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6 septembre 2013 5 06 /09 /septembre /2013 08:46

He was deposed in 623 BC, after four years of bitter fighting by Sin-shumu-lishir, an Assyrian Turtanu (General) who also occupied and claimed the throne of Babylon in that year. In turn, Sin-shumu-lishir was deposed as ruler of Assyria and Babylonia after a year of warfare by Sin-shar-ishkun (622 - 612 BC) —

 HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

who was then himself faced with constant violent rebellion in the Assyrian homeland.

This situation led to wholesale revolution in Babylonia, and during his reign many Assyrian colonies to the west, east and north similarly took advantage and ceased to pay tribute to Assyria, ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

most significantly the Medes, Persians, Scythians, Cimmerians and Arameans.

The Scythians and Cimmerians took advantage of the bitter fighting among the Assyrians to raid Assyrian colonies, with hordes of horse borne marauders ravaging parts of Asia Minor and the Caucasus, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

where the vassal king of Urartu begged his Assyrian overlord for help in vain. They also raided the Levant, Israel andJudah (where Ashkalon was sacked by the Scythians) and all the way into Egypt. The Iranic peoples (the Medes, Persians and Parthians), HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

aided by the previous Assyrian destruction of the hitherto dominant Elamites of Ancient Iran, also took advantage of the upheavals in Assyria to coalesce into a powerful Median dominated force which destroyed the pre-Iranic Assyrian vassal kingdom of TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

Mannea and absorbed the remnants of the also pre-Iranic Gutians and Kassites of theZagros Mountains and the Caspian Sea. In Aram (modern Syria) and Phoenicia, the various Aramean and Phoenician states quietly reasserted their independence, TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

and in western Asia Minor and eastern Mediterranean, the Lydians, Greeks, Cilicians and Luwian states did the same. Armenians and Colchians (Georgians) also began to establish themselves in parts of the CaucasusHP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

By 620 BC, Nabopolassar, a previously unknown Malka of the Chaldean people from the far southeast of Mesopotamia, had claimed the city of Babylon and much of Babylonia in the confusion. Sin-shar-ishkun amassed a large army to eject Nabopolassar from Babylon, ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard

however, yet another revolt broke out in Assyria proper, forcing the bulk of his army to turn back, where they promptly joined the rebels in Nineveh. Similarly, Nabopolassar was unable to make any inroads into Assyria despite its weakened state, being repelled at every attempt.ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

and the next four years saw bitter fighting in the heart of Babylonia itself, as the Assyrians tried to wrest back control.[1]

However, Nabopolassar entered into an alliance with the Median king Cyaxares the Great, TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

who had taken advantage of the upheavals in Assyria to free the Iranian peoples from Assyrian vassalage and unite the Iranian Medes, Persians and Parthians, together with the remnants of the pre-Iranian Elamites and Manneans, into a powerful Median-dominated force. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

The Babylonians and Medes, together with the Scythians and Cimmerians to the north, attacked Assyria in 616 BC, sacking the city of Kalhu. After four years of bitter fighting, Nineveh itself was finally sacked in 612 BC, after a prolonged siege followed by house to house fighting.Sin-shar-ishkun was killed defending his capital. HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

Despite the loss of almost all of its major cities, and in the face of overwhelming odds, Assyrian resistance continued. Ashur-uballit II (612- 605? BC) took the throne and refused a request to bow in vassalage to Nabopolassar, Cyaxares and their allies. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

He managed to break out of Nineveh and successfully fight his way to the northern Assyrian city of Harran, he took the city and founded it as a new capital which he managed to hold for five years. However, Harran too was eventually over run in 608 BC.  SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard

Egypt, itself a former Assyrian colony whose current dynasty had been installed as puppet rulers by the Assyrians, then came to Assyria's aid, possibly in fear that without Assyrian protection they would be next to succumb.[1]

Ashur-uballit II and Necho of Egypt made a failed attempt to recapture Harran in 608 BC. SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard

The next three years saw the remnants of the Assyrian army and their Egyptian allies vainly attempting to eject the invaders from Assyria. In 605 BC, the Babylonians and Medes defeated the Assyrians and Egyptians at Carchemish, bringing an end to Assyria as an independent political entity,  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard

although it was to launch major rebellions against the Achaemenid Empire in 546 BC and 520 BC, and remained a geo-political region and colonised province until the late 7th century AD.

The fate of Ashur-uballit II remains unknown, ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard

his Limmu Lists end after the fall of Harran, and it is possible he was either killed at this time, at the battle of Carshemish in 605 BC, or simply disappeared into obscurity.

Most of Assyria was ruled by Babylon from 605 BC until 539 BC, TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

the northern reaches being ruled first by the Medes and then from 549 BC by their successors, thePersians. In a twist of fate, Nabonidus the last king of Babylon was himself an Assyrian from Harran; however, apart from plans to dedicate religious temples in that city, HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

Nabonidus showed little interest in rebuilding Assyria. Nineveh and Kalhu remained in ruins, conversely a number of towns and cities such asArrapkha, Guzana and Harran remained intact, and Assur and Arbela were not completely destroyed, as is attested by their later revival. SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

However, Assyria spent much of this period in a degree of devastation following its fall.

After this, it was ruled by the Persian Achaemenid Empire (as Athura) from 549 BC to 330 BC (see Achaemenid Assyria). Between 546 and 545 BC, Assyria rebelled against the new Persian Dynasty, which had usurped the previous Median dynasty. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

The rebellion was eventually quashed by Cyrus the Great.

Assyria seems to have recovered dramatically, and flourished during this period. It became a major agricultural and administrative centre of the Achaemenid Empire, and its soldiers were a mainstay of the Persian Army.[36] HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

In fact, Assyria even became powerful enough to raise another full-scale revolt against the Persian empire in 520-519 BC.

The Persians had spent centuries under Assyrian domination, and Assyrian influence can be seen in Achaemenid art, infrastructure and administration. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Early Persian rulers saw themselves as successors to Ashurbanipal, and Mesopotamian Aramaic was retained as the lingua franca of the empire for over two hundred years.[37] Nineveh was never rebuilt however, and 200 years after it was sacked Xenophon reported only small numbers of Assyrians living amongst its ruins. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

In 330 BC, Assyria fell to Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Emperor from Greece; it thereafter became part of the Seleucid Empire and was renamed Syria, aHurrian, Luwian and Greek corruption of Assyria.[38] It is from this period that the later Syria Vs Assyria naming controversy arises,  HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

the Seleucids applied the name not only to Assyria itself, but also to the lands to the west (Aram modern Syria), which had been part of the Assyrian empire. When they lost control of Assyria, the name Syria survived and was applied only to the land of Aramea to the west that had once been part of the Assyrian empire.  Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

This was to lead to both the Assyrians from Mesopotamia and Arameans from the Levant being dubbed Syrians in Greco-Roman culture.

By 150 BC, Assyria was under the control of the Parthian Empire as Athura (the Parthian word for Assyria) where the Assyrian city of Assur seems to have gained a degree of autonomy, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

and temples to the native gods of Assyria were resurrected. A number of independent Neo- Assyrian states arose, namely Adiabene, Osroeneand Hatra.

In 116 AD, under Trajan, it was taken over by Rome as the Roman Province of Assyria. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

The Assyrians began to convert to Christianity from Ashurism during the period between the early 1st and 3rd centuries AD. Romans and Parthians fought over Assyria and the rest of Mesopotamia until 226 AD, when it was taken over by the Sassanid (Persian) Empire. ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

It was known as Asuristan during this period, and became a main centre of the Church of the East (now the Assyrian Church of the East), with a flourishingSyriac (Assyrian) Christian culture which exists there to this day. The city of Ashur again flourished, and appears to have gained a great deal of autonomy during this period. HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard

The noted Assyriologist Simo Parpola has speculated that Assyria may even have once again been independent for a while prior to being sacked by Shapur I in 256 AD. Temples were still being dedicated to the national god Ashur in his home city and in Harran during the 4th century, indicating an Assyrian identity was still strong. HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard

After the Arab Islamic conquest in the 7th century, Assyria was dissolved as an entity. Under Arab rule, Mesopotamia as a whole underwent a gradual process ofArabisation and Islamification, and the region saw a large influx of non indigenous Arabs, Kurds, and later Turkic peoples. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

However, the indigenous Assyrianpopulation of northern Mesopotamia (known as Ashuriyun by the Arabs) resisted this process, retaining their language, religion, culture and identity.

Assyrian people, still retaining the Aramaic language and Church of the East Christianity,  HP G62-a20SQ laptop keyboard

remained dominant in the north as late as the 11th and 12th centuries.[39] The city of Assur was still occupied by Assyrians during the Islamic period until the 14th century when Tamurlane conducted a massacre of indigenous Assyrian Christians. HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

After that, there are no traces of a settlement in the archaeological and numismatic record.[40] The massacres by Tamurlanemassively reduced the Assyrian population throughout Mesopotamia.

Although predominantly Christian, a minority of Assyrians still held onto their ancient Mesopotamian religion until as late as the 10th century AD.[41] COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard

The Hamidian Massacre of the 19th Century further greatly reduced numbers. An Assyrian war of independence was fought during World War I, following on from theAssyrian Genocide suffered at the hands of the Ottomans and their Kurdish allies. HP 590527-001 laptop keyboard

For a time, the Assyrians fought successfully against overwhelming numbers; then their Russian allies left the war and the Armenian line broke. The Assyrian Levies were founded by the British in 1928, with ancient Assyrian military rankings, such as Rab-shakeh, Rab-talia and Tartan, TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-12L laptop keyboard

being revived for the first time in millennia for this force. The Assyrians were prized by the British rulers for their fighting qualities, loyalty, bravery and discipline, and were used to help the British put down insurrections among the Arabs and Kurds.[42] ASUS K030662M2 laptop keyboard

During World War II, Eleven Assyrian companies saw action in Palestine and another four served in Cyprus. The Parachute Company was attached to the Royal Marine Commando and was involved in fighting in Albania, Italy and Greece. Many persecutions have befallen the Assyrians since, HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx laptop keyboard

such as the Simele Massacre, the Anfalcampaign and Baathist, Kurdish and Islamist persecutions.

Thus far, the only people who have been attested with a high level of genetic, historical, linguistic and cultural research to be the descendants of the ancient  HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx laptop keyboard

Mesopotamians are the Assyrian Christians of Iraq and its surrounding areas in north west Iran, north east Syria and south eastern Turkey. Assyria continued to exist as a geopolitical entity until the Arab-Islamic conquest in the mid-7th century,  HP Pavilion dv6-2165tx laptop keyboard

and Assyrian identity, personal names and both spoken and written evolutions of Mesopotamian Aramaic (which still contain many Akkadian loan words) have survived among the Assyrian people from ancient times to this day. (seeAssyrian people).  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

However, there have been many wild claims of ancient mid eastern ancestry (including Assyrian) throughout Europe, Africa and even the Americas, none of which have been supported by mainstream opinion or strong evidence, let alone proof. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 laptop keyboard

The most long standing and popularised theory has been the attempts to link Assyrian ancestry to the ancient Germans. The idea has also some backing in German legend, for example the Gesta Treverorum (a 12th-century German medieval chronicle) makes Trebeta son of Ninus the founder of Trier.[43] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

This legend of Trebeta as having founded Trier is also found in Godfrey of Viterbo's Pantheon (1185) and several other German chronicles of the 12th or 13th century, including the works of Sigebert of Gembloux.[44] The legend is also found cited in compendiums of historical sources from later periods, HP G72-227WM laptop keyboard

for example Gottfried Leibniz'sScriptures rerum Brunsvicensium (1710) and the Anthologia veterum latinorum epigrammatum et poematum (1835).[45]

As with the West Africa theory, this idea does not have the backing of serious historians, nor contemporary written records of the time in the Near East. HP AEAT8TPU017 Laptop Keyboard

There have been no studies or records that show such a link, and it must be pointed out that Ninus and Trebeta were fictional figures, and not historically attested. In addition, there are no traces of Akkadian or Mesopotamian Aramaic in any Germanic Language.  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

According to a single unsupported piece of recent research, refugees from the collapsed Assyrian Empire claim to have reached the region of Lake Chad and founded the kingdoms of Kanem and Kebbi. These alleged refugees claimed the ancestry of Sargon of Akkad (whose dynasty died out some 15 centuries before the fall of Assyria), Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

they also contradictionally claimed ancestry from Nabopolassar, a Babylonian king of Chaldean extraction who played a major part in the destruction of the Assyrian Empire. From the Medieval Arabic king lists of both African states, allegedly copied from earlier lists in ancient Near Eastern languages, HP G42T-200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

it appears that the state founders claimed to be deportees of the Assyrian empire who had fled from Syria and Samaria after the defeat of the Egyptian-Assyrian army at Carchemish in 605 BCE.[46]

A counterpoint to this argument would be that neither Samaria nor Syria Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

 (the places from where these refugees were claimed to have originated) were actually ever part of Assyria, but were colonies inhabited largely by Hebrews, Nabateans and Arameans respectively. In addition, there is no evidence whatsoever in Assyrian, TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

Babylonian, Median, Persian, Greek or Egyptian records of the time mentioning deportations of Assyrians from their homelands[6][47]

Additionally, the claimants to this ancestry also claim descendancy from Sargon of Akkad (whose dynasty died out over 1,500 years before the Assyrian dynasty fell), DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

and from Nabopolassar, who was a Chaldean, politically and militarily opposed to Assyria, and not in fact an Assyrian.

The Assyrians, like the rest of the Mesopotamian peoples, followed the Sumero-Akkadian Mesopotamian Religion, with the national god Ashur having pride of place at the head of the pantheon. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

This religion survived in Assyria from circa 3500 BC through to its gradual decline in the face of Christianity between the 1st and 10th centuries AD.[41]

Other major gods within the pantheon were: Anu, Baal, Ea, Enlil, Ishtar (Astarte), Shamash, Tammuz, Adad/Hadad, Sin (Nanna), Dagan, Ninurta, Nisroch, Nergal,Tiamat, Ninlil, Mullissu, Zababa and El.  HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

Native religion was still strongly followed until at least until the 4th century AD, and survived in pockets until at least the 10th century AD,[41] although Assyrians had begun to adopt Eastern Rite Christianity (as well as for a time Manicheanism and Gnosticism) which, like Syriac literature, had its birthplace in Assyria between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD. IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

Assyrians today are exclusively Christian, with most following the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Ancient Church of the East and Syriac Orthodox churches.

During the 3rd millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

which included widespread bilingualism.[7]The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence.[7] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 3rd millennium BC as a sprachbund.[7] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[8] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

In ancient times, Assyrians spoke a dialect of the Akkadian language, an eastern branch of the Semitic languages. The first inscriptions, called Old Assyrian (OA), were made in the Old Assyrian period.[49] In the Neo-Assyrian period the Aramaic language became increasingly common,[50] HP G42-245BR laptop keyboard

more so than Akkadian — this was thought to be largely due to the mass deportations undertaken by Assyrian kings,[51] in which large Aramaic-speaking populations, conquered by the Assyrians, were relocated to Assyria and interbred with the Assyrians. ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

The ancient Assyrians also used the Sumerian language in their literature and liturgy,[51] although to a more limited extent in the Middle- and Neo-Assyrian periods, when Akkadian became the main literary language.[51]

The destruction of the Assyrian capitals of Nineveh and Assur by the Babylonians, Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Medes and their allies, ensured that much of the bilingual elite (but not all) were wiped out. By the 7th century BC, much of the Assyrian population used Akkadian influenced Eastern Aramaic and not Akkadian itself. The last Akkadian inscriptions in Mesopotamia date from the 1st century AD.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

However, Eastern Aramaic dialects, as well as Akkadian and Mesopotamian Aramaic personal and family names, still survive to this day among Assyrians in the regions of northern Iraq, southeast Turkey, northwest Iran and northeast Syria that constituted old Assyria.[51] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

After 90 years of effort, the University of Chicago has published an Assyrian Dictionary, whose form is more encyclopedia in style than dictionary.

Assyrian art preserved to the present day predominantly dates to the Neo-Assyrian period. HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

Art depicting battle scenes, and occasionally the impaling of whole villages in gory detail, was intended to show the power of the emperor, and was generally made for propaganda purposes. These stone reliefs lined the walls in the royal palaces where foreigners were received by the king.  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

Other stone reliefs depict the king with different deities and conducting religious ceremonies. Many stone reliefs were discovered in the royal palaces at Nimrud (Kalhu) and Khorsabad (Dur-Sharrukin). A rare discovery of metal plates belonging to wooden doors was made at Balawat (Imgur-Enlil).  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

Assyrian sculpture reached a high level of refinement in the Neo-Assyrian period. One prominent example is the winged bullLamassu, or shedu that guard the entrances to the king's court. These were apotropaic meaning they were intended to ward off evil. C. W. ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

Ceram states in The March of Archaeology that lamassi were typically sculpted with five legs so that four legs were always visible, whether the image were viewed frontally or in profile.

Although works of precious gems and metals usually do not survive the ravages of time, some fine pieces of Assyrian jewelry were found in royal tombs at Nimrud. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

There is ongoing discussion among academics over the nature of the Nimrud lens, a piece of quartz unearthed by Austen Henry Layard in 1850, in the Nimrud palace complex in northern Iraq. A small minority believe that it is evidence for the existence of ancient Assyrian telescopes, HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

which could explain the great accuracy of Assyrian astronomy. Other suggestions include its use as a magnifying glass for jewellers, or as a decorative furniture inlay. The Nimrud Lens is held in the British Museum.[53]

The Assyrians were also innovative in military technology, with the use of heavy cavalry, sappers, siege engines etc. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

Achaemenid Assyria (539 BC – 330 BC) retained a separate identity (Athura), official correspondence being in Imperial Aramaic, and there was even a determined revolt of the two Assyrian provinces of Mada and Athura in 520 BC. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

Under Seleucidrule (330 BC – approximately 150 BC), however, Aramaic gave way to Greek as the official administrative language. Aramaic was marginalised as an official language, but remained spoken in both Assyria and Babylonia by the general populace. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

It also remained the spoken tongue of the indigenous Assyrian/Babylonian citizens of all Mesopotamia under Persian, Greek and Roman rule, and indeed well into the Arab period it was still the language of the majority, particularly in the north of Mesopotamia, surviving to this day among the Assyrian Christians. HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

Between 150 BC and 226 AD, Assyria changed hands between the Parthians and Romans (Roman Province of Assyria) until coming under the rule of Sassanid Persia in 226 AD – 651 AD, where it was known as Asuristan. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

A number of at least partly neo-Assyrian kingdoms existed in the area between in the late classical and early Christian period also; Adiabene, Hatra and Osroene.

Classical historiographers and Biblical writers had only retained a fragmented, very dim and often inaccurate picture of Assyria. HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

It was remembered that there had been an Assyrian empire predating the Persian one, but all particulars were lost. Thus Jerome's Chronicon lists 36 kings of the Assyrians, beginning withNinus, son of Belus, down to Sardanapalus, the last king of the Assyrians before the empire fell to Arbaces the Median. IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

Almost none of these have been substantiated as historical, with the exception of the Neo-Assyrian and Babylonian rulers listed in Ptolemy's Canon, beginning with Nabonassar.

Mesopotamian empires such as the Akkadian Empire, Babylonian Empire, DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

Middle Assyrian Empire, Neo Assyrian Empire and Neo Babylonian Empire asserted Mesopotamian dominance from the Caucasus Mountains to Arabia and Egypt, and from Cyprus and the east Mediterranean to Persia. GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard

Thus the influence exerted by the Babylonian-Assyrian religion was particularly profound on other Semites, including the Hebrews, Chaldeans, Canaanites, Arameans, Phoenicians and Arabs, while their astral theology affected the ancient world in general, HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

including the Persians, Greeks, Armenians and the later Romans. The impetus to the purification of the oldSemitic polytheistic religions to which the Hebrews for a long time clung in common with their fellows — the various branches of nomadic Arameans and Arabs — SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

was largely furnished by the remarkable civilization unfolded in the Euphrates valley and in many of the traditions, myths and legends embodied in the Old Testament; traces of direct adaptation from and responses to Babylonia and Assyria may be discerned,  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

while the indirect influences in the domain of the prophetical books, as also in the Psalms and in the so-called "wisdom literature", are even more noteworthy. Stories in the Tanakh, Old Testament and Quran such as; the Genesis creation narrative, Tower of Babel, Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

The Great Flood and the book of Esther, as well as various biblical characters such as Noah, Nimrod, Lilithand Asnapper bear clear influence from Assyria and Babylonia.[54][55][56]

Even when we reach the New Testament period, we have not passed entirely beyond the sphere of Babylonian-Assyrian influences. HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

In such a movement as earlyChristian gnosticism, Assyrio-Babylonian elements — modified, to be sure, and transformed — are largely present, while the growth of an apocalyptic literature is ascribed with apparent justice by many scholars to the recrudescence of views, the ultimate source of which is to be found in the astral-theology of the Babylonian and Assyrian Priests. HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

The Assyrians began to form and adopt a distinct Eastern Rite Christianity, with its accompanying Syriac literature, between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, however native religion was still alive and well into the 4th century AD, and pockets survived into the 10th century AD and possibly as late as the 17th century in Mardin. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

However, the religion is now dead, and the indigenous Assyrian (aka Chaldo-Assyrian) people, though still retaining Eastern Aramaic dialects as a mother tongue, are now wholly Christian.

The modern discovery of Babylonia and Assyria begins with excavations in Nineveh in 1845, which revealed the Library of Ashurbanipal. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

Decipherment of cuneiformwas a formidable task that took more than a decade; but, by 1857, the Royal Asiatic Society was convinced that reliable reading of cuneiform texts was possible.Assyriology has since pieced together the formerly largely forgotten history of Mesopotamia. Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

In the wake of the archaeological and philological rediscovery of ancient Assyria, Assyrian nationalism became increasingly popular among the surviving remnants of the Assyrian people, and has come to strongly identify with ancient Assyria. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard,Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard,COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

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