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Hoffman's symbolic theatrics were successful at convincing many young people to become more active in the politics of the time.[6] HP Pavilion dv3-2000 BatteryAnother one of Hoffman's well-known protests was on August 24, 1967, when he led members of the movement to the gallery of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). HP Pavilion dv3-2001tu BatteryThe protesters threw fistfuls of real and fake dollars down to the traders below, some of whom booed, while others began to scramble frantically to grab the money as fast as they could.[7] HP Pavilion dv3-2001TX BatteryAccounts of the amount of money that Hoffman and the group tossed was said to be as little as $30 to $300.[8] Hoffman claimed to be pointing out that, metaphorically, HP Pavilion dv3-2001xx Batterythat's what NYSE traders "were already doing." "We didn't call the press", wrote Hoffman, "at that time we really had no notion of anything called a media event." HP Pavilion dv3-2002tu BatteryThe press was quick to respond and by evening the event was reported around the world. Since that incident, the stock exchange has spent $20,000 to enclose the gallery with bulletproof glass.[9] HP Pavilion dv3-2002tx Battery

 In late 1966, Hoffman met with a radical community-action group called the Diggers[10]and studied their ideology. He later returned to New York and published a book with this knowledge.[10] Doing so was considered a violation by the Diggers. Diggers co-founderPeter Coyote explained: HP Pavilion dv3-2003tu Battery

 

Abbie, who was a friend of mine, was always a media junky. We explained everything to those guys, and they violated everything we taught them. Abbie went back, HP Pavilion dv3-2003tx Battery

and the first thing he did was publish a book, with his picture on it, that blew the hustle of every poor person on the Lower East Side by describing every free scam then current in New York -- which were then sucked dry by disaffected kids from Scarsdale.[11] HP Pavilion dv3-2004tu Battery

 

CHICAGO EIGHT CONSPIRACY TRIAL

Hoffman was arrested and tried for conspiracy and inciting to riot as a result of his role inanti-Vietnam War protests, which were met by a violent police response during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.[12] HP Pavilion dv3-2004tx Battery

He was among the group that came to be known as the Chicago Seven (originally known as the Chicago Eight), which included fellow Yippie Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, HP Pavilion dv3-2005ee Battery

Rennie Davis, John Froines, Lee Weiner, futureCalifornia state senator Tom Hayden and Black Panther Party co-founder Bobby Seale(before his trial was severed from the others). HP Pavilion dv3-2005tu Battery

 

Presided over by Judge Julius Hoffman (no relation to Abbie, which Abbie joked about throughout the trial[13]), Abbie Hoffman's courtroom antics frequently grabbed the headlines; HP Pavilion dv3-2005tx Battery

one day, defendants Hoffman and Rubin appeared in court dressed in judicial robes, while on another day, Hoffman was sworn in as a witness with his hand giving the finger. HP Pavilion dv3-2006tu Battery

Judge Hoffman became the favorite courtroom target of the Chicago Seven defendants, who frequently would insult the judge to his face.[14] Abbie Hoffman told Judge Hoffman "you are a 'shande fur de Goyim' [disgrace in front of the gentiles]. HP Pavilion dv3-2006tx Battery

You would have served Hitler better." He later added that "your idea of justice is the only obscenity in the room."[14] Both Davis and Rubin told the Judge "this court is bullshit." When Abbie was asked in what state he resided, he replied the "state of mind of my brothers and sisters".HP Pavilion dv3-2007ee Battery

 

Other celebrities were called as "cultural witnesses" including Allen Ginsberg, Phil Ochs,Arlo Guthrie, Norman Mailer and others. Abbie closed the trial with a speech in which he quoted Abraham Lincoln, making the claim that the President himself, if alive today, would also be arrested in Chicago's Lincoln Park. HP Pavilion dv3-2007tu Battery

On February 18, 1970, Hoffman and four of the other defendants (Rubin, Dellinger, Davis, and Hayden) were found guilty of intent to incite a riot while crossing state lines. HP Pavilion dv3-2007tx Battery

All seven defendants were found not guilty of conspiracy. At sentencing, Hoffman suggested the judge try LSD and offered to set him up with "a dealer he knew in Florida" (the judge was known to be headed to Florida for a post-trial vacation). Each of the five was sentenced to five years in prison and a $5,000 fine.[15] HP Pavilion dv3-2008tu Battery

 

However, all convictions were subsequently overturned by the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals. The Kerner Commission later found that in fact it had been a "police riot." HP Pavilion dv3-2008tx Battery

 

CONTROVERSY AT WOODSTOCK

At Woodstock in 1969, Hoffman reportedly interrupted The Who's performance to attempt to speak against the jailing of John Sinclair of the White Panther Party. He grabbed a microphone and yelled, "I think this is a pile of shit while John Sinclair rots in prison ..." HP Pavilion dv3-2009tx Battery

The Who's guitarist, Pete Townshend, was adjusting his amplifier between songs and turned to look at Hoffman over his right shoulder. Townshend reportedly ran at Hoffman with his guitar and hit Hoffman in the back, HP Pavilion dv3-2010el Battery

although this was later denied by Townshend.[16]Townshend later said that while he actually agreed with Hoffman on Sinclair'simprisonment, he would have knocked him offstage regardless of the content of his message, HP Pavilion dv3-2010et Battery

given that Hoffman had violated the "sanctity of the stage," i.e., the right of the band to perform uninterrupted by distractions not relevant to the actual show. The incident took place during a camera change, and was not captured on film. HP Pavilion dv3-2010tx Battery

The audio of this incident, however, can be heard on The Who's box set, Thirty Years of Maximum R&B(Disc 2, Track 20, "Abbie Hoffman Incident").HP Pavilion dv3-2011tx Battery

 

In Woodstock Nation, Hoffman mentions the incident, and says he was on a bad LSD tripat the time. Joe Shea, then a reporter for the Times Herald-Record, a Dow Jones-Ottaway newspaper that covered the event on-site, said he saw the incident. HP Pavilion dv3-2012tx Battery

He recalled that Hoffman was actually hit in the back of the head by Townshend's guitar and toppled directly into the pit in front of the stage. He does not recall any "shove" from Townshend, and discounts both men's accounts. HP Pavilion dv3-2013tx Battery

 

UNDERGROUND

In 1971, Hoffman published Steal This Book, which advised readers on how to live basically for free. Many of his readers followed Hoffman's advice and stole the book, leading many bookstores to refuse to carry it. He was also the author of several other books, HP Pavilion dv3-2014tx Battery

 including Vote!, co-written with Rubin and Ed Sanders.[17] Hoffman was arrested August 28, 1973 on drug charges for intent to sell and distribute cocaine. HP Pavilion dv3-2015ee Battery

He always maintained that undercover police agents entrapped him into a drug deal and planted suitcases of cocaine in his office. In the spring of 1974, Hoffman skipped bail, underwent cosmetic surgery to alter his appearance, and hid from authorities for several years. HP Pavilion dv3-2015tx Battery

 

Some believed Abbie made himself a target. In 1998, Peter Coyote opined:

The FBI couldn't infiltrate us. We did everything anonymously, and we did everything for nothing, because we wanted our actions to be authentic. It's the mistake that Abbie Hoffman made. HP Pavilion dv3-2016tx Battery

He came out, he studied with us, we taught him everything, and then he went back and wrote a book called Free, and he put his name on it! He set himself up to be a leader of the counterculture, and he was undone by that. Big mistake.[18] HP Pavilion dv3-2017ee Battery

 

Despite being "in hiding" during part of this period (Hoffman lived in Fineview, New York near Thousand Island Park, a private resort on Wellesley Island on the St. Lawrence River under the name "Barry Freed"), HP Pavilion dv3-2017tx Battery

he helped coordinate an environmental campaign to preserve the Saint Lawrence River (Save the River organization).[19] During his time on the run, he was also the "travel" columnist for Crawdaddy! magazine. HP Pavilion dv3-2018tx Battery

On September 4, 1980, he surrendered to authorities; on the same date, he appeared on a pre-taped edition of ABC-TV's 20/20 in an interview with Barbara Walters. Hoffman received a one-year sentence, but was released after four months. HP Pavilion dv3-2019tx Battery

 

BACK TO VISIBILITY

In November 1986, Hoffman was arrested along with fourteen others, including Amy Carter, the daughter of former President Jimmy Carter, for trespassing at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.[20] HP Pavilion dv3-2020ei Battery

The charges stemmed from a protest against the Central Intelligence Agency's recruitment on the UMass campus.[21] Since the university's policy limited campus recruitment to law-abiding organizations, Hoffman asserted in his defense the CIA's lawbreaking activities. HP Pavilion dv3-2020el Battery

The federal district court judge permitted expert witnesses, including former Attorney General Ramsey Clark and a former CIA agent who testified about the CIA's illegal Contra war against the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua in violation of the Boland Amendment.[22] HP Pavilion dv3-2020et Battery

 

In three days of testimony, more than a dozen defense witnesses, including Daniel Ellsberg, Ramsey Clark, and former Contra leader Edgar Chamorro, HP Pavilion dv3-2020tx Battery

described the CIA's role in more than two decades of covert, illegal and often violent activities. In his closing argument, Hoffman, acting as his own attorney, placed his actions within the best tradition of American civil disobedience. He quoted from Thomas Paine, HP Pavilion dv3-2021tx Battery

"the most outspoken and farsighted of the leaders of the American Revolution: 'Every age and generation must be as free to act for itself, in all cases, as the ages and generations which preceded it. Man has no property in man, neither has any generation a property in the generations which are to follow.'"HP Pavilion dv3-2022tx Battery

 

Hoffman concluded: "Thomas Paine was talking about this Spring day in this courtroom. A verdict of not guilty will say, 'When our country is right, keep it right; but when it is wrong, right those wrongs.'" On April 15, 1987, the jury found Hoffman and the other defendants not guilty. HP Pavilion dv3-2023tx Battery

 

After his acquittal,[21] Hoffman acted in a cameo appearance in Oliver Stone's later-released anti-Vietnam War movie, Born on the Fourth of July.[23] He essentially played himself in the movie, waving a flag on the ramparts of an administration building during a campus protest that was being teargassed and crushed by state troopers. HP Pavilion dv3-2024tx Battery

 

In 1987 Hoffman summed up his views.

You are talking to a leftist. I believe in the redistribution of wealth and power in the world. I believe in universal hospital care for everyone. I believe that we should not have a single homeless person in the richest country in the world. And I believe that we should not have a C.I.A. HP Pavilion dv3-2025ee Battery

that goes around overwhelming governments and assassinating political leaders, working for tight oligarchies around the world to protect the tight oligarchy here at home.[20] HP Pavilion dv3-2025eg Battery

 

Later that same year, Hoffman and Jonathan Silvers wrote Steal This Urine Test(published October 5, 1987), which exposed the internal contradictions of the War on Drugs and suggested ways to circumvent its most intrusive measures. He stated, for instance, that Federal Express, HP Pavilion dv3-2025tx Battery

which received high praise from management guru Tom Peters for "empowering" workers, in fact subjected most employees to random drug tests, firing any who got a positive result, with no retest or appeal procedure, despite the fact that FedEx chose a drug lab (the lowest bidder) with a proven record of frequent false positive results.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv3-2026tx Battery

 

Stone's Born on the Fourth of July was released on December 20, 1989, more than eight months after Hoffman's suicide on April 12, 1989. At the time of his death, Hoffman was at the height of a renewed public visibility, one of the few 1960s radicals who still commanded the attention of all kinds of mass media. HP Pavilion dv3-2027ee Battery

He regularly lectured audiences about the CIA's covert activities, including assassinations disguised as suicides. HisPlayboy article (October, 1988) outlining the connections that constitute the "October Surprise," brought that alleged conspiracy to the attention of a wide-ranging American readership for the first time.[24] HP Pavilion dv3-2027tx Battery

 

In 1960, Hoffman married Sheila Karklin[2] and had two children: Andrew (born 1960) and Amy (1962–2007), who later went by the name Ilya. They divorced in 1966. HP Pavilion dv3-2028tx Battery

 

In 1967, Hoffman married Anita Kushner in Manhattan's Central Park.[25] They had one son, america Hoffman, deliberately named using a lowercase "a" to indicate both patriotism and non-jingoistic intent.[26] HP Pavilion dv3-2029tx Battery

Although Abbie and Anita were effectively separated after Abbie became a fugitive, starting in 1973, and he subsequently fell in love withJohanna Lawrenson in 1974, while a fugitive, they were not formally divorced until 1980. HP Pavilion dv3-2030ef Battery

 

His personal life drew a great deal of scrutiny from the Federal Bureau of Investigation. By their own admission, they kept a file on him that was 13,262 pages long.[27] HP Pavilion dv3-2030ei Battery

 

DEATH

Hoffman was 52 at the time of his death on April 12, 1989, which was caused by swallowing 150 phenobarbital tablets along with hard liquor. He had been diagnosed withbipolar disorder in 1980.[28] HP Pavilion dv3-2030ek Battery

At the time he had recently changed treatment medications and was reportedly depressed when his 83-year old mother was diagnosed with cancer (she died in 1996 at the age of 90). HP Pavilion dv3-2030eo Battery

Some close to Hoffman claimed that as a natural prankster who valued youth, he was also unhappy about reaching middle age, combined with the fact that the ideas of the 1960s had given way to a conservative backlash in the 1980s. (Jezer, 1993). HP Pavilion dv3-2030ez Battery

Hoffman's body was found in his apartment in a converted turkey coop on Sugan Road in Solebury Township, near New Hope, Pennsylvania. At the time of his death, he was surrounded by about 200 pages of his own handwritten notes, many about his own moods. HP Pavilion dv3-2030tx Battery

 

His death was officially ruled a suicide.[29] As reported by The New York Times, "Among the more vocal doubters at the service today was Mr. Dellinger, who said, 'I don't believe for one moment the suicide thing.' HP Pavilion dv3-2032tx Battery

He said he had been in fairly frequent touch with Mr. Hoffman, who had 'numerous plans for the future.'" Yet the same New York Times article reported that the coroner found the residue of about 150 pills and quoted the coroner in a telephone interview saying 'There is no way to take that amount of phenobarbital without intent. It was intentional and self-inflicted.' [29] HP Pavilion dv3-2033eg Battery

 

A week after Hoffman's death, a thousand friends and relatives gathered for a memorial inWorcester, Massachusetts at Temple Emanuel, the synagogue he attended as a child. Senior Rabbi Norman Mendel officiated. HP Pavilion dv3-2033tx Battery

Two of his colleagues from the Chicago Seven conspiracy trial were there: David Dellinger and Jerry Rubin, Hoffman's co-founder of the Yippies, by then a businessman. HP Pavilion dv3-2034tx Battery

 

As The New York Times reported: "Indeed, most of the mourners who attended the formal memorial at Temple Emanuel here were more yuppie than yippie and there were more rep ties than ripped jeans among the crowd..."[30] HP Pavilion dv3-2036tx Battery

 

The Times report continued:

Bill Walton, the radical Celtic of basketball renown, told of a puckish Abbie, then underground evading a cocaine charge in the '70s, leaping from the shadows on a New York street to give him an impromptu basketball lesson after a loss to the Knicks. HP Pavilion dv3-2050ea Battery

'Abbie was not a fugitive from justice,' said Mr. Walton. 'Justice was a fugitive from him.' On a more traditional note, Rabbi Norman Mendell said in his eulogy that Mr. Hoffman's long history of protest, antic though much of it had been, was 'in the Jewish prophetic tradition, which is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.'[30] HP Pavilion dv3-2050ec Battery

 

Hofmann, later, was to discover 4-Acetoxy-DET (4-acetoxy-N,N-diethyltryptamine), also known as ethacetin, ethylacybin, or 4-AcO-DET, a hallucinogenic tryptamine. He first synthesized 4-AcO-DET in 1958 in the Sandoz lab. HP Pavilion dv3-2050ep Battery

Hofmann became director of the natural products department at Sandoz and continued studying hallucinogenic substances found in Mexican mushrooms and other plants used by the aboriginal people. HP Pavilion dv3-2050es Battery

This led to the synthesis of psilocybin, the active agent of many "magic mushrooms."[9] Hofmann also became interested in the seeds of the Mexican morning glory species Rivea corymbosa, the seeds of which are called Ololiuhqui by the natives. HP Pavilion dv3-2051ea Battery

He was surprised to find the active compound of Ololiuhqui, ergine (LSA, lysergic acid amide), to be closely related to LSD. HP Pavilion dv3-2055ea Battery

 

In 1962, he and his wife Anita Hofmann (born Guanella) traveled to southern Mexico to search for the plant "Ska Maria Pastora" (Leaves of Mary the Shepherdess), later known as Salvia divinorum. He was able to obtain samples of this plant but never succeeded in identifying its active compound which has since been identified as the diterpenoidSalvinorin A. HP Pavilion dv3-2080eo Battery

 

In 1963, Hofmann attended the annual convention of the World Academy of Arts and Sciences (WAAS) in Stockholm. HP Pavilion dv3-2090ej Battery

 

Hofmann called LSD "medicine for the soul" and was frustrated by the worldwide prohibition of it. "It was used very successfully for 10 years in psychoanalysis," he said, HP Pavilion dv3-2090en Battery

adding that the drug was misused by the Counterculture of the 1960s and then criticized unfairly by the establishment. Because LSD is such a powerful[vague] compound, he conceded that it could be dangerous if misused.[10] HP Pavilion dv3-2100 Battery

 

In December 2007, Swiss medical authorities permitted a psychotherapist to perform psychotherapeutic experiments with patients who suffer from terminal-stage cancer and other deadly diseases. HP Pavilion dv3-2101tu Battery

Although not yet started, these experiments will represent the first study of the therapeutic effects of LSD on humans in 35 years, as other studies have focused on the drug's effects on consciousness and body. Hofmann acclaimed the study, and continued to say he believed in the therapeutic benefits of LSD.[11] HP Pavilion dv3-2101tx Battery

 

Albert Hofmann's autobiographical account of his experience with LSD was published inLSD: My Problem Child (1980). Hofmann also co-authored The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries (Hermes Press, 1998, North Atlantic Books, 2008), HP Pavilion dv3-2102tu Battery

a collaborative effort with mycologist R. Gordon Wasson, and classical scholars Carl Ruckand Blaise Staples, which investigates the secret mystic elixir that was a component of the Eleusinian Mysteries. HP Pavilion dv3-2102tx Battery

Hofmann further describes the relevance of the Eleusinian Mysteries for today's world, and the application of psychedelic experience to the study ofmetaphysics, in essays published in Entheogens and the Future of Religion, (Council on Spiritual Practices, San Francisco, 1999);HP Pavilion dv3-2103tx Battery

and discusses his relationship with LSD enthusiast Timothy Leary in Outside Looking In (Park Street Press, Rochester, VT, 1999). Also, a posthumous book by Albert Hoffman, Hofmann's Elixir: LSD and the New Eleusis, collecting the last essays the author wrote, was released February 24, 2010.[16] HP Pavilion dv3-2105ee Battery

 

According to the Bible, a giant storm sent by God flooded the Earth. Noah and his family and the animals entered the Ark, and "the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, HP Pavilion dv3-2105tu Battery

and the windows of heaven were opened, and the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights." The flood covered even the highest mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet, and all creatures died; only Noah and those with him on the Ark were left alive. In the New Testament, Jesus Christ is recorded to have calmed a storm on the Sea of Galilee. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Battery

 

In Greek mythology there were several gods of storms: Briareos, the god of sea storms;Aigaios, a god of the violent sea storms; and Aiolos, keeper of storm-winds, squalls and tempests. HP Pavilion dv3-2107tu Battery

 

The Sea Venture was wrecked near Bermuda in 1609 which led to the colonization of Bermuda[49] and provided the inspiration for Shakespeare's The Tempest. William Shakespeare's play The Tempest (1611) was based on the following incident.[50] HP Pavilion dv3-2108tu Battery

 Sir Thomas Gates, future governor of Virginia, was on his way to England from Jamestown, Virginia. On Saint James Day while between Cuba and the Bahamas a hurricane raged for nearly two days. HP Pavilion dv3-2110er Battery

Though one of the small vessels in the fleet sank to the bottom of theFlorida Straits, seven of the remaining vessels reached Virginia within several days after the storm. HP Pavilion dv3-2112tx Battery

The flagship of the fleet, known as Sea Adventure, disappeared and was presumed lost. A small bit of fortune befell the ship and her crew when they made landfall on Bermuda. HP Pavilion dv3-2115ea Battery

The vessel was damaged on a surrounding coral reef, but all aboard survived for nearly a year on the island. The British colonists claimed the island and quickly settled Bermuda. In May 1610, they set forth for Jamestown, this time arriving at their destination. HP Pavilion dv3-2115ee Battery

 

The Romantic seascape painters J. M. W. Turner and Ivan Aivazovsky created some of the most lasting impressions of the sublime and stormy seas that are firmly imprinted on the popular mind.HP Pavilion dv3-2116tx Battery

Turner's representations of powerful natural forces reinvented the traditional seascape during the first half of the nineteenth century. Upon his travels to Holland, HP Pavilion dv3-2117tx Battery

he took note of the familiar large rolling waves of the English seashore transforming into the sharper, choppy waves of a Dutch storm. A characteristic example of Turner’s dramatic seascape is The Slave Ship of 1840. HP Pavilion dv3-2119tx Battery

Aivazovsky left several thousand turbulent canvases in which he increasingly eliminated human figures and historical background to focus on such essential elements as light, sea, and sky. His grandiose Ninth Wave (1850) is an ode to human daring in the face of the elements. HP Pavilion dv3-2120ea Battery

 

Storms were also portrayed in several works of music. Examples are Beethoven'sPastoral Symphony (the fourth movement), Presto of the violin concerto RV 315 (Summer) from the Four Seasons by Vivaldi, and a scene in Act II of Rossini's opera The Barber of SevilleHP Pavilion dv3-2120ss Battery

 

Hail is one of the most significant thunderstorm hazards to aircraft.[41] When hail stones exceed 0.5 inches (13 mm) in diameter, planes can be seriously damaged within seconds.[42] HP Pavilion dv3-2121tx Battery

The hailstones accumulating on the ground can also be hazardous to landing aircraft. Strong wind outflow from thunderstorms causes rapid changes in the three-dimensional wind velocity just above ground level. HP Pavilion dv3-2122tx Battery

Initially, this outflow causes a headwind that increases airspeed, which normally causes a pilot to reduce engine power if they are unaware of the wind shear. As the aircraft passes into the region of the downdraft, HP Pavilion dv3-2123tx Battery

the localized headwind diminishes, reducing the aircraft's airspeed and increasing its sink rate. Then, when the aircraft passes through the other side of the downdraft, the headwind becomes a tailwind, reducing lift generated by the wings, and leaving the aircraft in a low-power, low-speed descent. HP Pavilion dv3-2125ee Battery

This can lead to an accident if the aircraft is too low to effect a recovery before ground contact. As the result of the accidents in the 1970s and 1980s, in 1988 the U.S. HP Pavilion dv3-2126tx Battery

 Federal Aviation Administration mandated that all commercial aircraft haveon-board wind shear detection systems by 1993. Between 1964 and 1985, wind shear directly caused or contributed to 26 major civil transport aircraft accidents in the U.S. HP Pavilion dv3-2129tx Battery

that led to 620 deaths and 200 injuries. Since 1995, the number of major civil aircraft accidents caused by wind shear has dropped to approximately one every ten years, due to the mandated on-board detection as well as the addition of Doppler weather radar units on the ground. (NEXRAD)[43] HP Pavilion dv3-2130ea Battery

 

AGRICULTURE

Hail can cause serious damage, notably to automobiles, aircraft, skylights, glass-roofed structures, livestock, and most commonly, farmers' crops.[34] Wheat, corn, soybeans, HP Pavilion dv3-2130ef Battery

and tobacco are the most sensitive crops to hail damage.[35] Hail is one of Canada's most expensive hazards.[36] Snowfall can be beneficial to agriculture by serving as a thermal insulator,HP Pavilion dv3-2130ei Battery

conserving the heat of the Earth and protecting crops from subfreezing weather. Some agricultural areas depend on an accumulation of snow during winter that will melt gradually in spring, HP Pavilion dv3-2130es Battery

providing water for crop growth. If it melts into water and refreezes upon sensitive crops, such as oranges, the resulting ice will protect the fruit from exposure to lower temperatures.[37] HP Pavilion dv3-2130ez Battery

Although tropical cyclones take an enormous toll in lives and personal property, they may be important factors in the precipitation regimes of places they affect and bring much-needed precipitation to otherwise dry regions. HP Pavilion dv3-2131tx Battery

Hurricanes in the eastern north Pacific often supply moisture to the Southwestern United States and parts of Mexico.[38] Japan receives over half of its rainfall from typhoons.[39] HP Pavilion dv3-2133tx Battery

Hurricane Camilleaverted drought conditions and ended water deficits along much of its path,[40] though it also killed 259 people and caused $9.14 billion (2005 USD) in damage. HP Pavilion dv3-2135tx Battery

 

Shipwrecks are common with the passage of strong tropical cyclones. Such shipwrecks can change the course of history,[11] as well as influence art and literature. HP Pavilion dv3-2136tx Battery

A hurricane led to a victory of the Spanish over the French for control of Fort Caroline, and ultimately the Atlantic coast of North America, in 1565.[12] HP Pavilion dv3-2137tx Battery

Strong winds from any storm type can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, and other outside objects, turning loose debris into deadly flying projectiles. HP Pavilion dv3-2138tx Battery

In the United States, major hurricanes comprise just 21% of all landfalling tropical cyclones, but account for 83% of all damage.[13] Tropical cyclones often knock out power to tens or hundreds of thousands of people, preventing vital communication and hampering rescue efforts.[14] HP Pavilion dv3-2139tx Battery

Tropical cyclones often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it. Furthermore, HP Pavilion dv3-2140ei Battery

the damage caused by tropical cyclones to buildings and dwellings can result in economic damage to a region, and to a diaspora of the population of the region.[15] HP Pavilion dv3-2140eo Battery

The storm surge, or the increase in sea level due to the cyclone, is typically the worst effect from landfalling tropical cyclones, historically resulting in 90% of tropical cyclone deaths.[15] HP Pavilion dv3-2144tx Battery

The relatively quick surge in sea level can move miles/kilometers inland, flooding homes and cutting off escape routes. The storm surges and winds of hurricanes may be destructive to human-made structures, but they also stir up the waters of coastal estuaries, which are typically important fish breeding locales. HP Pavilion dv3-2145tx Battery

 

Cloud-to-ground lightning frequently occur within the phenomena of thunderstorms and have numerous hazards towards landscapes and populations. One of the more significant hazards lightning can pose is the wildfires they are capable of igniting.[16] HP Pavilion dv3-2146tx Battery

Under a regime of low precipitation (LP) thunderstorms, where little precipitation is present, rainfall cannot prevent fires from starting when vegetation is dry as lightning produces a concentrated amount of extreme heat.[17] HP Pavilion dv3-2147tx Battery

Wildfires can devastate vegetation and the biodiversity of an ecosystem. Wildfires that occur close to urban environments can inflict damages upon infrastructures, buildings, crops, and provide risks to explosions, should the flames be exposed to gas pipes. HP Pavilion dv3-2149tx Battery

Direct damage caused by lightning strikes occurs on occasion.[18]In areas with a high frequency for cloud-to-ground lightning, like Florida, lightning causes several fatalities per year, most commonly to people working outside.[19] HP Pavilion dv3-2150ec Battery

 

Precipitation with low potential of hydrogen levels (pH), otherwise known as acid rain, is also a frequent risk produced by lightning. Distilled water, which contains no carbon dioxide, HP Pavilion dv3-2150ej Battery

has a neutral pH of 7. Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic, and those with a pH greater than 7 are bases. “Clean” or unpolluted rain has a slightly acidic pH of about 5.2, HP Pavilion dv3-2150el Battery

because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid (pH 5.6 in distilled water), but unpolluted rain also contains other chemicals.[20] HP Pavilion dv3-2150ep Battery

Nitric oxide present during thunderstorm phenomena,[21] caused by the splitting of nitrogen molecules, can result in the production of acid rain, if nitric oxide forms compounds with the water molecules in precipitation, thus creating acid rain. HP Pavilion dv3-2150es Battery

Acid rain can damage infrastructures containing calcite or other solid chemical compounds containing carbon. In ecosystems, acid rain can dissolve plant tissues of vegetations and increase acidification process in bodies of water and in soil, resulting in deaths of marine and terrestrial organisms.[22] HP Pavilion dv3-2150ev Battery

 

Hail damage to roofs often goes unnoticed until further structural damage is seen, such as leaks or cracks. It is hardest to recognize hail damage on shingled roofs and flat roofs, but all roofs have their own hail damage detection problems.[5] Metal roofs are fairly resistant to hail damage,HP Pavilion dv3-2150tx Battery

but may accumulate cosmetic damage in the form of dents and damaged coatings.[23] Hail is also a common nuisance to drivers of automobiles, severely denting the vehicle and cracking or even shattering windshields and windows. Rarely, HP Pavilion dv3-2150us Battery

massive hailstones have been known to cause concussions or fatal head trauma. Hailstorms have been the cause of costly and deadly events throughout history. One of the earliest recorded incidents occurred around the 9th century in Roopkund, Uttarakhand, India.[24] HP Pavilion dv3-2154ca Battery

The largest hailstone in terms of diameter and weight ever recorded in the United States fell on July 23, 2010 in Vivian, South Dakota in the United States; it measured 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter and 18.62 inches (47.3 cm) in circumference, HP Pavilion dv3-2155ee Battery

weighing in at 1.93 pounds (0.88 kg).[25] This broke the previous record for diameter set by a hailstone 7 inches diameter and 18.75 inches circumference which fell in Aurora, Nebraska in the United States on June 22, 2003, as well as the record for weight, set by a hailstone of 1.67 pounds (0.76 kg) that fell in Coffeyville, Kansas in 1970.[25] HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl Battery

 

Various hazards, ranging from hail to lightning can have an impact on outside technology facilities, such as antennas, satellite dishes, and towers. As a result, companies with outside facilities have begun installing such facilities underground, in order to reduce the risk of damage from storms.[26] HP Pavilion dv3-2160eo Battery

 

Substantial snowfall can disrupt public infrastructure and services, slowing human activity even in regions that are accustomed to such weather. Air and ground transport may be greatly inhibited or shut down entirely. HP Pavilion dv3-2175ee Battery

Populations living in snow-prone areas have developed various ways to travel across the snow, such as skis, snowshoes, and sledspulled by horses, dogs, or other animals and later, snowmobiles. HP Pavilion dv3-2200 Battery

Basic utilities such aselectricity, telephone lines, and gas supply can also fail. In addition, snow can make roads much harder to travel and vehicles attempting to use them can easily become stuck.[27] HP Pavilion dv3-2225TX Battery

 

The combined effects can lead to a "snow day" on which gatherings such as school, work, or church are officially canceled. In areas that normally have very little or no snow, HP Pavilion dv3-2301tu Battery

a snow day may occur when there is only light accumulation or even the threat of snowfall, since those areas are unprepared to handle any amount of snow. In some areas, such as some states in the United States, schools are given a yearly quota of snow days (or "calamity days").HP Pavilion dv3-2301tx Battery

 Once the quota is exceeded, the snow days must be made up.[28][29][30] In other states, all snow days must be made up.[31] For example, schools may extend the remaining school days later into the afternoon, shorten spring break, or delay the start ofsummer vacation. HP Pavilion dv3-2303tx Battery

 

Accumulated snow is removed to make travel easier and safer, and to decrease the long-term impact of a heavy snowfall. This process utilizes shovels and snowplows, HP Pavilion dv3-2304tx Battery

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and is often assisted by sprinkling salt or other chloride-based chemicals, which reduce the melting temperature of snow.[32] In some areas with abundant snowfall, such asYamagata Prefecture, HP Pavilion dv3-2306tx Battery

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 Japan, people harvest snow and store it surrounded by insulation in ice houses. This allows the snow to be used through the summer for refrigeration and air conditioning, which requires far less electricity than traditional cooling methods.[33] HP Pavilion dv3-2309tx Battery

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