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31 mars 2012 6 31 /03 /mars /2012 04:19

While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a mostly Prussian allied army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. In July, the invasion commenced, with Brunswick's army easily taking the fortresses of Longwy and Verdun. HP HSTNN-W79C-7 Battery

The duke then issued on 25 July a proclamation called the Brunswick Manifesto, written by Louis's émigré cousin, the Prince de Condé, declaring the intent of the Austrians and Prussians to restore the king to his full powers and to treat any person or town who opposed them as rebels to be condemned to death by martial law. HP HSTNN-XB89 Battery

 

Contrary to its intended purpose of strengthening the position of the King against the revolutionaries, the Brunswick Manifesto had the opposite effect of greatly undermining Louis's already highly tenuous position in Paris. It was taken by many to be the final proof of a collusion between Louis and foreign powers in a conspiracy against his own country. HP NBP8A157B1 Battery

The anger of the populace boiled over on 10 August when a group of Parisians – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the "insurrectionary" Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries Palace. The king and the royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly. HP NZ375AA Battery

 

The imprisonment and execution of Louis, 1792–1793

Louis was officially arrested on the 13 August 1792, and sent to the Temple, an ancient fortress in Paris that was used as a prison. On 21 September, the National Assembly declared France to be a Republic and abolished the Monarchy. Louis was stripped of all of his titles and honors, and from this date was known as simply Citoyen Louis Capet. HP HSTNN-1B52 Battery

 

The Girondins were partial to keeping the deposed king under arrest, both as a hostage and a guarantee for the future. The more radical members – mainly the Commune and the Parisian deputies who would soon be known as the Mountain – argued for Louis's immediate execution. HP HSTNN-1B89 Battery

The legal background of many of the deputies made it difficult for a great number of them to accept an execution without the due process of law of some sort, and it was voted that the deposed monarch be tried before the National Convention, HP HSTNN-IB89 Battery

the organ that housed the representatives of the sovereign people. In many ways the former king’s trial represented the trial of the revolution. The trial was seen as such, with the death of one came the life of the other. Michelet argued that the death of the former king would lead to the acceptance of violence as a tool for happiness. HP HSTNN-I62C-7 Battery

He said, “If we accept the proposition that one person can be sacrificed for the happiness of the many, it will soon be demonstrated that two or three or more could also be sacrificed for the happiness of the many. Little by little, we will find reasons for sacrificing the many for the happiness of the many, and we will think it was a bargain.”[37] HP HSTNN-I61C-5 Battery

 

In November 1792, the Armoire de fer (French: 'iron chest') incident took place at theTuileries Palace. This was believed to have been a hiding place at the Royal apartments, where some secret documents were kept. The existence of this iron cabinet was publicly revealed to Jean-Marie Roland, Girondinist Minister of the Interior. The resulting scandal served to discredit the King. HP HSTNN-I60C-5 Battery

 

On 11 December, among crowded and silent streets, the deposed King was brought from the Temple to stand before the Convention and hear his indictment, an accusation of high treason and crimes against the State. On 26 December, his counsel, Raymond de Sèze, delivered Louis's response to the charges, with the assistance of François Tronchet andMalesherbes. HP 535753-001 Battery

 

On 15 January 1793, the Convention, composed of 721 deputies, voted on the verdict. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis's collusion with the invaders, the verdict was a foregone conclusion – with 693 deputies voting guilty, none for acquittal, with 23 abstaining. The next day, a roll-call vote was carried out to decide upon the fate of the former King, HP 516479-121 Battery

and the result was uncomfortably close for such a dramatic decision. 288 of the Deputies voted against death and for some other alternative, mainly some means of imprisonment or exile. 72 of the Deputies voted for the death penalty, but subject to a number of delaying conditions and reservations. 361 of the Deputies voted for Louis's immediate death. HP HSTNN-DB94 Battery

 

The next day, a motion to grant Louis XVI reprieve from the death sentence was voted down: 310 of the Deputies requested mercy, but 380 of the Deputies voted for the immediate execution of the death penalty. This decision would be final. On Monday, 21 January 1793, Louis was beheaded by guillotine on the Place de la Révolution. The executioner, Charles Henri Sanson, testified that the former King had bravely met his fate.[38] HP HSTNN-IB93 Battery

 

As Louis mounted the scaffold he appeared dignified and resigned. He delivered a short speech in which he reasserted his innocence, “I die perfectly innocent of the so-called crimes of which I am accused. I pardon those who are the cause of my misfortunes....”[39] HP HSTNN-IB94 Battery

He declared himself willing to die and prayed that the people of France would be spared a similar fate. Many accounts suggest Louis XVI’s desire to say more to his people, butAntoine-Joseph Santerre, a general in the National Guard, halted the speech by ordering a drum roll. The former King was then quickly beheaded.[40] HP HSTNN-LB93 Battery

Some accounts of Louis's beheading indicate that the blade did not sever his neck entirely the first time. There are also accounts of a blood-curdling scream issuing from Louis after the blade fell but this is unlikely, since the blade severed Louis's spine. It is agreed that while Louis's blood dripped to the ground many members of the crowd ran forward to dip their handkerchiefs in it.[41] HP HSTNN-LB94 Battery

 

The 19th-century historian, Jules Michelet, attributed the restoration of the French monarchy to the sympathy that had been engendered by the execution of Louis XVI. Michelet's Histoire de la Révolution Française and Alphonse de Lamartine's Histoire des Girondins, HP HSTNN-OB93 Battery

in particular, showed the marks of the feelings aroused by the revolution's regicide. The two writers did not share the same sociopolitical vision, but they agreed that, even though the monarchy was rightly ended in 1792, the lives of the royal family should have been spared. HP HSTNN-OB94 Battery

Lack of compassion at that moment contributed to a radicalization of revolutionary violence and to greater divisiveness among Frenchmen. For the 20th century novelist Albert Camus the execution signaled the end of the role of God in history, for which he mourned. For the 20th century philosopher Jean-François Lyotard the regicide was the starting point of all French thought, the memory of which acts as a reminder that French modernity began under the sign of a crime.[42] HP HSTNN-XB93 Battery

 

His daughter, Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, the future Duchess of Angoulême, survived the French Revolution, and she lobbied in Rome energetically for the canonization of her father as a saint of the Catholic Church. Despite his signing of the "Civil Constitution of the Clergy",HP HSTNN-XB94 Battery

Louis had been described as a martyr by Pope Pius VI in 1793. In 1820, however, a memorandum of the Congregation of Rites in Rome, declaring the impossibility of proving that Louis had been executed for religious rather than political reasons, put an end to hopes of canonization.HP NU089AA Battery

 

Louis XVI has been portrayed in numerous films. In Marie Antoinette (1938), he was played by Robert Morley. More recently, he was depicted in the 2006 film Marie Antoinetteby Jason Schwartzman. In Sacha Guitry's Si Versailles m'était conté, Louis was portrayed by one of the film's producers, Gilbert Bokanowski, using the alias Gilbert Boka. HP HSTNN-DB95 Battery

Several portrayals have upheld the image of a bumbling, almost foolish king, such as that byJacques Morel in the 1956 French film Marie-Antoinette reine de France and that byTerence Budd in the Lady Oscar live action film. In Start the Revolution Without Me, HP HSTNN-IB95 Battery

Louis XVI is portrayed by Hugh Griffith as a laughable cuckold. Mel Brooks played a comic version of Louis XVI in The History of the World Part 1, portraying him as a libertine who has such a distaste for the peasantry he uses them as targets in skeet shooting. In 1996Patrice Leconte made Ridicule which depicted a court already at odds with its nobles and in terminal decline. HP HSTNN-LB95 Battery

 

George Sand

Sand's father, Maurice Dupin, was the grandson of the Marshal General of France,Maurice, Comte de Saxe, himself an illegitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and a Saxon elector, and a cousin to the sixth degree to the kings of France Louis XVI, HP HSTNN-XB95 Battery

Louis XVIII and Charles X.[1] Sand's mother, Sophie-Victoire Delaborde, was a commoner. Sand was born in Paris but raised for much of her childhood by her grandmother, Marie Aurore de Saxe, HP 500028-142 Battery

Madame Dupin de Francueil, at her grandmother's estate, Nohant, in the French province of Berry (See House of George Sand). She later used the setting in many of her novels. It has been said[by whom?] that her upbringing was quite liberal. HP NU090AA Battery

 

In 1822, at the age of nineteen, Sand married Baron Casimir Dudevant (1795–1871), illegitimate son of Baron Jean-François Dudevant. She and Dudevant had two children:Maurice (1823–1889) and Solange (1828–1899). In early 1831, she left her prosaic husband and entered upon a four- or five-year period of "romantic rebellion." In 1835, she was legally separated from Dudevant and took her children with her. HP 500029-142 Battery

 

Sand conducted affairs of varying duration with Jules Sandeau (1831), Prosper Mérimée,Alfred de Musset (summer 1833 – March 1835), Louis-Chrystosome Michel, Pierre-François Bocage, Félicien Mallefille, HP HSTNN-IB83 Battery

 Louis Blanc, and Frédéric Chopin (1837–47).[2] Later in life, she corresponded with Gustave Flaubert. Despite their obvious differences in temperament and aesthetic preference, HP HSTNN-OB92 Battery

they eventually became close friends. She was engaged in an intimate friendship with actress Marie Dorval, which led to widespread but unconfirmed rumors of a lesbian affair.[3] Letters written by Sand to Dorval mentioned things like "wanting you either in your dressing room or in your bed." HP 579320-001 Battery

In Majorca one can still visit the (then abandoned) Carthusian monastery of Valldemossa, where she spent the winter of 1838–39 with Chopin and her children.[4] This trip to Majorca was described by her in Un Hiver à Majorque (A Winter in Majorca), HP HSTNN-XB92 Battery

published in 1855. Chopin was already ill with incipient tuberculosis (or, as has recently been suggested,cystic fibrosis) at the beginning of their relationship, and spending a winter in Majorca - where Sand and Chopin did not realize that winter was a time of rain and cold, HP HSTNN-DB90 Battery

and where they could not get proper lodgings - exacerbated his symptoms. They separated two years before his death, for a variety of reasons. In Lucrezia Floriani, a novel, Sand used Chopin as a model for a sickly Eastern European prince named Karol. HP 292389-001 Battery

He's cared for by a middle-aged actress past her prime, Lucrezia, who suffers a great deal by caring for Karol.[5]Though Sand claimed not to have made a cartoon out of Chopin, the book's publication and widespread readership may have exacerbated their antipathy to each other. However, the tipping point in their relationship involved her daughter Solange. HP 337607-001 Battery

Chopin continued to be cordial to Solange after she and her husband, Auguste Clesinger, had a vicious falling out with Sand over money. Sand took Chopin's support of Solange as outright treachery, and confirmation that Chopin had always "loved" Solange.[6] HP 337607-003 Battery

Sand's son Maurice also disliked Chopin. Maurice wanted to establish himself as the 'man of the estate,' and did not wish to have Chopin as a rival for that role. Chopin was never asked back to Nohant. In 1848, he returned to Paris from a tour of the UK and died at the Place Vendôme. HP 338794-001 Battery

Chopin was penniless at that point; his friends had to pay for his stay there, as well as his funeral at the Madeleine. The funeral was attended by over 3,000 people, including Delacroix, Liszt, Victor Hugo and other famous people. George Sand, however, was notable by her absence. HP 342661-001 Battery

She is also known for her implication and writings during "la commune" where she took position for the Versaille's assembly against the "communard", urging them to take violent action against the "rebels" [7] HP 345027-001 Battery

A liaison with the writer Jules Sandeau heralded her literary debut. They published a few stories in collaboration, signing them "Jules Sand." Her first published novel, Rose et Blanche (1831), was written in collaboration with Sandeau. She subsequently adopted, for her first independent novel, Indiana (1832), the pen name that made her famous – George Sand.[8] HP 346970-001 Battery

Drawing from her childhood experiences of the countryside, she wrote the rural novels La Mare au Diable (1846), François le Champi (1847–1848), La Petite Fadette (1849), andLes Beaux Messieurs Bois-Doré (1857). HP 361742-001 Battery

A Winter in Majorca described the period that she and Chopin spent on that island in 1838-9. Her other novels include Indiana (1832),Lélia (1833), Mauprat (1837), Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840), Consuelo (1842–1843), HP 367759-001 Battery

and Le Meunier d'Angibault (1845). Further theatre pieces and autobiographical pieces include Histoire de ma vie (1855), Elle et Lui (1859) (about her affair with Musset),Journal Intime (posthumously published in 1926), and Correspondence. Sand often performed her theatrical works in her small private theatre at the Nohant estate. HP 371785-001 Battery

 

In addition, Sand authored literary criticism and political texts. She wrote many essays and published works establishing her socialist position. Because of her early life, she sided with the poor and working class. When the 1848 Revolution began, HP 371786-001 Battery

women had no rights and Sand believed these were necessary for progress. Around this time Sand started her own newspaper which was published in a workers' co-operative.[9] This allowed her to publish more political essays. She wrote "I cannot believe in any republic that starts a revolution by killing its own proletariat." HP 372772-001 Battery

 

Her most widely used quote is "There is only one happiness in life, to love and be loved."

She was known well in far reaches of the world, and her social practices, her writings and her beliefs prompted much commentary, often by other luminaries in the world of arts and letters. A few excerpts demonstrate much of what was often said about George Sand: HP 383220-001 Battery

 

Contemporary views

Sand's reputation came into question when she began sporting men's clothing in public — which she justified by the clothes being far sturdier and less expensive than the typical dress of a noblewoman at the time. In addition to being comfortable, HP 395789-001 Battery

Sand's male dress enabled her to circulate more freely in Paris than most of her female contemporaries, and gave her increased access to venues from which women were often barred — even women of her social standing. HP 396008-001 Battery

Also scandalous was Sand's smoking tobacco in public; neither peerage nor gentry had yet sanctioned the free indulgence of women in such a habit, especially in public (though Franz Liszt's paramour Marie d'Agoult affected this as well, smoking large cigars). These and other behaviors were exceptional for a woman of the early and mid-19th century, HP 398876-001 Battery

when social codes—especially in the upper classes—were of the utmost importance. As a consequence of many unorthodox aspects of her lifestyle, Sand was obliged to relinquish some of the privileges appertaining to a baroness — though, interestingly, HP 417066-001 Battery

the mores of the period did permit upper-class wives to live physically separated from their husbands, without losing face, provided the estranged couple exhibited no blatant irregularity to the outside world. HP 411462-421 Battery

 

Poet Charles Baudelaire was a contemporary critic of George Sand: "She is stupid, heavy and garrulous. Her ideas on morals have the same depth of judgment and delicacy of feeling as those of janitresses and kept women.... The fact that there are men who could become enamoured of this slut is indeed a proof of the abasement of the men of this generation."[10] HP 916-2150 Battery

Other writers of the period, however, differed in their assessment.Flaubert, by no means an indulgent or forbearing critic, was an unabashed admirer, as was Marcel Proust. Honoré de Balzac, who knew Sand personally, HP BAT0302001 Battery

once said that if someone thought George Sand wrote badly, it was because their own standards of criticism were inadequate. He also noted that her treatment of imagery in her works showed that her writing had an exceptional subtlety, having the ability to 'virtually put the image in the word'.[11] HP CGR-B1870AE Battery

 

Frequent literary references to George Sand can be found in Possession (1990) by A. S. Byatt. The American poet Walt Whitman cited Sand's novel Consuelo as a personal favorite and the sequel to this novel La Comtesse De Rudolstady contains at least a couple of passages that appear to have had a very direct influence on him.HP DG103A Battery

 Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806–1861), the English poet, produced two poems "To George Sand: A Desire" and "To George Sand: A Recognition". The character, Stepan Verkhovensky, inDostoevsky's novel The Possessed took to translating the works of George Sand in his periodical, before the periodical was subsequently seized by the ever-cautious Russian government of the 1840s. HP DM842A Battery

George Sand is referenced a number of times in the playVoyage, the first part of Tom Stoppard's The Coast of Utopia trilogy. And in the first episode of the "Overture" to Swann's Way—the first novel in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time sequence—a young, HP DP390A Battery

distraught Marcel is calmed by his mother as she reads from François le Champi, a novel which (it is explained) was part of a gift from his grandmother, which also included La Mare au Diable, La Petite Fadette, and Les Maîtres Sonneurs. HP DP399A Battery

As with many episodes involving art in À la recherche du temps perdu, this reminiscence includes commentary on the work. George Sand also makes an appearance in Isabel Allende's Zorro, going still by her given name, as a young girl in love with Diego de la Vega (Zorro). HP EF419A Battery

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