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26 septembre 2013 4 26 /09 /septembre /2013 08:27

Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' Evening"),[5] also known as All Hallows' Eve,[6] is a yearly celebration observed in a number of countries on October 31, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows (or All Saints) and the day initiating the triduum of Hallowmas. Sony  VGP-BPS13 Battery

According to many scholars, All Hallows' Eve is a Christianized feast originally influenced by western European harvest festivals,[7] and festivals of the dead with possible pagan roots, particularly the Celtic Samhain.[6][8][9] Other scholars maintain that it originated independently of Samhain and has solely Christian roots.[10] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

Typical festive Halloween activities include trick-or-treating (also known as "guising"), attending costume parties, decorating, carving pumpkins into jack-o'-lanterns, lighting bonfires, apple bobbing, visiting haunted attractions, playing pranks, telling scary stories, and watching horror films. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

The word Halloween was first used in the 16th century and represents a Scottish variant of the fuller All Hallows' Eve('evening'), that is, the night before All Hallows' Day.[11] Although the phrase All Hallows' is found in Old English(ealra hālgena mæssedæg, mass-day of all saints), All Hallows' Eve is itself not seen until 1556. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery

Though the origin of the word Halloween is Christian, the holiday is commonly thought to have partial pagan roots.[12]Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that while "some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

it is more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain", which comes from the Old Irish for "summer's end".[12] Samhain was the first and most important of the four quarter days in the medieval Gaelic (Irish, Scottish and Manx)[13] calendar.[14][15] It was held on or about October 31 – November 1 and kindred festivals were held at the same time of year in other Celtic lands; Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

for example the Brythonic Calan Gaeaf (in Wales), Kalan Gwav (in Cornwall) and Kalan Goañv (in Brittany). It marked the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the 'darker half' of the year.[16]

Samhain (like Beltane) was seen as a time when the 'door' to the Otherworld opened enough for the souls of the dead, and other beings such as fairies, to come into our world.[17][18] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

The souls of the dead were said to revisit their homes on Samhain.[19] Lewis Spence described it as a "feast of the dead" and "festival of the fairies".[20] However, harmful spirits and fairies were also thought to be active at Samhain. People took steps to allay or ward-off these harmful spirits/fairies, which is thought to have influenced today's Halloween customs. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

The practice of lighting bonfires during Hallowmas may have been a Christianized one, as the Celts lit bonfires during Samhain as well.

Halloween falls on the evening before the Christian holy days of All Hallows' Day (also known as All Saints'Hallowmas orHallowtide) on November 1 and All Souls' Day on November 2, thus giving the holiday on October 31st the full name of All Hallows' Eve.[22] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

They are a time for honoring the saints and praying for the recently departed souls who had yet to reach Heaven. All Saints was introduced in the year 609, but was originally celebrated on May 13.[23] In 835, it was switched to November 1 (the same date as Samhain) at the behest of Pope Gregory IV.[23] Sony  VGP-BPS21 Battery

Some have suggested this was due to Celtic influence, while others suggest it was a Germanic idea.[23]

By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing bells for the souls in purgatory. "Souling", the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for "all crystenchristened souls",[24] Sony  VGP-BPS21A Battery

has been suggested as the origin of trick-or-treating.[25] Groups of poor people, often children, would go door-to-door on All Saints/All Souls collecting soul cakes, originally as a means of praying for souls in purgatory.[26] Similar practices for the souls of the dead were found as far south as Italy.[27] Sony  VGP-BPS21B Battery

Shakespeare mentions the practice in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593), when Speed accuses his master of "puling [whimpering or whining] like a beggar at Hallowmas."[28] The custom of wearing costumes has been linked to All Saints/All Souls by Prince Sorie Conteh, who wrote: Sony  VGP-BPS21/S Battery

"It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[29] Sony  VGP-BPS21A/b Battery

 In Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, Nicholas Rogers explained Halloween jack-o'-lanterns as originally being representations of souls in purgatory.[30] In Brittany children would set candles in skulls in graveyards.

In Britain, these customs came under attack during the Reformation as Protestants berated purgatory as a "popish" doctrine incompatible with the notion of predestination.[22] Sony VGP-BPS26 Battery

The rising popularity of Guy Fawkes Night (5 November) from 1605 onward, saw many Halloween traditions appropriated by that holiday instead, and Halloween's popularity waned in Britain, with the noteworthy exception of Scotland.[32] There and in Ireland, the rebellious Guy Fawkes was not viewed with the same criminality as in England, Sony VGP-BPL26 Battery

and they had been celebrating Samhain and Halloween since at least the early Middle Ages,[13] and the Scottish kirk took a more pragmatic approach to Halloween, seeing it as important to the life cycle and rites of passageof communities and thus ensuring its survival in the country.

North American almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th century give no indication that Halloween was celebrated there.[33] Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery

The Puritans of New England, for example, maintained strong opposition to Halloween,[33] and it was not until the mass Irish and Scottish immigration during the 19th century that it was brought to North America in earnest.[33] Confined to the immigrant communities during the mid-19th century, it was gradually assimilated into mainstream society and by the first decade of the 20th century it was being celebrated coast to coast by people of all social, racial and religious backgrounds. Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery

Development of artifacts and symbols associated with Halloween formed over time. The turnip has traditionally been used in Irelandand Scotland at Halloween,[35][36] but immigrants to North America used the native pumpkin, which is both much softer and much larger – making it easier to carve than a turnip.[35] Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery

Subsequently, the mass marketing of various size pumpkins in autumn, in both the corporate and local markets, has made pumpkins universally available for this purpose. The American tradition of carving pumpkins is recorded in 1837[37] and was originally associated with harvest time in general, not becoming specifically associated with Halloween until the mid-to-late 19th century.[38] Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery

The modern imagery of Halloween comes from many sources, including national customs, works of Gothic and horror literature (such as the novels Frankenstein and Dracula) and classic horror films (such as Frankenstein and The Mummy).[39] One of the earliest works on the subject of Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne, who, in 1780, Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

made note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks ensue!", as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts), influencing Robert Burns' Halloween 1785.[40]Elements of the autumn season, such as pumpkins, corn husks and scarecrows, are also prevalent. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween. Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

Halloween imagery includes themes of death, evil, the occult, and mythical monsters.[41] Black, orange, and sometimes purple are Halloween's traditional colors.

Trick-or-treating is a customary celebration for children on Halloween. Children go in costume from house to house, asking for treats such as candy or sometimes money, with the question, Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

"Trick or treat?" The word "trick" refers to "threat" to perform mischief on the homeowners or their property if no treat is given.[25]

In Scotland and Ireland, guising – children disguised in costume going from door to door for food or coins  – is a traditional Halloween custom, and is recorded in Scotland at Halloween in 1895 where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of scooped out turnips, Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

visit homes to be rewarded with cakes, fruit and money.[36] The practice of Guising at Halloween in North America is first recorded in 1911, where a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario reported children going "guising" around the neighborhood.[42]

American historian and author Ruth Edna Kelley of Massachusetts wrote the first book length history of Halloween in the US; Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery

 The Book of Hallowe'en (1919), and references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en in America":

The taste in Hallowe'en festivities now is to study old traditions, and hold a Scotch party, using Burn's poem Hallowe'en as a guide; or to go a-souling as the English used. In short, no custom that was once honored at Hallowe'en is out of fashion now. Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery

In her book, Kelley touches on customs that arrived from across the Atlantic; "Americans have fostered them, and are making this an occasion something like what it must have been in its best days overseas. All Halloween customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries".[44] Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

While the first reference to "guising" in North America occurs in 1911, another reference to ritual begging on Halloween appears, place unknown, in 1915, with a third reference in Chicago in 1920.[45]

The earliest known use in print of the term "trick or treat" appears in 1927, from Blackie, Alberta, Canada: Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery

Hallowe'en provided an opportunity for real strenuous fun. No real damage was done except to the temper of some who had to hunt for wagon wheels, gates, wagons, barrels, etc., much of which decorated the front street. The youthful tormentors were at back door and front demanding edible plunder by the word “trick or treat” to which the inmates gladly responded and sent the robbers away rejoicing.[46] Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery

The thousands of Halloween postcards produced between the turn of the 20th century and the 1920s commonly show children but not trick-or-treating.[47] The editor of a collection of over 3,000 vintage Halloween postcards writes, "There are cards which mention the custom [of trick-or-treating] or show children in costumes at the doors, Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery

but as far as we can tell they were printed later than the 1920s and more than likely even the 1930s. Tricksters of various sorts are shown on the early postcards, but not the means of appeasing them".[48] Trick-or-treating does not seem to have become a widespread practice until the 1930s, with the first U.S. appearances of the term in 1934,[49] Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery

and the first use in a national publication occurring in 1939.

Trick-or-treating or guising is a customary practice for children on Halloween in many countries. Children in costumestravel from house to house in order to ask for treats such as candy (or, in some cultures, money) with the question "Trick or treat?". Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

The "trick" is a (usually idle) threat to perform mischief on the homeowners or their property if no treat is given to them.

In North America, trick or treating has been a customary Halloween tradition since the early 1950s. It typically happens between 5:30pm and 9:30pm[1] on October 31[2], although in some municipalities choose other dates[3]. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

Homeowners wishing to participate in it sometimes decorate their private entrances with artificial spider webs, plastic skeletons and jack-o-lanterns. Some rather reluctant homeowners would simply leave the candy in bowls on the porch, others might be more participative and would even ask an effort from the children in order to provide them with candy. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

In the more recent years, however, the practice has spread to almost any house within a neighborhood being visited by children, including senior residences and condominiums.

The tradition of going from door to door receiving food already existed in Great Britain and Ireland in the form of "souling", where children and poor people would sing and say prayers for the dead in return for cakes.[4] Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

Guising—children disguised in costumes going from door to door for food and coins—also predates trick or treat, and is recorded in Scotlandat Halloween in 1895, where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of scooped out turnips, visit homes to be rewarded with cakes, fruit and money.[5] Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

While going from door to door in disguise has remained popular among Scots and Irish, the North American custom of saying "trick or treat" has recently become common. The activity is prevalent in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Puerto Rico, and northwestern and centralMexico. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

In the latter, this practice is called calaverita (Spanish for "little skull"), and instead of "trick or treat", the children ask ¿me da mi calaverita?("can you give me my little skull?"); where a calaverita is a small skull made of sugar or chocolate.

The practice of dressing up in costumes and begging door to door for treats on holidays dates back to the Middle Ages and includes Christmas wassailing. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

Trick-or-treating resembles the late medieval practice of souling, when poor folk would go door to door on Hallowmas (November 1), receiving food in return for prayers for the dead on All Souls Day (November 2). It originated in Ireland and Britain,[4] although similar practices for the souls of the dead were found as far south as Italy.[6] Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

Shakespeare mentions the practice in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593), when Speed accuses his master of "puling [whimpering or whining] like a beggar at Hallowmas."[7] The custom of wearing costumes and masks at Halloween goes back to Celtic traditions of attempting to copy the evil spirits or placate them, in Scotland for instance where the dead were impersonated by young men with masked, veiled or blackened faces, dressed in white.[8][9] Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

Guising at Halloween in Scotland is recorded in 1895, where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of scooped out turnips, visit homes to be rewarded with cakes, fruit and money.[5] The practice of Guising at Halloween in North America is first recorded in 1911, where a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario reported children going "guising" around the neighborhood.[10] Sony PCG-31211T Battery

American historian and author Ruth Edna Kelley of Massachusetts wrote the first book length history of the holiday in the US;The Book of Hallowe'en (1919), and references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en in America";

The taste in Hallowe'en festivities now is to study old traditions, and hold a Scotch party, Sony PCG-31311T Battery

using Burn's poemHallowe'en as a guide; or to go a-souling as the English used. In short, no custom that was once honored at Hallowe'en is out of fashion now.

Kelley lived in Lynn, Massachusetts, a town with 4,500 Irish immigrants, 1,900 English immigrants, and 700 Scottish immigrants in 1920.[12] Sony PCG-51111T Battery

In her book, Kelley touches on customs that arrived from across the Atlantic; "Americans have fostered them, and are making this an occasion something like what it must have been in its best days overseas. All Hallowe'en customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries".[13] Sony PCG-81111T Battery

While the first reference to "guising" in North America occurs in 1911, another reference to ritual begging on Halloween appears, place unknown, in 1915, with a third reference in Chicago in 1920.[14]

The earliest known use in print of the term "trick or treat" appears in 1927, from Blackie, Alberta: Sony PCG-81311T Battery

Hallowe’en provided an opportunity for real strenuous fun. No real damage was done except to the temper of some who had to hunt for wagon wheels, gates, wagons, barrels, etc., much of which decorated the front street. The youthful tormentors were at back door and front demanding edible plunder by the word “trick or treat” to which the inmates gladly responded and sent the robbers away rejoicing. Sony VPCF138FC Battery

The thousands of Halloween postcards produced between the start of the 20th century and the 1920s commonly show children but do not depict trick-or-treating.[16]The editor of a collection of over 3,000 vintage Halloween postcards writes, "There are cards which mention the custom [of trick-or-treating] or show children in costumes at the doors, Sony VPCF219FC Battery

but as far as we can tell they were printed later than the 1920s and more than likely even the 1930s. Tricksters of various sorts are shown on the early postcards, but not the means of appeasing them".[17] Trick-or-treating does not seem to have become a widespread practice until the 1930s, with the first U.S. appearances of the term in 1934,[18] and the first use in a national publication occurring in 1939. Sony VPCS135EC Battery

Almost all pre-1940 uses of the term "trick-or-treat" are from the western United States and Canada.[20] Trick-or-treating spread from the western United States eastward, stalled by sugar rationing that began in April 1942 during World War II and did not end until June 1947. Sony VPCS136EC Battery

Early national attention to trick-or-treating was given in October 1947 issues of the children's magazines Jack and Jill andChildren's Activities,[22] and by Halloween episodes of the network radio programs The Baby Snooks Show in 1946 and The Jack Benny Show and The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet in 1948.[23] Sony VPCS138EC Battery

Trick-or-treating was depicted in the Peanuts comic strip in 1951.[24] The custom had become firmly established in popular culture by 1952, when Walt Disney portrayed it in the cartoonTrick or Treat, and Ozzie and Harriet were besieged by trick-or-treaters on an episode of their television show.[25] In 1953UNICEF first conducted a national campaign for children to raise funds for the charity while trick-or-treating.[26] Sony VPCS139GC Battery

Although some popular histories of Halloween have characterized trick-or-treating as an adult invention to rechannel Halloween activities away from vandalism, there are very few records supporting it. Des Moines, Iowa is the only area known to have a record of trick-or-treating being used to deter crime.[27] Sony VPCYA15EC Battery

Elsewhere, adults, as reported in newspapers from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s, typically saw it as a form of extortion, with reactions ranging from bemused indulgence to anger.[28] Likewise, as portrayed on radio shows, children would have to explain what trick-or-treating was to puzzled adults, and not the other way around. Sony VPCYA16EC Battery

Sometimes even the children protested: for Halloween 1948, members of the Madison Square Boys Club in New York City carried a parade banner that read "American Boys Don't Beg."[29] The National Confectioners Association reported in 2005 that 80 percent of adults in the United States planned to give out confectionery to trick-or-treaters,[30] Sony VPCYA25EC Battery

and that 93 percent of children, teenagers, and young adults planned to go trick-or-treating or participating in other Halloween activities.[31] In 2008, Halloween candy, costumes and other related products accounted for $5.77 billion in revenue.

Despite the concept of trick or treating originating in Scotland in the form of guising, Sony VPCYA26EC Battery

the use of the term 'trick or treat' at the doors of home owners was not common until the 1980s. Guising is devoid of any jocular threat,[34] and according to one BBC journalist, in the 1980s it was still often viewed as an exotic and not particularly welcome import, with the BBC referring to it as "the Japanese knotweed of festivals" and "making demands with menaces".[35] Sony VPCYB15JC Battery

 In Ireland before the phrase "trick or treat" became common, children would say "Help the Halloween Party". Very often, the phrase "trick – or – treat" is simply said and the revellers are given sweets, with the choice of a trick or a treat having been discarded.

In Scotland and Ireland, "guising" — children going from house to house in disguise — is traditional, Sony VPCYA17GH/R Battery

and a gift in the form of food, coins or "apples or nuts for the Halloween party" (in more recent times chocolate) is given out to the children dressed up in various costumes.[36][37] The tradition is called "guising" because of the disguises or costumes worn by the children.[38] In the West Mid Scots dialect, guising is known as "galoshans".[39] Sony VPCCW2S8E/W Battery

Among the earliest record of guising at Halloween in Scotland is in 1895, where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of scooped out turnips, visit homes to be rewarded with cakes, fruit and money.[5] Guising also involved going to wealthy homes, and in the 1920s, boys went guising at Halloween up to the affluent Thorntonhall, South Lanarkshire.[40] Sony VPCCW2Z1E/B Battery

An account of guising in the 1950s in Ardrossan, North Ayrshire, records a child receiving 12 shillings and sixpence having knocked on doors throughout the neighborhood and performed.[34] There is a significant difference from the way the practice has developed in North America with the jocular threat. Sony VPCY11S1E Battery

In Scotland and Ireland, the children are only supposed to receive treats if they perform for the households they go to. This normally takes the form of singing a song or reciting a joke or a funny poem which the child has memorized before setting out.[34] Occasionally a more talented child may do card tricks, play the mouth organ, or something even more impressive, Sony VPCY11S1E/S Battery

but most children will earn plenty of treats even with something very simple. Often they won't even need to perform.[36] While going from door to door in disguise has remained popular among Scots and Irish at Halloween, the North American saying "trick-or-treat" has become common.

Some organizations around the US sponsor a "Trunk-or-Treat" on Halloween night (or on occasion, Sony VPCW1 Battery

a day immediately preceding Halloween), where trick-or-treating is done from parked car to parked car in a local parking lot, often at a church house. The trunk of one's car is opened, displaying candy, and often sometimes games and decorations. Concerned parents see it as safer for their children, while other parents see it as an easier alternative to walking the neighborhood with their kids. Sony VPCW1E8R/BU Battery

Opponents frown upon the Trunk-or-Treat as violation of the tradition of walking door-to-door on Halloween, and as exclusion of children that do not belong to these groups and thus are not informed about them. Some have called for more city or community group-sponsored Trunk-or-Treats, so they can be more inclusive.[41] Sony VPCY11AGJ Battery

Many neighborhoods see a large reduction in door-to-door trick-or-treating because of a competing Trunk-or-Treat. These have become increasingly popular over the years especially in conservative states like Utah, and are catching on around Midwest and Southern states.

Churches are expanding on the original idea of trunk or treat by adding food, music, games and rides. Sony VPCY11AHJ Battery

Their goal is to reach more of the community with an alternative to trick or treat. It not only has become a way to provide an alternative for children in the church but to the entire community. They have also found that it opens up opportunities to invite parents and children to other events or services going on at the church. Sony VPCY11AVJ Battery

A number of churches have started handing out Halloween Christian tracts or other information on the church.

In Portugal children go from house to house in All Saints day and All Souls Day, carrying pumpkin carved lanterns called coca,[42] asking every one they see forPão-por-Deus singing rimes where they remind people why they are begging, Sony VPCY11M1E Battery

saying "[...]It is for me and for you, and to give to the deceased who are dead and buried[...]"[43] or "[...]It is to share with your deceased [...]"[44] If a door is not open or the children don't get anything, they end their singing saying "[...]In this house smells like lard, here must live someone deceased". In the Azores the bread given to the children takes the shape of the top of a skull.[45] Sony VPCY11S1E Battery

The tradition of pão-por-Deus was already recorded in the 15th century.[46] After this ritual begging, takes place the Magusto and big bonfires are lit with the "firewood of the souls". The young people play around smothering their faces with the ashes. The ritual begging for the deceased used to take place all over the year as in several regions the dead, Sony VPCY11V9E Battery

those who were dear, were expected to arrive and take part in the major celebrations like Christmas and a plate with food or a seat at the table was always left for them.[47]

In some parts of Canada, children sometimes say "Halloween apples" instead of "trick or treat." This probably originated when the toffee apple was a popular type of candy. Sony VPCY11V9E/S Battery

Apple-giving in much of Canada, however, has been taboo since the 1960s when stories (of almost certainly questionable authenticity) appeared of razors hidden inside Halloween apples; parents began to check over their children's "loot" for safety before allowing them to eat it. In Quebec, children also go door to door on Halloween. Sony VPCY219FJ/S Battery

However, in French speaking neighbourhoods, instead of "Trick or treat?", they will simply say "Halloween", though in tradition it used to be La charité s'il-vous-plaît ("Charity, please").[48]

In some parts of Ohio, Iowa, Massachusetts and other states, the night designated for trick-or-treating is referred to as Beggars Night, and in some communities it is held on a night prior to Halloween itself. Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery

In Sweden children dress up as witches and go trick-or-treating on Maundy Thursday (the Thursday before Easter) while Danish children dress up in various attires and go trick-or-treating on Fastelavn (or the next day, Shrove Monday). In Norway "trick-or-treat" is called "knask eller knep", which means almost the same thing, Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery

although with the word order reversed, and the practice is quite common among children, who come dressed up to people's doors asking for, mainly, candy. Many Norwegians prepare for the event by consciously buying a small stock of sweets prior to it, to come in handy should any kids come knocking on the door, which is very probable in most areas. Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery

The Easter witch tradition is done on Palm Sunday in Finland. In parts of Flanders and some parts of the Netherlandsand most areas of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, children go to houses with home made beet lanterns or with paper lanterns (which can hold a candle or electronic light), singing songs about St. Martin on St. Martin's Day (the 11th of November), in return for treats.[49] Sony VPCY21AVJ Battery

In Northern Germany and Southern Denmark children dress up in costumes and go trick-or-treating on New Year's Eve in a tradition called "Rummelpott".[50]

Children of the St. Louis, Missouri area are expected to perform a joke, usually a simple Halloween-themed pun or riddle, before receiving any candy; this "trick" earns the "treat".[51] Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery

Children in Des Moines, Iowa also tell jokes or otherwise perform before receiving their treat. Des Moines trick-or-treating is also unusual in that it is actually done the night before Halloween, known locally as "Beggars' Night".

Halloween costumes are traditionally modeled after supernatural figures such as monsters, Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery

ghosts, skeletons, witches, and devils. Over time, in the United States the costume selection extended to include popular characters from fiction, celebrities, and generic archetypes such as ninjas and princesses.[25]

Dressing up in costumes and going "guising" was prevalent in Ireland and Scotland at Halloween by the late 19th century.[36Sony VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

]Costuming became popular for Halloween parties in the US in the early 20th century, as often for adults as for children. The first mass-produced Halloween costumes appeared in stores in the 1930s when trick-or-treating was becoming popular in the United States.

Halloween costume parties generally fall on or around October 31, often on the Friday or Saturday before Halloween. Sony VPCCW1E8R/WU Battery

"Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" is a fundraising program to support UNICEF,[25] a United Nations Programme that provides humanitarian aid to children in developing countries. Started as a local event in a Northeast Philadelphia neighborhood in 1950 and expanded nationally in 1952, Sony VPCCW1S1E Battery

the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools (or in modern times, corporate sponsors like Hallmark, at their licensed stores) to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit small-change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated that children have collected more than $118 million for UNICEF since its inception. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

In Canada, in 2006, UNICEF decided to discontinue their Halloween collection boxes, citing safety and administrative concerns; after consultation with schools, they instead redesigned the program.

There are several games traditionally associated with Halloween parties. One common game is dunking or apple bobbing, which may be called "dooking" in Scotland[53] Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water and the participants must use their teeth to remove an apple from the basin. The practice is thought by some to have derived from the Roman practices in celebration ofPomona.[25] A variant of dunking involves kneeling on a chair, holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drop the fork into an apple. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones by strings; these must be eaten without using hands while they remain attached to the string, an activity that inevitably leads to a very sticky face.Some games traditionally played at Halloween are forms of divination. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery,Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

A traditional Scottish form of divining one's future spouse is to carve an apple in one long strip, then toss the peel over one's shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name.[54] Unmarried women were told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween night, the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

However, if they were destined to die before marriage, a skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards[55] from the late 19th century and early 20th century.

Another game/superstition that was enjoyed in the early 1900s involved walnut shells. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

People would write fortunes in milk on white paper. After drying, the paper was folded and placed in walnut shells. When the shell was warmed, milk would turn brown therefore the writing would appear on what looked like blank paper. Folks would also play fortune teller. In order to play this game, symbols were cut out of paper and placed on a platter. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

Someone would enter a dark room and was ordered to put her hand on a piece of ice then lay it on a platter. Her "fortune" would stick to the hand. Paper symbols included: dollar sign-wealth, button-bachelorhood, thimble-spinsterhood, clothespin- poverty, rice-wedding, umbrella- journey, caldron-trouble, 4-leaf clover- good luck, penny-fortune, ring-early marriage, and key-fame.[56] Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

The telling of ghost stories and viewing of horror films are common fixtures of Halloween parties. Episodes of television series and Halloween-themed specials (with the specials usually aimed at children) are commonly aired on or before Halloween, while new horror films are often released theatrically before Sony PCG-71213M Battery

Halloween to take advantage of the atmosphere.Haunted attractions are entertainment venues designed to thrill and scare patrons. Most attractions are seasonal Halloween businesses. Origins of these paid scare venues are difficult to pinpoint, but it is generally accepted that they were first commonly used by the Junior Chamber International (Jaycees) for fundraising.[57] Sony PCG-71311M Battery

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