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Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (French pronunciation: [ɡystav flobɛʁ]) (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary (1857), and for his scrupulous devotion to his art and styleHP Pavilion dv2-1010ed Battery

 

Flaubert was born on December 12, 1821, in Rouen, in the Seine-Maritime department ofUpper Normandy, in northern France. HP Pavilion dv2-1010eo Battery

He was the second son of Achille-Cléophas Flaubert (1784–1846), a surgeon, and Anne Justine Caroline (née Fleuriot) (1793–1872). He began writing at an early age, as early as eight according to some sources.[1]HP Pavilion dv2-1010ep Battery

 

He was educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen.[2] and did not leave until 1840, when he went to Paris to study law. In Paris, he was an indifferent student and found the city distasteful. He made a few acquaintances, including Victor Hugo. Toward the close of 1840, he traveled in the Pyrenees and Corsica. In 1846, after an attack of epilepsy, he left Paris and abandoned the study of law. HP Pavilion dv2-1010et Battery

 

PERSONAL LIFE

From 1846 to 1854, Flaubert had a relationship with the poet Louise Colet; his letters to her survive. HP Pavilion dv2-1010ez Battery

After leaving Paris, he returned to Croisset, near the Seine, close to Rouen, and lived with his mother in their home for the rest of his life. He made occasional visits to Paris and England, where he apparently had a mistress. HP Pavilion dv2-1010la Battery

Flaubert never married. According to his biographer Émile Faguet, his affair with Louise Colet was his only serious romantic relationship. He sometimes visited prostitutes.[3] Eventually, the end of his affair with Colet led Flaubert to lose interest in romance and seek platonic companionship, particularly with other writers. HP Pavilion dv2-1011au Battery

 

With his lifelong friend Maxime Du Camp, he traveled in Brittany in 1846. In 1849–1850 he went on a long journey to the Middle East, visiting Greece and Egypt. In Beirut he contracted syphilis. He spent five weeks in Constantinople in 1850. He visited Carthage in 1858 to conduct research for his novel Salammbô. HP Pavilion dv2-1011ax Battery

 

Flaubert was very open about his sexual activities with prostitutes in his writings on his travels. He suspected that a chancre on his penis was from a Maronite or a Turkish girl.[4]HP Pavilion dv2-1012au Battery

He also engaged in intercourse with male prostitutes in Beirut and Egypt; in one of his letters, he describes a "pockmarked young rascal wearing a white turban" with whom he had anal sex.[5][6] He had intercourse with a 14-year-old Maronite boy in 1850.[7]HP Pavilion dv2-1013ax Battery

 

Flaubert was a tireless worker and often complained in his letters to friends about the strenuous nature of his work. He was close to his niece, Caroline Commanville, and had a close friendship and correspondence with George Sand. HP Pavilion dv2-1014au Battery

He occasionally visited Parisian acquaintances, including Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, Ivan Turgenev, and Edmond andJules de Goncourt. HP Pavilion dv2-1015ax Battery

 

The 1870s were a difficult time for Flaubert. Prussian soldiers occupied his house during the War of 1870, and his mother died in 1872. After her death, he fell into financial difficulty. HP Pavilion dv2-1015ee Battery

Flaubert suffered from venereal diseases most of his life. His health declined and he died at Croisset of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1880 at the age of 58. He was buried in the family vault in the cemetery of Rouen. A monument to him by Henri Chapu was unveiled at the museum of Rouen. HP Pavilion dv2-1016ax Battery

 

His first finished work was November, a novella, which was completed in 1842.

In September 1849, Flaubert completed the first version of a novel, The Temptation of Saint Anthony. He read the novel aloud to Louis Bouilhet and Maxime Du Camp over the course of four days, HP Pavilion dv2-1017ax Battery

 not allowing them to interrupt or give any opinions. At the end of the reading, his friends told him to throw the manuscript in the fire, suggesting instead that he focus on day-to-day life rather than fantastic subjects. HP Pavilion dv2-1018ax Battery

 

In 1850, after returning from Egypt, Flaubert began work on Madame Bovary. The novel, which took five years to write, was serialized in the Revue de Paris in 1856. HP Pavilion dv2-1019ax Battery

The government brought an action against the publisher and author on the charge of immorality, which was heard during the following year, but both were acquitted. WhenMadame Bovary appeared in book form, it met with a warm reception. HP Pavilion dv2-1020ax Battery

 

In 1858, Flaubert traveled to Carthage to gather material for his next novel, Salammbô. The novel was completed in 1862 after four years of work. HP Pavilion dv2-1020ef Battery

 

Drawing on his youth, Flaubert next wrote L'Éducation sentimentale (Sentimental Education), an effort that took seven years. His last complete novel, it was published in 1869. HP Pavilion dv2-1020el Battery

 

He wrote an unsuccessful drama, Le Candidat, and published a reworked version of The Temptation of Saint Anthony, portions of which had been published as early as 1857. HP Pavilion dv2-1020er Battery

He devoted much of his time to an ongoing project, Les Deux Cloportes (The Two Woodlice), which later became Bouvard et Pécuchet, breaking from the obsessive project only to write the Three Tales in 1877. HP Pavilion dv2-1020es Battery

This book comprised three stories: Un Cœur simple (A Simple Heart), La Légende de Saint-Julien l'Hospitalier (The Legend of St. Julian the Hospitaller), and Hérodias (Herodias). HP Pavilion dv2-1020et Battery

After the publication of the stories, he spent the remainder of his life toiling on the unfinished Bouvard et Pécuchet, which was posthumously printed in 1881. It was a grand satire on the futility of human knowledge and the ubiquity of mediocrity. HP Pavilion dv2-1020la Battery

He believed the work to be his masterpiece, though the posthumous version received lukewarm reviews. Flaubert was a prolific letter writer, and his letters have been collected in several publications. HP Pavilion dv2-1021ax Battery

 

At the time of his death, he may have been working on a further historical novel, based on the Battle of Thermopylae[8]HP Pavilion dv2-1022ax Battery

 

Perfectionist style

Flaubert scrupulously avoids the inexact, the abstract, the vaguely inapt expression which is the bane of ordinary methods of composition; he never allowed a cliche to pass him.[9]In a letter to George Sand he said that he spends his time "trying to write harmonious sentences, avoiding assonances."[10][11]HP Pavilion dv2-1023ax Battery

 

Flaubert believed in, and pursued, the principle of finding "le mot juste" ("the right word"), which he considered as the key mean to achieve quality in literary art.[12] He worked in sullen solitude — sometimes occupying a week in the completion of one page — never satisfied with what he had composed, HP Pavilion dv2-1024ax Battery

violently tormenting his brain for the best turn of phrase, the final adjective.[9] His private letters show that he was not one of those to whom correct, flowing language came naturally: his style was achieved through the unceasing sweat of his brow.[9]HP Pavilion dv2-1025ax Battery

This painstaking style of writing is also evident when one compares Flaubert’s output over a lifetime to that of his peers (see, for example Balzac or Zola). HP Pavilion dv2-1026ax Battery

Flaubert published much less prolifically than was the norm for his time and never got near the pace of a novel a year, as his peers often achieved during their peaks of activity. Walter Pater famously called Flaubert the "martyr of style."[HP Pavilion dv2-1027ax Battery

 

As a writer, other than a pure stylist, Flaubert was nearly equal parts romantic andrealist.[9] Hence, members of various schools, especially realists and formalists, have traced their origins to his work. HP Pavilion dv2-1028ax Battery

The exactitude with which he adapts his expressions to his purpose can be seen in all parts of his work, especially in the portraits he draws of the figures in his principal romances. HP Pavilion dv2-1029ax Battery

The degree to which Flaubert's fame has extended since his death presents an interesting chapter of literary history in itself. He is also accredited with spreading the popularity of the colour Tuscany Cypress, a colour often mentioned in his chef-d'oeuvre Madame Bovary. HP Pavilion dv2-1030ax Battery

 

Flaubert's lean and precise[citation needed] writing style has had a large influence on 20th century writers such as Franz Kafka and J. M. Coetzee. As Vladimir Nabokov discussed in his famous lecture series:[17]HP Pavilion dv2-1030en Battery

 

The greatest literary influence upon Kafka was Flaubert's. Flaubert who loathed pretty-pretty prose would have applauded Kafka's attitude towards his tool. Kafka liked to draw his terms from the language of law and science, giving them a kind of ironic precision, HP Pavilion dv2-1030ew Battery

with no intrusion of the author's private sentiments; this was exactly Flaubert's method through which he achieved a singular poetic effect. The legacy of his work habits can best be described, therefore, as paving the way towards a slower and more introspective manner of writing. HP Pavilion dv2-1030us Battery

 

The publication of Madame Bovary in 1856 was followed by more scandal than admiration; it was not understood at first that this novel was the beginning of something new: HP Pavilion dv2-1031ax Battery

the scrupulously truthful portraiture of life. Gradually, this aspect of his genius was accepted, and it began to crowd out all others. At the time of his death he was widely regarded as the most influential French Realist. HP Pavilion dv2-1033ax Battery

Under this aspect Flaubert exercised an extraordinary influence over Guy de Maupassant, Edmond de Goncourt, Alphonse Daudet, and Zola. Even after the decline of the Realist school, Flaubert did not lose prestige in the literary community; HP Pavilion dv2-1033cl Battery

he continues to appeal to other writers because of his deep commitment to aesthetic principles, his devotion to style, and his indefatigable pursuit of the perfect expression. HP Pavilion dv2-1035ea Battery

His Œuvres Complètes (8 vols., 1885) were printed from the original manuscripts, and included, besides the works mentioned already, the two plays, Le Candidat and Le Château des cœurs. Another edition (10 vols.) appeared in 1873–1885. Flaubert's correspondence with George Sand was published in 1884 with an introduction by Guy de Maupassant. HP Pavilion dv2-1039wm Battery

 

He has been admired or written about by almost every major literary personality of the 20th century, including philosophers and sociologists such as Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, HP Pavilion dv2-1040eb Battery

Pierre Bourdieu and Jean Paul Sartre whose partially psychoanalytic portrait of Flaubert inThe Family Idiot was published in 1971. Georges Perec named Sentimental Education as one of his favourite novels. HP Pavilion dv2-1040ef Battery

The Peruvian novelist Mario Vargas Llosa is another great admirer of Flaubert. Apart from Perpetual Orgy, which is solely devoted to Flaubert's art, one can find lucid discussions in Vargas Llosa's recently published Letters to a Young Novelist. HP Pavilion dv2-1040eo Battery

 

Cultural Influences

Kwaito is a South African urban genre of music. It emerged post-Apartheid amidst the numerous political and social changes that were occurring in South Africa. These changes included the release of Nelson Mandela from prison, and South Africa's first democratic election in 1994.[1]HP Pavilion dv2-1040et Battery

 Through his lyricism, it is evident that Zola is proud of many of his country's unique languages including Afrikaans. Afrikaans is “a more white people's language that is unique to South Africa” according to Zola.[2] HP Pavilion dv2-1043ca Battery

Kwaito is a way of life that has been spurred by the modern democratic freedom South Africans have been experiencing. Kwaito relates to the old tradition of expressing political thought through creative outlets that can be observed in all societies. HP Pavilion dv2-1044ca Battery

For Zola, Kwaito defines something different: “For one, we are trying to find out who we are and where we fit in the role of this democratic South Africa as young people. There's no more fighting. HP Pavilion dv2-1050en Battery

People have to go back to school.”[2] Although lyrics to some Kwaito songs by Zola tend to bear strong sociological messages, the social context of South Africa is generally not receptive to the occasionally poignant lyrics of Kwaito.[1] HP Pavilion dv2-1070eg Battery

Zola also recognizes that people are allowed to start their own record labels now that there is more finance coming to the South African people.[2] In the past, South Africans went to down-town studios where they would record, HP Pavilion dv2-1080en Battery

and thus receive fewer royalties than they do now in their own private studios.[2] This Kwaito artist has not only achieved success in the soundscapes that resonate throughout the globe but Zola also has a reality television show called “Zola 7”. HP Pavilion dv2-1090eo Battery

On this show, people write to Zola and telling him their dreams and Zola helps the people achieve the. Zola is looking forward to collaborating with European artists in the future.[2] Zola has also acted in the Oscar winning movie Tsotsi [3]. HP Pavilion dv2-1100 series Battery

 

Zola 7 clothing range was launched in November 2005.

Zola's previous albums have made him one of the biggest selling artists in South Africa. HP Pavilion dv2z Battery

 

Musician

Zola has enjoyed success as a Kwaito superstar, and is probably the most popular Kwaito artist in the country; Lance Stehr of Ghetto Ruff records has referred to Zola as "the second biggest brand in the country next to Nelson Mandela."[6] HP Pavilion dv2z-1100 Battery

Zola not only performs but also writes and produces some of his own music, signing to the independent label Ghetto Ruff records. Zola will be recording a posthumous collaboration with hip-hop legend Tupac Shakur. HP Pavilion dv2z-1100 CTO Battery

The track will be recorded in South Africa but feature on a CD to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Shakur's death on September 13, 1996. Zola is also the owner of the music company Guluva Entertainment.[6]HP Pavilion dv2-1100eg Battery

 

Originally, Zola was not a fan of Kwaito music, because it "had no message." He has taken upon himself to change this, viewing himself as a role model. "I want to inspire a guy from the ghetto so he can stop hanging around in the corner begging and try to get some life."[7] HP Pavilion dv2-1100eo Battery

In the song "Mdlwembe", which literally means problem child, he expresses his feelings about the neighborhood he grew up in. He talks about the horrible quality of life of the township, particularly the extreme level crime and violence. "Beware of the Zola boys, HP Pavilion dv2-1101au Battery

 We do crime for money" demonstrates Zola's past and also the perpetual anguish of life in a ghetto.[1] Today, Zola works on behalf of younger performers, helping them to be integrated into the music industry. He is a pioneer in social action and benefit projects in South Africa.[8]HP Pavilion dv2-1101ax Battery

Kwaito is branded as apolitical; often associated with the advancement of personal wealth, Glamorized gangster lifestyle, and frivolous consumption themes found in much of Jamaican Dancehall and Rap. HP Pavilion dv2-1102au Battery

The Genre is associated with a new political freedom gain since the end of Apartheid in South Africa and less political strife.[9] The form of the Kwaitoproduced by Zola is in that case an anomaly in that it is very much politically charged and contains a social message.[10]HP Pavilion dv2-1103au Battery

 

Zola raps in isiZulu with high usage of tsotsi. Tsotsitaal is the vernacular slang in South Africa. This infusion of colloquial dialect with a national language allows for better interaction between the artists and the community[11] HP Pavilion dv2-1104au Battery

South Africans in lower socio-economic classes who live in the townships and speak tsotsi can relate to Kwaito music differently than to Cape Town hip hop or US hip hop because of the lyrics. Additionally many of his songs describe situations of life in the townships more specifically in Soweto[1]HP Pavilion dv2-1105ee Battery

 

On 7 July 2007 Zola performed at the South African leg of Live Earth.

Actor

Zola become well known for his role as the notorious gangster Papa Action in Yizo Yizo 2. The character was already popular in Yizo Yizo and had been portrayed by another actor. HP Pavilion dv2-1107ax Battery

Zola resembled the previous performer, and his performance only increased the popularity of the role. He also performed the score and played a role in the Academy Award-winning film, Tsotsi and the movie Drum. Zola also has a prominent role in the documentarySHARP! SHARP!- the kwaito story (2003) directed by Aryan Kaganof. HP Pavilion dv2-1110br Battery

 

Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant[1] (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a popular 19th-century French writer, considered one of the fathers of the modern short story and one of the form's finest exponents. HP Pavilion dv2-1110ef Battery

 

A protégé of Flaubert, Maupassant's stories are characterized by their economy of style and efficient, effortless dénouement. Many of the stories are set during the Franco-Prussian War of the 1870s and several describe the futility of war and the innocent civilians who, HP Pavilion dv2-1110el Battery

caught in the conflict, emerge changed. He authored some 300 short stories, six novels, three travel books, and one volume of verse. The story "Boule de Suif" ("Ball of Fat", 1880) is often accounted his masterpiece. His most unsettling horror story, "Le Horla" (1887), was about madness and suicide. HP Pavilion dv2-1110er Battery

 

Biography

Henri-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant was born on August 5, 1850 at the château de Miromesnil, near Dieppe in the Seine-Inférieure (now Seine-Maritime) department in France. HP Pavilion dv2-1110es Battery

He was the first son of Laure Le Poittevin and Gustave de Maupassant, both from prosperous bourgeois families. When Maupassant was eleven and his brother Hervé was five, his mother, an independent-minded woman, risked social disgrace to obtain a legal separation from her husband. HP Pavilion dv2-1110et Battery

 

After the separation, Le Poittevin kept her two sons, the elder Guy and younger Hervé. With the father’s absence, Maupassant’s mother became the most influential figure in the young boy’s life. She was an exceptionally well read woman and was very fond of classical literature, HP Pavilion dv2-1110ez Battery

especially Shakespeare. Until the age of thirteen, Guy happily lived with his mother, to whom he was deeply devoted, at Étretat, in the Villa des Verguies, where, between the sea and the luxuriant countryside, he grew very fond of fishing and outdoor activities. At age thirteen, he was sent to a small seminary near Rouen for classical studies. HP Pavilion dv2-1110us Battery

 

In October 1868, at the age of 18, he saved the famous poet Algernon Charles Swinburnefrom drowning off the coast of Étretat at Normandy.[2] As he entered junior high school, he met the great author Gustave Flaubert. HP Pavilion dv2-1111ax Battery

 

He first entered a seminary at Yvetot, but deliberately got himself expelled. From his early education he retained a marked hostility to religion. Then he was sent to the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen[3] where he proved a good scholar indulging in poetry and taking a prominent part in theatricals. HP Pavilion dv2-1112au Battery

 

The Franco-Prussian War broke out soon after his graduation from college in 1870; he enlisted as a volunteer and fought bravely. Afterwards, in 1871, he left Normandy and moved to Paris where he spent ten years as a clerk in the Navy Department. HP Pavilion dv2-1113ax Battery

 During these ten tedious years his only recreation and relaxation was canoeing on the Seine on Sundays and holidays. Gustave Flaubert took him under his protection and acted as a kind of literary guardian to him, HP Pavilion dv2-1115ea Battery

guiding his debut in journalism and literature. At Flaubert's home he met Émile Zola and the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev, as well as many of the proponents of the realist and naturalist schools. HP Pavilion dv2-1115ee Battery

In 1878 he was transferred to the Ministry of Public Instruction and became a contributing editor of several leading newspapers such as Le FigaroGil BlasLe Gaulois and l'Écho de Paris. He devoted his spare time to writing novels and short stories. HP Pavilion dv2-1116ax Battery

 

In 1880 he published what is considered his first masterpiece, "Boule de Suif", which met with an instant and tremendous success. Flaubert characterized it as "a masterpiece that will endure." HP Pavilion dv2-1117ee Battery

This was Maupassant's first piece of short fiction set during the Franco-Prussian War, and was followed by short stories such as "Deux Amis", "Mother Savage", and "Mademoiselle Fifi".HP Pavilion dv2-1118ax Battery

 

The decade from 1880 to 1891 was the most fertile period of Maupassant's life. Made famous by his first short story, he worked methodically and produced two or sometimes four volumes annually. He combined talent and practical business sense, which made him wealthy. HP Pavilion dv2-1119ax Battery

In 1881 he published his first volume of short stories under the title of La Maison Tellier; it reached its twelfth edition within two years; in 1883 he finished his first novel, Une Vie(translated into English as A Woman's Life), 25,000 copies of which were sold in less than a year. HP Pavilion dv2-1120ax Battery

In his novels, he concentrated all his observations scattered in his short stories. His second novel Bel-Ami, which came out in 1885, had thirty-seven printings in four months. HP Pavilion dv2-1120br Battery

 

His editor, Havard, commissioned him to write new masterpieces and Maupassant continued to produce them without the slightest apparent effort. At this time he wrote what many consider to be his greatest novel, Pierre et Jean. HP Pavilion dv2-1120ed Battery

 

With a natural aversion to society, he loved retirement, solitude, and meditation. He traveled extensively in Algeria, Italy, England, Brittany, Sicily, Auvergne, and from each voyage brought back a new volume. He cruised on his private yacht "Bel-Ami," HP Pavilion dv2-1120ef Battery

named after his earlier novel. This feverish life did not prevent him from making friends among the literary celebrities of his day: Alexandre Dumas, fils had a paternal affection for him; at Aix-les-Bains he met Hippolyte Taine and fell under the spell of the philosopher-historian. HP Pavilion dv2-1120eg Battery

 

Flaubert continued to act as his literary godfather. His friendship with the Goncourts was of short duration; his frank and practical nature reacted against the ambience of gossip, scandal, duplicity, and invidious criticism that the two brothers had created around them in the guise of an 18th-century style salon. HP Pavilion dv2-1121ax Battery

 

Maupassant was but one of a fair number of 19th-century Parisians who did not care for the Eiffel tower; indeed, he often ate lunch in the restaurant at its base, not out of any preference for the food, HP Pavilion dv2-1122ax Battery

but because it was only there that he could avoid seeing its otherwise unavoidable profile.[4] Moreover, he and forty-six other Parisian literary and artistic notables attached their names to letter of protest, ornate as it was irate, against the tower's construction to the then Minister of Public Works.[5]HP Pavilion dv2-1123ax Battery

 

Maupassant also wrote under several pseudonyms such as Joseph Prunier, Guy de Valmont, and Maufrigneuse (which he used from 1881 to 1885). HP Pavilion dv2-1124ax Battery

 

In his later years he developed a constant desire for solitude, an obsession for self-preservation, and a fear of death and crazed paranoia of persecution, that came from thesyphilis he had contracted in his early days. HP Pavilion dv2-1125ax Battery

On January 2, in 1892, Maupassant tried to commit suicide by cutting his throat and was committed to the celebrated private asylum of Dr. Esprit Blanche at Passy, in Paris, where he died on July 6, 1893. HP Pavilion dv2-1125ee Battery

 

Guy De Maupassant penned his own epitaph: "I have coveted everything and taken pleasure in nothing." He is buried in Section 26 of the Cimetière du Montparnasse, Paris. HP Pavilion dv2-1126ax Battery

 

Significance

Maupassant is considered one of the fathers of the modern short story. He delighted in clever plotting, and served as a model for Somerset Maugham and O. Henry in this respect. His stories about expensive jewelry ("The Necklace", "Les Bijoux") are imitated with a twist by Maugham ("Mr Know-All", "A String of Beads") and Henry James. HP Pavilion dv2-1127ea Battery

 

Taking his cue from Balzac, Maupassant wrote comfortably in both the high-Realist andfantastic modes; stories and novels such as "L'Héritage" and Bel-Ami aim to recreateThird Republic France in a realistic way, whereas many of the short stories (notably "Le Horla" and "Qui sait?") describe apparently supernatural phenomena. HP Pavilion dv2-1130eb Battery

 

The supernatural in Maupassant, however, is often implicitly a symptom of the protagonists' troubled minds; Maupassant was fascinated by the burgeoning discipline ofpsychiatry, and attended the public lectures of Jean-Martin Charcot between 1885 and 1886.[6] This interest is reflected in his fiction. HP Pavilion dv2-1130es Battery

 

Criticism

Maupassant is notable as the subject of one of Leo Tolstoy's essays on art: The Works of Guy de Maupassant.

Friedrich Nietzsche's autobiography mentions him in the following text: HP Pavilion dv2-1131ax Battery

 

"I cannot at all conceive in which century of history one could haul together such inquisitive and at the same time delicate psychologists as one can in contemporary Paris: HP Pavilion dv2-1133ax Battery

I can name as a sample – for their number is by no means small, ... or to pick out one of the stronger race, a genuine Latin to whom I am particularly attached, Guy de Maupassant." HP Pavilion dv2-1132ax Battery

 

Hoffman

Abbot Howard "Abbie" Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a political and social activist who co-founded the Youth International Party ("Yippies").HP Pavilion dv2-1134ax Battery

 

Hoffman was arrested and tried for conspiracy and inciting to riot as a result of his role inprotests that led to violent confrontations with police during the 1968 Democratic National Convention, HP Pavilion dv2-1134nr Battery

along with Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, John Froines, Lee Weiner and Bobby Seale. The group was known collectively as the "Chicago Eight"; HP Pavilion dv2-1136ax Battery

when Seale's prosecution was separated from the others, they became known as the Chicago Seven. While the defendants were initially convicted of intent to incite a riot, the verdicts were overturned on appeal. HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax Battery

 

Hoffman came to prominence in the 1960s, and continued practicing his activism in the 1970s, and has remained a symbol of the youth rebellion of that era. HP Pavilion dv2-1140ed Battery

 

EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION

Hoffman was born November 30, 1936 in Worcester, Massachusetts to John Hoffman and Florence Schamberg, both of Jewish descent. Hoffman was raised in a middle class household and had two younger siblings. HP Pavilion dv2-1140es Battery

As a child of the 1950s, he was a member of what has been described as "the transitional generation between the beatniks and hippies". On June 3, 1954, the 17-year-old Hoffman was arrested for the first time, HP Pavilion dv2-1140en Battery

for driving without a license. During his school days, he became known as a troublemaker who started fights, played pranks, vandalized school property, and referred to teachers by their first names. HP Pavilion dv2-1140eo Battery

In his sophomore year, Hoffman was expelled from Classical High School, a now-closed public high school in Worcester when he wrote a paper questioning God's existence. HP Pavilion dv2-1144ca Battery

His teacher tore the paper up and accused him of being a "communist punk". Hoffman jumped on the teacher and started fighting him until he was restrained and then expelled from school.[2] HP Pavilion dv2-1160ed Battery

After this he attended Worcester Academy, graduating in 1955. Hoffman did many of the things typical of rebellious young men in the 1950s such as driving motorcycles, wearing leather jackets, and sporting a ducktail haircut. He then enrolled in Brandeis University, completing his B.A. in Psychology in 1959. HP Pavilion dv2-1199us Battery

At Brandeis, he studied under professors such as noted psychologist Abraham Maslow, often considered the father of humanistic psychology.[3] He was also a student of the Marxist theoristHerbert Marcuse, whom Hoffman said had a profound effect on his political outlook after studying his philosophy. HP Pavilion dv3-1000 Series Battery

Hoffman would later cite Marcuse's influence during his activism and his theories on revolution. Hoffman later enrolled at University of California, Berkeley to earn a Master's Degree in Psychology, then marrying his pregnant girlfriend Shelia Karkli soon after in May 1960. HP Pavilion dv3-1001TX Battery

 

EARLY PROTESTS

Prior to his days as a leading member of the Yippie movement, Hoffman was involved with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and organized "Liberty House",HP Pavilion dv3-1051xx Battery

which sold items to support the Civil Rights Movement in the southern United States. During the Vietnam War, Hoffman was an anti-war activist, who used deliberately comical and theatrical tactics. HP Pavilion dv3-1073cl Battery

 

In October 1967, David Dellinger of the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam asked Jerry Rubin to help mobilize and direct a March on the Pentagon.[4] HP Pavilion dv3-1075ca Battery

The protesters gathered at the Lincoln Memorial as Dellinger and Dr. Benjamin Spock gave speeches to the mass of people.[5] From there, the group marched towards the Pentagon. HP Pavilion dv3-1075us Battery

As the protesters neared the Pentagon, they were met by soldiers of the 82nd Airborne Division[5] who formed a human barricade blocking the Pentagon steps.[4] Not to be dissuaded, HP Pavilion dv3-1077ca Battery

 Hoffman vowed to levitate the Pentagon[5] claiming he would attempt to usepsychic energy to levitate the Pentagon until it would turn orange and begin to vibrate, at which time the war in Vietnam would end.[6] Allen Ginsberg led Tibetan chants to assist Hoffman.[5]HP Pavilion dv3z-1000 Battery


 

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