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Herbert Clark Hoover(August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933). Hoover was originally a professionalmining engineer and author. As the United States Secretary of Commerce in the 1920s under Presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge,Sony VAIO VGN-FW91NS Battery

he promoted partnerships between government and business under the rubric "economic modernization". In the presidential election of 1928, Hoover easily won theRepublican nomination, despite having no previous elected office experience.Sony VAIO VGN-FW91S Battery

To date, Hoover is the last cabinet secretary to be directly elected President of the United States, as well as one of only two Presidents (along with William Howard Taft) to have been elected without previous electoral experience or high military rank. America was prosperous and optimistic at the time, leading to a landslide victory for Hoover over Democrat Al Smith.Sony VAIO VGN-FW92DS Battery

Hoover, a trained engineer, deeply believed in the Efficiency Movement, which held that government and the economy were riddled with inefficiency and waste, and could be improved by experts who could identify the problems and solve them.Sony VAIO VGN-FW92JS Battery

When the Wall Street Crash of 1929 struck less than eight months after he took office, Hoover tried to combat the ensuing Great Depression with volunteer efforts, public works projects such as the Hoover Dam, tariffs such as the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, and raising the top tax bracket from 25% to 63%   none of which produced economic recovery during his term.Sony VAIO VGN-FW93DS Battery

The consensus among historians is that Hoover's defeat in the 1932 election was caused primarily by failure to end the downward economic spiral. As a result of these factors, Hoover is ranked poorly among former US Presidents.

Family background and early life

Hoover was born on August 10, 1874, in West Branch, Iowa.Sony VAIO VGN-FW93JS Battery

He was the first president born west of the Mississippi Riverand remains the only Iowan President. His father, Jessie Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner who was of German (Pfautz, Wehmeyer) and German-Swiss (Huber, Burkhart) descent.Sony VAIO VGN-FW93XS Battery

Hoover's mother, Hulda Minthorn Hoover (1849–1883), was born in Norwich, Ontario, Canada, of English and Irish (probably Scots-Irish) descent. Both wereQuakers.

His father died in 1880, and his mother in 1884, leaving Hoover an orphan at the age of nine.Sony VAIO VGN-FW94FS Battery

Fellow Quaker Lawrie Tatumwas appointed as Hoover's guardian. After a brief stay with one of his grandmothers in Kingsley, Iowa, Hoover lived for the next 18 months with his uncle Allen Hoover in West Branch. In November 1885, he went to live in Newberg, Oregon, with his uncle John Minthorn, a frontier physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before.Sony VAIO VGN-FW94GS Battery

For two and a half years, Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy (now George Fox University), then subsequently worked as an office assistant in his uncle's real estate office, the Oregon Land Company, in Salem. Though he did not attend high school, the young Hoover attended night school and learned bookkeeping, typing, and math.Sony VAIO VGN-FW94HS Battery

Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891, the new California college's first year. None of the first students were required to pay tuition. Hoover claimed to be the first student everat Stanford, by virtue of having been the first person in the first class to sleep in the dormitory.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery

While at the university, he was the student manager of both the baseball and football teams and was a part of the inaugural Big Game versus rival California (Stanford won). In one game in 1894, as manager of the baseball team, Hoover found the receipts were short. He went after the person who had failed to pay the twenty-five cents, former President Benjamin Harrison.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery

Later in life, Hoover called his encounter with Harrison his "first time with greatness". Hoover graduated in 1895 with a degree in geology.

Mining engineer

Hoover went to Australia in 1897 as an employee of Bewick, Moreing & Co., a London-based mining company.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery

He served as a geologist and mining engineer while searching the Western Australian goldfields for investments. After being appointed as mine manager at the age of 23, he led a major program of expansion for the Sons of Gwalia gold mine at Gwalia, Western Australia,Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/L Battery

and brought in many Italian immigrants to cut costs and counter the union militancyof the Australian miners. He believed "the rivalry between the Italians and the other men was of no small benefit."  He also described Italians as "fully 20 per cent superior" to other miners.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/S Battery

Hoover worked at gold mines in Big Bell, Cue, Leonora, Menzies and Coolgardie.

Hoover married his Stanford sweetheart, Lou Henry, in 1899. The Hoovers had two sons, Herbert Clark Jr. (1903–1969) and Allan Henry (1907–1993). They went to China, where Hoover worked for Bewick, Moreing & Co. as China's leading engineer.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/W Battery

Hoover and his wife learned Mandarin Chinese while he worked in China and used it during his tenure at the White House when they wanted to foil eavesdroppers.The Boxer Rebellion trapped the Hoovers in Tianjin in June 1900. For almost a month, the settlement was under heavy fire.Sony VAIO VGN-NS115N/S Battery

Hoover himself guided U.S. Marines around Tianjin during the battle, using his extensive knowledge of the local terrain.

Hoover was made a partner in Bewick, Moreing & Co. in 1901 and assumed responsibility for various Australian operations.Sony VAIO VGN-NS11J/S Battery

In August–September 1905, Hoover came up with a technological innovation. When visiting the mines at Broken Hill, New South Wales, he noticed considerable zinc in the Broken Hill lead-silver ore, which could not be recovered and was lost as tailings.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/L Battery

Hoover devised a practical and profitable method to use the then-new froth flotation process to treat these tailings and recover the zinc.With William Baillieu and others, he founded the Zinc Corporation (later, following various mergers, a part of Rio Tinto Group).Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/S Battery

In 1908, he became an independent mining consultant, traveling worldwide until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. His lectures at Columbia and Stanford universities were published in 1909 asPrinciples of Mining, which became a standard textbook. Hoover and his wife also published their English translation of the 1556 mining classic De re metallicain 1912.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/W Battery

This translation from the Latin of Renaissance author Georgius Agricola is still the most important scholarly version and provides its historical context. It is still in print.

Humanitarian

When World War I began in August 1914, Hoover helped organize the return of 120,000 Americans from Europe: tourists, students, executives, etc.Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/L Battery

Hoover led five hundred volunteers in the distribution of food, clothing, steamship tickets, and cash. "I did not realize it at the moment, but on August 3, 1914, my career was over forever. I was on the slippery road of public life." Hoover liked to say that difference between dictatorship and democracy was simple:Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/S Battery

dictators organize from the top down, democracies from the bottom up. Belgium faced a food crisis after being invaded by Germany. Hoover undertook an unprecedented relief effort with the Commission for Relief in Belgium (CRB). As chairman of the CRB, Hoover worked with the leader of the Belgian Comite National de Secours et Alimentation (CN),Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/W Battery

Emile Francqui, to feed the entire nation for the duration of the war. The CRB obtained and imported millions and millions of metric tons of foodstuffs for the CN to distribute, and watched over the CN to make sure the German army didn't appropriate the food.Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/L Battery

The CRB became a veritable independent republic of relief, with its own flag, navy, factories, mills, and railroads. Private donations and government grants supplied an $11-million-a-month budget.

For the next two years, Hoover worked 14-hour days from London, administering the distribution of over two and one-half million tons of food to nine million war victims.Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/S Battery

In an early form of shuttle diplomacy, he crossed the North Sea forty times to meet with German authorities and persuade them to allow food shipments, becoming an international hero. The Belgian city of Leuven named a prominent square Hooverpleinafter him.Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/W Battery

After the United States entered the war in April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover head of the U.S. Food Administration. Hoover believed "food will win the war", and beginning on September 29, this slogan was introduced and put into frequent use.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/L Battery

Hoover established set days to encourage people to avoid eating particular foods to save them for soldiers' rations: meatless Mondays, wheatless Wednesdays, and "when in doubt, eat potatoes." This program helped reduce consumption of foodstuffs needed overseas and avoided rationing at home.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/P Battery

It was dubbed "Hooverizing" by government publicists, in spite of Hoover's continual orders that publicity should not mention him by name.

After the war, as a member of the Supreme Economic Council and head of the American Relief Administration, Hoover organized shipments of food for millions of starving people in Central Europe.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/S Battery

He used a newly formed Quaker organization, the American Friends Service Committee, to carry out much of the logistical work in Europe.

Hoover provided aid to the defeated German nation after the war, as well as relief to famine-stricken Bolshevik-controlled areas of Russia in 1921, despite the opposition of Senator Henry Cabot Lodgeand other Republicans.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/W Battery

When asked if he was not thus helping Bolshevism, Hoover retorted, "Twenty million people are starving. Whatever their politics, they shall be fed!" At war's end, the New York Timesnamed Hoover one of the "Ten Most Important Living Americans".Sony VAIO VGN-NS240E/L Battery

Hoover confronted a world of political possibilities when he returned home in 1919. Democratic Party leaders looked on him as a potential candidate for President, and President Wilson privately preferred Hoover as his successor. "There could not be a finer one," asserted Franklin D. Roosevelt, then a rising star from New York.Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/L Battery

Hoover briefly considered becoming a Democrat, but he believed that 1920 would be a Republican year. Also, Hoover confessed that he could not run for a party whose only member in his boyhood home had been the town drunk.

Hoover realized that he was in a unique position to collect information about the Great War and its aftermath.Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/S Battery

In 1919, he established the Hoover War Collection at Stanford University. He donated all the files of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, the U.S. Food Administration, and the American Relief Administration, and pledged $50,000 as an endowment.Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/L Battery

Scholars were sent to Europe to collect pamphlets, society publications, government documents, newspapers, posters, proclamations, and other ephemeral materials related to the war and the revolutions that followed it. The collection was later renamed the Hoover War Library and is now known as the Hoover Institution.Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/W Battery

Secretary of Commerce

Hoover rejected Democratic overtures in 1920. He had been a registered Republican before the war, though in 1912 he had supported Theodore Roosevelt's "Bull Moose" Progressive Party. Now he declared himself a Republican and a candidate for the Presidency.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/L Battery

He placed his name on the ballot in the California state primary, where he came close to beating popular Senator Hiram Johnson. But having lost in his home state, Hoover was not considered a serious contender at the convention.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/P Battery

Even when it deadlocked for several ballots between Illinois Governor Frank Lowdenand General Leonard Wood, few delegates seriously considered Hoover as a compromise choice. Although he had personal misgivings about the capability of the nominee, Warren G. Harding, Hoover publicly endorsed him and made two speeches for Harding.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/W Battery

After being elected, Harding rewarded Hoover for his support, offering to appoint him either Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Commerce. Hoover ultimately chose Commerce. Commerce had existed for just eight years, since the division of the earlier Department of Commerce and Labor.Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/L Battery

Commerce was considered a minor Cabinet post, with limited and somewhat vaguely defined responsibilities.

Hoover aimed to change that, envisioning the Commerce Department as the hub of the nation's growth and stability.Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/P Battery

He demanded from Harding, and received, authority to help coordinate economic affairs throughout the government. He created many sub-departments and committees, overseeing and regulating everything from manufacturing statistics, the census, and radio to air travel.Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/W Battery

In some instances, he "seized" control of responsibilities from other Cabinet departments when he deemed that they were not carrying out their responsibilities well. Hoover became one of the most visible men in the country, often overshadowing Presidents Harding and Calvin Coolidge.Sony VAIO VGN-NS70B/W Battery

Washington wags were soon referring to Hoover as "the Secretary of Commerce... and Under-Secretary of Everything Else!"

As secretary and later as President, Hoover revolutionized the relations between business and government.Sony VAIO VGN-NS71B/W Battery

Rejecting the adversarial stance of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, he sought to make the Commerce Department a powerful service organization, empowered to forge cooperative voluntary partnerships between government and business. This philosophy is often called "associationalism".Sony VAIO VGN-NS72JB/W Battery

Many of Hoover's efforts as Commerce Secretary centered on the elimination of waste and the increase of efficiency in business and industry. This included reducing labor losses from trade disputes and seasonal fluctuations, reducing industrial losses from accident and injury, and reducing the amount of crude oil spilled during extraction and shipping.Sony VAIO VGN-NS90HS Battery

One major achievement was to promote progressive ideals in the areas of the standardization of products and designs. He energetically promoted international trade by opening offices overseas that gave advice and practical help to businessmen. Hoover was especially eager to promote Hollywood films overseas.Sony VAIO VGN-NS92JS Battery

His "Own Your Own Home" campaign was a collaboration to promote ownership of single-family dwellings, with groups such as the Better Houses in America movement, the Architects' Small House Service Bureau, and the Home Modernizing Bureau.Sony VAIO VGN-NS92XS Battery

He worked with bankers and the savings and loan industry to promote the new long-term home mortgage, which dramatically stimulated home construction.

It has been suggested that Herbert Hoover was the best Secretary of Commerce in United States history.Hoover was the last President to have held a full cabinet position.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S Battery

Radio conferences

Hoover's radio conferences played a key role in the early organization, development and regulation of radio broadcasting. Prior to the radio act of 1927, the Secretary of Commerce was unable to deny radio licensing or modify wave lengths.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF Battery

With help from supporters Senator Dill and Representative White, Hoover brought the issue of radio control to the senate floor. Hoover fought for more censorship rights to battle the growing amounts of licensed stations. (which in 1927, stood at 732 stations)Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF Battery

Hoover, with the help of Dill and White, promoted the Dill-White Bill which eventually would become the Radio Act of 1927. This act allowed the government to step in and abolish radio stations that were deemed "non-useful" to the public. Hoover's attempts at regulating radio were not supported by all congressmen and he received a lot of heat from the senate and radio stations as well.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

However, Hoover's contributions to regulate radio were very important in the founding of our modern radio system.

Hoover also played a key role in major projects for navigation, irrigation of dry lands, electrical power, and flood control. As the new air transport industry developed, Hoover held a conference on aviation to promote codes and regulations.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF Battery

He became president of the American Child Health Organization, and he raised private funds to promote health education in schools and communities.

Although he continued to consider Harding ill-suited to be President, the two men nevertheless became friends.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W Battery

Hoover accompanied Harding on his final trip out West in 1923. It was Hoover who called for a specialist to tend to the ailing Chief Executive, and it was also Hoover who contacted the White House to inform them of the President's death. The Commerce Secretary headed the group of dignitaries accompanying Harding's body back to the capital.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF Battery

By the end of Hoover's service as Secretary, he had raised the status of the Department of Commerce. This was reflected in its modern headquarters built during the Roosevelt Administration in the 1930s in the Federal Triangle in Washington, D.C.Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B Battery

Traffic conferences

As Commerce Secretary, Hoover also hosted two national conferences on street traffic, in 1924 and 1926 (a third convened in 1930, during Hoover's presidency). Collectively the meetings were called the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety.Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

Hoover's chief objective was to address the growing casualty toll of traffic accidents, but the scope grew and soon embraced motor vehicle standards, rules of the road, and urban traffic control. He left the invited interest groups to negotiate agreements among themselves, which were then presented for adoption by states and localities.Sony VAIO VGN-NW35E Battery

Because automotive trade associations were the best organized, many of the positions taken by the conferences reflected their interests. The conferences issued a model Uniform Vehicle Code for adoption by the states, and a Model Municipal Traffic Ordinance for adoption by cities.Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/S Battery

Both were widely influential, promoting greater uniformity between jurisdictions and tending to promote the automobile's priority in city streets.

Mississippi flood

The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 broke the banks and levees of the lower Mississippi River in early 1927, resulting in flooding of millions of acres and leaving one and a half million people displaced from their homes.Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/T Battery

Although such a disaster did not fall under the duties of the Commerce Department, the governors of six states along the Mississippi specifically asked for Herbert Hoover in the emergency. President Calvin Coolidge sent Hoover to mobilize state and local authorities, militia, army engineers, the Coast Guard, and the American Red Cross.Sony VAIO VGN-NW50JB Battery

With a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, Hoover set up health units to work in the flooded regions for a year. These workers stamped out malaria, pellagra, and typhoid fever from many areas. His work during the flood brought Herbert Hoover to the front page of newspapers almost everywhere, and he gained new accolades as a humanitarian.Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/N Battery

The great victory of his relief work, he stressed, was not that the government rushed in and provided all assistance; it was that much of the assistance available was provided by private citizens and organizations in response to his appeals. "I suppose I could have called in the Army to help," he said, "but why should I, when I only had to call upon Main Street."Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/W Battery

The treatment of African Americans during the disaster endangered Hoover's reputation as a humanitarian. Local officials brutalized blacks and prevented them from leaving relief camps, aid meant for African-American sharecroppers was often given to the landowners instead, and many times black males were conscripted by locals into forced labor, sometimes at gun point.Sony VAIO VGN-NW70JB Battery

Knowing the potential ramifications on his presidential aspirations if such knowledge became public, Hoover struck a deal with Robert Moton, the prominent African-American successor to Booker T. Washington as president of the Tuskegee Institute.Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/N Battery

In exchange for keeping the suffering of African Americans out of the public eye, Hoover promised unprecedented influence for African Americans if he was elected president. Moton agreed, and consistent with the accommodationist philosophy of Washington, worked actively to suppress information about mistreatment of blacks from being revealed to the media.Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/W Battery

Following election, Hoover broke his promises. This led to an African-American backlash in the 1932 election that shifted allegiance from the Republican party to the Democrats.

Presidential election of 1928

Southern strategy

To gain Republican votes in Southern states, Hoover pioneered an electoral tactic later known as the "Southern Strategy".Sony VAIO VGN-NW91FS Battery

Hoover's appeal to white voters yielded substantial results, including Republican victories in Tennessee, North Carolina, Florida, Virginia, and Texas. It marked the first time a Republican candidate for president carried Texas. This outraged the black leadership, which largely broke from the Republican Party, and began seeking candidates who supported civil rights within the Democratic Party.Sony VAIO VGN-NW91GS Battery

Republican primaries

When Calvin Coolidge declined to run for a second full term of office in 1927, Herbert Hoover became the leading Republican candidate for the 1928 election, despite the fact Coolidge was lukewarm on Hoover, often deriding his ambitious and popular Commerce Secretary as "Wonder Boy".Sony VAIO VGN-NW91VS Battery

His only real challenger was Frank Lowden. Hoover received much favorable press coverage in the months leading up to the convention. Lowden's campaign manager complained the newspapers were full of "nothing but advertisements for Herbert Hoover and Fletcher's Castoria".Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery

Hoover’s reputation, experience, and popularity coalesced to give him the nomination on the first ballot, with Senator Charles Curtis named as his running mate.

General election

Hoover campaigned for efficiency and prosperity against Democratic candidate Alfred E. Smith.Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

Smith was the target of anti-Catholicism from some Protestant communities, much to Hoover's advantage. Both Hoover and Smith positioned themselves as pro-business, and each promised to improve conditions for farmers, reform immigration laws, and maintain America's isolationist foreign policy.Sony VAIO VGN-SR140D Battery

Where they differed was on the Volstead Act. Smith was a "wet" who called for its repeal, whereas Hoover gave public support for Prohibition, calling it an "experiment noble in purpose".What few voters knew, however, was that in private Hoover secretly did not support the Volstead Act,Sony VAIO VGN-SR140D/B Battery

and was known to frequent the Belgian Embassy, which was technically located on foreign land, to enjoy alcoholic drinks before going home from work at the Commerce department. Hoover used to grumble that all Prohibition successfully did was to force him to dispose of his celebrated wine cellar.Sony VAIO VGN-SR140D/P Battery

Prohibition provided a means for Hoover's supporters to attack the Democratic candidate Al Smith. This was because the major attacks on Smith relied upon his being a Catholic. Because the First Amendment guarantees freedom of religion, these attacks were frowned upon politically.Sony VAIO VGN-SR140D/S Battery

Being labeled as an "anti-Prohibitionist drunkard" was allowed politically. Hoover also relied on the support of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the Anti-Saloon League to bolster prohibition.

Historians agree that Hoover's national reputation and the booming economy,Sony VAIO VGN-SR140E Battery

combined with deep splits in the Democratic Party over religion and Prohibition, guaranteed his landslide victory with 58% of the vote. Hoover managed to crack the so-called "Solid South", winning such traditionally Democratic states as Florida, North Carolina, Virginia, Texas and Tennessee.Sony VAIO VGN-SR140E/B Battery

As advertising executiveBruce Barton put it, "Americans knew that although they might have more fun with Smith, they would make more money with Hoover."

Unlike many previous first ladies, when Hoover's wife, Lou Henry Hoover, came to the White House,Sony VAIO VGN-SR140E/P Battery

she had already carved out a reputation of her own, having graduated from Stanford as the only woman in her class with a degree in geology. Although she never practiced her profession formally, she typified the new woman of the post-World War I era: intelligent, robust, and aware of multifarious female possibilities.Sony VAIO VGN-SR140E/S Battery

On poverty, Hoover promised: "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land." Within months, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred, and the nation's economy spiraled downward into what became known as the Great Depression.Sony VAIO VGN-SR140N/S Battery

Presidency 1929–1933

Hoover began his presidency on an optimistic note, saying during his inauguration speech:

Given the chance to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, we shall soon with the help of God, be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation .Sony VAIO VGN-SR165E/B Battery

Hoover then held a press conference on his first day in office, promising a "new phase of press relations".He told the group of journalists to elect a committee to recommend improvements to the White House press conference.Sony VAIO VGN-SR165E/P Battery

Hoover declined to use a spokesman, instead asking reporters to directly quote him and giving them handouts with his statements ahead of time. In his first 120 days in office, he held more regular and frequent press conferences than any other President, before or since.Sony VAIO VGN-SR165E/S Battery

He changed his press policies after the 1929 stock market crash, screening reporters and greatly reducing his availability.

Hoover invented his own sport to keep fit while in the White House, a combination of volleyball and tennis, which he played every morning.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190EBJ Battery

Policies

Hoover entered office with a plan to reform the nation's regulatory system, believing that a federal bureaucracy should have limited regulation over a country's economic system.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190EBQ Battery

A self-described progressive and reformer, Hoover saw the presidency as a vehicle for improving the conditions of all Americans by encouraging public-private cooperation—what he termed "volunterism". Hoover saw volunterism as preferable to governmental coercion or intervention which he saw as opposed to the American ideals of individualism and self-reliance.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190EEJ/C Battery

Long before he had entered politics, he had denounced laissez-fairethinking.

Hoover expanded civil service coverage of Federal positions, canceled private oil leases on government lands, and by instructing the Justice Department and the Internal Revenue Service to pursue gangsters for tax evasion, he enabled the prosecution of Al Capone.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NAB Battery

He appointed a commission that set aside 3 million acres (12,000 km²) of national parks and 2.3 million acres (9,000 km²) of national forests; advocated tax reduction for low-income Americans (not enacted); closed certain tax loopholes for the wealthy; doubled the number of veterans' hospital facilities;Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NBB Battery

negotiated a treaty onSt. Lawrence Seaway (which failed in the U.S. Senate); wrote a Children's Charter that advocated protection of every child regardless of race or gender; created an antitrust division in the Justice Department; required air mail carriers to adopt stricter safety measures and improve service;Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NDB Battery

proposed federal loans for urban slum clearances (not enacted); organized the Federal Bureau of Prisons; reorganized the Bureau of Indian Affairs; instituted prison reform; proposed a federal Department of Education (not enacted); advocated $50-per-month pensions for Americans over 65 (not enacted);Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NEB Battery

chaired White House conferences on child health, protection, homebuilding and home-ownership; began construction of the Boulder Dam (later renamed Hoover Dam); and signed the Norris – La Guardia Act that limited judicial intervention in labor disputes.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NGB Battery

On November 19, 1928, Hoover embarked on a seven-week goodwill tour of several Latin American nations to outline his economic and trade policies to other nations in the Western Hemisphere.

Foreign relations

While in Argentina, Argentine anarchists led by Severino Di Giovanni plotted to destroy the railroad car in which Hoover was traveling, but the bomber was arrested before he could place the explosives on the rails.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190PCB Battery

Hoover never mentioned the incident, and his complimentary remarks on Argentina were well-received in both the host country and in the press.

Following the release in 1930 of the Clark Memorandum, Hoover began formulating what later became Roosevelt's Good Neighbor policy.Sony VAIO VGN-SR190PFB Battery

He began withdrawing American troops from Nicaragua andHaiti; he also proposed an arms embargo on Latin America and a one-third reduction of the world's naval power, which was called the Hoover Plan. The Roosevelt Corollary ceased being part of U.S. foreign policy.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

In response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, he and Secretary of State Henry Stimson outlined the Hoover–Stimson Doctrine that said the United States would not recognize territories gained by force.

During his presidency, Hoover mediated between Chile and Peru to solve a conflict on the sovereignty of Arica and Tacna,Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

that in 1883 by the Treaty of Ancón had been awarded to Chile for ten years, to be followed by a plebiscite that had never happened. By the Tacna–Arica compromise at the Treaty of Lima in 1929, Chile kept Arica, and Peru regained Tacna.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VRN Battery

Civil rights

Hoover seldom mentioned civil rights while he was President. Hoover believed that African-Americans and other races could improve themselves with education and wanted the races assimilated into white culture.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

Hoover attempted to appoint John J. Parker to the Supreme Court in 1930 to replace Edward Sanford. The NAACP claimed that Parker made many court decisions against African-Americans and fought the nomination. The NAACP was successful in gaining Senator Borah's support and the nomination was defeated in the Senate.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

First Lady Lou Hoover defied custom and invited an African-American Republican, Oscar DePriest, a member in the House of Representatives, to dinner at the White House. Booker T. Washington was the last previous African-American to have dined at the White House, with Theodore Roosevelt in 1901.Sony VAIO VGN-SR210J/S Battery

Charles Curtis, the nation's first Native American Vice President, was from the Kaw tribe in Kansas.Hoover's humanitarian and Quaker reputation, along with Curtis as a vice-president, gave special meaning to his Indian policies. His Quaker upbringing influenced his views that Native Americans needed to achieve economic self-sufficiency.Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery

As President, he appointed Charles J. Rhoads as commissioner of Indian affairs. Hoover supported Rhoads' commitment to Indian assimilation and sought to minimize the federal role in Indian affairs. His goal was to have Indians acting as individuals (not as tribes) and to assume the responsibilities of citizenship granted with the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924.Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

Great Depression

Hoover's stance on the economy was based largely on voluntarism. From before his entry to the presidency, he was a proponent of the concept that public-private cooperation was the way to achieve high long-term growth.Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/S Battery

Hoover feared that too much intervention or coercion by the government would destroy individuality and self-reliance, which he considered to be important American values. Both his ideals and the economy were put to the test with the onset of the Great Depression.Sony VAIO VGN-SR220J/B Battery

At the outset of the Depression, Hoover claims in his memoirs that he rejected Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon's suggested "leave-it-alone" approach, and called many business leaders to Washington to urge them not to lay off workers or cut wages.Sony VAIO VGN-SR220J/H Battery

Lee Ohanian, from UCLA, has argued that Hoover adopted pro-labor policies after the 1929 stock market crash that "accounted for close to two-thirds of the drop in the nation's gross domestic product over the two years that followed, causing what might otherwise have been a bad recession to slip into the Great Depression".Sony VAIO VGN-SR240J/B Battery

This argument is at odds with the Keynesian view of the causes of the Depression, most recently by Brad DeLong of U.C. Berkeley.

Calls for greater government assistance increased as the U.S. economy continued to decline. Hoover rejected direct federal relief payments to individuals, as he believed that a dole would be addictive, and reduce the incentive to work.Sony VAIO VGN-SR240N/B Battery

He was also a firm believer in balanced budgets, and was unwilling to run a budget deficit to fund welfare programs. However, Hoover did pursue many policies in an attempt to pull the country out of depression. In 1929, Hoover authorized the Mexican Repatriation program to combat rampant unemployment, reduce the burden on municipal aid services,Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTH Battery

and remove people seen as usurpers of American jobs. The program was largely a forced migration of approximately 500,000 Mexicans and Mexican Americans to Mexico, and continued until 1937. In June 1930, over the objection of many economists, Congress approved and Hoover signed into law the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTJ Battery

The legislation raised tariffs on thousands of imported items. The intent of the Act was to encourage the purchase of American-made products by increasing the cost of imported goods, while raising revenue for the federal government and protecting farmers.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTQ Battery

However, economic depression now spread through much of the world, and other nations increased tariffs on American-made goods in retaliation, reducing international trade, and worsening the Depression.

In 1931, Hoover issued the Hoover Moratorium, calling for a one-year halt in reparation payments by Germany to France and in the payment of Allied war debts to the United States.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVB/C Battery

The plan was met with much opposition, especially from France, who saw significant losses to Germany during World War I. The Moratorium did little to ease economic declines. As the moratorium neared its expiration the following year, an attempt to find a permanent solution was made at the Lausanne Conference of 1932.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVH/C Battery

A working compromise was never established, and by the start of World War II, reparations payments had stopped completely. Hoover in 1931 urged the major banks in the country to form a consortium known as the National Credit Corporation (NCC).Sony VAIO VGN-SR290NTB Battery

The NCC was an example of Hoover's belief in volunteerism as a mechanism in aiding the economy. Hoover encouraged NCC member banks to provide loans to smaller banks to prevent them from collapsing. The banks within the NCC were often reluctant to provide loans, usually requiring banks to provide their largest assets as collateral.Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN/S Battery

It quickly became apparent that the NCC would be incapable of fixing the problems it was designed to solve, and it was replaced by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

By 1932, the Great Depression had spread across the globe. In the U.S., unemployment had reached 24.9%,Sony VAIO VGN-SR29XN/S Battery

a drought persisted in the agricultural heartland, businesses and families defaulted on record numbers of loans, and more than 5,000 banks had failed.Tens-of-thousands of Americans who found themselves homeless and began congregating in the numerous Hoovervilles (also known as shanty towns or tent cities) that had begun to appear across the country.Sony VAIO VGN-SR2RVN/S Battery

The name 'Hooverville' was coined by their residents as a sign of their disappointment and frustration with the perceived lack of assistance from the federal government. In response, Hoover and the Congress approved the Federal Home Loan Bank Act, to spur new home construction, and reduce foreclosures.Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAB Battery

The plan seemed to work, as foreclosures dropped, but it was seen as too little, too late.

Prior to the start of the Great Depression, Hoover's first Treasury Secretary, Andrew Mellon, proposed and saw enacted, numerous tax cuts, which cut the top income tax rate from 73% to 24% (under Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge).Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAH Battery

When combined with the sharp decline in incomes during the early depression, the result was a serious deficit in the federal budget. Congress, desperate to increase federal revenue, enacted the Revenue Act of 1932, which was the largest peacetime tax increase in history.Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery

The Act increased taxes across the board, so that top earners were taxed at 63% on their net income. The 1932 Act also increased the tax on the net income of corporations from 12% to 13.75%.

The final attempt of the Hoover Administration to rescue the economy occurred in 1932 with the passage of the Emergency Relief and Construction Act,Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery

which authorized funds for public works programs and the creation of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). The RFC's initial goal was to provide government-secured loans to financial institutions, railroads and farmers. The RFC had minimal impact at the time, but was adopted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and greatly expanded as part of his New Deal.Sony VAIO VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

Economy

To pay for these and other government programs and to make up for revenue lost due to the Depression, Hoover agreed to roll back previous tax cuts his Administration had effected on upper incomes.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/P Battery

In one of the largest tax increases in American history, the Revenue Act of 1932 raised income tax on the highest incomes from 25% to 63%. The estate tax was doubled and corporate taxes were raised by almost 15%. Also, a "check tax" was included that placed a 2-cent tax (over 30 cents in today's dollars) on all bank checks.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/S Battery

Economists William D. Lastrapes and George Selgin, conclude that the check tax was "an important contributing factor to that period's severe monetary contraction." Hoover also encouraged Congress to investigate the New York Stock Exchange, and this pressure resulted in various reforms.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF Battery

For this reason, years later libertarians argued that Hoover's economics were statist. Franklin D. Roosevelt blasted the Republican incumbent for spending and taxing too much, increasing national debt, raising tariffs and blocking trade, as well as placing millions on the dole of the government.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/sony-vaio-vgn-sr51mf-p-battery-12110.htm">Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery

Roosevelt attacked Hoover for "reckless and extravagant" spending, of thinking "that we ought to center control of everything in Washington as rapidly as possible." Roosevelt's running mate, John Nance Garner, accused the Republican of "leading the country down the path of socialism".Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/S Battery

Ironically, these policies pale beside the more drastic steps taken under Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration later as part of the New Deal. Hoover's opponents charge that his policies came too little, and too late, and did not work. Even as he asked Congress for legislation,Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

he reiterated his view that while people must not suffer from hunger and cold, caring for them must be primarily a local and voluntary responsibility.

Even so, New Dealer Rexford Tugwell later remarked that although no one would say so at the time, "practically the whole New Deal was extrapolated from programs that Hoover started."Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery

Bonus Army

Thousands of World War I veterans and their families demonstrated and camped out in Washington, D.C., during June 1932, calling for immediate payment of a bonus that had been promised by the World War Adjusted Compensation Act in 1924 for payment in 1945.Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG Battery

Although offered money by Congress to return home, some members of the "Bonus army" remained. Washington police attempted to remove the demonstrators from their camp, but they were outnumbered and unsuccessful. Shots were fired by the police in a futile attempt to attain order, and two protesters were killed while many officers were injured.Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

Hoover sent U.S. Army forces led by General Douglas MacArthur and helped by lower ranking officers Dwight D. Eisenhower and George S. Patton to stop a march. MacArthur, believing he was fighting a communist revolution, chose to clear out the camp with military force. In the ensuing clash, hundreds of civilians were injured.Sony VAIO VGN-SR70B/S Battery

Hoover had sent orders that the Army was to not move on the encampment, but MacArthur chose to ignore the command. Hoover was incensed, but refused to reprimand MacArthur. The entire incident was another devastating negative for Hoover in the 1932 election.Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/P Battery

That led New York governor and Democratic presidential candidate Franklin Roosevelt to declare of Hoover: "There is nothing inside the man but jelly!"

1932 campaign

Although Hoover had come to detest the presidency, he agreed to run again in 1932, not only as a matter of pride,Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/S Battery

but also because he feared that no other likely Republican candidate would deal with the depression without resorting to what Hoover considered dangerously radical measures.

Hoover was nominated by the Republicans for a second term. He had originally planned to make only one or two major speeches,Sony VAIO VGN-SR73JB/S Battery

and to leave the rest of the campaigning to proxies, but when polls showed the entire Republican ticket facing a resounding defeat at the polls, Hoover agreed to an expanded schedule of public addresses. In his nine major radio addresses Hoover primarily defended his administration and his philosophy.Sony VAIO VGN-SR74FB/S Battery

The apologetic approach did not allow Hoover to refuteDemocratic Party nominee Franklin Roosevelt's charge that he was personally responsible for the depression.

In his campaigns around the country, Hoover was faced with perhaps the most hostile crowds any sitting president had ever faced.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90FS Battery

Besides having his train and motorcades pelted with eggs and rotten fruit, he was often heckled while speaking, and on several occasions, the Secret Service halted attempts to kill Hoover by disgruntled citizens, including capturing one man nearing Hoover carrying sticks of dynamite,Sony VAIO VGN-SR90NS Battery

and another already having removed several spikes from the rails in front of the President's train. He lost the election by a huge margin, winning only six out of 48 states.

Hoover suffered a large defeat at the election, obtaining 39.7% of the popular vote to Roosevelt's 57.4%.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90S Battery

Hoover's popular vote was reduced by 26% from his result in the 1928 election. In the electoral college he carried only Pennsylvania, Delaware, and four other Northeast states to lose 59–472. The Democrats also extended their control over the U.S. House and gained control of the U.S. Senate.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery

After the election, Hoover requested that Roosevelt retain the Gold standard as the basis of the US currency, and in effect, continue many of the Hoover Administration's economic policies. Roosevelt refused.

Hoover appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery

Hoover broke party lines to appoint the Democrat Cardozo. He explained that he "was one of the ancient believers that the Supreme Court should have a strong minority of the opposition's party and that all appointments should be made from experienced jurists.Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery

When the vacancy came... [Hoover] canvassed all the possible Democratic jurists and immediately concluded that Justice Cardozo was the right man and appointed him."

Post-presidency

Hoover departed from Washington in March 1933 with some bitterness, disappointed both that he had been repudiated by the voters and unappreciated for his best efforts.Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery

The Hoovers went first to New York City, where they stayed for a while in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. Later that spring, the Hoovers returned to California to live at their home in Palo Alto. Hoover enjoyed the return to the men's clubs he had long been involved with, including the Bohemian Club, the Pacific-Union Club, and the University Club in San Francisco.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery

Herbert Hoover liked to get behind the wheel of his car, accompanied only by his wife, or a friend (former Presidents did not get Secret Service protection until the 1960s), and drive for hundreds or thousands of miles on wandering journeys, visiting Western mining camps or small towns where he often went unrecognized,Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery

or heading up to the mountains, or deep into the woods, to go fishing in relative solitude. A year before his death, his own fishing days behind him, he published Fishing For Fun—And To Wash Your Soul, the last of more than sixteen books in his lifetime.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92S Battery

Although many of his friends and supporters called upon Hoover to speak out against Franklin D. Roosevelt's (FDR) "New Deal" and to assume his place as the voice of the "loyal opposition", he refused to do so for many years after leaving the White House, and he largely kept himself out of the public spotlight until late in 1934.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery

However, that did not stop rumors from springing up about him, often fanned by Democratic politicians who found the former President to be a convenient scapegoat. One rumor had it that he had attempted to flee the country in a yacht with $5 million in gold, another that theFederal Bureau of Investigation had arrested him and placed him in protective custody "for his own safety."Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery

The relationship between Hoover and Roosevelt was one of the most severely strained in Presidential history. Hoover had little good to say about his successor. FDR, in turn, supposedly engaged in various petty official acts aimed at his predecessor,Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery

ranging from dropping him from the White House birthday greetings message list to having Hoover's name struck from the Hoover Dam along the Colorado River border, which would officially be known only as Boulder Dam for many years to come.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery

In 1936, Hoover entertained hopes of receiving the Republican presidential nomination again, and thus facing Roosevelt in a rematch. However, although he retained strong support among some delegates, there was never much hope of his being selected.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery

He publicly endorsed the nominee, Kansas Governor Alf Landon, although privately he worried that Landon was too willing to accept the New Deal policies. But Hoover might as well have been the nominee, since the Democrats virtually ignored Landon, and they ran against the former President himself,Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery

constantly attacking him in speeches and warning that a Landon victory would put Hoover back in the White House as the secret power "behind the throne". Roosevelt won 46 of the 48 states, burying Landon in theElectoral College, and the Republican Party in Congress in another landslide.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94GS Battery

Although Hoover's reputation was at its low point, circumstances began to rehabilitate his name and restore him to prominence. Roosevelt overreached on his Supreme Court packing plan, and a further financial recession in 1937 and 1938 tarnished his image of invincibility.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94HS Battery

By 1940, Hoover was again being spoken of as the possible nominee of the party. Although he trailed in the polls behind Thomas Dewey, Arthur Vandenberg, and his own former protege, Robert A. Taft, he still had considerable first-ballot delegate strength, and it was believed that if the convention deadlocked between the leading candidates, the party might turn to him as its compromise.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94VS Battery

However, the convention nominated the utility company president Wendell Willkie, who had supported Roosevelt in 1932 but turned against him after the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority forced him to sell his company.Sony VAIO VPC CW2MFX/PU Battery

Hoover dutifully supported Willkie, although he despaired that the nominee endorsed a platform that, to Hoover, was little more than the New Deal in all but name.

The road to war and World War II

With the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, Hoover joined with the majority of Americans to declare for neutrality from the conflict.Sony VAIO VPC S11V9E/B Battery

Like many, he initially believed that the Allies would be able to contain Nazi Germany.

Unlike Roosevelt's administration, Hoover was a vocal supporter of providing relief to countries in Nazi-occupied Europe. He was instrumental in creating the Commission for Polish Relief and Finnish Relief Fund.Sony VAIO VPCB119GJ/B Battery

When the Germans overran France and then had Britain held in a stalemate, many Americans saw Britain as on the verge of collapse. Nonetheless, Hoover declared that it would be folly for the United States to declare war on Germany and to rush to save the United Kingdom.Sony VAIO VPCB11AGJ Battery

Rather, he held, it was far wiser for this nation to devote itself to building up its own defenses, and to wash its hands of the mess in Europe. He called for a "Fortress America" concept, in which the United States, protected on the East and on the West by vast oceans patrolled by its Navy and its Air Corps (the USAAF), could adequately repel any attack on the Americas.Sony VAIO VPCB11AVJ Battery

Hoover publicly opposed Roosevelt's peacetime draft of men, the Lend-Lease Program, and the "shoot on sight" command that FDR gave the U.S. Navy should it cross paths with any German U-boats in the shipping lanes between the United States and the UK, viewing them all as threats to America's official neutrality.Sony VAIO VPCB11V9E Battery

During a radio broadcast on June 29, 1941, one week after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, Hoover disparaged any "tacit alliance" between the U.S. and the USSR by saying:

If we go further and join the war and we win, then we have won for Stalin the grip of communism on Russia...Sony VAIO VPCB11X9E Battery

Again I say, if we join the war and Stalin wins, we have aided him to impose more communism on Europe and the world. At least we could not with such a bedfellow say to our sons that by making the supreme sacrifice, they are restoring freedom to the world. War alongside Stalin to impose freedom is more than a travesty. It is a tragedy.Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/P Battery

When the United States entered the war following the December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hoover swept aside all feelings of neutrality and called for total victory. He offered himself to the government in any capacity necessary, but the Roosevelt Administration did not call upon him to serve.Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/R Battery

Post-World War II

Because of Hoover's previous experience with Germany at the end of World War I, in 1946 President Harry S. Truman selected the former president to tour Germany to ascertain the food status of the occupied nation.Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/W Battery

Hoover toured what was to become West Germany in Hermann Göring's old train coach and produced a number of reports critical of U.S. occupation policy. The economy of Germany had "sunk to the lowest level in a hundred years."[66]He stated in one report:Sony VAIO VPCCW19FJ/W Battery

There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a "pastoral state". It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out of it.

As the Cold War approached and deepened, Hoover expressed reservations about some of the activities of the American Friends Service Committee, which he previously had strongly supported.Sony VAIO VPCCW1AFJ Battery

On Hoover’s initiative, a school meals program in the American and British occupation zones of Germany was begun on April 14, 1947. The program served 3.5 million children aged six through 18. A total of 40,000 tons of American food was provided during the Hooverspeisung(Hoover meals).Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery

In 1947, President Harry S. Truman appointed Hoover to a commission, which elected him chairman, to reorganize the executive departments. This became known as the Hoover Commission. He was appointed chairman of a similar commission by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery

Both found numerous inefficiencies and ways to reduce waste, but Hoover was disappointed that the government did not enact most of the recommendations that the commissions had made.

In 1949, the New York State Governor Thomas E. Dewey offered Hoover a seat in the U.S. Senate, to fulfill an unexpired term, but Hoover declined it.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery

Following World War II, Hoover became friends with President Harry S. Truman. Hoover joked that they were for many years the sole members of the "trade union" of former Presidents (since Calvin Coolidge and Roosevelt were dead already).

Throughout the Cold War, Hoover, always an opponent of Marxism, became even more outspokenly anti-Communist.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery

However, he vehemently opposed American involvement in the Korean War, saying that "'To commit the sparse ground forces of the non-communist nations into a land war against this communist land mass [in Asia] would be a war without victory, a war without a successful political terminal . . .Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery

that would be the graveyard of millions of American boys and the exhaustion of the United States."

Despite his advancing years, Hoover continued to work nearly full-time both on writing (among his literary works is The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson, a bestseller, and the first time one former President had ever written a biography about another),Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery

as well as overseeing the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, which housed not only his own professional papers, but also those of a number of other former high ranking governmental and military servants. He also threw himself into fund-raising for the Boys Clubs (now the Boys & Girls Clubs of America), which became his pet charity.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery

In 1960, he appeared at his final Republican National Convention. Since the 1948 convention, he had been feted as the guest of "farewell" ceremonies (the unspoken assumption being that the aging former President might not survive until the next convention). Joking to the delegates, he said, "Apparently, my last three good-byes didn't take.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery

" Although he lived to see the 1964 convention, ill health prevented him from attending. The Presidential nominee Barry Goldwater acknowledged Hoover's absence in his acceptance speech.

Hoover died following massive internal bleeding at the age of 90 in New York City at 11:35 am on October 20, 1964,Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery

31 years and seven months after leaving office. He had outlived by 20 years his wife, Lou Henry Hoover, who had died in 1944, and he was the last living member of the Coolidge administration. He also outlived both Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt who died in 1945 and 1962, respectively. By the time of his death, he had rehabilitated his image.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery

His birthplace in Iowa, as well as a home he lived in as a child in Oregon, became National Landmarks during his lifetime. His Rapidan fishing camp in Virginia, which he had donated to the government in 1933, is now a National Historic Landmark within the Shenandoah National Park. As of 2011, he had the longest retirement of any President.Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery

Hoover and his wife are buried at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum in West Branch, Iowa. Hoover was honored with a state funeral, the last of three in a span of 12 months, coming as it did just after the deaths of President John F. Kennedy and General Douglas MacArthur, former Chaplain of the Senate Frederick Brown Harris officiated.Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery

All three have two things in common: the commanding general of the Military District of Washington during those funerals was Army Major General Philip C. Wehle and the riderless horse was Black Jack, who also served in that role during Lyndon B. Johnson's funeral.Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery

Heritage and memorials

The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum is located in West Branch, Iowa next to the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site. The library is one of twelve presidential libraries run by theNational Archives and Records Administration.Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery

The Lou Henry and Herbert Hoover House, built in 1919 in Palo Alto, California, is now the official residence of the president of Stanford University, and aNational Historic Landmark. Hoover's rustic rural presidential retreat, Rapidan Camp (also known as Camp Hoover) in the Shenandoah National Park,Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

Virginia, has recently been restored and opened to the public. The Hoover Dam was also named in his honor, as are five Herbert Hoover High Schools.Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery

On December 10, 2008, Hoover's great-granddaughter Margaret Hoover and Senate of Puerto Rico President Kenneth McClintock unveiled a life-sized bronze statue of Hoover at Puerto Rico's Territorial Capitol. The statue is one of seven honoring Presidents who have visited the United States territory during their term of office.Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery

One line in the All in the Familytheme song—an ironic exercise in pre-New Deal nostalgia—says "Mister, we could use a man like Herbert Hoover again".Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery

The Belgian city of Leuven named a square in the city center after Hoover, honoring him for the work he did as chairman of the "Commission for Relief in Belgium" during World War I. The square is located near the Central Library of the Catholic University of Leuven, where a bust of the president can be seen.Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery

The Polish capital of Warsaw also has a square named after Hoover alongside the Royal Route leading to the Old Town.

George Burroughs Torrey painted a portrait of him.

The Bonus Armywas the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans,Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery

their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand immediate cash-payment redemption of their service certificates. Its organizers called it the Bonus Expeditionary Forceto echo the name of World War I's American Expeditionary Force, while the media called it the Bonus March.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery

It was led by Walter W. Waters, a former Army sergeant.

Many of the war veterans had been out of work since the beginning of the Great Depression. The World War Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924 had awarded them bonuses in the form of certificates they could not redeem until 1945.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

Each service certificate, issued to a qualified veteran soldier, bore a face value equal to the soldier's promised payment plus compound interest. The principal demand of the Bonus Army was the immediate cash payment of their certificates.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

Retired Marine Corps Major General Smedley Butler, one of the most popular military figures of the time, visited their camp to back the effort and encourage them. On July 28, U.S. Attorney General William D. Mitchell ordered the veterans removed from all government property.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery

Washington police met with resistance, shots were fired and two veterans were wounded and later died. President Herbert Hoover then ordered the army to clear the veterans' campsite. Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur commanded the infantry and cavalry supported by six tanks.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

The Bonus Army marchers with their wives and children were driven out, and their shelters and belongings burned.

A second, smaller Bonus March in 1933 at the start of the Roosevelt Administration was defused with promises instead of military action.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

In 1936, a Democrat-majority Congress overrode President Franklin D. Roosevelt's veto to pay the veterans their bonus years early.

Background

In 1781, most of the Continental Army was demobilized without pay.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

Two years later hundreds of Pennsylvania war veterans marched on Philadelphia, then the capital, surrounded the State House where the U.S. Congress was in session, and demanded their pay. Congress fled to Princeton, New Jersey, and several weeks later, the U.S. Army expelled the war veterans from the national capital.Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery

In response to that experience, the federal district directly governed by the U.S. Congress,[1]Washington, D.C., was excluded from the restrictions of the Posse Comitatus Act which forbade the use of the U.S. military for domestic police activity.Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

The practice of war-time military bonuses began in 1776, as payment for the difference between what a soldier earned and what he could have earned had he not enlisted. Breaking with tradition, the veterans of the Spanish-American War did not receive a bonus and, after World War One,Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery

their not receiving a military service bonus became a political matter when WWI veterans received only a $60 bonus. The American Legion, created in 1919, led a political movement for an additional bonus.

On May 15, 1924, President Calvin Coolidge vetoed a bill granting bonuses to veterans of World War I saying: "patriotism...Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery

bought and paid for is not patriotism." Congress overrode his veto a few days later, enacting the World War Adjusted Compensation Act. Each veteran was to receive a dollar for each day of domestic service, up to a maximum of $500, and $1.25 for each day of overseas service, up to a maximum of $625.Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

Amounts of $50 or less were immediately paid. All other amounts were issued as Certificates of Service maturing in 20 years.

Some 3,662,374 military service certificates were issued, with a face value of $3.638 billion. Congress established a trust fund to receive 20 annual payments of $112 million that,Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery

with interest, would finance the 1945 disbursement of the $3.638 billion due to the veterans. Meanwhile, veterans could borrow up to 22.5% of the certificate's face value from the fund. In 1931, because of theGreat Depression, Congress increased the maximum value of such loans to 50% of the certificate's face value.Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery

By April 1932, loans amounting to $1.248 billion had been made. Although there was Congressional support for the immediate redemption of the military service certificates, President Hoover and Republican congressmen opposed such action;Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

they reasoned that the government would have to increase taxes to cover the costs of the payout, and thus any potential recovery would be slowed.

The Veterans of Foreign Wars continued to press the federal government to allow the early redemption of military service certificates.Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

March

On June 15, the House of Representatives passed the Wright Patman Bonus Bill which would have moved forward the date for World War I veterans to receive their cash bonus.

Most of the Bonus Army camped in a Hooverville on the Anacostia Flats,Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

a swampy, muddy area across the Anacostia River from the federal core of Washington, just south of the 11th Street Bridges (now Section C of Anacostia Park). The camps, built from materials scavenged from a nearby rubbish dump, were tightly controlled by the veterans who laid out streets,Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery

built sanitation facilities, and held daily parades. To live in the camps, veterans were required to register and prove they had been honorably discharged.

The Bonus Army massed at the United States Capitol on June 17 as the U.S. Senate defeated the Bonus Bill by a vote of 62-18.Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

U.S. Army intervention

The marchers remained at their campsite waiting for President Hoover to act. On July 28, 1932, Attorney General William D. Mitchell ordered the police to remove the Bonus Army veterans from their camp.Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery

When the veterans moved back into it, they rushed two policeman trapped on the second floor of a building. The cornered police drew their revolvers and shot two veterans, William Hushka and Eric Carlson, who died later.[8]When told of this, President Hoover ordered the army to evict the Bonus Army from Washington.Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery

At 4:45 p.m., commanded by Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the 12th Infantry Regiment, Fort Howard, Maryland, and the 3rd Cavalry Regiment, supported by six battle tanks commanded by Maj. George S. Patton, formed in Pennsylvania Avenue while thousands of civil service employees left work to line the street and watch.Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

The Bonus Marchers, believing the troops were marching in their honor, cheered the troops until Patton ordered the cavalry to charge them—an action which prompted the spectators to yell, "Shame! Shame!"

After the cavalry charged, the infantry, with fixed bayonets and adamsite gas, an arsenical vomiting agent,Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery

entered the camps, evicting veterans, families, and camp followers. The veterans fled across the Anacostia River to their largest camp and President Hoover ordered the assault stopped. However Gen. MacArthur, feeling the Bonus March was a Communist attempt to overthrow the U.S. government, ignored the President and ordered a new attack.Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery

Fifty-five veterans were injured and 135 arrested. A veteran's wife miscarried. When 12-week-old Bernard Myers died in the hospital after being caught in the tear gas attack, a government investigation reported he died of enteritis, while a hospital spokesman said the tear gas "didn't do it any good."Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

During the military operation, Major Dwight D. Eisenhower, later President of the United States, served as one of MacArthur's junior aides. Believing it wrong for the Army's highest-ranking officer to lead an action against fellow American war veterans, he strongly advised MacArthur against taking any public role:Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

"I told that dumb son-of-a-bitch not to go down there," he said later. "I told him it was no place for the Chief of Staff." Despite his misgivings, Eisenhower later wrote the Army's official incident report which endorsed MacArthur's conduct.Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

Aftermath

MGM released the movie Gabriel Over the White Housein March 1933. Produced by William Randolph Hearst's Cosmopolitan Pictures, it depicted a fictitious President Hammond who, in the film's opening scenes,Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery

refuses to deploy the military against a march of the unemployed and instead creates an "Army of Construction" to work on public works projects until the economy recovers. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt judged the movie's treatment of veterans superior to Hoover's.Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

The Bonus Army incident proved disastrous for Hoover's chances at re-election; he lost the 1932 election in a landslide to Franklin D. Roosevelt.

During the presidential campaign of 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt opposed the veterans' bonus demands.Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery

When they organized a second demonstration in May 1933, he provided the marchers with a campsite in Virginia and provided them 3 meals a day. Administration officials, led by presidential confidant Louis Howe, tried to negotiate an end to the protest. Roosevelt arranged for his wife Eleanor to visit the site unaccompanied.Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

She lunched with the veterans and listened to them perform songs. She reminisced about her memories of seeing troops off to World War I and welcoming them home. The most she could offer was a promise of positions in the newly created Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery

One veteran commented: "Hoover sent the army, Roosevelt sent his wife." In a press conference following her visit, the First Lady described her reception as courteous and praised the marchers, highlighting how comfortable she felt despite critics of the marchers who described them as Communists and criminals.Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery

Roosevelt later issued an executive order allowing the enrollment of 25,000 veterans in the CCC, exempting them from the normal requirement that applicants be unmarried and under the age of 25.Congress passed the Adjusted Compensation Payment Act in 1936 authorizing the immediate payment of the $2 billion in WWI bonuses over the President's veto.Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery

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