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Hebrew University of Jerusalem second-oldest university, after the Technion. The Hebrew University has three campuses in Jerusalem and one inRehovot.[1] The world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus. HP 3MLX8TATP20 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The First Board of Governors included Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, and Chaim Weizmann. Four of Israel's prime ministers are alumni of the Hebrew University. In the last decade, five graduates of the University received the Nobel Prize and one was awarded the Fields Medal. SONY 300-0001-1276 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Hebrew University is the top university in Israel, overall the 52nd-best university in the world, 16th in Mathematics, 27th in Computer Science and 44th in Business/Economics.[2]In 2012, the Center for World University Rankings ranked the Hebrew University 22nd in the world and second in Israel in its CWUR World University Rankings,[3] while another survey ranked it as the 9th best university to work in, and the 2nd best outside of the United States.[4]HP Pavilion dv6-3180sd Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One of the visions of the Zionist movement was the establishment of a Jewish university in the Land of Israel. Founding a university was proposed as far back as 1884 in the Kattowitz (Katowice) conference of the Hovevei Zion society. The cornerstone for the university was laid on July 24, 1918. Seven years later, on April 1, 1925, the Hebrew University campus on Mount Scopus was opened at a gala ceremony attended by the leaders of the Jewish world, distinguished scholars and public figures, and British dignitaries, including the Earl of Balfour, Viscount Allenby and Sir Herbert Samuel. The University's first Chancellor was Judah Magnes. HP Envy 14-2000et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By 1947, the University had become a large research and teaching institution. Plans for a medical school were approved in May 1949, and in November 1949, a faculty of law was inaugurated. In 1952, it was announced that the agricultural institute founded by the University in 1940 would become a full-fledged faculty.[5]HP Pavilion dv6-3132tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, attacks were carried out against convoys moving between the Israeli-controlled section of Jerusalem and the University.[6] The leader of the Arab forces in Jerusalem, Abdul Kader Husseini, threatened military action against the university Hadassah Hospital "if the Jews continued to use them as bases for attacks."[7] After the Toshiba Satellite L20-155 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan in which 79 Jews, including doctors and nurses, were killed, the Mount Scopus campus was cut off from Jerusalem.[8] When the Jordan government denied Israeli access to Mount Scopus, a new campus was built at Givat Ram in western Jerusalem and completed in 1958. In the interim, classes were held in 40 different buildings around the city.[9]ACER Aspire 5520-5537 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Terra Sancta building in Rehavia, rented from the Franciscan Custodians of the Latin Holy Places, was also used for this purpose.[10] A few years later, together with the Hadassah Medical Organization, a medical science campus was built in the south-west Jerusalem neighborhood of Ein Kerem.  FUJITSU LifeBook S6510 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By the beginning of 1967, the students numbered 12,500, spread among the two campuses in Jerusalem and the agricultural faculty in Rehovot. After the unification of Jerusalem, following the Six-Day War of June 1967, the University was able to return to Mount Scopus, which was rebuilt. In 1981 the construction work was completed, and Mount Scopus again became the main campus of the University.  IBM ThinkPad T61 6465 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Mount Scopus (Hebrew: Har HaTzofim הר הצופים), in the north-eastern part of Jerusalem, is home to the Faculties of Humanities, Social Sciences, Law, Jerusalem School of Business Administration, Bearwald School of Social Work, Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Rothberg International School, and the Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies. Toshiba Satellite A205-S6810 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Rothberg International School features secular studies and Jewish/Israeli studies. Included for foreign students is also a mandatory Ulpan program for Hebrew language study which includes a mandatory course in Israeli culture and customs. All Rothberg Ulpan classes are taught by Israeli natives. However, many other classes at the Rothberg School are taught by Jewish immigrants to Israel. Toshiba Satellite L655-158 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The land on Mt. Scopus was purchased before World War I from Sir John Gray-Hill, along with the Gray-Hill mansion.[13]The master plan for the university was designed by Patrick Geddes and his son-in-law, Frank Mears in December 1919. Only three buildings of this original design were built: The Wolfson National Library, the Mathematics Institute, and the Physics Institute.[13]Sony PCG-GRX580 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv6-3020ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Housing for students at Hebrew University who live on Mount Scopus is located at the three dormitories located near the university. These are the Maiersdorf (מאירסדורף) dormitories, the Bronfman (ברונפמן) dormitories, and the Kfar HaStudentim (כפר הסטודנטים, the students' village). HP Pavilion dv7-4101sl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On July 31, 2002, a member of a terrorist cell detonated a bomb during lunch hour at the University's "Frank Sinatra" cafeteria when it was crowded with staff and students. Nine people — five Israelis, three Americans, and one dual French-American citizen — were killed and more than 70 wounded. World leaders, including Kofi Annan, President Bush, and the President of the European Union issued statements of condemnation.[11][12] HP Pavilion dv6-3034ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Jewish National and University Library is the central and largest library of the Hebrew University and one of the most impressive book and manuscript collections in the world. It is also the oldest section of the university. Founded in 1892 as a world center for the preservation of books relating to Jewish thought and culture, it assumed the additional functions of a general university library in 1920. Its collections of Hebraica and Judaica are the largest in the world. HP Pavilion dv6115tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It houses all materials published in Israel, and attempts to acquire all materials published in the world related to the country. It possesses over five million books and thousands of items in special sections, many of which are unique. Among these are the Albert Einstein Archives, Hebrew manuscripts department, Eran Laor map collection, Edelstein science collection, Gershom Scholem collection, and a collection of Maimonides' manuscripts and early writings.  HP Pavilion dv6-3033sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In his will, Albert Einstein left the Hebrew University his personal papers and the intellectual copyright to them, as well as the right to use his image. The Albert Einstein Archives contain some 55,000 items.[16] In March, 2012 the University announced that it had digitized the entire archive, and was planning to make the entire collection available online,  HP Pavilion dv6-3150ej Laptop CPU Cooling Fan free-of-charge. Included in the collection are his personal notes, love letters to various women, including the woman who would become his second wife, Elsa. Also to be included in the online collection is a letter to the Arabic newspaper Falastin, proposing a "Secret Council" composed of Arabs and Jews to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict.[17][18][19] HP Pavilion dv6695el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In addition to the National Library, the Hebrew University operates subject-based libraries on its campuses, among them the Avraham Harman Science Library, Safra, Givat Ram; Mathematics and Computer Science Library, Safra, Givat Ram; Earth Sciences Library, Safra, Givat Ram; Muriel and Philip I. Berman National Medical Library, Ein Kerem; Central Library of Agricultural Science, Rehovot; Bloomfield Library for the Humanities and Social Sciences, Mt. Scopus;  HP Pavilion dv7-4020sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bernard G. Segal Law Library Center, Mt. Scopus; Emery and Claire Yass Library of the Institute of Archaeology, Mt. Scopus; Moses Leavitt Library of Social Work, Mt. Scopus; Zalman Aranne Central Education Library, Mt. Scopus; Library of the Rothberg School for International Students, Mt. Scopus; Roberta and Stanley Bogen Library of the Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Mt. Scopus; and the Steven Spielberg Jewish Film Archive. COMPAQ Presario V6145EA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Born Oscar Westreich, he was raised in Berlin. In 1933 he emigrated to Palestine with the Bnei Akiva youth movement, and briefly joined the kibbutz Tirat Zvi before settling in Jerusalem and marrying Shulamith. During World War II, he served in the Jewish Brigade of the British Army. He fought with the Haganah during the Israeli War of Independence, losing an eye.  Gateway MA3 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bar-Hillel received his PhD in Philosophy from the Hebrew University where he also studied mathematics under Abraham Fraenkel, with whom he eventually coauthored Foundations of Set Theory (1958, 1973). Bar-Hillel was a major disciple of Rudolf Carnap, whose Logical Syntax of Language much influenced him. He began a correspondence with Carnap in the 1940s, which led to a 1950 postdoc under Carnap at the University of Chicago, and to his collaborating on Carnap's 1952 An Outline of the Theory of Semantic Information. Bar-Hillel then took up a position at MIT Toshiba Tecra A2-S336 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan leaving in 1953 just before Noam Chomsky's arrival. At MIT, Bar-Hillel was the first academic to work full-time in the field of Machine Translation; he organised the first International Conference on Machine Translation in 1952. Later he expressed doubts that general-purpose fully automatic high-quality machine translation would ever be feasible.[1][2] He was also a pioneer in the field of information retrieval. ACER Aspire 5672WLMi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1953, Bar-Hillel joined the philosophy department at the Hebrew University, where he taught until his death at age 60. His teachings and writings strongly influenced an entire generation of Israeli philosophers and linguists, including Asa Kasher and Avishai Margalit. In 1953, he founded a pioneering algebraic-computational linguistic group, HP Pavilion dv7-6056eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and in 1961 he contributed to the proof of the pumping lemma for context-free languages (sometimes called the Bar-Hillel lemma). Bar-Hillel helped found the Hebrew University's department of Philosophy of Science. From 1966 to 1968 Bar-Hillel presided over the International Association of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Toshiba Satellite L645-S4038 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bar-Hillel's daughter Maya Bar-Hillel is a cognitive psychologist at the Hebrew University, known for her collaborations with Amos Tversky and for her role in critiquing Bible code study. His other daughter, Mira Bar-Hillel, is the property and planning correspondent for the London Evening Standard. His granddaughter,Gili Bar-Hillel, is the Hebrew translator of the Harry Potter series.  SONY Vaio VGN-NW91VS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Avishai Dekel (born 1951) is a professor of physics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, holding the Andre Aisenstadt Chair of Theoretical Physics. He is performing research in astrophysics and cosmology. Prof. Dekel got his Ph.D. from the Hebrew University in 1980, and was a research fellow at Caltech and an assistant professor at Yale University before joining the faculty of the Hebrew University in 1986. He served as the Head of The Racah Institute of Physics (1997–2001), Toshiba Satellite A215-S7416 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Dean of the Authority for the Community and Youth at the Hebrew University (2005–2011), and the President of the Israel Physical Society (2008–11). He headed the university computing committee, was a member of the executive committee of the board of trustees and is a member of the standing committee of the Hebrew UniversitySONY VAIO VGN-FS315B Laptop Keyboard . Prof. Dekel is a frequent visitor to the University of California, Santa Cruz, as well as to other leading universities in the US and Europe. Among other professional honors, he has been awarded a Miller professorship at UC Berkeley and a Blaise Pascal International Chair of Research by the École Normale Supérieure in Paris (2004–06). COMPAQ Presario CQ50 Series Laptop Keyboard Prof. Dekel is known for his contributions to research in cosmology, especially the study of the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure in the dark matter-dark energy dominated Universe.[1][2] He is most well known for the understanding of dwarf galaxies and supernova feedback (1986, 2003), for the analysis of large-scale cosmic flows (1989–1997), for the studies of the structure of dark-matter galactic halos (2000–2003), for his contributions to central issues in the theory of galaxy formation(2003–2009). ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard His recent research focuses on the formation of galaxies in the early universe, driven by cold streams from the cosmic web,[3] followed by violent gravitational disk instability that triggers intense star formation and leads to the formation of the galaxy spheroidal component with a central massive black hole.  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Mediterranean Sea. It borders Lebanon in the north, Syria in the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank in the east, Egypt and the Gaza Strip on the southwest, and the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea to the south, and it contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.[1][6] Israel is defined as a Jewish and Democratic State in its Basic Laws and is the world's only Jewish-majority state.[7]ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard Following the adoption of a resolution by the United Nations General Assembly on 29 November 1947, recommending the adoption and implementation of the United Nations partition plan of Mandatory Palestine, on 14 May 1948David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization[8] and president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel", Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard a state independent upon the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine, 15 May 1948.[9][10][11] Neighboring Arab states invaded the next day in support of the Palestinian Arabs. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states,[12] in the course of which it has occupied the West Bank, Sinai Peninsula (between 1967 and 1982), Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. Portions of these territories, including East Jerusalem, have been annexed by Israel,  Packard Bell Easynote TK83 Laptop Keyboard but the border with the neighboring West Bank has not yet been permanently defined.[neutrality is disputed][13][14][15][16][17] Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan, but efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have so far not resulted in peace. ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard Israel's financial centre is Tel Aviv,[18] while Jerusalem is the country's most populous city and its capital (although not recognized internationally as such). The population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2012 to be 7,933,200 people, of whom 5,978,600 are Jewish. HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Arabs form the country's second-largest ethnic group with 1,636,600 people (including Druze and Bedouins).[2][3][19] The great majority of Israeli Arabs are settled-Muslims, with smaller but significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins and Arab Christians. Other minorities include various ethnic and ethno-religious denominations such asDruze, Circassians, Black Hebrew Israelites,[20] Samaritans, Maronites and others.  HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage.[21][22] The Prime Minister serves as head of government and the Knesset serves as Israel's unicameral legislative body. Israel has one of the highest life expectancies in the world.[23] It is a developed country, anOECD member,[24] and its economy, based on the nominal gross domestic product, was the 41st-largest in the world in 2011. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East.[25]COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard Upon independence in 1948, the new Jewish state was formally named Medinat Yisrael, or the State of Israel, after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel ("the Land of Israel"), Zion, and Judea, were considered and rejected.[26] In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made byMinister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett.[27]SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard The name Israel has historically been used, in common and religious usage, to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel or the entire Jewish nation.[28] According to theHebrew Bible the name "Israel" was given to the patriarch Jacob (Standard Yisraʾel,Isrāʾīl; Septuagint Greek: Ἰσραήλ Israēl; "struggle with God"[29]) after he successfully wrestled with the angel of the Lord.[30] Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, HP Pavilion DV6-1040ej Laptop Keyboard also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob,[31] led the Israelites back into Canaan the "Exodus". The earliest archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).[32]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. Prior to the Israeli Declaration of Independence of 1948, the whole region was known by various other names including Southern Syria, Syria Palestina, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, Retjenu, Canaan and, particularly, Palestine. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The notion of the "Land of Israel", known in Hebrew as Eretz Yisrael (or Eretz Yisroel), has been important and sacred to the Jewish people since Biblical times. According to the Torah, God promised the land to the three Patriarchs of the Jewish people.[33][34] On the basis of scripture, the period of the three Patriarchs has been placed somewhere in the early 2nd millennium BCE,[35] and the first Kingdom of Israel was established around the 11th century BCE. Subsequent Israelite kingdoms and states ruled intermittently over the next four hundred years, and are known from various extra-biblical sources.[36][37][38][39]FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard The northern Kingdom of Israel, as well as Philistine city states fell in 722 BCE, though the southern Kingdom of Judah and several Phoenician city states continued their existence as the region came under Assyrian rule. With the emergence ofBabylonians, Judah was eventually conquered as well. SONY Vaio VGN-AW290 Laptop Keyboard

Classical period

With successive Persian rule, the region, divided between Syria-Coele province and later the autonomous Yehud Medinata, was gradually developing back into urban society, largely dominated by Judeans. The Greek conquests largely skipped the region without any resistance or interest. SAMSUNG Q330-JS0E Laptop Keyboard Incorporated into Ptolemaic and finally Seleucid Empires, southern Levant was heavily hellenized, building the tensions between Judeans and Greeks. The conflict erupted in 167 BCE with the Maccabean Revolt, which succeeded in establishing an independent Hasmonean Kingdom in Judah, which later expanded over much of modern Israel, as the Seleucids gradually lost control in the region. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The Roman Empire invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking control of Syria, and then intervening in the Hasmonean civil war. The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in Judea eventually led to the installation of Herod the Great and consolidation of the Herodian Kingdom as vassal Judean state of Rome. With the decline of Herodians, Judea, transformed into a Roman province, became the site of a violent struggle of Jews against Greco-Romans, Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard culminating in the Jewish-Roman Wars, ending in wide-scale destruction and genocide. Jewish presence in the region significantly dwindled after the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE.[40] Nevertheless, there was a continuous small Jewish presence and Galilee became its religious center.[41][42]The Mishnah and part of the Talmud, central Jewish texts, were composed during the 2nd to 4th centuries CE in Tiberias and Jerusalem.[43]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard The region came to be populated predominantly by Greco-Romans on the coast and Samaritans in the hill-country. Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman paganism, when the area under Byzantine rule was transformed into Deocese of the East, as Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda provinces. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Through the 5th and 6th centuries, dramatic events of Samaritan Revolts reshaped the land, with massive destruction to Byzantine Christian and Samaritan societies and a resulting decrease of the population. After the Persian conquest and the installation of a short lived Jewish Commonwealth in 614 CE, the Byzantine Empire reinstalled its rule in 625 CE, resulting in further decline and destruction. GATEWAY MT3422 Laptop Keyboard Muslim rule In 635 CE, the region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by the Arabs and was to remain under Muslim control for the next 1300 years.[44] Control of the region transferred between the Umayyads,[44] Abbasids,[44] and Crusaders throughout the next six centuries,[44] before being conquered by the Mamluk Sultanate, in 1260.[45]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In 1516, the region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, and remained under Turkish rule until the end of the First World War when Britain defeated the Ottoman forces and set up a military administration across the former Ottoman Syria. The territory was divided under the mandate system and the area which included modern day Israel named Mandatory Palestine.[45][46][47]TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 Laptop Keyboard Since the Diaspora, some Jews have aspired to return to "Zion" and the "Land of Israel",[48] though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute.[49][50] The hopes and yearnings of Jews living in exile were articulated in the Hebrew Bible,[51] and are an important theme of the Jewish belief system.[49] HP Pavilion dv5-1142la Laptop Keyboard After the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, some communities settled in Palestine.[52]During the 16th century, Jewish communities struck roots in the Four Holy Cities—Jerusalem, Tiberias, Hebron, and Safed—and in 1697, Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid led a group of 1,500 Jews to Jerusalem.[53] In the second half of the 18th century, Eastern European opponents of Hasidism, known as the Perushim, settled in Palestine.[54][55][56]TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard The first wave of modern Jewish migration to Ottoman-ruled Palestine, known as the First Aliyah, began in 1881, as Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe.[57] Although the Zionist movement already existed in practice, Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl is credited with founding political Zionism,[58]  HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard a movement which sought to establish a Jewish state in the Land of Israel, by elevating the Jewish Question to the international plane.[59] In 1896, Herzl published Der Judenstaat (The State of the Jews), offering his vision of a future Jewish state; the following year he presided over the first World Zionist Congress.[60]TOSHIBA P205-S7476 Laptop Keyboard The Second Aliyah (1904–14), began after the Kishinev pogrom; some 40,000 Jews settled in Palestine, although nearly half of them left at a later point in time.[57] Both the first and second waves of migrants were mainly Orthodox Jews,[61] although the Second Aliyah included socialist groups who established the kibbutz movement.[62] During World War I, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour sent a letter that stated:[63]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7132 Laptop Keyboard His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."[64]TOSHIBA NSK-T4701 Laptop Keyboard The Jewish Legion, a group primarily of Zionist volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine in 1917. Arab opposition to British rule and Jewish immigration led to the 1920 Palestine riots and the formation of a Jewish militia known as the Haganah (meaning "The Defense" in Hebrew), from which the Irgun and Lehi, or Stern Gang, paramilitary groups later split off.[65] In 1922, the League of Nations granted Britain a mandate over Palestine under terms similar to the Balfour Declaration.[66] The population of the area at this time was predominantly Arab and Muslim, with Jews accounting for about 11% of the population.[67]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Third (1919–1923) and Fourth Aliyahs (1924–1929) brought an additional 100,000 Jews to Palestine.[57] Finally, the rise of Nazism and the increasing persecution of Jews in the 1930s led to the Fifth Aliyah, with an influx of a quarter of a million Jews. This was a major cause of the Arab revolt of 1936–1939 and led the British to introduce restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine with the White Paper of 1939.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine.[57] By the end of World War II, the Jewish population of Palestine had increased to 33% of the total population.[68]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard After World War II, Britain found itself in fierce conflict with the Jewish community, as the Haganah joined Irgun and Lehiin an armed struggle against British rule.[69] At the same time, hundreds of thousands of Jewish Holocaust survivors and refugees sought a new life far from their destroyed communities in Europe. SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard The Yishuv attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine but many were turned away or rounded up and placed in detention camps by the British. In 1947, the British government announced it would withdraw from Mandatory Palestine, stating it was unable to arrive at a solution acceptable to both Arabs and Jews. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard On 15 May 1947, the General Assembly of the newly formed United Nations resolved that a committee, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP), be created "to prepare for consideration at the next regular session of the Assembly a report on the question of Palestine".[70] In the Report of the Committee dated 3 September 1947 to the UN General Assembly,[71] the majority of the Committee in Chapter VI proposed a plan to replace the British Mandate with "SONY VAIO VGN NR385E/T Laptop Keyboard an independent Arab State, an independent Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem..., the last to be under an International Trusteeship System".[72] On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union as Resolution 181 (II).[73] The Plan attached to the resolution was essentially that proposed by the majority of the Committee in the Report of 3 September 1947. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The Jewish Agency, which was the recognized representative of the Jewish community, accepted the plan, but the Arab League and Arab Higher Committee of Palestine rejected it.[74] On 1 December 1947, the Arab Higher Committee proclaimed a three-day strike, and Arab bands began attacking Jewish targets.[75] The Jews were initially on the defensive as civil war broke out, but gradually moved onto the offensive.[76] The Palestinian Arab economy collapsed and 250,000 Palestinian-Arabs fled or were expelled.[77] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire One 751h-1153 Laptop Keyboard On 14 May 1948, the day before the expiration of the British Mandate, David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel".[78][79] The only reference in the text of the Declaration to the borders of the new state is the use of the term, Eretz-Israel.[80][citation needed]TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard The following day, the armies of four Arab countries—Egypt, Syria, Transjordan and Iraq—entered what had been British Mandate Palestine, launching the 1948 Arab–Israeli War;[81][82] Saudi Arabia sent a military contingent to operate under Egyptian command; Yemen declared war but did not take military action.[83 HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard ] In a cablegram of the same day from the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States to the UN Secretary-General, the Arab states gave a justification for this "intervention". After a year of fighting, aceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Line, were established.[84] Jordan annexed what became known as theWest Bank and East Jerusalem, and Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip. The United Nations estimated that more than 700,000 Palestinians were expelled or fled during the conflict from what would become Israel.[85]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations by majority vote on 11 May 1949.[86] In the early years of the state, the Labor Zionist movement led by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion dominated Israeli politics.[87][88] These years were marked by an influx ofHolocaust survivors and Jews from Arab lands, many of whom faced persecution and expulsion from their original countries.[89]Consequently, the population of Israel rose from 800,000 to two million between 1948 and 1958.[90]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard During this period, food, clothes and furniture had to be rationed in what became known as the Austerity Period. Between 1948–1970, approximately 1,151,029 Jewish refugees relocated to Israel.[91] Some arrived as refugees with no possessions and were housed in temporary camps known as ma'abarot; by 1952, over 200,000 immigrants were living in these tent cities.[92] The need to solve the crisis led Ben-Gurion to sign areparations agreement with West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea that Israel could accept monetary compensation for the Holocaust.[93]Toshiba Satellite A205-S4777 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 1950s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeen, mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip,[94] leading to several Israeli counter-raids. In 1950 Egypt closed the Suez Canal to Israeli shipping and tensions mounted as armed clashes took place along Israel's borders. ACER Aspire 4740G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1956, Israel joined a secret alliance with Great Britain and France aimed at regaining control of the Suez Canal, which the Egyptians had nationalized (see the Suez Crisis). Israel overran the Sinai Peninsula but was pressured to withdraw by the United Nations in return for guarantees of Israeli shipping rights in the Red Sea and the Canal.[95][96] SONY Vaio VGN-NR498E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the early 1960s, Israel captured Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel for trial.[97] The trial had a major impact on public awareness of the Holocaust.[98] Eichmann remains the only person ever to be executed by an Israeli court.[99]HP Pavilion dv6-3010us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Since 1964, Arab countries were trying to divert the headwaters of the Jordan river to deprive Israel of water resources,[100] provoking tensions with Syria and Lebanon. Arab nationalists led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser refused to recognize Israel, and called for its destruction.[12][101][102] By 1966, Israeli-Arab relations had deteriorated to the point of actual battles taking place between Israeli and Arab forces.[103] SONY Vaio VPC-EB2TGX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1967, Egypt expelledUN peacekeepers, stationed in the Sinai Peninsula since 1957, and announced a partial blockade of Israel's access to the Red Sea. In May 1967 a number of Arab states began to mobilize their forces.[104] Israel saw these actions as acasus belli. On 5 June 1967, Israel launched a pre-emptive strike against Egypt, HP Pavilion dv9702ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Jordan, Syria and Iraq. In a Six-Day War, Israeli military superiority was clearly demonstrated against their more numerous Arab foes. Israel succeeded in capturing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights.[105] Jerusalem's boundaries were enlarged, incorporating East Jerusalem, and the 1949 Green Line became the administrative boundary between Israel and the occupied territories. HP Pavilion dv7-4294nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Following the war, Israel faced much internal resistance from the Arab Palestinians and Egyptian hostilities in the Sinai. Most important among the various Palestinian and Arab groups was the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), established in 1964, which initially committed itself to "armed struggle as the only way to liberate the homeland".[106][107] Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Palestinian groups launched a wave of attacks[108][109] against Israeli and Jewish targets around the world,[110] including a massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympicsin Munich. The Israeli government responded with an assassination campaign against the organizers, a bombing and a raid on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon.  HP Pavilion dv7-6153nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On 6 October 1973, as Jews were observing Yom Kippur, the Egyptian and Syrian armies launched a surprise attack against Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights. The war ended on 26 October with Israel successfully repelling Egyptian and Syrian forces but suffering significant losses.[111] An internal inquiry exonerated the government of responsibility for failures before and during the war, but public anger forced Prime Minister Golda Meir to resign.[112]SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard In July 1976 Israeli commandos carried out a rescue mission which succeeded in rescuing 102 hostages who were being held by Palestinian guerillas at Entebbe International Airport close to Kampala, Uganda.  Packard Bell EasyNote TJ71 Laptop Keyboard The 1977 Knesset elections marked a major turning point in Israeli political history as Menachem Begin's Likud party took control from the Labor Party.[113]Later that year, Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat made a trip to Israel and spoke before the Knesset in what was the first recognition of Israel by an Arab head of state.[114] In the two years that followed, Sadat and Begin signed the Camp David Accords (1978) and the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty (1979).[115] Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and agreed to enter negotiations over an autonomy for Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.[116]Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard On 11 March 1978, a PLO guerilla raid from Lebanon led to the Coastal Road Massacre, in which 38 Israeli civilians were killed and 71 injured. Israel responded by launching an invasion of southern Lebanon to destroy the PLO bases south of the Litani River. Most PLO fighters withdrew, but Israel was able to secure southern Lebanon until a UN force and the Lebanese army could take over. However, the PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. In the next few years the PLO infiltrated back south and kept up a sporadic shelling across the border. Israel carried out numerous retaliatory attacks by air and on the ground. TOSHIBA Satellite U300-ST3094 Laptop Keyboard Meanwhile, Begin's government actively encouraged Israelis to settle in the occupied West Bank, leading to increasing friction with the Palestinians in that area.[117] The Basic Law: Jerusalem, the Capital of Israel, passed in 1980, was believed by some to reaffirm Israel's 1967 annexation of Jerusalem by government decree and reignited international controversy over the status of the city.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard However, there has never been an Israeli government act which defined what it considers to be the extent of the territory of Israel and no act which specifically included East Jerusalem therein.[118] The position of the majority of UN member states is reflected in numerous resolutions declaring that actions taken by Israel to settle its citizens in the West Bank, and impose its laws and administration on East Jerusalem are illegal and have no validity.[119]FUJITSU Lifebook T4215 Laptop Keyboard On 7 June 1981, the Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole nuclear power plant, which was under construction just outside Baghdad. Following a series of PLO attacks in 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon once again to destroy the bases from which the PLO launched attacks and missiles into northern Israel.[120]HP Pavilion dv3-2312tx Laptop Keyboard In the first six days of fighting, the Israelis destroyed the military forces of the PLO in Lebanon and decisively defeated the Syrians. An Israeli government inquiry – the Kahan Commission – would later hold Begin, Sharon and several Israeli generals as indirectly responsible for the Sabra and Shatila massacres. LENOVO 25-008389 Laptop Keyboard DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard In 1985 Israel responded to a Palestinian terrorist attack in Cyprus by bombing the PLO headquarters in Tunis. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon in 1986, but maintained a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon until 2000. The First Intifada, a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule,[121] broke out in 1987 with waves of uncoordinated demonstrations and violence occurring in the occupied West Bank and Gaza. Over the following six years,  HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard the Intifada became more organised and included economic and cultural measures aimed at disrupting the Israeli occupation. More than a thousand people were killed in the violence, many of them stone-throwing youths.[122] Responding to continuing PLO guerilla raids into northern Israel, Israel launched another punitive raid into southern Lebanon in 1988.  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Amid rising tensions over the Kuwait crisis, Israeli border guards fired into a rioting Palestinian crowd near the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem. 20 people were killed and some 150 injured. During the 1991 Gulf War, the PLO supported Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Scud missile attacks against Israel. Despite public outrage, Israel heeded US calls to refrain from hitting back and did not participate in that war.[123][124] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Laptop Keyboard Israel is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, and Egypt to the southwest. It lies between latitudes 29° and 34° N, and longitudes 34° and 36° E. The sovereign territory of Israel, excluding all territories captured by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War, is approximately 20,770 square kilometers (8,019 sq mi) in area, of which two percent is water.[1] DELL 0PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard However Israel is so narrow that the exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean is double the land area of the country.[156] The total area under Israeli law, when including East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, is 22,072 square kilometers (8,522 sq mi),[157] and the total area under Israeli control, including the military-controlled and partially Palestinian-governed territory of the West Bank,  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard is 27,799 square kilometers (10,733 sq mi).[158] Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the inland fertile Jezreel Valley, mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel and toward the Golan in the north. TheIsraeli Coastal Plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to seventy percent of the nation's population. East of the central highlands lies the Jordan Rift Valley, which forms a small part of the 6,500-kilometer (4,039 mi) Great Rift Valley. TOSHIBA Qosmio F45-AV411 Laptop Keyboard In 1992, Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister following an election in which his party called for compromise with Israel's neighbors.[125][126] The following year, Shimon Peres on behalf of Israel, and Mahmoud Abbas for the PLO, signed the Oslo Accords, which gave the Palestinian National Authority the right to govern parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.[127] Toshiba Satellite L500-1DT Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The PLO also recognized Israel's right to exist and pledged an end to terrorism.[128] In 1994, the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peacewas signed, making Jordan the second Arab country to normalize relations with Israel.[129] Arab public support for the Accords was damaged by the continuation of Israeli settlements[130] ACER Aspire 4738Z Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and checkpoints, and the deterioration of economic conditions.[131] Israeli public support for the Accords waned as Israel was struck by Palestinian suicide attacks.[132]Finally, while leaving a peace rally in November 1995, Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by a far-right-wing Jew who opposed the Accords.[133] HP Pavilion dv6-4024tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At the end of the 1990s, Israel, under the leadership of Benjamin Netanyahu, withdrew from Hebron,[134] and signed the Wye River Memorandum, giving greater control to the Palestinian National Authority.[135] Ehud Barak, elected Prime Minister in 1999, began the new millennium by withdrawing forces from Southern Lebanon and conducting negotiations with Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat and U.S. President Bill Clinton at the 2000 Camp David Summit. HP Pavilion dv7-1110eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the summit, Barak offered a plan for the establishment of a Palestinian state, but Yasser Arafat rejected it.[136] After the collapse of the talks and a controversial visit byLikud leader Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount, the Second Intifada began. Sharon became prime minister in a 2001 special election. During his tenure, Sharon carried out his plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and also spearheaded the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier,[137] defeating the Intifada.[138][139][140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148][149]ASUS G50 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In July 2006, a Hezbollah artillery assault on Israel's northern border communities and a cross-border abduction of two Israeli soldiers precipitated the month-long Second Lebanon War.[150][151] On 6 September 2007, Israeli Air Force destroyed a nuclear reactor in Syria. In May 2008, Israel confirmed it had been discussing a peace treaty with Syria for a year, with Turkey as a go-between.[152] HP MCF-811AM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan However, at the end of the year, Israel entered another conflict as a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel collapsed. The Gaza War lasted three weeks and ended after Israel announced a unilateral ceasefire.[153][154] Hamas announced its own ceasefire, with its own conditions of complete withdrawal and opening of border crossings. Despite neither the rocket launchings nor Israeli retaliatory strikes having completely stopped, the fragile ceasefire remained in order.[155]Toshiba MCF-TS5512M05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Jordan River runs along the Jordan Rift Valley, from Mount Hermon through the Hulah Valley and the Sea of Galilee to theDead Sea, the lowest point on the surface of the Earth.[159] Further south is the Arabah, ending with the Gulf of Eilat, part of the Red Sea. Unique to Israel and the Sinai Peninsula are makhteshim, or erosion cirques.[160] HP Pavilion dv6-2163tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The largest makhtesh in the world is Ramon Crater in the Negev,[161] which measures 40 by 8 kilometers (25 by 5 mi).[162] A report on the environmental status of the Mediterranean basin states that Israel has the largest number of plant species per square meter of all the countries in the basin.[163]HP Pavilion G72 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Temperatures in Israel vary widely, especially during the winter. The more mountainous regions can be windy, cold, and sometimes snowy; Jerusalem usually receives at least one snowfall each year.[164] Meanwhile, coastal cities, such as Tel Aviv and Haifa, have a typical Mediterranean climate with cool, rainy winters and long, Compaq Presario CQ40-105au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan hot summers. The area ofBeersheba and the Northern Negev has a semi-arid climate with hot summers, cool winters and fewer rainy days than the Mediterranean climate. The Southern Negev and the Arava areas have desert climate with very hot and dry summers, and mild winters with few days of rain. SONY Vaio VGN-NW91VS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan [165] From May to September, rain in Israel is rare.[166][167] With scarce water resources, Israel has developed various water-saving technologies, including drip irrigation.[168] Israelis also take advantage of the considerable sunlight available for solar energy, making Israel the leading nation in solar energy use per capita (practically every house uses solar panels for water heating).[169]Toshiba Satellite A215-S7416 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Four different phytogeographic regions exist in Israel, due to the country's location between the temperate and the tropical zones, bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the desert in the east. For this reason the flora and fauna of Israel is extremely diverse. There are 2,867 known species of plants found in Israel. Of these, at least 253 species are introduced and non-native.[170] There are 380 Israeli nature reserves.[171] SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard


Israel operates under a parliamentary system as a democratic republic with universal suffrage.[1] A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority becomes the prime minister—SONY VAIO VGN NR220ES Laptop Keyboard usually this is the chair of the largest party. The prime minister is the head of government and head of the cabinet.[172][173] Israel is governed by a 120-member parliament, known as the Knesset. Membership of the Knesset is based on proportional representation of political parties,[174] with a 2% electoral threshold, which in practice has resulted in coalition governments. Packard Bell EasyNote TJ71 Laptop Keyboard Parliam

entary elections are scheduled every four years, but unstable coalitions or a no-confidence vote by the Knesset can dissolve a government earlier. The Basic Laws of Israel function as an uncodified constitution. In 2003, the Knesset began to draft an official constitution based on these laws.[1][175] The president of Israel is head of state, with limited and largely ceremonial duties.[172]DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard Israel has a three-tier court system. At the lowest level are magistrate courts, situated in most cities across the country. Above them are district courts, serving both as appellate courts and courts of first instance; they are situated in five of Israel's six districts. The third and highest tier is the Supreme Court, located in Jerusalem; SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard it serves a dual role as the highest court of appeals and the High Court of Justice. In the latter role, the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance, allowing individuals, both citizens and non-citizens, to petition against the decisions of state authorities.[176][177] Although Israel supports the goals of the International Criminal Court, it has not ratified the Rome Statute, citing concerns about the ability of the court to remain free from political impartiality.[178]DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard Israel's legal system combines three legal traditions: English common law, civil law, and Jewish law.[1] It is based on the principle of stare decisis (precedent) and is an adversarial system, where the parties in the suit bring evidence before the court. Court cases are decided by professional judges rather than juries.[176] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard Marriage and divorce are under the jurisdiction of the religious courts: Jewish, Muslim, Druze, and Christian. A committee of Knesset members, Supreme Court justices, and Israeli Bar members carries out the election of judges.[179] Administration of Israel's courts (both the "General" courts and the Labor Courts) is carried by the Administration of Courts, situated in Jerusalem. Both General and Labor courts are paperless courts: the storage of court files, as well as court decisions, are conducted electronically. SAMSUNG X15 Laptop Keyboard Israel's Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty seeks to defend human rights and liberties in Israel. Israel is the only country in the region ranked "Free" byFreedom House based on the level of civil liberties and political rights; the "Palestinian Authority-Administered Territories" was ranked "Not Free."[7][180] In 2012, Israel proper was ranked 92nd according to Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index – the highest ranking in the region.[181]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard For statistical purposes, the country is divided into three metropolitan areas: Tel Aviv metropolitan area (population 3,206,400),Haifa metropolitan area (population 1,021,000), and Beer Sheva metropolitan area (population 559,700).[185] Israel's largest municipality, both in population and area,[186] is Jerusalem with 773,800 residents in an area of 126 square kilometers (49 sq mi) (in 2009). SONY VAIO VGN-CS110D/Q Laptop Keyboard Israeli government statistics on Jerusalem include the population and area of East Jerusalem, which is widely recognized as part of the Palestinian territories under Israeli occupation.[187] Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Rishon LeZion rank as Israel's next most populous cities, with populations of 393,900, 265,600, and 227,600 respectively.[186]DELL Latitude D820 Laptop Keyboard In 1967, as a result of the Six-Day War, Israel gained control of the West Bank (Judaea and Samaria), East Jerusalem, the Gaza stripand the Golan Heights. Israel also took control of the Sinai Peninsula, but returned it to Egypt as part of the 1979 Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty. SONY VAIO VGN NR160E Laptop Keyboard Following Israel's capture of these territories, settlements consisting of Israeli citizens were established within each of them. Israel applied civilian law to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, incorporating them into its sovereign territory and granting their inhabitants permanent residency status and the choice to apply for citizenship. In contrast, the West Bank has remained undermilitary occupation, and Palestinians in this area cannot become citizens. HP Pavilion dv6-2023eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Gaza Strip is independent of Israel with no Israeli military or civilian presence, but Israel continues to maintain control of its airspace and waters. The Gaza Strip and the West Bank are seen by the Palestinians and most of the international community as the site of a future Palestinian state.[188][189]  HP Pavilion dv7-4011so Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The UN Security Council has declared the annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem to be "null and void" and continues to view the territories as occupied.[190][191] The International Court of Justice, principal judicial organ of the United Nations, asserted, in its 2004 advisory opinion on the legality of the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier, that the lands captured by Israel in the Six-Day War, including East Jerusalem, are occupied territory.[192]HP Pavilion dv9920us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The status of East Jerusalem in any future peace settlement has at times been a difficult hurdle in negotiations between Israeli governments and representatives of the Palestinians, as Israel views it as its sovereign territory, as well as part of its capital. Most negotiations relating to the territories have been on the basis of United Nations Security Council Resolution 242,  TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which emphasises "the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war", and calls on Israel to withdraw from occupied territories in return for normalization of relations with Arab states, a principle known as "Land for peace".[193][194][195]HP Pavilion dv7-3164cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The West Bank was annexed by Jordan in 1948, following the Arab rejection of the UN decision to create two states in Palestine. Only Britain recognized this annexation and Jordan has since ceded its claim to the territory to the PLO. HP Pavilion dv7-6099ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The West Bank was occupied by Israel in 1967 during the Six-Day War. The population are mainly Arab Palestinians, including refugees of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[196] HP Pavilion dv7-6160sp Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From their occupation in 1967 until 1993, the Palestinians living in these territories were under Israeli military administration. Since the Israel–PLO letters of recognition, most of the Palestinian population and cities have been under the internal jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, and only partial Israeli military control, SONY Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan although Israel has on several occasions redeployed its troops and reinstated full military administration during periods of unrest. In response to increasing attacks as part of the Second Intifada, the Israeli government started to construct the Israeli West Bank barrier.[197] When completed, approximately 13% of the Barrier will be constructed on the Green Line or in Israel with 87% inside the West Bank.[198][199]ACER Aspire 4750 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt from 1948 to 1967 and then by Israel after 1967. In 2005, as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, Israel removed all of its settlers and forces from the territory. Israel does not consider the Gaza Strip to be occupied territory and declared it a "foreign territory". That view has been disputed by numerous international humanitarian organizations and various bodies of the United Nations.[200][201][202][203][204]HP G42-303DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Following June 2007, when Hamas assumed power in the Gaza Strip,[205] Israel tightened its control of the Gaza crossings along its border, as well as by sea and air, and prevented persons from entering and exiting the area except for isolated cases it deemed humanitarian.[205] Gaza has a border with Egypt and an agreement between Israel,  IBM 91P9252 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the European Union and the PA governed how border crossing would take place (it was monitored by European observers).[206] Egypt adhered to this agreement under Mubarak and prevented access to Gaza until April 2011 when it announced it was opening its border with Gaza. Toshiba Satellite A205-S4587 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Israel maintains diplomatic relations with 157 countries and has 100 diplomatic missions around the world.[207] Only three members of the Arab League have normalized relations with Israel: Egypt and Jordan signed peace treaties in 1979 and 1994, respectively, and Mauritania opted for full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1999. HP Pavilion dv5184ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Despite the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, Israel is still widely considered an enemy country among Egyptians.[208] Under Israeli law, Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Yemen are enemy countries[209] and Israeli citizens may not visit them without permission from the Ministry of the Interior.[210]SONY UDQFRZH14CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Soviet Union and the United States were the first two countries to recognize the State of Israel, having declared recognition roughly simultaneously. The United States may regard Israel as its primary ally in the Middle East, based on "common democratic values, religious affinities, and security interests".[211] Toshiba Satellite L305-S5917 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The United States has provided $68 billion in military assistance and $32 billion in grants to Israel since 1967, under the Foreign Assistance Act (period beginning 1962),[212] more than any other country for that period until 2003.[212][213][214] Their bilateral relations are multidimensional and the United States is the principal proponent of the Arab-Israeli peace process. The United States and Israeli views differ on some issues, such as the Golan Heights, Jerusalem, and settlements.[215] Compaq Presario C770BR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan India established full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992 and has fostered a strong military, technological and cultural partnership with the country since then.[216] According to an international opinion survey conducted in 2009 on behalf of the Israeli Foreign Ministry, India is the most pro-Israel country in the world.[217][218] HP G71-448CL Laptop Keyboard India is the largest customer of Israeli military equipment and Israel is the second-largest military partner of India after the Russian Federation.[219] India is also the third-largest Asian economic partner of Israel[220] and the two countries enjoy extensive space technology ties.[221][222] India became the top source market for Israel from Asia in 2010 with 41,000 tourist arrivals in that year.[223]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Germany's strong ties with Israel include cooperation on scientific and educational endeavors and the two states remain strong economic and military partners.[224][225] Under the reparations agreement, as of 2007 Germany had paid 25 billion euros in reparations to the Israeli state and individual Israeli holocaust survivors.[226] The UK has kept full diplomatic relations with Israel since its formation having had two visits from heads of state in 2007. SONY Vaio PCG-K25 Laptop Keyboard Relations between the two countries were also made stronger by former prime minister Tony Blair's efforts for a two state resolution. The UK is seen as having a "natural" relationship with Israel on account of the British Mandate for Palestine.[227] Iran had diplomatic relations with Israel under the Pahlavi dynasty[228] but withdrew its recognition of Israel during the Islamic Revolution.[229]SONY 148096222 Laptop Keyboard Although Turkey and Israel did not establish full diplomatic relations until 1991,[230] Turkey has cooperated with the State since its recognition of Israel in 1949. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Turkey's ties to the other Muslim-majority nations in the region have at times resulted in pressure from Arab and Muslim states to temper its relationship with Israel.[231] Relations between Turkey and Israel took a downturn after the Gaza War and Israel's raid of the Gaza flotilla.[232] IHH, which organized the flotilla, is a Turkish charity that some believe has ties to Hamas and Al-Qaeda.[233][234][235][236][237]ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard Relation between Israel and Greece have improved since 1995 due to the decline of Israeli-Turkish relations.[238] The two countries have a defence cooperation agreement and in 2010, the Israeli Air Force hosted Greece’s Hellenic Air Force in a joint exercise at the Uvda base. The joint Cyprus-Israel oil and gas explorations centered on the Leviathan gas field are also an important factor for Greece, given its strong links with Cyprus.[239]ACER Aspire 3660 Laptop Keyboard Israel is the second largest importer of Greek products in the Middle East.[240] In 2010, the Greek Prime minister George Papandreou made an official visit to Israel after many years, in order to improve bilateral relations between the two countries.[241] Israel and Cyprus have a number of bilateral agreements and many official visits have taken place between the two countries. The countries have ties on energy, agricultural, military and tourism matters. The prospects of joint exploitation of oil and gas fields off Cyprus, as well as cooperation in the world's longest sub-sea electric power cable has strengthened relations between the countries.[242][243][244]SONY Vaio PCG-K25 Laptop Keyboard Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel. The relationship includes cooperation in trade and security matters and cultural and educational exchanges. Azerbaijan supplies Israel with a substantial amount of its oil needs, and Israel has helped modernize the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan. In the spring of 2012, the two countries reportedly concluded an arms deal worth $1.6 billion.[245][246] In 2005, Azerbaijan was Israel's fifth largest trading partner.[247][248]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Israel has the highest ratio of defense spending to GDP and as a percentage of the budget of all developed countries.[251][252] TheIsrael Defense Forces is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and is headed by its Chief of General Staff, theRamatkal, subordinate to the Cabinet. The IDF consist of the army, air force and navy. It was founded during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War by consolidating paramilitary organizations—chiefly the Haganah—that preceded the establishment of the state.[253] SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The IDF also draws upon the resources of the Military Intelligence Directorate (Aman), which works with the Mossad and Shabak.[254] The Israel Defense Forces have been involved in several major wars and border conflicts in its short history, making it one of the most battle-trained armed forces in the world.[255][256]HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Most Israelis are drafted into the military at the age of 18. Men serve three years and women two to three years.[257] Following mandatory service, Israeli men join the reserve forces and usually do up to several weeks of reserve duty every year until their forties. Most women are exempt from reserve duty. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Arab citizens of Israel (except the Druze) and those engaged in full-time religious studies are exempt from military service, although the exemption of yeshiva students has been a source of contention in Israeli society for many years.[258][259] An alternative for those who receive exemptions on various grounds is Sherut Leumi, or national service, which involves a program of service in hospitals, schools and other social welfare frameworks.[260] As a result of its conscription program, the IDF maintains approximately 176,500 active troops and an additional 445,000 reservists.[261] ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured in Israel as well as some foreign imports. Since 1967, the United States has been a particularly notable foreign contributor of military aid to Israel: the US is expected to provide the country with $3.15 billion per year from 2013–2018.[262][263] The Arrow missile is one of the world's few operational anti-ballistic missile systems.[264]HP Mini 110-3104sa Laptop Keyboard Since the Yom Kippur War, Israel has developed a network of reconnaissance satellites.[265] The success of the Ofeq program has made Israel one of seven countries capable of launching such satellites.[266] Since its establishment, Israel has spent a significant portion of its gross domestic product on defense. In 1984, for example, the country spent 24%[267] of its GDP on defense. By 2006, that figure had dropped to 7.3%.[1]Toshiba Satellite A215-S5817 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons[268] as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction.[269]Israel has not signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons[270] and maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity toward its nuclear capabilities.[271] Since the Gulf War in 1991, when Israel was attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles, all homes in Israel are required to have a reinforced security room impermeable to chemical and biological substances.[272]Compaq Presario CQ61-330EC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The IDF has also been deployed on humanitarian missions, usually involving rescue workers and medical personnel, along with relief workers and body identifiers from ZAKA and the Israel Police. After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, a rescue team was dispatched to Haiti, which consisted of 40 doctors, 20 nurses and rescue workers, and two rescue planes loaded with medical equipment and a field hospital with X-ray equipment, SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard intensive care units, and operating rooms. Other recent recipients of aid include Japan (a medical team after the 2011 tsunami), Congo 2008, Sri Lanka 2005 (tsunami), India and El Salvador 2001 (earthquakes), Ethiopia 2000, Turkey 1998 (earthquake), Kosovo 1999 (refugees) and Rwanda 1994 (refugees).[273]SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard Israel is considered one of the most advanced countries in Southwest Asia in economic and industrial development. In 2010, it joined the OECD.[24][275] The country is ranked 3rd in the region on the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index[276] as well as in the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report.[277] It has the second-largest number ofstartup companies in the world (after the United States)[278] and the largest number ofNASDAQ-listed companies outside North America.[279]SONY VAIO VGN-FS215B Laptop Keyboard In 2010, Israel ranked 17th among of the world's most economically developed nations, according to IMD's World Competitiveness Yearbook. The Israeli economy was ranked first as the world's most durable economy in the face of crises, and was also ranked first in the rate of research and development center investments.[280]SONY VAIO VGN-NW235D Laptop Keyboard The Bank of Israel was ranked first among central banks for its efficient functioning, up from the 8th place in 2009. Israel was also ranked as the worldwide leader in its supply of skilled manpower.[280] The Bank of Israel holds $78 billion of foreign-exchange reserves.[281]HP G56-115SA Laptop Keyboard Despite limited natural resources, intensive development of the agricultural and industrial sectors over the past decades has made Israel largely self-sufficient in food production, apart from grains and beef. ACER KB.T5007.007 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FS115M Laptop Keyboard Other major imports to Israel, totaling $47.8 billion in 2006, include fossil fuels, raw materials, and military equipment.[1] Leading exports include electronics, software, computerized systems, communications technology, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, fruits, chemicals, military technology, and cut diamonds;[282] in 2006, Israeli exports reached $42.86 billion,[1] and by 2010 they had reached $80.5 billion a year.[282]Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard Israel is a leading country in the development of solar energy.[283][284] Israel is a global leader in water conservation andgeothermal energy,[285] and its development of cutting-edge technologies in software, communications and the life sciences have evoked comparisons with Silicon Valley.[286][287] According to the OECD, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard

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