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Guy Fawkes

Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes, the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish in the Low Countries, was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plotof 1605. HP Pavilion dm4-1008tx Battery

Fawkes was born and educated in York. His father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married arecusant Catholic. HP Pavilion dm4-1009tx Battery

Fawkes later converted to Catholicism and left for the continent, where he fought in the Eighty Years' War on the side of Catholic Spain against Protestant Dutch reformers. He travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England but was unsuccessful. He later met Thomas Wintour, with whom he returned to England. HP Pavilion dm4-1010eg Battery

Wintour introduced Fawkes to Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate King James I and restore a Catholic monarch to the throne. The plotters secured the lease to an undercroft beneath the House of Lords, and Fawkes was placed in charge of thegunpowder they stockpiled there. HP Pavilion dm4-1010tx Battery

Prompted by the receipt of an anonymous letter, the authorities searched Westminster Palace during the early hours of 5 November, and found Fawkes guarding the explosives. Over the next few days, he was questioned and tortured, and eventually he broke. Immediately before his execution on 31 January, HP Pavilion dm4-1012TX Battery

Fawkes jumped from the scaffold where he was to be hanged and broke his neck, thus avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.

Fawkes became synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot, the failure of which has been commemorated in England since 5 November 1605. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, commonly accompanied by a firework display. HP Pavilion dm4-1013tx Battery

Guy Fawkes was born in 1570 in Stonegate, York. He was the second of four children born to Edward Fawkes, a proctor and an advocate of the consistory court at York,[nb 1] and his wife, Edith.[nb 2] Guy's parents were regular communicants of theChurch of England, as were his paternal grandparents; HP Pavilion dm4-1014TX Battery

his grandmother, born Ellen Harrington, was the daughter of a prominent merchant, who served as Lord Mayor of York in 1536.[4] However, Guy's mother's family were recusant Catholics, and his cousin, Richard Cowling, became a Jesuit priest.[5]Guy was an uncommon name in England, but may have been popular in York on account of a local notable, Sir Guy Fairfax of Steeton.[6] HP Pavilion dm4-1015TX Battery

The date of Fawkes' birth is unknown, but he was baptised in the church of St. Michael le Belfrey on 16 April. As the customary gap between birth and baptism was three days, HP Pavilion dm4-1016tx Battery

he was probably born about 13 April.[5] In 1568, Edith had given birth to a daughter named Anne, but the child died aged about seven weeks, in November that year. She bore two more children after Guy: Anne (b. 1572), and Elizabeth (b. 1575). Both were married, in 1599 and 1594 respectively.[6][7] HP Pavilion dm4-1017tx Battery

In 1579, when Guy was eight years old, his father died. His mother remarried several years later, to the Catholic Dionis Baynbrigge (or Denis Bainbridge) of Scotton, Harrogate. Fawkes may have become a Catholic through the Baynbrigge family's recusant tendencies, HP Pavilion dm4-1018tx Battery

and also the Catholic branches of the Pulleyn and Percy families of Scotton,[8] but also from his time at St. Peter's School in York. A governor of the school had spent about 20 years in prison for recusancy, and its headmaster, John Pulleyn, came from a family of noted Yorkshire recusants, HP Pavilion dm4-1019tx Battery

the Pulleyns of Blubberhouses. In her 1915 work The Pulleynes of Yorkshire, author Catharine Pullein suggested that Fawkes's Catholic education came from his Harrington relatives, who were known for harbouring priests, one of whom later accompanied Fawkes to Flanders in 1592–1593.[9]HP Pavilion dm4-1020tx Battery

Fawkes's fellow students included John Wright and his brother Christopher (both later involved with Fawkes in the Gunpowder plot) and Oswald Tesimond, Edward Oldcorne and Robert Middleton, who became priests (the latter executed in 1601).[10] HP Pavilion dm4-1021tx Battery

After leaving school Fawkes entered the service of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu. The Viscount took a dislike to Fawkes and after a short time dismissed him; he was subsequently employed by Anthony-Maria Browne, 2nd Viscount Montagu, who succeeded his grandfather at the age of 18.[11] At least one source claims that Fawkes married and had a son, but no known contemporary accounts confirm this.[12][nb 3] HP Pavilion dm4-1022tx Battery

In October 1591 Fawkes sold the estate in Clifton that he had inherited from his father.[nb 4] He travelled to the continent to fight in the Eighty Years War for Catholic Spain against the new Dutch Republic and, from 1595 until the Peace of Vervins in 1598, France. HP Pavilion dm4-1023tx Battery

Although England was not by then engaged in land operations against Spain, the two countries were still at war, and the Spanish Armada of 1588 was only five years in the past. He joined Sir William Stanley, an English Catholic and veteran commander in his mid-fifties who had raised an army in Ireland to fight in Leicester's expedition to the Netherlands. HP Pavilion dm4-1024tx Battery

Stanley had been held in high regard by Elizabeth I, but following his surrender of Deventer to the Spanish in 1587 he, and most of his troops, had switched sides to serve Spain. Fawkes became an alférez or junior officer, fought well at the siege of Calais in 1596, HP Pavilion dm4-1027tx Battery

and by 1603 had been recommended for a captaincy.[3] That year, he travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England. He used the occasion to adopt the Italian version of his name, Guido, and in his memorandum described James I as "a heretic", who intended "to have all of the Papist sect driven out of England." HP Pavilion dm4-1028tx Battery

He denounced Scotland, and the King'sfavourites among the Scottish nobles, writing "it will not be possible to reconcile these two nations, as they are, for very long".[13] Although he was received politely, the court of Philip III was unwilling to offer him any support.[14] HP Pavilion dm4-1029tx Battery

Gunpowder Plot

In 1604 Fawkes became involved with a small group of English Catholics, led by Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate the Protestant King James and replace him with his daughter, third in the line of succession, Princess Elizabeth.[15][16] Fawkes was described by the Jesuit priest and former school friend Oswald Tesimond as "pleasant of approach and cheerful of manner, opposed to quarrels and strife ... loyal to his friends". HP Pavilion dm4-1030ez Battery

Tesimond also claimed Fawkes was "a man highly skilled in matters of war", and that it was this mixture of piety and professionalism which endeared him to his fellow conspirators.[3] The author Antonia Fraser describes Fawkes as "a tall, powerfully built man, with thick reddish-brown hair, HP Pavilion dm4-1030tx Battery

a flowing moustache in the tradition of the time, and a bushy reddish-brown beard", and that he was "a man of action ... capable of intelligent argument as well as physical endurance, somewhat to the surprise of his enemies."[5] HP Pavilion dm4-1031tx Battery

The first meeting of the five central conspirators took place on Sunday 20 May 1604, at an inn called the Duck and Drake, in the fashionable Strand district of London.[nb 5] Catesby had already proposed at an earlier meeting withThomas Wintour and John Wright to kill the King and his government by blowing up "the Parliament House with gunpowder".HP Pavilion dm4-1033tx Battery

Wintour, who at first objected to the plan, was convinced by Catesby to travel to the continent to seek help. Wintour met with the Constable of Castile, the exiled Welsh spy Hugh Owen,[18] and Sir William Stanley, who said that Catesby would receive no support from Spain. Owen did, HP Pavilion dm4-1034tx Battery

however, introduce Wintour to Fawkes, who had by then been away from England for many years, and thus was largely unknown in the country. Wintour and Fawkes were contemporaries; each was militant, and had first-hand experience of the unwillingness of the Spaniards to help. HP Pavilion dm4-1035tx Battery

Wintour told Fawkes of their plan to "doe some whatt in Ingland if the pece with Spaine healped us nott",[3] and thus in April 1604 the two men returned to England.[17] Wintour's news did not surprise Catesby; despite positive noises from the Spanish authorities, he feared that "the deeds would nott answere".[nb 6] HP Pavilion dm4-1036tx Battery

One of the conspirators, Thomas Percy was promoted in June 1604, gaining access to a house in London which belonged to John Whynniard, Keeper of the King's Wardrobe. Fawkes was installed as a caretaker and began using the pseudonym John Johnson, servant to Percy.[20]HP Pavilion dm4-1047tx Battery

The contemporaneous account of the prosecution (taken from Thomas Wintour's confession)[21] claimed that the conspirators attempted to dig a tunnel from beneath Whynniard's house to Parliament, although this story may have been a government fabrication; no evidence for the existence of a tunnel was presented by the prosecution, HP Pavilion dm4-1048tx Battery

and no trace of one has ever been found; Fawkes himself did not admit the existence of such a scheme until his fifth interrogation, but even then he could not locate the tunnel.[22] If the story is true, however, by December 1604 the conspirators were busy tunnelling from their rented house to the House of Lords. HP Pavilion dm4-1050ca Battery

They ceased their efforts when, during tunnelling, they heard a noise from above. Fawkes was sent out to investigate, and returned with the news that the tenant's widow was clearing out a nearbyundercroft, directly beneath the House of Lords.[3][23] HP Pavilion dm4-1050ea Battery

The plotters purchased the lease to the room, which also belonged to John Whynniard. Unused and filthy, it was considered an ideal hiding place for the gunpowder the plotters planned to store.[24] According to Fawkes, 20 barrels of gunpowder were brought in at first, followed by 16 more on 20 July.[25]HP Pavilion dm4-1050et Battery

On 28 July however, the ever-present threat of the plague delayed the opening of Parliament until Tuesday, 5 November.[26]


In an attempt to gain foreign support, in May 1605 Fawkes travelled overseas and informed Hugh Owen of the plotters' plan.[27] At some point during this trip his name made its way into the files of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, who employed a network of spies across Europe. HP Pavilion dm4-1050so Battery

One of these spies, Captain William Turner, may have been responsible. Although the information he provided to Salisbury usually amounted to no more than a vague pattern of invasion reports, and included nothing which regarded the Gunpowder Plot, on 21 April he told how Fawkes was to be brought by Tesimond to England. Fawkes was a well known Flemish mercenary, HP Pavilion dm4-1050ss Battery

and would be introduced to "Mr Catesby" and "honourable friends of the nobility and others who would have arms and horses in readiness".[28] Turner's report did not, however, mention Fawkes's pseudonym in England, John Johnson, and did not reach Cecil until late in November, well after the plot had been discovered.[3][29] HP Pavilion dm4-1060ea Battery

It is uncertain when Fawkes returned to England, but he was back in London by late August 1605, when he and Wintour discovered that the gunpowder stored in the undercroft had decayed. More gunpowder was brought into the room, along with firewood to conceal it.[30]HP Pavilion dm4-1060ee Battery

Fawkes's final role in the plot was settled during a series of meetings in October. He was to light the fuse and then escape across the Thames. HP Pavilion dm4-1060sf Battery

Simultaneously, a revolt in the Midlands would help to ensure the capture of Princess Elizabeth. Acts of regicide were frowned upon, and Fawkes would therefore head to the continent, where he would explain to the Catholic powers his holy duty to kill the King and his retinue.[31] HP Pavilion dm4-1060ss Battery

A few of the conspirators were concerned about fellow Catholics who would be present at Parliament during the opening.[32] On the evening of 26 October, Lord Monteagle received an anonymous letter warning him to stay away, and to "retyre youre self into yowre contee whence yow maye expect the event in safti for ... HP Pavilion dm4-1060us Battery

they shall receyve a terrible blowe this parleament".[33]Despite quickly becoming aware of the letter – informed by one of Monteagle's servants – the conspirators resolved to continue with their plans, as it appeared that it "was clearly thought to be a hoax".[34] Fawkes checked the undercroft on 30 October, HP Pavilion dm4-1062nr Battery

and reported that nothing had been disturbed.[35] Monteagle's suspicions had been aroused however, and the letter was shown to King James. The King ordered Sir Thomas Knyvet to conduct a search of the cellars underneath Parliament, which he did in the early hours of 5 November. HP Pavilion dm4-1063cl Battery

Fawkes had taken up his station late on the previous night, armed with a slow match and a watch given to him by Percy "becaus he should knowe howe the time went away".[3] He was found leaving the cellar, shortly after midnight, and arrested. Inside, the barrels of gunpowder were discovered hidden under piles of firewood and coal.[36] HP Pavilion dm4-1063he Battery


Fawkes gave his name as John Johnson and was first interrogated by members of the King's Privy Chamber, where he remained defiant. When asked by one of the lords what he was doing in possession of so much gunpowder, Fawkes answered that his intention was "to blow you Scotch beggars back to your native mountains."[37] HP Pavilion dm4-1065dx Battery

He identified himself as a 36-year-old Catholic from Netherdale in Yorkshire, and gave his father's name as Thomas and his mother's as Edith Jackson. HP Pavilion dm4-1070ee Battery

Wounds on his body noted by his questioners he explained as the effects of pleurisy. Fawkes admitted his intention to blow up the House of Lords, and expressed regret at his failure to do so. His steadfast manner earned him the admiration of King James, who described Fawkes as possessing "a Roman resolution".[38] HP Pavilion dm4-1070ef Battery

James's admiration did not, however, prevent him from ordering on 6 November that "John Johnson" be tortured, to reveal the names of his co-conspirators.[39] He directed that the torture be light at first, referring to the use of manacles, but more severe if necessary, authorising the use of the rack: HP Pavilion dm4-1070sf Battery

"the gentler Tortures are to be first used unto him et sic per gradus ad ima tenditur [and so by degrees proceeding to the worst]".[37][40] Fawkes was transferred to theTower of London. The King composed a list of questions to be put to "Johnson", such as "as to what he is, For I can never yet hear of any man that knows him",HP Pavilion dm4-1080ea Battery

"When and where he learned to speak French?", and "If he was a Papist, who brought him up in it?"[41] The room in which Fawkes was interrogated subsequently became known as the Guy Fawkes Room.[42] HP Pavilion dm4-1080ee Battery

Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower, supervised the torture and obtained Fawkes's confession.[37] He searched his prisoner, and found a letter, addressed to Guy Fawkes. To Waad's surprise, "Johnson" remained silent, revealing nothing about the plot or its authors.[43] On the night of 6 November he spoke with Waad, HP Pavilion dm4-1080sf Battery

who reported to Salisbury "He [Johnson] told us that since he undertook this action he did every day pray to God he might perform that which might be for the advancement of the Catholic Faith and saving his own soul". According to Waad, Fawkes managed to rest through the night, despite his being warned that he would be interrogated until "I had gotton the inwards secret of his thoughts and all his complices".[44] His composure was broken at some point during the following day.[45] HP Pavilion dm4-1090ee Battery

The observer Sir Edward Hoby remarked "Since Johnson's being in the Tower, he beginneth to speak English". Fawkes revealed his true identity on 7 November, and told his interrogators that there were five people involved in the plot to kill the King. He began to reveal their names on 8 November, and told how they intended to place Princess Elizabeth on the throne. His third confession, on 9 November, HP Pavilion dm4-1090la Battery

implicated Francis Tresham. Following the Ridolfi plot of 1571 prisoners were made to dictate their confessions, before copying and signing them, if they still could.[46] Although it is uncertain if he was subjected to the horrors of the rack, Fawkes's signature, little more than a scrawl, bears testament to the suffering he endured at the hands of his interrogators.[47] HP Pavilion dm4-1100 Battery

Trial and execution

The trial of eight of the plotters began on Monday 27 January 1606. Fawkes shared the barge from the Tower to Westminster Hall with seven of his co-conspirators.[nb 7] They were kept in the Star Chamber before being taken to Westminster Hall, where they were displayed on a purpose-built scaffold. HP Pavilion dm4-1100eg Battery

The King and his close family, watching in secret, were among the spectators as the Lords Commissioners read out the list of charges. Fawkes was identified as Guido Fawkes, "otherwise called Guido Johnson". He pleaded not guilty, despite his apparent acceptance of guilt from the moment he was captured.[49] HP Pavilion dm4-1100sa Battery

The outcome was never in doubt. The jury found all of the defendants guilty, and the Lord Chief Justice Sir John Pophamproclaimed them guilty of high treason.[50] The Attorney General Sir Edward Coke told the court that each of the condemned would be drawn backwards to his death, HP Pavilion dm4-1101ea Battery

by a horse, his head near the ground. They were to be "put to death halfway between heaven and earth as unworthy of both". Their genitals would be cut off and burnt before their eyes, and their bowels and hearts removed. They would then be decapitated, and the dismembered parts of their bodies displayed so that they might become "prey for the fowls of the air".[51]HP Pavilion dm4-1101tx Battery

Fawkes's and Tresham's testimony regarding the Spanish treason was read aloud, as well as confessions related specifically to the Gunpowder Plot. The last piece of evidence offered was a conversation between Fawkes and Wintour, who had been kept in adjacent cells. HP Pavilion dm4-1102tx Battery

The two men apparently thought they had been speaking in private, but their conversation was intercepted by a government spy. When the prisoners were allowed to speak, Fawkes explained his not guilty plea as ignorance of certain aspects of the indictment.[52] HP Pavilion dm4-1107tx Battery

On 31 January 1606, Fawkes and three others — Thomas Wintour, Ambrose Rookwood, and Robert Keyes — were dragged (i.e. drawn) from the Tower on wattled hurdles to the Old Palace Yard at Westminster, opposite the building they had attempted to destroy.[53]HP Pavilion dm4-1108tx Battery

His fellow plotters were then hanged and quartered. Fawkes was the last to stand on the scaffold. He asked for forgiveness of the King and state, while keeping up his "crosses and idle ceremonies", and aided by the hangman began to climb the ladder to the noose. HP Pavilion dm4-1111tx Battery

Although weakened by torture, Fawkes managed to jump from the gallows, breaking his neck in the fall and thus avoiding the agony of the latter part of his execution.[37][54] HP Pavilion dm4-1113tx Battery

His lifeless body was nevertheless quartered,[55] and as was the custom,[56] his body parts were then distributed to "the four corners of the kingdom", to be displayed as a warning to other would-be traitors.[57] HP Pavilion dm4-1116tx BatteryOn 5 November 1605 Londoners were encouraged to celebrate the King's escape from assassination by lighting bonfires, "always provided that 'this testemonye of joy be carefull done without any danger or disorder'".[3]HP Pavilion dm4-1117tx Battery

An Act of Parliament[nb 8] designated each 5 November as a day of thanksgiving for "the joyful day of deliverance", and remained in force until 1859.[58] Although he was only one of 13 conspirators, Fawkes is today the individual most associated with the failed Plot.[59] HP Pavilion dm4-1120tx Battery

In Britain, 5 November has variously been called Guy Fawkes Night, Guy Fawkes Day, Plot Night[60] and Bonfire Night; the latter can be traced directly back to the original celebration of 5 November 1605.[61] Bonfires were accompanied by fireworks from the 1650s onwards, and it became the custom to burn an effigy (usually the Pope) after 1673, when the heir presumptive, James, HP Pavilion dm4-1123tx Battery

Duke of York made his conversion to Catholicism public.[3] Effigies of other notable figures who have become targets for the public's ire, such as Paul Kruger and Margaret Thatcher, have also found their way onto the bonfires,[62] although most modern effigies are of Fawkes.[58]HP Pavilion dm4-1140sa Battery

The "guy" is normally created by children, from old clothes, newspapers, and a mask.[58] During the 19th century, "guy" came to mean an oddly dressed person, but in American English it lost any pejorative connotation, and was used to refer to any male person.[58][63] HP Pavilion dm4-1162ef Battery

William Harrison Ainsworth's 1841 historical romance Guy Fawkes; or, The Gunpowder Treason, portrays Fawkes in a generally sympathetic light,[64] and transformed him in the public perception into an "acceptable fictional character". HP Pavilion dm4-1164nr Battery

Fawkes subsequently appeared as "essentially an action hero" in children's books and penny dreadfuls such as The Boyhood Days of Guy Fawkes; or, The Conspirators of Old London, published in about 1905.[65] Fawkes is sometimes referred to as "the only man ever to enter Parliament with honest intentions".[66] HP Pavilion dm4-1170sf Battery

Robert and Thomas Wintour

Robert Wintour (1568 – 30 January 1606) and Thomas Wintour (1571 or 1572 – 31 January 1606), also spelt Winter, were members of the Gunpowder Plot, a failed conspiracy to assassinate King James I. Both were related to other conspirators, such as their cousin, Robert Catesby, HP Pavilion dm4-1173cl Battery

and a half-brother, John Wintour, also joined them following the plot's failure. Thomas was an intelligent and educated man, fluent in several languages and trained as a lawyer, but chose instead to become a soldier, fighting for England in the Low Countries, France, and possibly in Central Europe. By 1600, HP Pavilion dm4-1180ef Battery

however, he changed his mind and became a fervent Catholic. On several occasions he travelled to the continent and entreated Spain on behalf of England's oppressed Catholics, and suggested that with Spanish support a Catholic rebellion was likely. HP Pavilion dm4-1180sf Battery

As a momentum was building behind a peace settlement between the two countries, Thomas's pleas fell on deaf ears. Instead, in 1604 he decided to join with Catesby, who planned to restore England to Catholicism by killing the king, and inciting a popular revolt in the Midlands, during which James's daughter, HP Pavilion dm4-1211tx Battery

Princess Elizabeth, would be installed as titular queen. Thomas returned to the continent and again failed to elicit Spanish support, but instead met Guy Fawkes, with whom he returned to England. Robert, a devout Catholic who inherited Huddington Court near Worcester, joined the conspiracy the following year. HP Pavilion dm4-1218tx Battery

The plot began to unravel following the delivery of an anonymous letter to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, warning him to stay away from Parliament. Thomas and Catesby confronted Monteagle's brother-in-law, the recently recruited Francis Tresham, threatening to kill him, HP Pavilion dm4-1221tx Battery

but Tresham managed to convince them of his innocence. At that stage Thomas reportedly asked Catesby to abandon the scheme, to no avail. When Fawkes was captured at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Thomas fled to Robert's house at Huddington. HP Pavilion dm4-1250ca Battery

Catesby and most of the others spent two days travelling across the Midlands attempting to incite a rebellion, but with an ever-diminishing group of supporters they eventually settled at Holbeche House in Staffordshire, and waited for government forces to arrive. HP Pavilion dm4-1253cl Battery

Thomas, by then reintegrated into the group, chose to remain with them, and in the ensuing firefight was shot in the shoulder, and captured. Robert, who had left before the battle, evaded capture until January 1606. HP Pavilion dm4-1273ca Battery

Much of what is written about the plot is based on Thomas's confessions, given in the Tower of London in November 1605. The brothers were tried on 27 January 1606, and hanged, drawn and quartered several days later in London. HP Pavilion dm4-1265dx Battery

Robert (b. 1568) and Thomas Wintour (b. 1571–72)[1] were sons of George Wintour of Huddington Court in Worcestershire, and his wife Jane (née Ingleby), daughter of Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle near Knaresborough. A sister, Dorothy, married another conspirator, John Grant.[nb 1] HP Pavilion dm4-1275ca Battery

Two agnate half-siblings, John and Elizabeth, resulted from their father's marriage to Elizabeth Bourn, following Jane's death.[3] Their paternal grandparents were Robert Wintour of Cavewell inGloucestershire, and his wife Catherine, daughter of Sir George Throckmorton of Coughton in Warwickshire. HP Pavilion dm4-1277sb Battery

As scions of the Throckmortons, they could therefore claim a kinship with plotters like Robert Catesby and Francis Tresham.[1] Their maternal uncle Francis Ingleby, a Catholic priest, was hanged, drawn and quartered at York in 1586, a fact which in the opinion of historian and author Antonia Fraser, "HP Pavilion dm4-1300 Battery

could hardly have failed to leave a stark impression upon the Wintour family." The Wintours took their name from the Welsh Gwyn Tour (White Tower). 'Wyntour' was sometimes used in signatures, but not 'Winter'[3][4] (as the brothers are commonly named). HP Pavilion dm4-1300ea Battery

A faithful Catholic, Robert was married to Gertrude Talbot, daughter of the recusant John Talbot of Grafton. He inherited theTudor Huddington Court near Worcester, along with a significant fortune with which he was known to be generous. Under Robert, Huddington Court became a known refuge for priests.[5] HP Pavilion dm4-1301sg Battery

The proclamation for his capture, issued followed the plot's failure, described him as "a man of mean stature, and rather low than otherwise; square made, somewhat stooping; near forty years of age; his hair and beard brown; his beard not much, and his hair short."[6] HP Pavilion dm4-1360ef Battery

The Jesuit John Gerard wrote that he was "esteemed in his life to be one of the wisest and most resolute and sufficient gentlemen in Worcestershire".[7] Gerard's appraisal of Thomas was just as complementary. He was apparently an intelligent, witty and educated man, who could speak Latin, Italian, HP Pavilion dm4-1360sf Battery

Spanish and French. "He was of mean stature, but strong and comely and very valient, about thirty-three years old or somewhat more."[8] Thomas worked as a servant to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle.[9] He was educated as a lawyer, but following several years of dissipation travelled to Flanders and enrolled in the English army. HP Pavilion dm4t-1000 Battery

He fought against Catholic Spain in the Low Countries, France and possibly against the Turks in Central Europe. However, by 1600 his views had changed; citing his belief in the injustice of fighting against the power of Catholic Spain, like his elder brother he became a passionate Catholic. HP Pavilion dm4t-1000 CTO Battery

Travelling as 'Mr Winter of Worcestershire', from 24 February 1601 he spent 13 days in Rome for the jubilee,[3] and later that year and into 1602 travelled to Spain, to petition the Council on behalf of the Catholic rebels left leaderless by the execution of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.[nb 2] HP Pavilion Dm4t-1100 Battery

Father Henry Garnet, perhaps thinking that the purpose behind Thomas's visit was to gain financial support for impoverished English Catholics, sent him to Superior Father Joseph Creswell, who made the introductions to the Spanish.[10] HP Pavilion dm4t-1100 CTO Battery

This trip to Spain later became the first of two visits to be dubbed by the English government as the Spanish Treason, but Thomas's timing was unfortunate, coming as it did so soon after Spain's failed attack in Ireland, and he received only vague assurances of their support.[11] HP Pavilion dm4t-1200 CTO Battery

In England he met with the Spanish embassy Don Juan de Tassis, who in August 1603 landed at Dover to help negotiate an Anglo-Spanish treaty. Tassis quickly realised that any chance of a successful Catholic rebellion was unlikely, and discounted Thomas's claim that, HP Pavilion dm4t Battery

with funding, "3,000 Catholics" would be available for the cause. After meeting with King James he wrote to Spain emphasising the need to prioritise peace with England, over the freedom of her Catholics.[12] ://www.orderbattery.co.uk/hp-envy-15-1100-battery.html">HP Envy 15-1100 Battery

According to contemporary accounts late in February 1604 Thomas's cousin, Robert Catesby, invited him to his house in Lambeth, but Thomas was indisposed and could not attend. Catesby sent a second letter that Thomas did respond to,[10]HP Envy 17-1000 Battery

and when he arrived he found his cousin with John Wright, a devout Catholic and a renowned swordsman. Catesby planned to re-establish Catholicism in England by blowing up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament, killing the king. Thomas did not immediately recoil from the idea. HP Envy 17-1001tx Battery

As a former soldier he was a practical man,[14] and he agreed with Catesby that should the plot succeed, it would "breed a confusion fit to beget new alterations".[15] He also offered a warning of the price of failure: "the scandal would be so great which the Catholic religion might hereby sustain, as not only our enemies, HP Envy 17-1001xx Battery

but our friends also would with good reason condemn us."[15] He nevertheless agreed to join the conspiracy, and as Catesby had not entirely given up hope of foreign support—"because we will leave no peaceable and quiet way untried"[15]—Thomas returned to the continent.[16][17] HP Envy 17-1002TX Battery

In Flanders he met Juan Fernández de Velasco, 5th Duke of Frías and Constable of Castile, who was holding court there before his journey to England to conclude the Treaty of London. Thomas again stressed the plight of English Catholics, hoping to influence the forthcoming treaty negotiations due to take place at Somerset House in London.[18] The Constable was "friendly rather than forthcoming".[19]HP Envy 17-1003tx Battery

Thomas also met the Welsh spy Hugh Owen, and Sir William Stanley, who were both disparaging of Catesby's hopes of Spanish assistance. Owen did, however, introduce Thomas to Guy Fawkes, a committed Catholic who had served under Stanley as a soldier in the Southern Netherlands. HP Envy 17-1004tx Battery

Although at that time the plotters had no detailed plans, Thomas told Fawkes of their ambition to "do somewhat in England", should Spanish support be lacking. In late April therefore the two men returned together to Catesby's lodgings at Lambeth, and told him that despite positive noises from the Spanish, "the deeds would nott answere".HP Envy 17-1006tx Battery

Robert joins

With the addition to the conspiracy of Thomas Percy (John Wright's brother-in-law), the five plotters met at the Duck and Drake inn, in the fashionable Stranddistrict of London, on 20 May 1604.[23] From hereon Thomas Wintour remained at the heart of the conspiracy. The group leased properties in London, HP Envy 17-1007tx Battery

one in Lambeth for storing the gunpowder that was rowed across the Thames to its destination.[24][25] His confession has the plotters digging a tunnel toward their target during one of the several prorogations of Parliament,[nb 4] abandoned when the chamber directly beneath the House of Lords became available.[3][26][27] HP Envy 17-1008tx Battery

Following the meeting in May Catesby enlisted the aid of several more Catholic men, including Robert Wintour.[nb 5] On the same day he was admitted to the plot, 25 March 1605, the conspirators also purchased the lease to the undercroft they had supposedly tunnelled near. HP Envy 17-1009tx Battery

It was into this room that 36 barrels of gunpowder were brought, but when in late August Thomas and Fawkes made an inspection of the gunpowder, they found that it had decayed (separated). Thus, more gunpowder was brought in.[29] HP Envy 17-1010el Battery

Shortly after this, Catesby recruited the last three conspirators, Sir Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. The latter's involvement in the plot has long been the subject of controversy, as on 26 October his brother-in-law William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, received an anonymous letter while at home, HP Envy 17-1010ew Battery

warning him to stay away from Parliament.[30] Thomas went with Catesby to confront Tresham on the matter, threatening to "hang him" if he did not exonerate himself. Tresham managed to convince the pair that he was innocent, but Thomas then tried unsuccessfully to persuade Catesby to abandon the plot.[31]HP Envy 17-1010nr Battery

His pleas were in vain; Catesby's position was echoed by Percy, who at a meeting of the three in London on Sunday 3 November, said that he was ready to "abide the uttermost trial".[32] HP Envy 17-1010tx Battery

On the same day, Robert and three others stayed at the home of John Talbot of Grafton, his father-in-law. His friends were Robert Acton and his two sons, plus servants. The group left the following morning with extra horses supplied by Everard Digby, and travelled to Coventry.[33] HP Envy 17-1011tx Battery

Failure and capture

Monteagle had delivered the letter to the English Secretary of State, Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, and on Saturday 2 November (about a week later) the Privy Council decided to undertake a search of Parliament.[34] The following Monday, during the first search, Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, HP Envy 17-1012nr Battery

noticed the huge pile of faggots in the corner of the cellar beneath the House of Lords. The king insisted that another search be made, and about midnight another party, this time led by Thomas Knyvet, 1st Baron Knyvet, discovered Fawkes and arrested him.[35] HP Envy 17-1013tx Battery

News of Fawkes's capture soon spread throughout London, including the Strand, where Christopher Wright, John Wright's brother, overheard the commotion. He immediately went to Thomas, who was staying at the Duck and Drake inn. As Fawkes had given his name as "John Johnson", HP Envy 17-1017tx Battery

servant of Percy, it was for the latter that the government's first arrest warrant was issued. Thomas guessed as much, and told Wright to go to Percy and "bid him begone". As the rest of those conspirators still in London fled the city, undaunted, he went over to Westminster to try and discern what he could. HP Envy 17-1050ea Battery

In author Alan Haynes's opinion, this demonstrated an impressive degree of trust in Fawkes's ability to confound his interrogators,[36] but when Thomas heard for himself that the treason had been uncovered, he left for Huddington, stopping at his sister's house in Norbrook along the way.[37] HP Envy 17-1050eb Battery

The fugitives reached Catesby's family home of Ashby St Ledgers at about 6:00 pm. Not wanting to implicate his mother, Catesby sent a message to Robert, who had just recently arrived there, asking to meet just outside the town.[nb 6] There he told him that Fawkes had been captured.[38]HP Envy 17-1050ep Battery

At Dunchurch they collected Everard Digby and his 'hunting party', which included Robert and Thomas's half-brother, John Wintour. He had been invited to join them on 4 November.[39]HP Envy 17-1085eo Battery

The next day the group raided Warwick Castle for supplies, something that Robert strongly objected to as it would create "a great uproar" in the country, and later arrived at Huddington Court, where they met Thomas. Early the next morning Huddington's occupants went to confession and took the Sacrament at Mass—in Fraser's opinion, HP Envy 17-1090ca Battery

a sign that none of them thought they had long to live. They collected further arms and munitions from Hewell Grange, but trying to recruit more people to their cause they were met with disdain; while the conspirators considered themselves to stand for "God and country",HP Envy 17-1090ez Battery

the men of Hewell Grange replied that they were for "King James as well as God and Country". Late that night, pulling a sodden cart full of weapons and armour behind them, they arrived at Holbeche House, near Kingswinford in Staffordshire. Robert was asked if he would go and see if he could elicit any help from his father-in-law, John Talbot. HP Envy 17-1100 Battery

He refused, and Thomas went instead, with Stephen Littleton.[40] Talbot was, however, loyal to James, and sent them away, claiming that their visit was "as much as his life was worth". While returning to Holbeche, they received a message that Catesby, Rookwood, John Grant and another man were dead, HP Envy 17-1103tx Battery

and the rest apparently fled. Tired and desperate, the plotters had attempted to dry their soaked gunpowder in front of the fire, only for a stray spark to ignite it. While Littleton chose to leave, begging his companion to follow his example, Thomas continued on to Holbeche, where he found the remaining plotters alive, but injured.[41][42] HP Envy 17-1104tx Battery

While several including Robert and his half-brother John chose to vanish into the night, Catesby, Percy, the Wright brothers, Grant, Rookwood and Thomas remained. Thomas asked them what they intended to do – "We mean here to die". HP Envy 17-1190ea Battery

Richard Walsh, Sheriff of Worcester, arrived with a vigilante force of about 200 men early on 8 November. Thomas was the first to be hit, in the shoulder, while crossing the courtyard. The Wright brothers were next, followed by Rookwood, still injured from the explosion the night before. HP Envy 17-1200 Battery

Catesby and Percy were dropped by a single lucky shot. The sheriff's men then proceeded to strip the defenders of their valuables, but Thomas was saved by the sheriff's assistant.[43] His fine sword, ordered and paid for four months previously, apparently proved too great a temptation for the Sheriff's men, as it was never seen again.[44]HP Envy 17-2001tx Battery

He and the others were taken first toWorcester, and then to the Tower of London.[45] Despite a proclamation of 18 November naming them as wanted men, Robert Wintour and Stephen Litteton managed to evade capture until 9 January 1606.[46]HP Envy 17-2002xx Battery

They spent about two months hiding out in barns and houses; at one point they were forced to restrain a drunken poacher who happened upon their hiding place. They were eventually discovered at the house of Humphrey Littleton in Hagley, after a cook, John Finwood, informed on them. Humphrey managed to escape, but was captured at Prestwood, in Staffordshire. HP Envy 17-2003ef Battery

Thomas's confession

Historically, much of what is written about the Gunpowder Plot is derived from Thomas's confession, signed on 23 November 1605; details of the so-called Spanish Treason were added three days later. One of only two confessions printed in the King's Book (a highly partial contemporary account of the affair),[48]HP Envy 17-2009tx Battery

Thomas Wintour's was the only account the government had of a plotter who had been involved from the beginning; Guy Fawkes, weakened by days of torture, may have been at the heart of the group, but he was not at its first meetings. However, Antonia Fraser views the document with suspicion, HP Envy 17-2012tx Battery

not least because Thomas's signature, 'Thomas Winter', differs from his normal signature, 'Thomas Wintour' (it was the former that was invariably used by the government). The signature, possibly forged by lieutenant of the Tower of London William Waad, HP Envy 17-2013tx Battery

was made only weeks after Thomas had been shot in the shoulder during the siege at Holbeche House. Biographer Mark Nicholls views the difference in signatures as a significant and puzzling lapse, if a "master forger" is presumed to be responsible for the document. HP Envy 17-2014tx Battery

He views the handwriting on the confession as "convincingly that of Winter [Wintour]", pointing out that it appears to be the work of an author, not an editor, and written as a draft for the King's Book.[3] This is a view that generally, Alan Haynes agrees with: HP Envy 17-2070nr Battery

"no one has ever made a solid and sensible suggestion about why a government-employed forger (say Thomas Phelippes) would deliberately make such an error in a crucial state document".[48] HP Envy 17-2090eg Battery

Another of Fraser's concerns is Waad's report to Salisbury on 21 November: "Thomas Winter doth find his hand so strong as after dinner he will settle himself to write that he hath verbally declared to your Lordship adding what he shall remember"[49] HP Envy 17-2090nr 3D Battery

or rather, what he was told to remember. A draft of Thomas's confession, in Coke's handwriting, places extra weight on the involvement of the Jesuits. Thomas's confession also details his account of the mine supposedly dug toward Parliament, not mentioned in Fawkes's first confession.[3][50] HP Envy 17-2093eg Battery

The trial of the eight surviving conspirators began on Monday 27 January. The two brothers were brought with the other plotters by barge from the Tower (Catebsy's servant, Thomas Bates, arrived from the Gatehouse Prison), toWhitehall. They were kept in Star Chamber, HP Envy 17-2096eg Battery

before being led into Westminster Hall. Charged with high treason, and with no defence counsel, the outcome was never in doubt. The Spanish Treason was a feature of Attorney GeneralEdward Coke's rhetoric, although the Spanish king was "reverently and respectfully spoken of". HP Envy 17 Notebook PC Battery

The Jesuits, such as Henry Garnet, were condemned. Each of the brothers' confessions were also read aloud. While in the Tower, Robert and Fawkes had shared adjacent cells, and were able to speak to each other. However, their private conversation was secretly recorded, and read aloud during the trial.[51] HP Envy 17t-1000 Battery

When asked if he had anything to say, "wherefore judgement of death should not be pronounced", Thomas spoke of his regret at having introduced Robert to the plot, and asked to be hanged on his behalf as well as his own. Robert merely begged for mercy.[51] At the end of the trial, the jury pronounced them all guilty of high treason.[52] HP Envy 17t-2000 CTO 3D Battery

Digby, Robert Wintour, John Grant and Thomas Bates were executed on Thursday 30 January 1606. Dragged by horse toOld St Paul's Cathedral, Robert was the second to be executed, praying quietly to himself before he was hanged, drawn and quartered. HP Envy 17t-2000 CTO Battery

The following morning, the remaining four were dragged to the Old Palace Yard at Westminster, opposite the building they had planned to destroy. Thomas was the first to mount the scaffold. It was customary to grant the condemned a speech, but Thomas, "a very pale and dead colour", said it was "no time to discourse: he was come to die". HP Envy 17t Battery

He absolved the Jesuits of any involvement in the plot, asked for Catholics to pray for him, and declared his adherence to the Roman religion. He was hanged for only a few seconds, and then taken to the block for the remainder of his grim sentence.[53] Their half-brother John was executed at Red Hill near Worcester, on 7 April.[54] HP G32 Battery

HP G42-100 Battery


As King of Scots, James bore the ancient royal arms of Scotland: Or, a lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure within a double tressure flory counter-flory Gules. The arms were supported by two unicorns Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, HP G42-101XX Battery

gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or. The crest was a lion sejant affrontée Gules, imperially crowned Or, holding in thedexter paw a sword and in the sinister paw a sceptre both erect and Proper.[162] HP G42-154CA Battery

The Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland under James was symbolised heraldically by combining their arms, supporters and badges. Contention as to how the arms should be marshalled, and to which kingdom should take precedence, was solved by having different arms for each country.[163] HP G42-164LA Battery

The arms used in England were: Quarterly, I and IV, quarterly 1st and 4th Azure three fleurs de lys Or (for France), 2nd and 3rd Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); HP G42-240LA Battery

III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland, this was the first time that Ireland was included in the royal arms).[164] The supporters became: dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned and sinister the Scottish unicorn. The unicorn replaced the red dragon of Cadwaladr HP G42-250LA Battery

which was introduced by the Tudors. The unicorn has remained in the royal arms of the two united realms. The English crest and motto was retained. The compartment often contained a branch of the Tudor rose, with shamrock and thistle engrafted on the same stem. The arms were frequently shown with James's personal motto, Beati pacifici.[163] HP G42-301NR Battery

The arms used in Scotland were: Quarterly, I and IV Scotland, II England and France, III Ireland, with Scotland taking precedence over England. The supporters were: dexter a unicorn of Scotland imperially crowned, supporting a tilting lance flying a banner Azure a saltire Argent (Cross of Saint Andrew) HP G42-303DX Battery

and sinister the crowned lion of England supporting a similar lance flying a banner Argent a cross Gules (Cross of Saint George). The Scottish crest and motto was retained, following the Scottish practice the motto In defens (which is short for In My Defens God Me Defend) was placed above the crest.[163] HP G42-328CA Battery

As royal badges James used: the Tudor rose, the thistle (for Scotland; first used by James III of Scotland), the Tudor rose dimidiated with the thistle ensigned with the royal crown, a harp (for Ireland) and a fleur de lys (for France).[164] HP G42-352TU Battery

James was widely mourned. For all his flaws, he had largely retained the affection of his people, who had enjoyed uninterrupted peace and comparatively low taxation during the Jacobean era. "As he lived in peace," remarked the Earl of Kellie, "so did he die in peace, and I pray God our king [Charles I] may follow him".[149]HP G42-352TX Battery

The earl prayed in vain: once in power, Charles and Buckingham sanctioned a series of reckless military expeditions that ended in humiliating failure.[150]James had often neglected the business of government for leisure pastimes, such as the hunt; HP G42-360TU Battery

and his later dependence on male favourites at a scandal-ridden court undermined the respected image of monarchy so carefully constructed by Elizabeth.[151]According to a tradition originating with anti-Stuart historians of the mid-seventeenth-century, James's taste for political absolutism, HP G42-360TX Battery

his financial irresponsibility, and his cultivation of unpopular favourites established the foundations of theEnglish Civil War. James bequeathed Charles a fatal belief in the divine right of kings, combined with a disdain for Parliament, which culminated in the execution of Charles and the abolition of the monarchy. HP G42-361TU Battery

Over the last three hundred years, the king's reputation has suffered from the acid description of him by Sir Anthony Weldon, whom James had sacked and who wrote treatises on James in the 1650s.[152] Other influential anti-James histories written during the 1650s include: HP G42-361TX Battery

Sir Edward Peyton, Divine Catastrophe of the Kingly Family of the House of Stuarts (1652); Arthur Wilson, History of Great Britain, Being the Life and Reign of King James I (1658); and Francis Osborne, Historical Memoirs of the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James (1658).[153]HP G42-364TX Battery

David Harris Willson's 1956 biography continued much of this hostility.[154] In the words of historian Jenny Wormald, Willson's book was an "astonishing spectacle of a work whose every page proclaimed its author's increasing hatred for his subject".[155]HP G42-365TX Battery

Since Willson, however, the stability of James's government in Scotland and in the early part of his English reign, as well as his relatively enlightened views on religion and war, have earned him a re-evaluation from many historians, who have rescued his reputation from this tradition of criticism.[156] HP G42-366TU Battery

Under James the Plantation of Ulster by English and Scots Protestants began, and the English colonisation of North America started its course with the foundation of Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.[157] Cuper's Cove, Newfoundland, was founded in 1610. During the next 150 years, HP G42-366TX Battery

England would fight with Spain, the Netherlands, and France for control of the continent, while religious division in Ireland between Protestant and Catholic has lasted for 400 years. By actively pursuing more than just a personal union of his realms, he helped lay the foundations for a unitary British state.[158] HP G42-367CL Battery

In Scotland, James was "James the sixth, King of Scotland", until 1604. He was proclaimed "James the first, King of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith" in London on 24 March 1603.[159] On 20 October 1604, James issued a proclamation at Westminster changing his style to "King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc."[160]HP G42-367TU Battery

The style was not used on English statutes, but was used on proclamations, coinage, letters, treaties, and in Scotland.[161] James, in line with other monarchs of England between 1340 and 1800, styled himself "King of France", although he did not actually rule France. HP G42-368TX Battery

Final year

After about the age of fifty, James suffered increasingly from arthritis, gout and kidney stones.[141] He also lost his teeth, and drank heavily.[142] During the last year of James's life, with Buckingham consolidating his control of Charles to ensure his own future, the king was often seriously ill, leaving him an increasingly peripheral figure, rarely able to visit London.[143]HP G42-369TU Battery

One theory is that James may have suffered from porphyria, a disease of which his descendant George III of the United Kingdom exhibited some symptoms. James described his urine to physician Théodore de Mayerne as being the "dark red colour of Alicante wine".[144] HP G42-370TU Battery

The theory is dismissed by some experts, particularly in James's case, because he had kidney stones, which can lead to blood in the urine, colouring it red.[145] HP G42-370TX Battery

In early 1625, James was plagued by severe attacks of arthritis, gout and fainting fits, and in March fell seriously ill with tertian ague and then suffered a stroke. James finally died at Theobalds House on 27 March during a violent attack of dysentery, with Buckingham at his bedside.[146]HP G42-371TU Battery

James's funeral, a magnificent but disorderly affair, took place on 7 May.[147] Bishop John Williams of Lincoln preached the sermon, observing, "King Solomon died in Peace, when he had lived about sixty years ... and so you know did King James".[148] HP G42-372TU Battery

Throughout his life James had close relationships with male courtiers, which has caused debate among historians about their nature.[125] After his accession in England, his peaceful and scholarly attitude contrasted strikingly with the bellicose and flirtatious behaviour of Elizabeth,[125] HP G42-372TX Battery

as indicated by the contemporary epigram Rex fuit Elizabeth, nunc est regina Jacobus (Elizabeth was King, now James is Queen).[126] Some of James's biographers conclude that Esmé Stewart (later Duke of Lennox), Robert Carr (later Earl of Somerset), and George Villiers (later Duke of Buckingham) were his lovers.[127]HP G42-375TX Battery

Restoration of Apethorpe Hall, undertaken in 2004–08, revealed a previously unknown passage linking the bedchambers of James and Villiers.[128] Others argue that the relationships were not sexual.[129] JHP G42-378TX Battery

ames's Basilikon Doronlists sodomy among crimes "ye are bound in conscience never to forgive", and James's wife Anne gave birth to seven live children, as well as suffering two stillbirths and at least three other miscarriages.[130] HP G42-380TX Battery

When the Earl of Salisbury died in 1612, he was little mourned by those who jostled to fill the power vacuum.[131] Until Salisbury's death, the Elizabethan administrative system over which he had presided continued to function with relative efficiency; from this time forward, however, James's government entered a period of decline and disrepute.[132]HP G42-381TX Battery

Salisbury's passing gave James the notion of governing in person as his own chief Minister of State, with his young Scottish favourite, Robert Carr, carrying out many of Salisbury's former duties, but James's inability to attend closely to official business exposed the government to factionalism.[133] HP G42-382TX Battery

The Howard party, consisting of Northampton, Suffolk, Suffolk's son-in-law Lord Knollys, and Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, along with Sir Thomas Lake, soon took control of much of the government and its patronage. Even the powerful Carr, HP G42-383TX Battery

hardly experienced for the responsibilities thrust upon him and often dependent on his intimate friend Sir Thomas Overbury for assistance with government papers,[134]fell into the Howard camp, after beginning an affair with the married Frances Howard, Countess of Essex, HP G42-384TX Battery

daughter of the Earl of Suffolk, whom James assisted in securing an annulment of her marriage to free her to marry Carr.[135] In summer 1615, however, it emerged that Overbury, who on 15 September 1613 had died in the Tower of London, where he had been placed at the King's request,[136] HP G42-385TX Battery

had been poisoned.[137] Among those convicted of the murder were Frances and Robert Carr, the latter having been replaced as the king's favourite in the meantime by Villiers. James pardoned Frances and commuted Carr's sentence of death, eventually pardoning him in 1624.[138]HP G42-386TX Battery

The implication of the King in such a scandal provoked much public and literary conjecture and irreparably tarnished James's court with an image of corruption and depravity.[139]The subsequent downfall of the Howards left Villiers unchallenged as the supreme figure in the government by 1619.[140] HP G42-387TX Battery

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