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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline. He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy and was one of the five Fireside Poets. SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan


Longfellow was born in Portland, Maine, which was then a part of Massachusetts. He studied at Bowdoin College. After spending time in Europe he became a professor at Bowdoin and, later, at Harvard College. His first major poetry collections were Voices of the Night (1839) and Ballads and Other Poems (1841). SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

Longfellow retired from teaching in 1854 to focus on his writing, living the remainder of his life in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in a former headquarters ofGeorge Washington. His first wife Mary Potter died in 1835 after a miscarriage. His second wife Frances Appleton died in 1861 after sustaining burns when her dress caught fire. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

After her death, Longfellow had difficulty writing poetry for a time and focused on his translation. He died in 1882.

Longfellow wrote predominantly lyric poems, known for their musicality and often presenting stories of mythology and legend. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

He became the most popular American poet of his day and also had success overseas. He has been criticized, however, for imitating European styles and writing specifically for the masses.

Longfellow was born on February 27, 1807, to Stephen Longfellow and Zilpah (Wadsworth) Longfellow in Portland, Maine,[1]then a district of Massachusetts,[2] and he grew up in what is now known as the Wadsworth-Longfellow House. FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

His father was a lawyer, and his maternal grandfather, Peleg Wadsworth, was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a Member of Congress.[3] He was named after his mother's brother Henry Wadsworth, a Navy lieutenant who had died three years earlier at the Battle of Tripoli.[4] Young Longfellow was the second of eight children;[5] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

his siblings were Stephen (1805), Elizabeth (1808), Anne (1810), Alexander (1814), Mary (1816), Ellen (1818), and Samuel (1819).

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was enrolled in a dame school at the age of three and by age six was enrolled at the private Portland Academy. In his years there, he earned a reputation as being very studious and became fluent in Latin.[6] HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

His mother encouraged his enthusiasm for reading and learning, introducing him to Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote.[7] He printed his first poem — a patriotic and historical four-stanza poem called "The Battle of Lovell's Pond" — in the Portland Gazette on November 17, 1820.[8] He stayed at the Portland Academy until the age of fourteen.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

He spent much of his summers as a child at his grandfather Peleg's farm in the western Maine town of Hiram.

In the fall of 1822, the 15-year-old Longfellow enrolled at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, alongside his brother Stephen.[6] His grandfather was a founder of the college[9] and his father was a trustee.DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

There, Longfellow met Nathaniel Hawthorne, who would later become his lifelong friend.[10] He boarded with a clergyman for a time before rooming on the third floor of what is now Maine Hall in 1823.[11] He joined the Peucinian Society, a group of students withFederalist leanings.[12] In his senior year, Longfellow wrote to his father about his aspirations:  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard


I will not disguise it in the least... the fact is, I most eagerly aspire after future eminence in literature, my whole soul burns most ardently after it, and every earthly thought centres in it... I am almost confident in believing, that if I can ever rise in the world it must be by the exercise of my talents in the wide field of literature.[13]  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard


He pursued his literary goals by submitting poetry and prose to various newspapers and magazines, partly due to encouragement from a professor named Thomas CogswellUpham.[14] Between January 1824 and his graduation in 1825, he had published nearly 40 minor poems.[15] About 24 of them appeared in the short-lived Boston periodical The United States Literary Gazette.[12SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

] When Longfellow graduated from Bowdoin, he was ranked fourth in the class, and had been elected to Phi Beta Kappa.[16] He gave the student commencement address.[14]

After graduating in 1825, he was offered a job as professor of modern languages at his alma mater. The story, possibly apocryphal, is that an influential trustee, HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

Benjamin Orr, had been so impressed by Longfellow's translation of Horace that he was hired under the condition that he travel to Europe to study French, Spanish, and Italian.[17] Whatever the motivation, he began his tour of Europe in May 1826 aboard the ship Cadmus.[18] His time abroad would last three years and cost his father $2,604.24.[19] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

He traveled to France, Spain, Italy, Germany, back to France, then England before returning to the United States in mid-August 1829.[20] While overseas, he learned French, Spanish, Portuguese, and German, mostly without formal instruction.[21] In Madrid, he spent time withWashington Irving and was particularly impressed by the author's work ethic.[22] HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

Irving encouraged the young Longfellow to pursue writing.[23] While in Spain, Longfellow was saddened to learn that his favorite sister, Elizabeth, had died of tuberculosis at the age of 20 that May while he was abroad.

On August 27, 1829, he wrote to the president of Bowdoin that he was turning down the professorship because he considered the $600 salary "disproportionate to the duties required".  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The trustees raised his salary to $800 with an additional $100 to serve as the college's librarian, a post which required one hour of work per day.[25] During his years teaching at the college, he translated textbooks in French, Italian, and Spanish;[26] his first published book was in 1833, a translation of the poetry of medieval Spanish poet Jorge Manrique.[27]  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

He also published a travel book, Outre-Mer: A Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea, first published in serial form before a book edition was released in 1835.[26] Shortly after the book's publication, Longfellow attempted to join the literary circle in New York and asked George Pope Morris for an editorial role at one of Morris's publications. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

Longfellow considered moving to New York after New York Universityconsidered offering him a newly created professorship of modern languages, though there would be no salary. The professorship was not created and Longfellow agreed to continue teaching at Bowdoin.[28] It may have been joyless work. He wrote, "I hate the sight of pen, ink, and paper... TOSHIBA Mini NB 300 Series Laptop Keyboard

I do not believe that I was born for such a lot. I have aimed higher than this".[29]

On September 14, 1831, Longfellow married Mary Storer Potter, a childhood friend from Portland.[30] The couple settled in Brunswick, though the two were not happy there.[31] Longfellow published several nonfiction and fiction prose pieces inspired by Irving, including "The Indian Summer" and "The Bald Eagle" in 1833.[32TOSHIBA K000098730 Laptop Keyboard


In December 1834, Longfellow received a letter from Josiah Quincy III, president of Harvard College, offering him the Smith Professorship of Modern Languages with the stipulation that he spend a year or so abroad.[33] There, he further studied German as well as Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, and Icelandic.[34] GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

In October 1835, during the trip, his wife Mary had a miscarriage about six months into her pregnancy.[35] She did not recover and died after several weeks of illness at the age of 22 on November 29, 1835. Longfellow had her body embalmed immediately and placed into a lead coffin inside an oak coffin which was then shipped to Mount Auburn Cemetery near Boston.[36] Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

He was deeply saddened by her death, writing "One thought occupies me night and day... She is dead — She is dead! All day I am weary and sad".[37] Three years later, he was inspired to write the poem "Footsteps of Angels" about her. Several years later, he wrote the poem "Mezzo Cammin" expressed his personal struggles in his middle years.[38] SONY VAIO VGN-SZ750N/C Laptop Keyboard


When he returned to the United States in 1836, Longfellow took up the professorship at Harvard. He was required to live in Cambridge to be close to the campus and rented rooms at the Craigie House in the spring of 1837,[39] now preserved as theLongfellow House–Washington's Headquarters National Historic Site. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The home, built in 1759, had once been the headquarters of George Washington during the Siege of Boston beginning in July 1775.[40] Previous boarders also included Jared Sparks,Edward Everett, and Joseph Emerson Worcester.[41] Longfellow began publishing his poetry, including the collection Voices of the Night in 1839.[42] SAMSUNG R522 laptop keyboard

The bulk of Voices of the Night, Longfellow's debut book of poetry, was translations though he also included nine original poems and seven poems he had written as a teenager.[43] Ballads and Other Poems was published shortly thereafter in 1841[44] and included "The Village Blacksmith" and "The Wreck of the Hesperus", which were instantly popular.[45]  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

Longfellow also became part of the local social scene, creating a group of friends who called themselves the Five of Clubs. Members included Cornelius Conway Felton, George StillmanHillard, and Charles Sumner, the latter of whom would become Longfellow's closest friend over the next 30 years.[46] HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

As a professor, Longfellow was well liked, though he disliked being "constantly a playmate for boys" rather than "stretching out and grappling with men's minds."[47]

Longfellow met Boston industrialist Nathan Appleton and his family, including his son Thomas Gold Appleton, in the town ofThun, Switzerland. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

There, he began courting Appleton's daughter, Frances "Fanny" Appleton. At first, the independent-minded Appleton was not interested in marriage but Longfellow was determined.[48] In July 1839, he wrote to a friend: "[V]ictory hangs doubtful. The lady says she will not! I say she shall! It is not pride, but the madness of passion".[49] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

His friend George StillmanHillard encouraged Longfellow in the pursuit: "I delight to see you keeping up so stout a heart for the resolve to conquer is half the battle in love as well as war".[50] During the courtship, Longfellow frequently walked from Cambridge to the Appleton home in Beacon Hill in Boston by crossing the Boston Bridge. That bridge was replaced in 1906 by a new bridge which was later renamed the Longfellow Bridge. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard


In late 1839, Longfellow published Hyperion, a book in prose inspired by his trips abroad[49] and his unsuccessful courtship of Fanny Appleton.[51] Amidst this, Longfellow fell into "periods of neurotic depression with moments of panic" and took a six-month leave of absence from Harvard to attend a health spa in the former Marienberg Benedictine Convent at Boppard in Germany.[51] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

After returning, Longfellow published a play in 1842, The Spanish Student, reflecting his memories from his time in Spain in the 1820s.[52] There was some confusion over its original manuscript. After being printed in Graham's Magazine, its editor Rufus Wilmot Griswold saved the manuscript from the trash. Longfellow was surprised to hear that it had been saved,  SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

unusual for a printing office, and asked to borrow it so that he could revise it, forgetting to return it to Griswold. The often vindictive Griswold wrote an angry letter in response.[53]

A small collection, Poems on Slavery, was published in 1842 as Longfellow's first public support of abolitionism. However, as Longfellow himself wrote, the poems were "so mild that even a Slaveholder might read them without losing his appetite for breakfast".[5ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

4] A critic for The Dial agreed, calling it "the thinnest of all Mr. Longfellow's thin books; spirited and polished like its forerunners; but the topic would warrant a deeper tone".[55] The New England Anti-Slavery Association, however, was satisfied with the collection enough to reprint it for further distribution.[56]  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

On May 10, 1843, after seven years, Longfellow received a letter from Fanny Appleton agreeing to marry him and, too restless to take a carriage, walked 90 minutes to meet her at her house.[57] They were soon married. Nathan Appleton bought the Craigie House as a wedding present to the pair. Longfellow lived there for the rest of his life.[58 Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

] His love for Fanny is evident in the following lines from Longfellow's only love poem, the sonnet "The Evening Star",[59] which he wrote in October 1845: "O my beloved, my sweetHesperus! My morning and my evening star of love!" He once attended a ball without her and noted, "The lights seemed dimmer, the music sadder, the flowers fewer, and the women less fair."[60] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard


He and Fanny had six children: Charles Appleton (1844–1893), Ernest Wadsworth (1845–1921), Fanny (1847–1848), Alice Mary (1850–1928), Edith (1853–1915), and Anne Allegra (1855–1934). Their second-youngest daughter, Edith, married Richard Henry Dana III, son of the popular writer Richard Henry Dana, Jr., author of Two Years Before the Mast.[61] Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

When the younger Fanny was born on April 7, 1847, Dr. Nathan Cooley Keep administered ether as the first obstetric anesthetic in the United States to Fanny Longfellow.[62] A few months later, on November 1, 1847, the poem Evangeline was published for the first time.[62] His literary income was increasing considerably: HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

in 1840, he had made $219 from his work but the year 1850 brought him $1,900.[63]

On June 14, 1853, Longfellow held a farewell dinner party at his Cambridge home for his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne, who was preparing to move overseas.[64] In 1854, Longfellow retired from Harvard,[65] devoting himself entirely to writing. He was awarded an honorary doctorate of laws from Harvard in 1859.[66] HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard


On July 9, 1861,[67] a hot day, Fanny was putting locks of her children's hair into an envelope and attempting to seal it with hot sealing wax while Longfellow took a nap.[68] Her dress suddenly caught fire, though it is unclear exactly how;[69] it may have been burning wax or a lighted candle that fell on her dress.[70] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series laptop keyboard

Longfellow, awakened from his nap, rushed to help her and threw a rug over her, though it was too small. He stifled the flames with his body as best he could, but she was already badly burned.[69] Over a half a century later, Longfellow's youngest daughter Annie explained the story differently, SONY VAIO VGN-CS17G/R laptop keyboard

claiming that there had been no candle or wax but that the fire had started from a self-lighting match that had fallen on the floor.[61] In both versions of the story, however, Fanny was taken to her room to recover and a doctor was called. She was in and out of consciousness throughout the night and was administered ether. The next morning, July 10, 1861, she died shortly after 10 o'clock after requesting a cup of coffee.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

71] Longfellow, in trying to save her, had burned himself badly enough for him to be unable to attend her funeral.[72] His facial injuries led him to stop shaving, thereafter wearing the beard which became his trademark.[71]

Devastated by her death, he never fully recovered and occasionally resorted to laudanum and ether to deal with it.[73SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

] He worried he would go insane and begged "not to be sent to an asylum" and noted that he was "inwardly bleeding to death".[74] He expressed his grief in the sonnet "The Cross of Snow" (1879), which he wrote eighteen years later to commemorate her death:[38]

Longfellow spent several years translating Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

To aid him in perfecting the translation and reviewing proofs, he invited friends to weekly meetings every Wednesday starting in 1864.[76] The "Dante Club", as it was called, regularly included William Dean Howells, James Russell Lowell, Charles Eliot Norton and other occasional guests.[77] HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

The full three-volume translation was published in the spring of 1867, though Longfellow would continue to revise it,[78] and went through four printings in its first year.[79] By 1868, Longfellow's annual income was over $48,000.[80] In 1874, Samuel Cutler Ward helped him sell the poem "The Hanging of the Crane" to the New York Ledger for $3,000; it was the highest price ever paid for a poem.Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard


During the 1860s, Longfellow supported abolitionism and especially hoped for reconciliation between the northern and southern states after the American Civil War. He wrote in his journal in 1878: "I have only one desire; and that is for harmony, and a frank and honest understanding between North and South".[82] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

Longfellow, despite his aversion to public speaking, accepted an offer from Joshua Chamberlain to speak at his fiftieth reunion at Bowdoin College; he read the poem "MorituriSalutamus" so quietly that few could hear him.[83] The next year, 1876, he declined an offer to be nominated for the Board of Overseers at Harvard "for reasons very conclusive to my own mind".[84]  DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard


On August 22, 1879, a female admirer traveled to Longfellow's house in Cambridge and, unaware to whom she was speaking, asked Longfellow: "Is this the house where Longfellow was born?" Longfellow told her it was not. The visitor then asked if he had died here. "Not yet", he replied.[85] In March 1882, Longfellow went to bed with severe stomach pain. HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

He endured the pain for several days with the help of opium before he died surrounded by family on Friday, March 24, 1882.[86]He had been suffering from peritonitis.[87] At the time of his death, his estate was worth an estimated $356,320.[80] He is buried with both of his wives atMount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

His last few years were spent translating the poetry of Michelangelo; though Longfellow never considered it complete enough to be published during his lifetime, a posthumous edition was collected in 1883. Scholars generally regard the work as autobiographical, reflecting the translator as an aging artist facing his impending death.[88] HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard


Though much of his work is categorized as lyric poetry, Longfellow experimented with many forms, including hexameter andfree verse.[89] His published poetry shows great versatility, using anapestic and trochaic forms, blank verse, heroic couplets, ballads and sonnets.[90] Typically, Longfellow would carefully consider the subject of his poetic ideas for a long time before deciding on the right metrical form for it.[91Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

] Much of his work is recognized for its melody-like musicality.[92]As he says, "what a writer asks of his reader is not so much to like as to listen".[93]

As a very private man, Longfellow did not often add autobiographical elements to his poetry. Two notable exceptions are dedicated to the death of members of his family. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

"Resignation", written as a response to the death of his daughter Fanny in 1848, does not use first-person pronouns and is instead a generalized poem of mourning.[94] The death of his second wife Frances, as biographer Charles Calhoun wrote, deeply affected Longfellow personally but "seemed not to touch his poetry, at least directly".[9Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

5] His memorial poem to her, a sonnet called "The Cross of Snow", was not published in his lifetimeLongfellow often used didacticism in his poetry, though he focused on it less in his later years.[96] Much of his poetry imparts cultural and moral values, particularly focused on promoting life as being more than material pursuits.[97HP G71-340US CPU Fan

]Longfellow also often used allegory in his work. In "Nature", for example, death is depicted as bedtime for a cranky child.[98] Many of the metaphors he used in his poetry as well as subject matter came from legends, mythology, and literature.[99] He was inspired, for example, by Norse mythology for "The Skeleton in Armor" and by Finnish legends for The Song of Hiawatha.[ Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

In fact, Longfellow rarely wrote on current subjects and seemed detached from contemporary American concerns.[101] Even so, Longfellow, like many during this period, called for the development of high quality American literature. In Kavanagh, a character says:

We want a national literature commensurate with our mountains and rivers... HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

We want a national epic that shall correspond to the size of the country... We want a national drama in which scope shall be given to our gigantic ideas and to the unparalleled activity of our people... In a word, we want a national literature altogether shaggy and unshorn, that shall shake the earth, like a herd of buffaloes thundering over the prairies.[102] HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan


He was also important as a translator; his translation of Dante became a required possession for those who wanted to be a part of high culture.[103] He also encouraged and supported other translators. In 1845, he published The Poets and Poetry of Europe, an 800-page compilation of translations made by other writers, including many by his friend and colleague Cornelius Conway Felton.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

Longfellow intended the anthology "to bring together, into a compact and convenient form, as large an amount as possible of those English translations which are scattered through many volumes, and are not accessible to the general reader".[104] In honor of Longfellow's role with translations, HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Harvard established the Longfellow Institute in 1994, dedicated to literature written in the United States in languages other than English.[105]

In 1874, Longfellow oversaw a 31-volume anthology called Poems of Places, which collected poems representing several geographical locations, including European, HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Asian, and Arabian countries.[106] Emerson was disappointed and reportedly told Longfellow: "The world is expecting better things of you than this... You are wasting time that should be bestowed upon original production".[107] In preparing the volume, Longfellow hired Katherine Sherwood Bonner as an amanuensis. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan


Longfellow's early collections, Voices of the Night and Ballads and Other Poems, made him instantly popular. The New-Yorkercalled him "one of the very few in our time who has successfully aimed in putting poetry to its best and sweetest uses".[45]The Southern Literary Messenger immediately put Longfellow "among the first of our American poets".[45HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

] Poet John Greenleaf Whittier said that Longfellow's poetry illustrated "the careful moulding by which art attains the graceful ease and chaste simplicity of nature".[109] Longfellow's friend Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. wrote of him as "our chief singer" and one who "wins and warms... kindles, softens, cheers [and] calms the wildest woe and stays the bitterest tears!"[110]  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan


The rapidity with which American readers embraced Longfellow was unparalleled in publishing history in the United States;[111] by 1874, he was earning $3,000 per poem.[112] His popularity spread throughout Europe as well and his poetry was translated during his lifetime into Italian, French, German, and other languages.[113] HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

As scholar Bliss Perry later wrote, Longfellow was so highly praised that criticizing him was a criminal act like "carrying a rifle into a national park".[114]In the last two decades of his life, he often received requests for autographs from strangers, which he always sent.[115]John Greenleaf Whittier suggested it was this massive correspondence that led to Longfellow's death, writing: "My friend Longfellow was driven to death by these incessant demands".[116] Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan


Contemporary writer Edgar Allan Poe wrote to Longfellow in May 1841 of his "fervent admiration which [your] genius has inspired in me" and later called him "unquestionably the best poet in America".[117] However, after Poe's reputation as a critic increased, he publicly accused Longfellow of plagiarism in what has been since termed by Poe biographers as "The Longfellow War".[118] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

His assessment was that Longfellow was "a determined imitator and a dextrous adapter of the ideas of other people",[117] specificallyAlfred, Lord Tennyson.[119] His accusations may have been a publicity stunt to boost readership of the Broadway Journal, for which he was the editor at the time.[120] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

Longfellow did not respond publicly, but, after Poe's death, he wrote: "The harshness of his criticisms I have never attributed to anything but the irritation of a sensitive nature chafed by some indefinite sense of wrong".[121]

Margaret Fuller judged him "artificial and imitative" and lacking force.[ HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Poet Walt Whitman also considered Longfellow an imitator of European forms, though he praised his ability to reach a popular audience as "the expressor of common themes – of the little songs of the masses".[123] He added, "Longfellow was no revolutionarie: never traveled new paths: of course never broke new paths."[124] HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Lewis Mumford said that Longfellow could be completely removed from the history of literature without much effect.[101] Towards the end of his life, contemporaries considered him more of a children's poet[125] as many of his readers were children.[126] A contemporary reviewer noted in 1848 that Longfellow was creating a "Goody two-shoes kind of literature.. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

. slipshod, sentimental stories told in the style of the nursery, beginning in nothing and ending in nothing".[127] A more modern critic said, "Who, except wretched schoolchildren, now reads Longfellow?"[101] A London critic in the London Quarterly Review, however, condemned all American poetry, saying, ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

"with two or three exceptions, there is not a poet of mark in the whole union" but singled out Longfellow as one of those exceptions.[128] As an editor of the Boston Evening Transcript wrote in 1846, "Whatever the miserable envy of trashy criticism may write against Longfellow, one thing is most certain, no American poet is more read".[129]  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan


Longfellow was the most popular poet of his day.[130] As a friend once wrote to him, "no other poet was so fully recognized in his lifetime".[131] Many of his works helped shape the American character and its legacy, particularly with the poem "Paul Revere's Ride".He was such an admired figure in the United States during his life that his 70th birthday in 1877 took on the air of a national holiday, with parades, HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

speeches, and the reading of his poetry.

Over the years, Longfellow's personality has become part of his reputation. He has been presented as a gentle, placid, poetic soul: an image perpetuated by his brother Samuel Longfellow, who wrote an early biography which specifically emphasized these points.[132] Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

As James Russell Lowell said, Longfellow had an "absolute sweetness, simplicity, and modesty".[121] At Longfellow's funeral, his friend Ralph Waldo Emerson called him "a sweet and beautiful soul".[133] In reality, Longfellow's life was much more difficult than was assumed. He suffered from neuralgia, which caused him constant pain, and he also had poor eyesight. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

He wrote to friend Charles Sumner: "I do not believe anyone can be perfectly well, who has a brain and a heart".[134] He had difficulty coping with the death of his second wife.[73] Longfellow was very quiet, reserved, and private; in later years, he was known for being unsocial and avoided leaving home.[135] Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

He had become one of the first American celebrities and was also popular in Europe. It was reported that 10,000 copies of The Courtship of Miles Standish sold in London in a single day.[136] Children adored him and, when the "spreading chestnut-tree" mentioned in the poem "The Village Blacksmith" was cut down, SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan


the children of Cambridge had the tree converted into an armchair which they presented to the poet.[137] In 1884, Longfellow became the first non-British writer for whom a commemorative sculpted bust was placed in Poet's Corner ofWestminster Abbey in London; he remains the only American poet represented with a bust.[ LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

In 1909, a seated statue of Longfellow sculpted by William Couperwas unveiled in Washington, D. C.

More recently, he was honored in March 2007 when the United States Postal Service issued a stamp commemorating him. ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

A number of schools are named after him in various states as well. Neil Diamond's 1974 hit song, "Longfellow Serenade", is a reference to the poet.He is a protagonist in Matthew Pearl's murder mystery The Dante Club (2003).

Longfellow's popularity rapidly declined, beginning shortly after his death and into the twentieth century as academics began to appreciate poets like Walt Whitman, FUJITSU Lifebook S7110 Laptop Keyboard

Edwin Arlington Robinson, and Robert Frost.[141] In the twentieth century, literary scholar Kermit Vanderbilt noted, "Increasingly rare is the scholar who braves ridicule to justify the art of Longfellow's popular rhymings."20th-century poet Lewis Putnam Turco concluded "Longfellow was minor and derivative in every way throughout his career... nothing more than a hack imitator of the English Romantics."[  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard


George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][Note 1][Note 2] – December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–1797), the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.[3] TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

He presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and remains the supreme law of the land.

Washington was elected president as the unanimous choice of the electors in the elections of both 1788–1789 and1792.[4] Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the wars raging in Europe, suppressed rebellion, and won acceptance among Americans of all types.[5] His leadership style established many forms and rituals of government that have been used since, HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

such as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address.[6][7] Further, his retirement after two terms and the peaceful transition from his presidency to that of John Adams established a tradition that continued up until Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a third term.[8] Washington was hailed as "father of his country" even during his lifetime.[3][9] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard


Washington was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia; his wealthy planter family owned tobacco plantations and slaves. After both his father and older brother died when he was young, Washington became personally and professionally attached to the powerful William Fairfax, who promoted his career as a surveyor and soldier. HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

Washington quickly became a senior officer in the colonial forces during the first stages of the French and Indian War. Chosen by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 to be commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, Washington managed to force the British out of Boston in 1776, HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

but was defeated and almost captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the dead of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey and restored momentum to the Patriot cause.

Because of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Historians laud Washington for his selection and supervision of his generals, encouragement of morale and ability to hold together the army, coordination with the state governors and state militia units, relations with Congress and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies. DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as Commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism.

Dissatisfied with the weaknesses of the Continental Congress, TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

in 1787 Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that devised a new Federal government of the United States. Elected unanimously as the first President of the United States in 1789, he attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton's programs to pay off all state and national debt,  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

to implement an effective tax system and to create a national bank[11] (despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson).

Washington proclaimed the United States neutral in the wars raging in Europe after 1793. He avoided war with Great Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Although he never officially joined the Federalist Party, he supported its programs.Washington's Farewell Address was an influential primer on republican virtue and a warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. He retired from the presidency in 1797 and returned to his home, DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

Mount Vernon, and his domestic life where he managed a variety of enterprises. He freed all his slaves by his final will.

Washington had a vision of a great and powerful nation that would be built on republican lines using federal power.  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

He sought to use the national government to preserve liberty, improve infrastructure, open the western lands, promote commerce, found a permanent capital, reduce regional tensions and promote a spirit of American nationalism.[12] At his death, Washington was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen" by Henry Lee.[13]  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard


The Federalists made him the symbol of their party but for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Washington Monument. As the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire in world history, Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism, especially in France and Latin America.[ SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

He is consistently ranked among the top three presidents of the United States, according to polls of both scholars and the general public.

The first child of Augustine Washington (1694–1743) and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington (1708–1789), Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

George Washington was born on their Pope's Creek Estatenear present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia. According to theJulian calendar and Annunciation Style of enumerating years, then in use in the British Empire, Washington was born on February 11, 1731; SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

when the Gregorian calendar was implemented in the British Empire in 1752, in accordance with the provisions of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, his birth date became February 22, 1732.[15][Note 1][Note 2]

Washington's ancestors were from Sulgrave, England; his great-grandfather, John Washington, had emigrated to Virginia in 1657.[16] HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

George's father Augustine was a slave-owning tobacco planter who later tried his hand in iron-mining ventures.[17]In George's youth, the Washingtons were moderately prosperous members of the Virginia gentry, of "middling rank" rather than one of the leading planter families.[18] HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

At this time, Virginia and other southern colonies had become a slave society, in which slaveholders formed the ruling class and the economy was based on slave labor.[19]

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