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27 septembre 2013 5 27 /09 /septembre /2013 04:46

The history of Russia begins with that of the Eastern Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples. The state of Garðaríki ( "the realm of towns"), which was centered in Novgorod and included the entire areas inhabited by Ilmen Slavs, Vepsand Votes, was established by the Varangian chieftain Rurik in 862 (the traditional beginning of Russian history).[1]  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

Kievan Rus', the first united East Slavic state, was founded by Rurik's successor Oleg of Novgorod in 882.[2] The state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988,[3] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium.[4] ACER Aspire 7736ZG Laptop Keyboard

Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237–1240, and the death of about half the population of Rus'. During that time a number of regional magnates, in particular Novgorod and Pskov, fought to inherit the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

After the 13th century, Moscow came to dominate the former cultural center.[4] By the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia had become the huge Russian Empire, stretching from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth eastward to the Pacific Ocean. Expansion in the western direction sharpened Russia's awareness of its separation from much of the rest of Europe and shattered the isolation in which the initial stages of expansion had occurred. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Successive regimes of the 19th century responded to such pressures with a combination of halfhearted reform and repression. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861, but its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to increase revolutionary pressures. Between the abolition of serfdom and the beginning of World War I in 1914, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

the Stolypin reforms, the constitution of 1906 and State Duma introduced notable changes to the economy and politics of Russia,[5] but the tsars were still not willing to relinquish autocratic rule, or share their power.[6]

The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of economic breakdown,  HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

war weariness, and discontent with the autocratic system of government, and it first brought a coalition of liberals and moderate socialists to power, but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the Communist Bolsheviks on 25 October. Between 1922 and 1991, the history of Russia is essentially the history of the Soviet Union, effectively an ideologically based state which was roughly conterminous with the Russian Empire before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-106CA Laptop Keyboard

The approach to the building of socialism, however, varied over different periods in Soviet history, from the mixed economy and diverse society and culture of the 1920s to the command economy and repressions of the Joseph Stalin era to the "era of stagnation" in the 1980s. From its first years,  ACER Aspire 5810T-8929 Laptop Keyboard

government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communists, as the Bolsheviks called themselves, beginning in March 1918.[7] However, by the late 1980s, with the weaknesses of its economic and political structures becoming acute, the Communist leaders embarked on major reforms, which led to the fall of the Soviet Union.[8] DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

The history of the Russian Federation officially starts in January 1992. The Russian Federation was recognized as the legal successor to the Soviet Union on the international stage.[9] However, Russia has lost its superpower status as it faced serious challenges in its efforts to forge a new post-Soviet political and economic system.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Scrapping the socialistcentral planning and state ownership of property of the Soviet era, Russia attempted to build an economy based on market capitalism, with often painful results.[8] Even today Russia shares many continuities of political culture and social structure with its tsarist and Soviet past. COMPAQ NSK-H5401 Laptop Keyboard

The discovery of some of the earliest evidence for the presence of modern humans found anywhere in Europe was reported in 2007 from the deepest levels of the Kostenki archaeological site near the Don River in Russia, which has been dated to at least 45,000 years ago. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

During the prehistoric eras the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists. In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia.[11] Remnants of these long gone steppe cultures were discovered in the course of the 20th century in such places as Ipatovo,[11]Sintashta,[12] Arkaim,[13] and Pazyryk.[14] SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

In the latter part of the 8th century BC, Greek merchants brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria.[15] Gelonus was described by Herodotos as a huge (Europe's biggest) earth- and wood-fortified grad inhabited around 500 BC by Heloni and Budini. At about the 2nd century AD Goths migrated to the Black Sea, and in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, DELL 0PVDG3 laptop keyboard

a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom ofOium existed in Southern Russia until it was overrun by Huns. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, theBosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies,[16] was also overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions,[17]

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led by warlike tribes which would often move on to Europe, as was the case with the Huns and Turkish Avars.

A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seasthrough to the 8th century.[18]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Noted for their laws, tolerance, and cosmopolitanism,[19] the Khazars were the main commercial link between the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad.[20] They were important allies of the Byzantine Empire,[21] and waged a series of successful wars against the Arab Caliphates.[18][22] In the 8th century, the Khazars embraced Judaism. Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

The ancestors of the Russians were the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pripet Marshes.[23] The Early East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev towards present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk towardsNovgorod and Rostov.[24] HP Pavilion dv6-3030sp laptop keyboard

From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia[24]and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finno-Ugric tribes, such as the Merya,[25] theMuromians,[26] and the Meshchera.

Scandinavian Norsemen, called "Vikings" in Western Europe and "Varangians"[28] in the East,  HP Pavilion DV8310CA laptop keyboard

combined piracyand trade in their roamings over much of Northern Europe. In the mid-9th century, they began to venture along the waterways from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.[29] According to the earliest Russian chronicle, a Varangian named Rurik was elected ruler (knyaz) of Novgorod in about 860,[4] SONY VAIO VGN-CR21Z laptop keyboard

before his successors moved south and extended their authority to Kiev,[30] which had been previously dominated by the Khazars.[31]

Thus, the first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', emerged in the 9th century along the Dnieper Rivervalley.[4] HP Pavilion dv5-1114ez laptop keyboard

A coordinated group of princely states with a common interest in maintaining trade along the river routes, Kievan Rus' controlled the trade route for furs, wax, and slaves between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire along the Volkhov and Dnieper Rivers.[4]

In the 8th and 9th centuries, the lands of the Rus' had been populated by eastern Slavic tribes. HP Pavilion dv5-1033ez laptop keyboard

To the north were the Slovenes of the Novgorod region and the neighboring Krivichi, who occupied the territories surrounding the headwaters of the West Dvina, Dnieper, and Volga Rivers. To the south, in the area around Kiev, were the Poliane, a group of Slavicized tribes with Iranian origins. Lenovo 3000 C200 laptop keyboard

To their north the Derevliane inhabited the lands west of the Dnieper extending to its tributary the Pripyat River. East of the Dnieper along its tributary the Desna River were Severiane tribes, and the Viatichi lived to their north and east along the upper Oka River. Kievan Rus' was fringed in the north by the Finnic Churd. TOSHIBA Satellite m502 laptop keyboard

To the south, its forested lands, settled by Slav farmers, gave way to steppelands populated by nomadic hersdmen.[32]

Within Kievan Rus there were several noteworthy towns by the late 10th century. Kiev and Novgorod were its southern and northern focal points. In addition, Kievan Rus contained Smolensk, a center of Krivichi, located on the upper Dniper. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard

West of Smolensk was the town of Polotsk, which Vladimir had seized fromRogvolod, located on the Palata River. South of Polotsk on the Pripyat River was the Dregovich center ofTurov (Turau). On the east side of the Dnieper, Chernigov was the major center of the Severiane tribes. Pereiaslavl, situated southeast of Kiev on the Trubezh River, was the town nearest the steppe frontier. HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

Rostov, located on Lake Nero, had also been founded by the era of Prince Vladimir.[32]

By the end of the 10th century, the Norse minority had merged with the Slavic population,[33] which also absorbed Greek Christian influences in the course of the multiple campaigns to loot Tsargrad, orConstantinople.[34] ACER TravelMate 4050 Laptop Keyboard

 One such campaign claimed the life of the foremost Slavic druzhina leader, Svyatoslav I, who was renowned for having crushed the power of the Khazars on the Volga.[35] At the time, theByzantine Empire was experiencing a major military and cultural revival; despite its later decline, its culture would have a continuous influence on the development of Russia in its formative centuries. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Kievan Rus' is important for its introduction of a Slavic variant of the Eastern Orthodox religion,[4] dramatically deepening a synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next thousand years. The region adopted Christianity in 988 by the official act of public baptism of Kiev inhabitants by Prince Vladimir I.[36] HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard

Some years later the first code of laws, Russkaya Pravda, was introduced.[37] From the onset the Kievan princes followed the Byzantine example and kept the Church dependent on them, even for its revenues,[38] so that the Russian Church and state were always closely linked.

A principle concern of the Rus' was the Khazar Khaganate, which had dominated southeast Europe until the middle of the 10th century but had disintegrated by the beginning of Vladimir's reign. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard

Centered north of the Caspian Sea, the Khazar state had consisted of a largely Muslim and Turkic-speaking population. In the 9th and 10th centuries Khazaria controlled territories extending from the North Caucasus to the mid-Volga. The formation and development of Kievan Rus' constituted a direct challenge to Khazaria. Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard

The Poliane and the area of Kiev had before the advent of the Rus' formed the western frontier of Khazaria, so despite their commercial contacts, the Rus' and Khazars were rivals. In 965 prince Sviatoslav I of Kiev conducted an attack on Sarkel, a Khazar fortress that stood on the Don River guarding the approaches to the Khazar Empire from the Black Sea, HP Pavilion G7-1167DX Laptop Keyboard

and on Khazar territories in the North Caucasus. His victory is considered to have delivered a fatal blow to Khazaria, which subsequently collapsed. Its demise, recorded in both the Primary Chronicle and Islamic sources, shocked and destabilized the entire region of the lower Volga, Caspian, and North Caucasus.[39] SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

By the 11th century, particularly during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise, Kievan Rus' displayed an economy and achievements in architecture and literature superior to those that then existed in the western part of the continent.[40] Compared with the languages of European Christendom, the Russian language was little influenced by the Greek and Latin of early Christian writings.[4] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

 This was because Church Slavonic was used directly in liturgy instead.[41]

A nomadic Turkic people, the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans), replaced the earlier Pechenegs as the dominant force in the south steppe regions neighbouring to Rus' at the end of the 11th century and founded a nomadic state in the steppes along the Black Sea (Desht-e-Kipchak). TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Repelling their regular attacks, especially on Kiev, which was just one day's ride from the steppe, was a heavy burden for the southern areas of Rus'. The nomadic incursions caused a massive influx of Slavs to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye. TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S4807 Laptop Keyboard

Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of in-fighting between members of the princely family that ruled it collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod in the north, and Halych-Volhynia in the south-west. Conquest by the Mongol Golden Horde in the 13th century was the final blow. HP G72-b67CA Laptop Keyboard

Kiev was destroyed.[42] Halych-Volhynia would eventually be absorbed into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth,[4] while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and independent Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, would establish the basis for the modern Russian nation. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

The invading Mongols accelerated the fragmentation of the Rus'. In 1223, the disunited southern princes faced a Mongol raiding party at the Kalka River and were soundly defeated.[43] In 1237–1238 the Mongols burnt down the city of Vladimir (4 February 1238)[44] and other major cities of northeast Russia, routed the Russians at the Sit' River,[45] and then moved west into Poland and Hungary.[46] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

 By then they had conquered most of the Russian principalities.[47] Only the Novgorod Republic escaped occupation and continued to flourish in the orbit of the Hanseatic League.[48]

The impact of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven. The advanced city culture was almost completely destroyed. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

As older centers such as Kiev and Vladimir never recovered from the devastation of the initial attack,[42] the new cities of Moscow,[49] Tver[49] and Nizhny Novgorod[50] began to compete for hegemony in the Mongol-dominated Russia. Although a Russian army defeated the Golden Horde at Kulikovo in 1380,[51] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard

Mongol domination of the Russian-inhabited territories, along with demands of tribute from Russian princes, continued until about 1480.

After the fall of the Khazars in the 10th century, the middle Volga came to be dominated by the mercantile state of Volga Bulgaria, the last vestige of Greater Bulgaria centered at Phanagoria.  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

In the 10th century the Turkic population of Volga Bulgaria converted toIslam, which facilitated its trade with the Middle East and Central Asia.In the wake of the Mongol invasions of the 1230s, Volga Bulgaria was absorbed by theGolden Horde and its population evolved into the modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars.  DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

The Mongols held Russia and Volga Bulgaria in sway from their western capital atSarai,[52] one of the largest cities of the medieval world. The princes of southern and eastern Russia had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde, commonly calledTatars;[52] but in return they received charters authorizing them to act as deputies to the khans.  SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

In general, the princes were allowed considerable freedom to rule as they wished,[52] while the Russian Orthodox Church even experienced a spiritual revival under the guidance of Metropolitan Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh.

To the Orthodox Church and most princes, the fanatical Northern Crusaders seemed a greater threat to the Russian way of life than the Mongols. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

In the mid-13th century, Alexander Nevsky, elected prince of Novgorod, acquired heroic status as the result of major victories over the Teutonic Knights and the Swedes. Alexander obtained Mongol protection and assistance in fighting invaders from the west who, hoping to profit from the Russian collapse since the Mongol invasions, tried to grab territory and convert the Russians to Roman Catholicism. SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

The Mongols left their impact on the Russians in such areas as military tactics and transportation. Under Mongol occupation, Russia also developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization.[4] Eastern influence remained strong well until the 17th century, when Russian rulers made a conscious effort to modernize their country. HP Pavilion dv6-3217cl laptop keyboard

Daniil Aleksandrovich, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, founded the principality of Moscow (known as Muscovy in English),[49] which eventually expelled the Tatars from Russia. Well-situated in the central river system of Russia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes, Moscow was at first only a vassal of Vladimir, but soon it absorbed its parent state. SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/S laptop keyboard

A major factor in the ascendancy of Moscow was the cooperation of its rulers with the Mongol overlords, who granted them the title of Grand Prince of Moscow and made them agents for collecting the Tatar tribute from the Russian principalities. The principality's prestige was further enhanced when it became the center of the Russian Orthodox Church. DELL PK130CW1A08 laptop keyboard

Its head, the Metropolitan, fled from Kiev to Vladimir in 1299 and a few years later established the permanent headquarters of the Church in Moscow under the original title of Kiev Metropolitan.

By the middle of the 14th century, the power of the Mongols was declining, and the Grand Princes felt able to openly oppose the Mongol yoke. In 1380, at Kulikovo on the Don River, ASUS A6J laptop keyboard

the Mongols were defeated,[51] and although this hard-fought victory did not end Tatar rule of Russia, it did bring great fame to the Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy. Moscow's leadership in Russia was now firmly based and by the middle of the 14th century its territory had greatly expanded through purchase, war, and marriage. SONY VAIO VGN-CR21SR laptop keyboard

In the 15th century, the grand princes of Moscow went on gathering Russian lands to increase the population and wealth under their rule. The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III[49] who laid the foundations for a Russian national state. Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival, ACER TravelMate 8210 laptop keyboard

the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, for control over some of the semi-independent Upper Principalities in the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins.

Through the defections of some princes, border skirmishes, and a long war with the Novgorod Republic, Ivan III was able to annex Novgorod and Tver.[55] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 laptop keyboard

As a result, the Grand Duchy of Moscow tripled in size under his rule.[49] During his conflict with Pskov, a monk named Filofei (Philotheus of Pskov) composed a letter to Ivan III, with the prophecy that the latter's kingdom will be the Third Rome.[56] The Fall of Constantinople and the death of the last Greek Orthodox Christian emperor contributed to this new idea of Moscow as 'New Rome' and the seat of Orthodox Christianity. SONY VAIO PCG-FR130 laptop keyboard

A contemporary of the Tudors and other "new monarchs" in Western Europe, Ivan proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Russian princes and nobles. Refusing further tribute to the Tatars, Ivan initiated a series of attacks that opened the way for the complete defeat of the declining Golden Horde, now divided into several Khanates and hordes. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9520D laptop keyboard

Ivan and his successors sought to protect the southern boundaries of their domain against attacks of the Crimean Tatars and other hordes.[57] To achieve this aim, they sponsored the construction of the Great Abatis Belt and granted manors to nobles, who were obliged to serve in the military. The manor system provided a basis for an emerging cavalry based army. HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard

In this way, internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state. By the 16th century, the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property. Various semi-independent princes still claimed specific territories,[54] but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, and foreign affairs.  HP G62-b12SL laptop keyboard

Gradually, the Russian ruler emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a tsar. The first Russian ruler to officially crown himself "Tsar" wasIvan IV.[49]

Ivan III tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde over the Rus, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

Biographer Fennell concludes that his reign was "militarily glorious and economically sound," and especially points to his territorial annexations and his centralized control over local rulers. However Fennell, the leading British specialist on Ivan III, argues that his reign was also "a period of cultural depression and spiritual barrenness. TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

Freedom was stamped out within the Russian lands. By his bigoted anti-Catholicism Ivan brought down the curtain between Russia and the west. For the sake of territorial aggrandizement he deprived his country of the fruits of Western learning and civilization."

The development of the Tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign (1547–1584) of Ivan IV ("Ivan the Terrible"). Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard

He strengthened the position of the monarch to an unprecedented degree, as he ruthlessly subordinated the nobles to his will, exiling or executing many on the slightest provocation.[49] Nevertheless, Ivan is often seen as a farsighted statesman who reformed Russia as he promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550),[59] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor), curbed the influence of clergy,[60] and introduced the local self-management in rural regions.[61]

Although his long Livonian War for the control of the Baltic coast and the access to sea trade ultimately proved a costly failure,[62] Ivan managed to annex the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia.[63] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

These conquests complicated the migration of the aggressive nomadic hordes from Asia to Europe through Volga and Ural. Through these conquests, Russia acquired a significant Muslim Tatar population and emerged as a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. Also around this period, the mercantile Stroganov family established a firm foothold at the Urals and recruited Russian Cossacks to colonise Siberia.[64] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

In the later part of his reign, Ivan divided his realm in two. In the zone known as the oprichnina, Ivan's followers carried out a series of bloody purges of the feudal aristocracy (which he suspected of treachery after the betrayal of prince Kurbsky), culminating in the Massacre of Novgorod (1570). SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

This combined with the military losses, epidemics, poor harvests so weakened Russia that the Crimean Tatars were able to sack central Russian regions and burn down Moscow (1571).[65] In 1572 Ivan abandoned the oprichnina.[66][67]

At the end of Ivan IV's reign the Polish–Lithuanian and Swedish armies carried out a powerful intervention in Russia, devastating its northern and northwest regions.  HP G72-a10SV Laptop Keyboard

The death of Ivan's childless son Feodor was followed by a period of civil wars and foreign intervention known as the "Time of Troubles" (1606–13).[49] Extremely cold summers (1601–1603) wrecked crops,[70] which led to the Russian famine of 1601–1603 and increased the social disorganization. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

Boris Godunov's (Борис Годунов) reign ended in chaos, civil war combined with foreign intrusion, devastation of many cities and depopulation of the rural regions. The country rocked by internal chaos also attracted several waves of interventions by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[71] SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

During the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618), Polish–Lithuanian forces reached Moscow and installed the impostor False Dmitriy I in 1605, then supported False Dmitry II in 1607. The decisive moment came when a combined Russian-Swedish army was routed by the Polish forces under hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski at the Battle of Klushino on 4 July [O.S. 24 June] 1610. SONY VAIO VGN-CR150F Laptop Keyboard

As the result of the battle, the Seven Boyars, a group of Russian nobles, deposed the tsar Vasily Shuysky on 27 July [O.S. 17 July] 1610, and recognized the Polish prince Władysław IV Vasa as the Tsar of Russia on 6 September [O.S. 27 August] 1610.[72][73]The Poles entered Moscow on 21 September [O.S. 11 September] 1610. Moscow revolted but riots there were brutally suppressed and the city was set on fire.[74][75][76] DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard

The crisis provoked a patriotic national uprising against the invasion, both in 1611 and 1612. Finally, a volunteer army, led by the merchant Kuzma Minin and prince Dmitry Pozharsky, expelled the foreign forces from the capital on 4 November [O.S. 22 October] 1612.[69][77][78]

The Russian statehood survived the "Time of Troubles" and the rule of weak or corrupt Tsars because of the strength of the government's central bureaucracy. DELL Latitude D505 Laptop Keyboard

Government functionaries continued to serve, regardless of the ruler's legitimacy or the faction controlling the throne.[49] However, the "Time of Troubles" provoked by the dynastic crisis resulted in the loss of much territory to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Russo-Polish war, as well as to the Swedish Empire in the Ingrian War. HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

In February 1613, with the chaos ended and the Poles expelled from Moscow, a national assembly, composed of representatives from fifty cities and even some peasants, elected Michael Romanov, the young son of Patriarch Filaret, to the throne. TheRomanov dynasty ruled Russia until 1917. Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

The immediate task of the new dynasty was to restore peace. Fortunately for Moscow, its major enemies, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden, were engaged in a bitter conflict with each other, which provided Russia the opportunity to make peace with Sweden in 1617 and to sign a truce with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1619. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

Recovery of lost territories started in the mid-17th century, when the Khmelnitsky Uprising in Ukraine against Polish rule brought about the Treaty of Pereyaslav concluded between Russia and the Ukrainian Cossacks.

According to the treaty, Russia granted protection to the Cossacks state in the Left-bank Ukraine, formerly under Polish control. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

This triggered a prolonged Russo-Polish War which ended with the Treaty of Andrusovo (1667), where Poland accepted the loss of Left-bank Ukraine, Kiev and Smolensk.[49]

Rather than risk their estates in more civil war, the great nobles or boyars cooperated with the first Romanovs, enabling them to finish the work of bureaucratic centralization. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S laptop keyboard

Thus, the state required service from both the old and the new nobility, primarily in the military. In return the tsars allowed the boyars to complete the process of enserfing the peasants.

In the preceding century, the state had gradually curtailed peasants' rights to move from one landlord to another. ACER Aspire 2003WLMi laptop keyboard

With the state now fully sanctioning serfdom, runaway peasants became state fugitives, and the power of the landlords over the peasants "attached" to their land had become almost complete. Together the state and the nobles placed the overwhelming burden of taxation on the peasants, whose rate was 100 times greater in the mid-17th century than it had been a century earlier. HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard

In addition, middle-class urban tradesmen and craftsmen were assessed taxes, and, like the serfs, they were forbidden to change residence. All segments of the population were subject to military levy and to special taxes.[79]

Under such circumstances, peasant disorders were endemic; even the citizens of Moscow revolted against the Romanovs during the Salt Riot (1648),[80] SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard

GATEWAY M-6333 laptop keyboard

 Copper Riot (1662),[80] and the Moscow Uprising (1682).[81] By far the greatest peasant uprising in 17th-century Europe erupted in 1667. As the free settlers of South Russia, the Cossacks, reacted against the growing centralization of the state, serfs escaped from their landlords and joined the rebels. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

The Cossack leader Stenka Razin led his followers up the Volga River, inciting peasant uprisings and replacing local governments with Cossack rule.[49]The tsar's army finally crushed his forces in 1670; a year later Stenka was captured and beheaded. Yet, less than half a century later, the strains of military expeditions produced another revolt in Astrakhan, ultimately subdued. HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

Peter the Great (1672–1725) brought autocracy into Russia and played a major role in bringing his country into the European state system. From its modest beginnings in the 14th-century principality of Moscow, Russia had become the largest state in the world by Peter's reign. Three times the size of continental Europe, it spanned the Eurasian landmass from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

Much of its expansion had taken place in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian settlement of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the reconquest of Kiev, and the pacification of the Siberian tribes. However, this vast land had a population of only 14 million. Grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West  HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

(that can be partly explained by the more challenging climatic conditions, in particular long cold winters and short vegetative period[82]) compelling almost the entire population to farm. Only a small fraction of the population lived in the towns. Russia remained isolated from the sea trade, its internal trade communications and many manufactures were dependent on the seasonal changes.[83] SONY VAIO VGN-AR370E laptop keyboard

Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.[84] His attention then turned to the north. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport except at Archangel on the White Sea, whose harbor was frozen nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden, whose territory enclosed it on three sides.  HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr laptop keyboard

Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him in 1699 to make a secret alliance with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden resulting in the Great Northern War.

The war ended in 1721 when an exhausted Sweden sued for peace with Russia. SONY VAIO PCG-FR77G/B laptop keyboard

Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland, thus securing his coveted access to the sea. There, in 1703, he had already founded the city that was to become Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, as a "window opened upon Europe" to replace Moscow, long Russia's cultural center. ACER Aspire 3810T laptop keyboard

Russian intervention in the Commonwealth marked, with the Silent Sejm, the beginning of a 200-year domination of that region by the Russian Empire. In celebration of his conquests, Peter assumed the title of emperor as well as tsar, and Russian Tsardom officially became the Russian Empire in 1721. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

Peter reorganized his government on the latest Western models, molding Russia into an absolutist state. He replaced the oldboyar Duma (council of nobles) with a nine-member senate, in effect a supreme council of state. The countryside was also divided into new provinces and districts. Peter told the senate that its mission was to collect tax revenues. TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

In turn tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign.

Administrative Collegia were established in St. Petersburg, to replace the old governmental departments. In 1722 Peter promulgated his famous Table of ranks. As part of the government reform, ASUS F9J laptop keyboard

the Orthodox Church was partially incorporated into the country's administrative structure, in effect making it a tool of the state. Peter abolished the patriarchate and replaced it with a collective body, the Holy Synod, led by a lay government official. Peter continued and intensified his predecessors' requirement of state service for all nobles. ACER Aspire 4315 laptop keyboard

Russia, by the end of Peter's reign, had become a great power. Peter the Great died in 1725, leaving an unsettled succession.Peter I was succeeded by his second wife (Catherine I, 1725–1728) who was merely a figure-head for a powerful group of high officials, then by his minor grandson (Peter II, 1728–1730), then by his niece, Anna, daughter of Tsar Ivan V. Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

In 1741Elizabeth, daughter of Peter, seized the throne, assisted by the Preobrazhensky Regiment. She reigned for twenty years, a period marked by the establishment of Moscow University and the abolition of capital punishment, except in cases of high treason.

Nearly forty years were to pass before a comparably ambitious ruler appeared on the Russian throne. ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

 Catherine II, the Great, was a German princess who married the German heir to the Russian crown. Finding him incompetent, Catherine tacitly consented to his murder. It was announced that he had died of "apoplexy", and in 1762 she became ruler.Catherine patronized arts, science and learning. She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard

Catherine promulgated Charter to the Gentry reaffirming rights and freedoms of the Russian nobility, and abolishing mandatory state service.

Catherine the Great extended Russian political control over the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth with actions including the support of the Targowica Confederation, although the cost of her campaigns, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

on top of the oppressive social system that required lords' serfs to spend almost all of their time laboring on the lords' land, provoked a major peasant uprising in 1773, after Catherine legalized the selling of serfs separate from land. Inspired by another Cossack named Pugachev, with the emphatic cry of "Hang all the landlords!" the rebels threatened to take Moscow before they were HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

ruthlessly suppressed. Catherine had Pugachev drawn and quartered in Red Square,[85] but the specter of revolution continued to haunt her and her successors.

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