain did not relinquish its claim to Bolama until 1870.[8] HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

The abolition of the slave trade by Britain in 1807 presented the slave traders of Guinea with a virtual monopoly of the West Africa slave trade with Brazil. Despite the Brazilian and Portuguese governments agreeing to stop this traffic in the 1830s, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

it probably continued at 18th century levels, and only declined significantly after 1850, when the British government put pressure on Brazil to enforce its existing ban on the import of slaves. The last significant consignment of West African slaves reached Brazil in 1852.[9] HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

Britain's interest in the Upper Guinea region declined with the end of the British slave trade in 1807 and became focused on Sierra Leone after the Boloma Island settlement was abandoned. At the start of the 19th century the Portuguese felt reasonably secure in Bissau and regarded the neighbouring coastline as their own.[10] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

However, their control was tenuous: for much of the 19th century the Portuguese presence in Guinea was mainly limited to the “Rivers of Guinea”, the settlements of Bissau, Cacheu and Ziguinchor (the last now in Senegal). HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

Elsewhere it was preserved, with little official assistance, by local Creole peopleand Cape Verde islanders, who owned small plantations (pontas). TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard

However, the existence of French- and Senegalese-run plantations brought a risk of French claims south of the Casamance River. After the Berlin Conference of 1885 introduced the principle of Effective Occupation, negotiations with France led to the loss of the valuable Casamance region to French West Africa, HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard

in exchange for French agreement to Portuguese Guinea’s boundaries.[11][12] At this time, Portugal only occupied half a dozen coastal or river bases, controlling some maritime trade but few of Guinea's people. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard

However, in 1892, Portugal made Guinea a separate military district to promote its occupation.[13] Had the doctrine of Effective Occupation been as prominent in 1870 as it was after 1884, Portugal might also have lost Bolama to Britain.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

However, Britain and Portugal agreed to international arbitration in 1868. President Ulysses S. Grant of the United States of America acted as arbiter, and in 1870 he awarded the island to Portugal.[14] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Portugal's precarious financial position and military weakness threatened the retention of its colonies. In 1891, António José Enes, (the Minister of Marine and Colonies), rationalised taxes, and granted concessions in Guinea, mainly to foreign companies, which could increase its exports.[15] TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

The increased revenue was designed to fund a gradual extension of control, to allow Portugal to tax trade and the indigenous people.[16] The modest increase in government income between 1895 and 1910 did not meet the costs of European troops used to impose taxes. Enes' policies largely failed; TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

resistance continued in the interior, on the islands and at the coast. However, once military occupation had started, Portugal continued, hoping for future benefits.[17][18]

After the fall of the Portuguese monarchy in 1910, the new Republic set-up a Colonial Ministry to improve colonial administration.SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard

Guinea’s income increased with rising peanut prices, tax collection improved and its budget was in surplus.[19] Between 1913 and 1915, João Teixeira Pinto used Askari troops to impose Portuguese rule and to crush resistance to hut tax by destroying villages and seizing cattle, which caused many to flee to Senegal or the forests. HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

The cost of his forces and the return to budget deficits led to his recall in 1915.[20][21] Although the First World War increased world demand for tropical products and stimulated Guinea's economy,  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

a post-war slump and frequent political crisis created a deep recession. By the time of the 1926 military uprising in Portugal, most of Guinea was occupied, administered and taxed, but its revenue was insufficient to pay for its administration, much less to expand it.[22] When the Estado Novo imposed police on the Bissagos Islands in 1935-36 it completed its control of Guinea.[23] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Between the 1930s and 1960s, the colony was a neglected backwater, whose only economic significance was to supply Portugal with about one-third of its vegetable oil needs by growing peanuts. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard

It was unclear if its population of about 500,000 in 1950 was sufficient to grow enough peanuts to pay for its imports and administration and still grow all the food it needed.[24][25] Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

In 1951, because of anti-colonialist criticism in the United Nations the Portuguese government renamed all of Portugal's colonies, including Portuguese Guinea, as Overseas Provinces (Províncias Ultramarinas).[26] HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard

Development was largely neglected before the start of the liberation war. One paternalistic governor, Sarmento Rodrigues, promised to develop agriculture, infrastructure and health, but did little to fight the upsurge in sleeping sickness in the 1940s and 1950s. HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

Guinea saw little public investment in the first Portuguese Overseas Development Plan (1953–58), and a second plan (1959–64) concentrated on its towns. Adequate rural health clinics were only provided in General Spínola's programme of 1968-73. DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard

Educational provision was limited: in 1959 Guinea had some 200 primary schools with 13,500 pupils and 36 post-primary schools (mainly for urban assimilados) with 1,300 pupils.[27][28]

The fight for independence began in 1956, when Amílcar Cabral founded the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

 Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

At first, PAIGC organised a series of strikes by urban workers, especially those working in the port and river transport. However, on 3 August 1959, fifty striking dockworkers were killed. After this, the PAIGC changed strategy to avoid public demonstrations and concentrated instead on the organisation of the rural peasants. Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

In 1961, when a purely political campaign for independence had made little progress, the PAIGC adopted guerrilla tactics. Although heavily outnumbered by Portuguese troops (approximately 30,000 Portuguese to some 10,000 guerrillas), HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

the PAIGC had the great advantage of safe havens over the border in Senegal and Guinea, both recently independent of French rule.HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

The conflict in Portuguese Guinea involving the PAIGC guerrillas and the Portuguese Army was the most intense and damaging of all Portuguese Colonial War, and several communist countries supported the guerrillas with weapons and military training.The conflict in Portuguese Guinea involved PAIGC guerrillas and the Portuguese Army.[29] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

In 1972 Cabral set up a government in exile in Conakry, the capital of neighbouringGuinea. It was there, in 1973, that he was assassinated outside his house.

By 1973 the PAIGC controlled most of the interior of the country, while the coastal and estuary towns, including the main populational and economic centres remained under Portuguese control. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

The town of Madina do Boe in the southeasternmost area of the territory, close to the border with neighbouring Guinea, was the location where PAIGC guerrillas declared the independence of Guinea-Bissau on September 24, 1973.[30] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The war began to turn against the Portuguese, and following the coup d'état in Portugal in 1974, the new left-wing revolutionary government of Portugal began to negotiate with the PAIGC. Luís Cabral, the brother of the assassinated Amílcar, became the first president of independent Guinea-Bissau after independence was granted on September 10, 1974. Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

From the viewpoint of European history the Guinea Coast is associated mainly with slavery. The Portuguese first sailed down the Atlantic coast of Africa in the 1430s in search of gold, as the region was synonymous with it. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

The trade from West Africa was controlled by the Muslim states which stretched along Africa's northern coast. Muslim trade routes across the Sahara, which had existed for centuries, involved salt, kola, textiles, fish, grain, and slaves]. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

Rather than becoming direct competitors to the Muslim merchants, the expanding market opportunities in Europe and the Mediterranean resulted in increased trade across the Sahara.[32] In addition, Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

the Portuguese merchants gained access to the interior via the Senegal and Gambia rivers which bisected long-standing trans-Saharan routes. The Portuguese brought in copper ware, cloth, tools, wine and horses. Trade goods soon also included arms and ammunition. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard

In exchange, the Portuguese received gold (transported from mines of the Akan deposits), pepper (a trade which lasted until Vasco da Gama reached India in 1498) and ivory.

There was a very small market for African slaves as domestic workers in Europe, and as workers on the sugar plantations of the Mediterranean. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

However, the Portuguese found they could make considerable amounts of gold transporting slaves from one trading post to another, along the Atlantic coast of Africa. Muslim merchants had a high demand for slaves, which were used as porters on the trans-Saharan routes, and for sale in the Islamic Empire. Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

The Portuguese found Muslim merchants entrenched along the African coast as far as the Bight of Benin.[33] Before the arrival of the Europeans, the African slave trade was not yet the major feature of the coastal economy of Guinea, but it developed after the Portuguese reached this region in 1446. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard

The Portuguese used slave labour to colonize and develop the previously uninhabited Cape Verde islands where they founded settlements and grew cotton and indigo. They then traded these goods, in the estuary of the Geba River, Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard

for slaves which were sold in Europe and, from the 16th century, in the Americas. The Company of Guinea was a Portuguese government institution, whose task was to deal with the spices and to fix the prices of the goods. ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard

It was called Casa da Guiné, Casa da Guiné e Mina from 1482 to 1483 and Casa da Índia e da Guiné in 1499. The local African rulers in Guinea, who prospered greatly from the slave trade, DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

 had no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. The Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore largely limited to the port of Bissau. ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

For most of the period of Portuguese involvement, the people of Portuguese Guinea were subsistence farmers. In the 19th century, the coastal Balanta people, who were outside Portuguese control, had developed a sophisticated agricultural system, growing paddy-rice in reclaimed coastal swamps. TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

Much of this rice was exported to surrounding territories, particularly after indigenous rice types were replaced by imported varieties. The Balanta also participated in the slave trade in this period.[34] Another crop developed in this period was peanuts, and exports from Portuguese Guinea began in the mid 19th century. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

As intensive plantation cultivation led to reduced soil fertility, peanuts were normally grown by peasants in the Portuguese-controlled areas who mixed them with food crops and maintained fallow periods.[35] HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

Before the Estado Novo period, Portugal was weak internationally and stronger powers forced it to pursue Free Trade policies in its colonies. The Estado Novo replaced Free Trade by protectionism and state economic intervention. The colonies were to provide Portugal with raw materials, foreign exchange, TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

 taxes and labour, and absorb its manufactures and surplus people. Although Guinea produced some rubber at the end of the 19th century, its main export contributions were limited to vegetable oils and Balanta rice growing. It had a small domestic market and was unattractive to colonists. SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard

Most of its land and people were engaged in food production and it could not generate sufficient exports to support the colonial bureaucracy and the increasing population in Bissau and other towns, nor to promote its peoples’ social welfare.[36] SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard

Peanut exports rose from 5,000 tons in 1910 to 20,000 tons in 1925. Under the Estado Novo exports averaged almost 30,000 tons a year in 1939-45, rising to 35,000 tons between 1946 and 1955,  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard

but falling in the next decade because of falling prices.[37][38] The peanut export trade improved Guinea's balance of payments up to the mid-1950s but had little effect on its peoples’ economic or social welfare as the Estado Novo granted an import and export trade monopoly to a Portuguese conglomerate, Companhia União Fabril.[39] ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard

Until 1942, growers received prices at world levels, but they then declined. Forced labour was rarely used, but Africans were obliged to plant peanuts. However, the Estado Novo it lacked sufficient coercive powers to force the peanut production it wanted, if this limited the production of rice for food. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

The lack of taxable export crops meant that the Portuguese administration remained unable to increase its income or its authority, in a self-limiting cycle.[40] Low prices for exports and a rapid increase in imports after 1958 led to worsening trade deficits throughout the 1960s. Exports covered 42% of the cost of imports in 1964, HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

but only 20% in 1968. Growing rice for food expanded in the 1950s and 1960s period, reducing the amount of land for cash crops.[41][42][43] In addition to peanuts and rice, other economic products included cashew, timber, livestock and fish and the port of Bissau became a major employer and source of tax revenue. SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

The migration of Balanta from northern Guinea to the south to cultivate rice intensified in the 1920s. Balanta rice cultivation greatly increased in the 1930s and 1940s, but the state granted legal title to the pontas to Europeans or Cape Verdeans. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

These bought rice from the farmers at low fixed prices and exported much of it, so by the 1950s the south of Guinea had a rice deficit.[44][45] IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

The decade up to 1973 was dominated by the war. In 1953, some 410,000 hectares were cultivated, only 250,000 hectares in 1972, and many farmers fled from Guinea or to Bissau and other towns.[46] GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard

Reduced food production and the loss of many rice paddies led to widespread malnutrition and disease.[47] An agronomic survey of Guinea by Amílcar Cabral contained a major critique of Estado Novo policies. ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

He was concerned about the emphasis on peanuts, amounting to virtual monoculture, and abandonment of traditional techniques, but he urged state control and collectivisation, not smallholder farming.[48][49] HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

Portuguese overseas exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries led to the establishment of a Portuguese Empire with trading posts, forts and colonies in the Americas, Asia and Africa. Contact between the Portuguese language and native languages gave rise to many Portuguese-based pidgins, Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

used as linguas francasthroughout the Portuguese sphere of influence. In time, many of these pidgins were nativized becoming new stable creole languages.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

As is the rule in most creoles, the lexicon of these languages can be traced to the parent languages, usually with predominance of Portuguese; while the grammar is mostly original and unique to each creole with little resemblance to the syntax of Portuguese or of other parent languages. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

These creoles are (or were) spoken mostly by communities of descendants of Portuguese, natives, and sometimes other peoples from the Portuguese colonial empire.

Until recently creoles were considered "degenerate" languages unworthy of attention. As a consequence, HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

there is little documentation on the details of their formation. Since the 20th century, increased study of creoles by linguists led to several theories being advanced. According to the monogenetic theory of pidgins, TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

most of the pidgins and creoles the world derived from European languages actually descend from a single pidgin, the Mediterranean Lingua Franca, which was relexified by the Portuguese explorers and used by them throughout the empire. SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

This theory was advanced to explain supposed similarities between all European-based creoles; such as the preposition na, meaning "in" and/or "on", which would come from the Portuguese contraction na meaning "in the" (femininesingular).  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

However, the language bioprogram theory claimed that creole grammars are created by children from pidgins that have no grammatical structure; so the supposed similarities between creoles are a consequence of the unity of human innate linguistic abilities. However, some linguists have dismissed those similarities as being due to residual influences of the parent languages. SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

The Portuguese word for "creole" is crioulo, which derives from the verb criar ("to raise", "to bring up") and a suffix -oulo of debated origin. Originally the word (like its Spanish equivalent criollo) was used to distinguish the members of any ethnic group who were born and raised in the colonies from those who were born in their homeland.  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

So in Africa it was often applied to locally born people of (wholly or partly) Portuguese descent, as opposed to those born in Portugal; whereas in Brazil it was also used to distinguish locally born black people of African descent from those who had been brought from Africa as slaves.

In time, however, this generic sense was lost, ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

and the word crioulo' or its derivatives (like "Creole" and its equivalents in other languages) became the name of several specific communities and their languages, such as the Guinea-Bissauan people (and their language) and the Cape Verdean people (and their language). In Brazil, on the other hand, crioulo became a term for "black".HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS; French: Communauté économique des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, CEDEAO) is a regional group of fifteen West African countries. Founded on 28 May 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos, its mission is to promote economic integration across the region. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Considered one of the pillars of the African Economic Community, the organization was founded in order to achieve "collective self-sufficiency" for its member states by creating a single large trading bloc through an economic and trading union. It also serves as a peacekeeping force in the region.[4] The organization operates officially in three co-equal languages—French, English, and Portuguese. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

The ECOWAS consists of two institutions to implement policies—the ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development, formerly known as the Fund for Cooperation until it was renamed in 2001. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

A few members of the organization have come and gone over the years. In 1976 Cape Verde joined ECOWAS, and in December 2000 Mauritania withdrew, having announced its intention to do so in December 1999. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

The CPLP was formed on July 17, 1996 with seven countries: Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe. E

ast Timor joined the community in 2002 after gaining independence. ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard

The CPLP is a bloc in the process of construction and the societies of the eight member nations have little knowledge of each other. One of the features of the CPLP is that its members are linked by a common language and shared cultural features, which form a bridge among countries separated by great distances and on different continents. SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard

In 2005, during a meeting in Luanda, the ministers of culture of the eight countries declared the 5 May as theLusophone Culture Day (Dia da Cultura Lusófona in Portuguese). TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

In July 2006, during the Bissau summit, Equatorial Guinea and Mauritius were admitted as Associate Observers[2] along with 17 International associations and organizations considered as Consultative Observers. SONY VGN-FE770G Laptop Keyboard

When the CPLP was formed, Equatorial Guinea asked for observer status. Equatorial Guinea (Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial) was a Portuguese colony from the 15th to 18th centuries and has some territories where Portuguese-based creole languages are spoken and cultural connections with São Tomé and Príncipe and Portugal are felt. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

Also, the country has recently cooperated with Portuguese-speaking African countries and Brazil at an educational level. At the CPLP summit of July 2004, in São Tomé and Príncipe, the member states agreed to change the statutes of the community to accept states as associate observers. Equatorial Guinea is in discussion for full membership.[3] In June 2010, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

Equatorial Guinea asked to be admitted as full member. At its 8th summit in Luanda in July 2010, the CPLP decided to open formal negotiations with Equatorial Guinea about full membership in the CPLP.[4] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Mauritius, which was unknown to Europeans until the Portuguese sailed there and has strong connections with Mozambique, also obtained associate observer status in 2006. In 2008, Senegal, with historical connections to Portuguese colonisation in Casamance, was admitted as Associate Observer.[5]  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

The Portuguese-speaking countries are home to more than 240 million people located across the globe but having cultural similarities and a shared history. The CPLP nations have a combined area of about 10,742,000 square kilometres (4,148,000 sq mi), which is larger than Canada.

Since its formation, IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

the CPLP has helped to solve problems in São Tomé and Príncipe and in Guinea-Bissau, because of coups d'état in those countries. These two problems were solved, and in fact, have helped these two countries to take economic reforms (in the case of São Tomé) and democratic ones (in the case of Guinea-Bissau). HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

The leaders of the CPLP believe that peace in Angola and Mozambique as well as East Timor's independence favors the further development of the CPLP and a strengthening of multilateral cooperation. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

The CPLC is seen as the Portuguese branch of the Organization of Ibero-American States.

Since many children in rural areas of Lusophone Africa and East Timor are out-of-school youth, the education officials in these regions seek help from Portugal and Brazil to increase the education to spread Portuguese fluency ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

(like establishing Instituto Camões language center branches in main cities and rural towns), as Portuguese is becoming one of the main languages in Southern Africa, where it is also taught in Namibia and South Africa. ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard

In many developing Portuguese-speaking nations, Portuguese is the language of government and commerce which means that Portuguese speaking people from African nations can work and communicate with others in different parts of the world, especially in Portugal and Brazil, where the economies are stronger. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

Many leaders of Portuguese-speaking nations in Africa are fearful that language standards do not meet the fluency required and are therefore making it compulsory in schools so that a higher degree of fluency is achieved and young Africans will be able to speak a world language that will help them later in life.  ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Laptop Keyboard

Angola has not yet signed the most recent accord on the orthography of the Portuguese language, and has asked other PALOP countries to support it in discussions on various points of that accord with Portugal.[6] HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard

The Organization’s Executive Secretariat is responsible for designing and implementing the CPLP's projects and initiatives. It is located in Lisbon,Portugal. The Executive Secretary has a two-year mandate, and can be elected only once.  SONY VAIO VGN NR298E laptop keyboard

The CPLP's guidelines and priorities are established by biannual Conference of Heads of State and the Organization’s plan of action is approved by the Council of Foreign Ministers, which meets every year. SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

There are also monthly meetings of the Permanent Steering Committee that follow specific initiatives and projects. The CPLP is mainly financed by its eight member states.

The CPLP flag has now eight wings, not seven, to reflect East Timor's membership. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415S laptop keyboard

Gross domestic product (GDP) dollar estimates are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations, per capita. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country tend to differ, sometimes substantially. PPP figures are estimates rather than hard facts, and should be used with caution. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 laptop keyboard

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP, which does not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (See List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita). DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

Using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards on the whole between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using just exchange rates which may distort the real differences in income. HP G72-227WM laptop keyboard

Other figures include savings (not just income), such as national wealth. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living;[2][3] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income (See Standard of living and GDP).

Several economies,  TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5097 Laptop Keyboard

which are not considered to be countries (i.e. the world, the European Union and some dependent territories), are included in the list because they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. Non-sovereign entities, former countries or other special groupings are marked in italics. HP AEAT8TPU017 Laptop Keyboard

Since the 19th century, some Muslims had aspired to ummah to serve their common political, economic, and social interests. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Caliphate after World War I left a vacuum for a pan-Islamic institution. Losing the Six-Day War in 1967 provided the incentive needed. Leaders of Muslim nations met in Rabat to establish the OIC on 25 September 1969.[1] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.[1] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

The emblem of the OIC (shown above) contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the Ka’bah, the Globe, and the Crescent. SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard

On 5 August 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.[3] HP G42T-200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

In June 2008, the OIC conducted a formal revision of its charter. The revised charter set out to promote human rights, fundamental freedoms, and good governance in all member states. The revisions also removed any mention of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Within the revised charter, the OIC has chosen to support the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international law.[4]

On 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting (CFM) in Astana, Kazakhstan the organisation changed its name from Organisation of the Islamic Conference (Arabic: منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي‎; French: SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

Organisation de la Conférence Islamique) to its current name.[5] The OIC also changed its logo at this time.

In 1969, Muslim leaders met in a historic Islamic Summit Conference and decided to establish an organization that unified their efforts towards common objectives. Consequently,  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

 in 1970 the foreign ministers met and established a General Secretariat for the Organization of the Islamic Conference as the collective voice of the Muslim world that represents its interests and defends its causes. The name chosen for the Organization reflected the occasion for its establishment. HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard

While the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Palestine remain the central issues for the Organization, its activities and role have expanded in the past 40 years to meet the demands and expectations of the Muslim world. Since 1969 the number of Member States has increased, Observer states have been accepted, and various Subsidiary, HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Specialized, and Affiliated institutions have been created to serve the Muslim world. Furthermore, the role of the Organization itself in the international arena has become more prominent and active.  HP G62-a20SQ laptop keyboard

In 2005, at the Extraordinary Makkah Summit, the leaders adopted the Ten Year Program of Action, which among other things, approved changing the name of the Organization and revising its Charter as part of reforming it. In 2008, at the Dakar Summit, the new Charter was adopted and a decision was made to initiate the process of changing the name in consultation with the Member States. TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

After intense deliberations, the name chosen by consensus that would maintain the same acronym OIC is: Organization of Islamic CooperationSONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

The new emblem of the OIC contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the Ka’bah, the Globe, and the Crescent.

At the center of the design is The Ka’bah, SONY VAIO VGN-FS115ZR laptop keyboard

the focal point of the Islamic world. Placed at the center of the design it symbolizes the Islamic world and its unity, and therefrom, it symbolizes the Member States and the OIC as their union.

Surrounding the Ka’bah is Packard Bell Easynote LM82 laptop keyboard

The Globe with the meridian lines drawn to represent the diversity of humanity in its many nations and tribes within the universal context represented by the emblem. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard

And The Crescent, symbolizing Islam, embrases the Muslim world, indicating that Islam is the guiding motive, protective, and unifying force of the Muslim world, and therefrom, that Islam is the guiding motive, protective, and unifying force of the OIC. HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

Putting the three elements together, the Crescent engulfing the Globe with the Ka’bah at its center represents the universal outlook of Islam. This evokes • the OIC’s taking guidance from Islam, belonging to and serving the Islamic world, and at the same time, • its global outlook, keeping attune to and addressing international issues. HP 590527-001 laptop keyboard

The Crescent being positioned on the side with its center aligned with the inclined axis of the Globe evokes the Globe revolving around its axis and therefrom it implies the dynamism of the universe, of Islam, and the OIC. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-12L laptop keyboard

The Ka’bah is situated slightly above the globe's meridian line, which emphasizes its supreme significance.

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has 57 members, 56 of which are classed by the United Nations as member states. ASUS K030662M2 laptop keyboard

Some, especially in West Africa, are - though with large Muslim populations - not necessarily Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States, while others, such as India and Ethiopia, are not members.

The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.4 billion as of 2008. HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

The Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (PUOICM) was established in Iran in 1999, and its head office is situated in Tehran. Only OIC members are entitled to membership in the union.[7]  HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx laptop keyboard

On 27 June 2007, then-United States President George W. Bush announced that the United States would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, and will share with them America's views and values."[8] ACER TravelMate 8215WLMi laptop keyboard

The current special envoy isRashad Hussain, who was appointed on 13 February 2010.  HP Pavilion dv6-2165tx laptop keyboard

[10]

The OIC, on 28 March 2008, joined the criticism of the film Fitna by Dutch lawmaker Geert Wilders, which features disturbing images of violent acts juxtaposed with verses from the Quran.[11] HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

OIC created the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam.[3] While proponents claim it is not an alternative to the UDHR, but rather complementary to it, Article 24 states that "[a]ll the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari'ah" and Article 25 follows with "[t]he Islamic Shari'ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration." SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard

Attempts to have it adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Council have met increasing criticism, because of its contradiction of the UDHR, including from liberal Muslim groups.[13] ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

Critics of the CDHR state bluntly that it is “manipulation and hypocrisy,” “designed to dilute, if not altogether eliminate, civil and political rights protected by international law” and attempts to “circumvent these principles [of freedom and equality].”[14][15][16]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

Human Rights Watch says that OIC has “fought doggedly” and successfully within the United Nations Human Rights Council to shield states from criticism, except when it comes to criticism of Israel. For example, HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

when independent experts reported violations of human rights in the 2006 Lebanon War, “state after state from the OIC took the floor to denounce the experts for daring to look beyond Israeli violations to discuss Hezbollah’s as well.” SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

OIC demands that the council “should work cooperatively with abusive governments rather than condemn them.” HRW responds that this works only with those who are willing to cooperate; others exploit the passivity.[17][18] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

The OIC has been criticised for failing to discuss the treatment of ethnic minorities within member countries, such as the oppression of the Kurds in Syria, theAhwaz in Iran, the Hazars in Afghanistan, the Baluchis in Pakistan, the 'Al-Akhdam' in Yemen, or the Berbers in Algeria.[19]

Along with the revisions of the OIC’s charter in 2008,  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

the member states created the Independent Permanent Human Rights Commission (IPHRC). The IPHRC is an advisory body, independent from the OIC, composed of eighteen individuals from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds.  Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

The IPHRC has the power to monitor human rights within the member states and facilitates the integration of human rights into all OIC mandates. The IPHRC also aids in the promotion of political, civil, and economic rights in all member states.[20] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

In 1999, OIC adopted the OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism.[27] Human Rights Watch has noted that the definition of terrorism in article 1 describes “any act or threat of violence carried out with the aim of, among other things, imperiling people’s honour, occupying or seizing public or private property, or threatening the stability, territorial integrity, political unity or sovereignty of a state.” TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

HRW views this as vague, ill-defined and including much that is outside the generally accepted understandings of the concept of terrorism. In HRW's view, it labels, or could easily be used to label, as terrorist actions, acts of peaceful expression, association, and assembly.[28] ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

Legal scholar Ben Saul of University of Sydney argues that the definition is subjective and ambiguous and concludes that there is “serious danger of the abusive use of terrorist prosecutions against political opponents” and others.[29] HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard

Furthermore, HRW is concerned by OIC’s apparent unwillingness to recognise as terrorism acts that serve causes endorsed by their member states. Article 2 reads: “Peoples’ struggle including armed struggle against foreign occupation, aggression, HP Mini 210-1095TU Laptop Keyboard

colonialism, and hegemony, aimed at liberation and self-determination.” HRW has suggested to OIC that they embrace “longstanding and universally recognised international human rights standards”,[28] a request that has as yet not led to any results.[citation needed] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

Contradictions between OIC's and other UN members' understanding of terrorism has stymied efforts at the UN to produce a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.[30]

During a meeting in Malaysia in April 2002, delegates discussed terrorism but failed to reach a definition of it. They rejected, however, HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard

any description of thePalestinian fight with Israel as terrorism. Their declaration was explicit: "We reject any attempt to link terrorism to the struggle of the Palestinian people in the exercise of their inalienable right to establish their independent state with Al-Quds Al-Shrif (Jerusalem) as its capital." In fact, at the outset of the meeting, HP Envy 15-1050es Laptop Keyboard

the OIC countries signed a statement praising the Palestinians and their "blessed intifada." The word terrorism was restricted to describe Israel, whom they condemned for "state terrorism" in their war with the Palestinian people.[31] DELL E141395 Laptop Keyboard

At the 34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (ICFM), an OIC section, in May 2007, the foreign ministers termed Islamophobia the worst form of terrorism.[32]

Thailand has responded to OIC criticism of human rights abuses in the Muslim majority provinces of Pattani, ACER Aspire 5613 Laptop Keyboard

Yala, and Narathiwat in the south of the country. In a statement issued on 18 October 2005, secretary-general Ihsanoglu vocalised concern over the continuing conflict in the south that "claimed the lives of innocent people and forced the migration of local people out of their places".[33] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

He also stressed that the Thai government's security approach to the crisis would aggravate the situation and lead to continued violence.

On 18–19 April 2009, the exiled Patani leader Abu Yasir Fikri (see PULO) was invited to the OIC to speak about the conflict and present a solution to end the violence between the Thai government and the ethnically Malay Muslims living in the socioeconomically neglected south,  HP Envy 15-1040er Laptop Keyboard

that has been struggling against Thai assimilation policy and for self governance since it became annexed by Thailand in 1902. Fikri presented a six-point solution at the conference in Jiddah that included obtaining the same basic rights as other groups when it came to right of language, religion, and culture. SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard

He also suggested that Thailand give up its discriminatory policies against the Patani people and allow Patani to at least be allowed the same self-governing rights as other regions in Thailand already have, HP Pavilion dv3-2175ee laptop keyboard

citing that this does not go against the Thai constitution since it has been done in other parts of Thailand and that it is only a matter of political will.[34] He also criticised the Thai government’s escalation of violence by arming and creating Buddhist militia groups and questioned their intentions. SONY VAIO VGN-N37GH/B laptop keyboard

He added Thai policies of not investigating corruption, murder, and human rights violations perpetrated by Bangkok-led administration and military personnel against the Malay Muslim population was an obstacle for achieving peace and healing the deep wounds of being treated as third-class citizens.[34][35] SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M laptop keyboard

Thailand responded to this criticism over its policies. The Thai foreign minister, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, said: “We have made it clear to the OIC several times that the violence in the deep South is not caused by religious conflict and the government grants protection to all of our citizens no matter what religion they embrace.”  HP Pavilion DV7-3100 laptop keyboard

The Foreign Ministry issued a statement dismissing the OIC’s criticism and accusing it of disseminating misperceptions and misinformation about the situation in the southern provinces. “If the OIC secretariat really wants to promote the cause of peace and harmony in the three southern provinces of Thailand,  ACER TravelMate 4650 Series laptop keyboard

the responsibility falls on the OIC secretariat to strongly condemn the militants, who are perpetrating these acts of violence against both Thai Muslims and Thai Buddhists.”[33][36][37] HRW[38] and Amnesty International[35] have echoed the same concerns as OIC, rebuffing Thailand's attempts to dismiss the issue. SONY VAIO VGN-FS710/W laptop keyboard

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article

commentaires