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12 septembre 2013 4 12 /09 /septembre /2013 06:16

Hurricane Ike /ˈaɪk/ was the costliest hurricane ever to impact Cuba, the third-costliest hurricane ever to makelandfall in the United States, the costliest hurricane in Texas history, and the last hurricane to make landfall in the United States until Hurricane Irene in 2011. It was the ninth named storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season.[1HP Pavilion dv6-3217cl laptop keyboard

 It was a Cape Verde-type hurricane, as it started as a tropical disturbance near Africa at the end of August. On September 1, 2008, it became a tropical storm west of the Cape Verde islands.[2][3] By the early morning hours of September 4, Ike was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a pressure of 935 mbar (27.61 inHg).[4] SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/S laptop keyboard

 That made it the most intense Atlantic storm of 2008. Ike passed over theTurks and Caicos Islands as Category 4, with winds 135 mph (215 km/h) on September 7. Moving west along Cuba, it made two landfalls – as a Category 4 hurricane on September 7 and as a Category 1 hurricane two days later. DELL PK130CW1A08 laptop keyboard

Ike made its final landfall near Galveston, Texas as a strong Category 2 hurricane, on September 13, 2008, at 2:10 am CDT. Hurricane-force winds extended 120 miles (195 km) from the center and tropical storm-force winds extended far beyond that. ASUS A6J laptop keyboard

Ike was blamed for at least 195 deaths. Of these, 74 were in Haiti, which was already trying to recover from the impact of three storms earlier that year: Fay, Gustav, and Hanna. In the United States, 112 people were killed, and 23 are still missing.[1] Due to its immense size, SONY VAIO VGN-CR21SR laptop keyboard

Ike caused devastation from the Louisiana coastline all the way to the Kenedy Countyregion near Corpus Christi, Texas.[5] In addition, Ike caused flooding and significant damage along the Mississippicoastline and the Florida Panhandle[6] Damages from Ike in U.S. coastal and inland areas are estimated at $29.5 billion (2008 USD),[ ACER TravelMate 8210 laptop keyboard

1] with additional damage of $7.3 billion in Cuba (the costliest storm ever in that country), $200 million in the Bahamas, and $500 million in the Turks and Caicos, amounting to a total of at least $37.5 billion in damage. Ike was (at the time) the second costliest Atlantic hurricane of all time (now the third costliest), only surpassed by Hurricane Katrina of 2005 and later by Hurricane Sandy of 2012.[7] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 laptop keyboard

 It became the largest search-and-rescue operation in U.S. history.[8] It also resulted in millions leaving the Houston/Galveston area and other parts of Texas. However, Hurricane Rita still holds the designation as the largest U.S. evacuation in history.[9] At one point, Ike was over 600 miles in diameter. SONY VAIO PCG-FR130 laptop keyboard

Hurricane Ike can be traced to a westerly wave leaving western Sudan on August 19, which moved westward through Nigeria andMali and reached the coastal country of Senegal on August 28.[11] Moving into the Atlantic Ocean, the wave slowly intensified over subsequent days while moving generally toward the west-northwest. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9520D laptop keyboard

On September 1, the wave developed a sufficient amount of convection and was designated Tropical Depression Nine. The depression had developed a large amount of convection as well as cyclonically curved bands. Satellite estimates were already indicating that the depression was a tropical storm;  HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard

theNational Hurricane Center did not classify it as such, however, because the convection was newly formed.[12] The depression continued to intensify as it became better organized, and at 5:00 pm EDT (21:00 UTC), it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ike.[13][14] Ike was located in an environment that was supportive of intensification, and the forecast showed Ike becoming a hurricane within 36 hours of its upgrade.  HP G62-b12SL laptop keyboard

During the overnight hours of September 1, Ike stopped intensifying, as a part of the eastern band began to erode as northerly wind shear began to impact the system.[17] By late morning on September 2, Ike began to intensify again as shear relaxed a little on the system.[18] Throughout the day, TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

deep convection developed around the center of Ike indicating that the storm was still strengthening. Ike also quickened its movement to 18 mph (29 km/h) due to a strengthening mid-level high located to the north-northeast of Ike.[19] Again intensification stopped during the overnight hours as the structure of Ike remained mostly unchanged.[20] TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

Ike remained at the same intensity and structure through the early morning hours of September 3. However, by the late morning, Ike began to intensify again. Microwave satellites depicted an eye beginning to form and Ike strengthened just below hurricane status.[21] The eye continued to become better defined and by mid-afternoon Ike was upgraded to a hurricane.[22] Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard

Ike was in an area that lacked vertical wind shear and intensification was likely.[23] Due to the lack of wind shear, Ike began to undergo explosive intensification and was upgraded to a major hurricane with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) only three hours after being upgraded to a hurricane. During the three hour span, it is estimated that the pressure dropped 24 mbar (0.71 inHg).[ TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

Ike continued to intensify and was further upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale three hours later with winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) and an estimated pressure of 948 mbar (27.99 inHg).[26]These were satellite estimates, not actual measurements (as it was still too far from land for reconnaissance aircraft to reach).[1HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

By the early morning hours on September 4, Ike had reached its peak intensity of 145 mph (230 km/h) with an estimated pressure of 935 mbar (27.61 inHg), making it the most intense storm of the season.Ike was now forecast to weaken as the upper-level high to the north of the system continued to strengthen resulting in stronger northerly wind shear affecting Ike.[27] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

The explosive intensification lasted roughly 24 hours as Ike intensified from a tropical storm to a Category 4 hurricane with a pressure drop of 61 mbar (1.80 inHg). By the late morning, Ike began to weaken as the cloud tops around the eye began to warm. Models were forecasting Ike to encounter strong wind shear and slowly weaken but maintain major hurricane status.[28]  HP G72-a10SV Laptop Keyboard

This trend of the clouds warming continued through the afternoon and Ike continued to weaken slowly. By mid-afternoon, Ike was barely a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 135 mph (215 km/h).[29]Ike began to show signs of intensification once more during the late night hours. The eye became more clear and better defined and the clouds around the eye began to deepen and become colder.[30] DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

The show of possible strengthening did not last long, however, and by the morning of September 5, northerly wind shear began to erode the northern part of the system, and the cloud tops around the eye began to warm once more. The structure of the eye became less prominent as microwave satellite imagery showed that the inner structure of Ike was not deteriorating or beginning to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle.[31] SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

A later pass made by the satellite found that the northern eye wall had eroded and most of the convection was in the southern semicircle of the storm. This indicated that Ike was continuing to weaken as it remained in a hostile environment.[32] Ike slowly weakened to a low-end Category Three by the afternoon hours. SONY VAIO VGN-CR150F Laptop Keyboard

A ridge to the north of Ike continued to push the storm towards the southwest, into an area more favorable for intensification.[33]

Ike maintained its intensity throughout the night as its eye briefly reappeared around 8 pm EDT, leading the NHC to forecast a slow strengthening trend.[34]Overnight, DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard

Ike reformed a 24 nmi (48 km) wide eye, however, it was cloud covered.[35] However, during the late morning hours on September 6, wind shear weakened Ike to a Category Two hurricane.[36] This weakening was short lived and Ike began to undergo another round of rapid intensification, DELL Latitude D505 Laptop Keyboard

though not as significant as the first. Ike's eye began to clear out again and the system became better organized and based on an Air Force Reconnaissance Aircraft measurement, Ike had intensified into a Category Four six hours after being downgraded to a Category Two. During the afternoon and overnight, HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

Ike had winds sustained at 135 mph (217 km/h) as it approached and passed over the Turks and Caicos Islands by the early morning hours of September 7.

Ike made landfall as a Category 4 hurricane in Holguín Province, Cuba on the evening of September 7, near Cabo Lucrecia on the northern coast.[1][38] Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

It passed across the central provinces of Holguín, Las Tunas, and Camagüey, emerging south of Cuba on September 8. It made landfall a second time as a Category 1 hurricane in Pinar del Río before entering the Gulf in the afternoon of September 9.

During the night of September 10, Ike exhibited a rapid drop in central pressure, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

falling from 963 mbar (28.44 inHg) to 944 mbar (27.88 inHg) as it passed over the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico. This drop was not reflected by wind speed, however, which only increased to 100 mph (160 km/h) from 85 mph (140 km/h). Multiple wind maxima were noted by the National Hurricane Center, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard

indicating the structure was absorbing and distributing energy over a large area, rather than concentrating it near the center. The pressure was significantly lower than normal for a low-end Category 2 hurricane, as 944 mbar (27.88 inHg) is more typical of a strong Category 3 or a Category 4 hurricane.SONY Vaio PCG-K215S laptop keyboard

Over the next two days, Ike maintained a steady course towards Galveston and Houston. It increased only slightly in intensity to 110 mph (175 km/h) – the high end of Category 2 – but exhibited an unusually large wind field. This caused a projected storm surge of a Category 4 height though the windspeeds were that of a Category 2. ACER Aspire 2003WLMi laptop keyboard

As it approached the Texas coast, the inner structure and eyewall became more organized.[39][40]

Ike made U.S. landfall at Galveston, Texas, on September 13 at 2:10 am CDT (0710 UTC), as a high Category 2 hurricane with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a central pressure of 950 mbar (28.05 inHg). HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard

The 2:00 am NHC advisory cited tropical storm and hurricane force winds extending 275 miles (443 km) and 120 miles (190 km), respectively, from the center. Around 3:00 am CDT (0800 UTC), it passed over San Leon, Texas and made its final landfall near Baytown, Texas around 4:00 am CDT (0900 UTC). SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard

On September 13, Ike began a slow turn north, then northeast. After losing strength to tropical-storm force winds nearPalestine, Texas around 1 pm,[1] it passed 100 miles (160 km) to the east of Dallas and west of Little Rock, Arkansas. Maintaining tropical storm-force winds as it moved inland, GATEWAY M-6333 laptop keyboard

it tracked across Arkansas on the night of September 13 and also produced tornadoes across the state. It brought heavy rainfall all along its path, but moved more quickly the farther north it went as it slowly lost tropical characteristics.[1]

Early on September 14, Tropical Storm Ike merged with a large cold front moving from west to east over the central U.S. and became extratropical. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

This deep low pressure continued toward the north-east spreading heavy rains and damaging winds with hurricane-force gusts across a large portion of the Midwest. It moved into Canada that night, giving strong winds and heavy rain across Southern Ontario and most of Quebec, before exiting into the Atlantic at the latitude of theLabrador Sea, early on the 16th. HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

On September 5, Florida Governor Charlie Crist declared a state of emergency in advance of Ike's arrival, which was expected to be as early as September 8. Authorities in Key West issued a mandatory evacuation for all visitors for September 6. TheFederal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) positioned supplies, and emergency response crews in Florida and along the Gulf Coast.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard

Florida Keys officials began evacuations on the low-lying chain of islands in phases, starting at the end in Key West by 8 am Sunday and continuing throughout the day—at noon for the Middle Keys, and at 4 pm for the Upper Keys, including Key Largo. Visitors were told to leave on Saturday. SONY VAIO VGN-AR370E laptop keyboard

On September 10, U.S. President George W. Bush made an emergency declaration for Texas in advance of Hurricane Ike, making more federal help available for preparations and evacuations.[43]

On September 7, The Texas Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (TXWARNhttp://www.txwarn.org) activated its 700 member utility mutual aid network and began coordination with the HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr laptop keyboard

State Emergency Operations Center and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) to begin preparations and notifications to utilities to prepare for Ike. State rural water associations activated mutual aid networks to prepare for the landfall of Hurricane Hanna and Hurricane Ike while still providing assistance to areas affected by Hurricane Gustav.[44][45] SONY VAIO PCG-FR77G/B laptop keyboard

The Texas Rural Water Association held meetings with state agencies on Tuesday, September 9, to plan for landfall along the Texas Gulf Coast.[46][47]

On September 11, forecasting models began to show Ike making landfall just south of Galveston. City Manager Steven LeBlanc late Wednesday issued a mandatory evacuation order for the low lying west end of Galveston Island.[48] ACER Aspire 3810T laptop keyboard

 Later, the mandatory evacuation order was extended to the entire island of Galveston, as well as low-lying areas around Houston, Texas.[49] Residents evacuating ahead of Ike were received by emergency workers in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. The fleeing residents were provided a place of refuge, medical treatment, and provisions until Ike had passed. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

After Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast and submerged New Orleans, the DFW area became a place for New Orleans residents to recover from the storm's destructive forces. The DFW area was still providing relief to evacuees from Gustav earlier in the 2008 hurricane season when it began preparations for evacuating residents of coastal Texas prior to Ike's arrival. TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

Also on September 11, at 8:19 pm (CDT), the National Weather Service in Houston/Galveston, Texas issued a strongly worded bulletin, regarding storm surge along the shoreline of Galveston Bay. The bulletin advised that residents living in single-family homes in some parts of coastal Texas faced "certain death" if they did not heed orders to evacuate.Reports said as many as 40 percent of Galveston's citizens may have not paid attention to the warnings.[54] ASUS F9J laptop keyboard

It was feared to be much the same in Port Arthur, and it was predicted that low-lying areas between Morgan City, Louisiana and Baffin Bay, Texas, particularly those areas east of Ike's projected eye landfall would experience the greatest damage from storm surges of up to 20 feet (6.1 m). ACER Aspire 4315 laptop keyboard

Waves at sea were expected to be higher, up to 70 feet (21 m) according to computer simulations.[55]

The price of gas increased in the expectation of damage to some of the numerous oil refineries along the South Texas coast, or at least delays in production from the oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard

The potential danger and possible death warnings were effectively communicated to residents of the Galveston area days before Hurricane Ike landed in Texas. Due to evacuation issues during previous hurricanes authorities were swift in providing residents with information on the deadly potential of Hurricane Ike. ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

"Authorities in Louisiana and Texas ordered major evacuations for Hurricane Gustav and Ike, who made landfall within 12 days of each other; altogether, nearly 3 million people left their homes in advance of the two storms. Nothing speaks more to improvements in evacuation management than repeat experience."[57] DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard

In addition to the orders of local and state officials, federal officials were thoroughly involved in evacuation decisions; because of its strength, size and projected path into Galveston, President Bush made an emergency declaration for Texas three days before landfall. More than one million people evacuated in advance of Hurricane Ike, but more than 100,000 people did not."HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

The special needs population was effectively managed during the evacuation of Hurricane Ike as well. "Special needs populations, especially infirm evacuees, were flown out on military planes as the forward movement of the storm narrowed the evacuation window."[58] One hospital in particular was drastically affected but the employees of the hospital worked fervently to evacuate the patients swiftly and safely.  Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard

"While Houston did not take the brunt of the storm the way Galveston did, Ike did knock out the city’s water pumping systems, and that was sufficient to threaten the whole health care system. There was no wall of water, no howling winds just the sound of taps drying up and toilets ceasing to flush."[58] HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard

Despite the apparent damages no one at the University of Texas Medical Branch was injured. The "credit for this goes in part to local authorities for issuing a mandatory evacuation order in time for a pre-agreed evacuation plan to be carried out."[58]

"Despite dire warnings of storm surge and certain death from forecasters, an estimated forty percent of Galveston's residents did not evacuate in response to the mandatory order."[57] SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

 Unlike victims of prior Hurricanes like Rita and Katrina the residents of Galveston were informed about the dangers of the storm and they possessed the means to evacuate some simply chose not to. "Many residents on the TX coast determined that the risks of a category 2 storm did not give them sufficient motivation to evacuate. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

It was the local indifference to the storm surge hazard that reduced evacuation compliance and ultimately led to a significant loss of life in the Galveston area, fatalities mostly of white, middle-income residents."[57]

Evacuation management from 2005 until 2008 drastically improved but there is still more to learn. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

"Increasing evacuation response can be improved through education of local residents and their children."[57] In addition to that residents must first "receive the warning, understand and internalize the information, act on hazard warnings and evacuation orders, overcoming whatever factors impede the decision to do so." FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard

Power was lost throughout Grand Turk Island,[60] 95% of the houses were damaged, one-fifth of which was significant damage. There was also significant structural damage to roofs and buildings containing health services resulting in the disruption of most health services. Pharmacy stores, and supplies facilities received major damage or total destruction. GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

Water and electricity were also disrupted but now has been restored. There was some damage to the clinic on Salt Cay. In North Caicos and Middle Caicos, there was either no damage or minimal damage to the clinic. Meanwhile in South Caicos, 95% of the houses were also damaged, with over one-third significantly damaged or destroyed. Damage also occurred on other islands, HP G42-362LA Laptop Keyboard

pockets of which were significant, but in general, damage was minor.[61] After the eye of the storm passed over, it continued west at 15 mph (24 km/h) headed directly for eastern Cuba.[62][63] Buildings on the islands have been severely weakened and 750 people have lost their homes.[64] Due to the extent and magnitude of damage and affected population,  SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard

the Government of the Turks and Caicos declared Grand Turk and South Caicos Islands disaster areas.[65] Total damages in the Turks and Caicos Islands were estimated at $500 million.

The outer bands of Ike caused additional flooding in Haiti, which was already devastated by Hanna and also hit hard by Fayand Gustav. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

The last bridge still standing into the city of Gonaïves was washed away, slowing relief in the community considerably and creating a deeper humanitarian and food crisis in the hard-hit region. 74 deaths were reported in Haiti from Ike,[66] of which most were in the coastal community of Cabaret which was swept away by floodwaters and mudslides.[67] SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

Haitian Prime Minister Michèle Pierre-Louis called for help at the end of the week, saying that four storms in three weeks have left over 550 dead and as many as one million homeless.[68] She also said that parts of Gonaïves were so severely damaged that the city may have to be rebuilt elsewhere.[68] No damage figures were available from Haiti or the Dominican Republic. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Just over one million Cubans had been evacuated on Sunday, officials said.[citation needed] In Baracoa, 200 homes were reported to be destroyed and waves were running 23 ft (7 m) high and peaked at 40 ft (12 m) in different areas of Cuba. The Category 3 hurricane made landfall on September 8 on the north coast of eastern ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard

Cuba in the province of Holguín near Puerto de Sama, with sustained winds of about 120 mph (193 km/h),[74][75] causing widespread flooding and damage to the eastern provinces.[citation needed] It passed across the central provinces of Holguín, Las Tunas, and Camagüey, emerging over the sea to the south of Cuba during September 8.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

Ike had dropped to a Category One by the time it crossed the island.[76] It then followed the southern coast of Cuba and crossed the western end of the island in Pinar del Río Province, close to the path taken by Hurricane Gustav ten days previously. Another 1.6 million people had evacuated in advance of its second landfall. SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard

The western areas of Cuba, already devastated by Hurricane Gustav just 10 days before Ike hit, suffered additional major flooding from the rain and storm surge.[77] The sugar cane crop was devastated, with over 3,400 square kilometres (1,300 sq mi) destroyed. Alongside Gustav, they were described as the "worst ever" storms by Cuban officials.ASUS F3Sv laptop keyboard

In total, seven people were killed in Cuba from Ike.[77] The combined damage estimate from Ike and Gustav, and succeeding Paloma is about $9.7 billion (USD), with $7.3 billion of that from Ike, making Ike the most destructive hurricane in Cuban history.

Due to the intensity of the storm, Texas closed many of its chemical plants and oil refineries.

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Because much of the United States oil refining capacity is located in Texas, the closings caused a temporary increase in the prices of gasoline, home heating oil, and natural gas.[82] Increases were particularly high in North Carolina, especially in the mountains, where average prices were as much as 60 cents higher than the national average.[83]  HP Mini 210-1124TU laptop keyboard

The closing of refineries so soon after Hurricane Gustav, and the time required to restart production, also resulted in shortages of gasoline in such places as the Carolinas and Tennessee, partly as a result of panic buying.[84] Preliminary post-storm damage estimates in the US were placed at 18 billion US dollars (2008) as stated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.[85] SONY VAIO VGN-NW23GF laptop keyboard

Eighty-two deaths have been reported in the US, including forty-eight in Texas, eight in Louisiana, one in Arkansas, two in Tennessee, one in Kentucky, seven in Indiana, four in Missouri, two in Illinois, two in Michigan, seven inOhio and one in Pennsylvania,[86] although there are 202 missing. SONY VAIO VGN-NW320F/T laptop keyboard

On September 15, 2008 theUnited States Congress held a moment of silence for those who died in the hurricane

On September 11, the 584-foot (178 m) cargo ship, the MV Antalina, was among the ships that left Port Arthur to avoid the hurricane. SONY VAIO VPC-F12 laptop keyboard

The ship had a crew of 22 and carried a cargo of petroleum coke. On September 12, the ship's engine failed, and the ship was adrift 90 nautical miles (170 km) from the shore. The crew unsuccessfully attempted to repair the engine and requested to be evacuated by the Coast Guard, but the rescue mission was aborted because weather conditions were not within the safety parameters. SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E/B laptop keyboard

The crew was forced to ride out the storm, but kept in contact with the Coast Guard.[93][94] The ship successfully rode out the storm and all 22 crew members were uninjured. On September 13, a tugboat was dispatched to return the vessel to port.  HP G62-b21SL laptop keyboard

The storm surge ahead of Ike blew onshore of Louisiana well ahead of Ike's predicted landfall in Texas on September 13. Areas in coastal south-central and southwestern Louisiana, some of which were flooded by Gustav, were re-flooded as a result of Ike.[96] Some areas that had not yet recovered from Gustav power outages received additional outages,[97] of 200,000.[98]  COMPAQ Presario V6405CA laptop keyboard

 The hardest-hit areas were in and around Cameron Parish, which also sustained catastrophic damage in 2005 from Hurricane Rita and in 1957 from Hurricane Audrey. Nearly every square inch of the coastline in that area was flooded heavily once again, with floodwater reaching as far north as Lake Charles. HP Pavilion G7-1077NR laptop keyboard

Hundreds of people had to be rescued,[99] including 363 people who were rescued by Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Search and Rescue teams in conjunction with the Louisiana National Guard and the U.S. Coast Guard.[100]

One person was killed in a flooded bayou in Terrebonne Parish,[101] and a wind-related death was reported near Houma.[102]   FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard

 Two other deaths took place in a car crash in the evacuation phase in Iberville Parish,[103] and two other storm related deaths in Jefferson Davis Parish were caused by natural causes (disease).[102] While doing repairs, two energy-company contractors from Oklahoma were electrocuted. SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E laptop keyboard

On the morning of September 13, 2008, the eye of Hurricane Ike approached the upper Texas coast, making landfall at 2:10 am CDT over the east end of Galveston Island, with a high storm surge, and travelled north up Galveston Bay, along the east side of Houston [105] (see storm-path image). HP Mini 110-3538tu laptop keyboard

People in low-lying areas who had not heeded evacuation orders, in single-family one- or two-story homes, were warned by the weather service that they faced "certain death" from the overnight storm surge,[52] a statement that turned out to be true for some unable to evacuate.[106] Despite the planning and mandatory evacuation of the Galveston and the surrounding areas authorities could not prepare for the number of individuals displaced by Hurricane Ike. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

“There were 3,459 families made homeless by Hurricane Ike.” [107] A survey done in January 2009 showed that the, “homeless population had more than quadrupled since Hurricane Ike, from 267 in Galveston and Brazoria counties to 1,289.” [107] In 2009, “nearly 16,000 families in the Galveston-Houston area were living in temporary shelter under federal housing programs, 1700 were referred for assistance but could not be reached or were refused aid.” [107] DELL PK1303Q0100 Laptop Keyboard

The families that received assistance from the government were accounted for but the families who made other arrangements were not. It is just assumed that those missing people are, “staying with family or friends, moving from one host to another, paying out of their pocket for a hotel or an apartment, or living on the streets.” [107]  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

“The region, which already had a housing shortage, lost over 8,000 units due to the storm. Concentrations of lost housing are primarily located in the cities of Port Arthur, Sabine Pass, Bridge City, Orange, West Orange and Rose City.” [108] According to Governor Perry’s Texas rebound reports, SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

“estimates from cities and counties in the disaster area indicate approximately 3.4 billion in total damages damage to housing in their jurisdictions of threat.” [108]

In regional Texas towns, electrical power began failing on September 12 before 8 pm CDT,[52] leaving millions without power (estimates range from 2.8 million[109] to 4.5 million[110] customers). SONY VAIO PCG-FR55E Laptop Keyboard

Grocery store shelves in the Houston area were left empty for weeks in the aftermath of the storm.

In Galveston, by 4 pm CDT (2100 UTC) on September 12, the rising storm surge began overtopping the 17-ft (5.2 m) Galveston Seawall, which faces the Gulf of Mexico;[52] waves had been crashing along the seawall earlier, from 9 am CDT.[112] DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard

Although Seawall Boulevard is elevated above the shoreline, many areas of town slope down behind the seawall to the lower elevation of Galveston Island.

Even though there were advance evacuation plans, Mary Jo Naschke, spokesperson for the city of Galveston,  HP AEAT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

estimated that (as of Friday morning) a quarter of the city's residents paid no attention to calls for them to evacuate, despite predictions that most of Galveston Island would suffer heavy flooding storm tide.[112] By 6 pm Friday night, estimates varied as to how many of the 58,000 residents remained, but the figures of remaining residents were in the thousands.[113]  HP 540 Laptop Keyboard

Widespread flooding included downtown Galveston:[105] six ft (2 m) deep inside the Galveston County Courthouse, and the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston was flooded.[105] 2,400 Medical Branch employees, including 120 faculty members, were laid off after Hurricane Ike devastated the university.[114] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Tourist attractions on the island suffered various degrees of damage. TheLone Star Flight Museum suffered massive damage, as the storm surge washed through the airport and hangars with about 8 feet (2.4 m) of water,[115] and the recently completed Schlitterbahn Water Park was still closed in November 2008;[116]  HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard

 however, Moody Gardens was built with storms in mind and was able to withstand the worst of the storm.In preparation of Hurricane Ike, Texas A&M University at Galveston closed on Wednesday, September 10, 2008, at 5 pm and evacuation was ordered. Ike made U.S. landfall at Galveston, Texas, on September 13 at 2:10 am.  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

It was the second most destructive hurricane to ever make landfall in the United States. The campus was not severely damaged; however, the infrastructure of Galveston Island as a whole was. As a result of Galveston Island not being able to support the close to 1800 students the enormous challenge of relocating all students, administration, and staff began.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

On Wednesday, September 24, 2008 fall classes resumed in College Station. TAMUG resumed operations in Galveston in the spring of 2009.

In Houston, windows also broke in downtown buildings, such as the 75-story JP Morgan Chase Tower,[105] and Reliant Stadiumwas damaged. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

Also as a result of the high wind and eye wall that passed directly through the city, power outages were a major problem, as some residents were without electricity for over a month after landfall. Some parts of Houston were not expected to have power until November 1. Luckily, since the storm system moved rapidly and did not linger over Houston, GATEWAY NV-59 Laptop Keyboard

flooding wasn't a major problem for most of the city, as it normally is as a result of the geography.[105] Due to the damage to the stadium, the Houston Texans' game with the Baltimore Ravens, originally scheduled for September 14, was pushed back to November 9.[118] Hurricane Ike affected the Houston Astros' late dash for Major League Baseball's playoffs, postponing Friday, ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard

Saturday, and Sunday's games against the Chicago Cubs. [119] Two of the games were moved to Milwaukee's Miller Park and were played Sunday September 14 and Monday September 15.[120] In the September 14 game, Cubs pitcher Carlos Zambrano threw a no-hitter.[121] The final game was tentatively scheduled for Monday September 29 in Houston. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

The Astros were eliminated from playoff contention on September 26, and the game was officially canceled as it would not affect post-season standings.

On Bolivar Peninsula, Texas dozens of people were rescued as flood waters exceeded 12 feet (3.7 m) above sea level in advance of the hurricane. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard

The peninsula bore the brunt of Ike's right-front quadrant, historically the worst part of a hurricane, and experienced catastrophic damage with the worst being between Rollover Pass and Gilchrist, Texas – west of High Island.[123]Media estimates of lost homes exceeded 80% and could top 95%.[124] TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

A large number of people who did not evacuate in advance of the storm remain unaccounted for.

The Southeast Texas communities of Bridge City on Sabine Lake and large areas of nearby Orange (80 miles from the center of landfall) were inundated by the storm surge. Bridge City mayor Kirk Roccaforte estimated that only about 14 (later updated to around two dozen) homes in the city were unaffected by the surge.[125]  Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard

Waterfront areas of Clear Lake were flooded, with floating debris battering homes and blocking some streets, such as in theKemah area.

NASA's Johnson Space Center suffered minor roof damage to Mission Control and minor cosmetic damage to some of its other buildings.  HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard

NASA's operations at Ellington Field also sustained roof and awning damage,[126] and one hangar was severely damaged.

University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), the primary hospital in Galveston county, was dealt significant damage due to Hurricane Ike.[127] HP Pavilion zv6233ea Laptop Keyboard

Wide scale flooding caused failures to all facilities systems and allowed mold to invade all the buildings. All students at the UTMB medical center were transferred to other Texas medical schools immediately after the storm while determinations were made about the future of the hospital and medical school. SONY VAIO VGN-FS940 laptop keyboard

November 12, 2008 saw thirty percent of the employees terminated in a reduction in force.[128] As of March 2009 only 1200 employees were currently employed and being paid. Another 1200 employees are on unpaid administrative leave. All emergency facilities were moved to the Houston medical center. SONY VAIO VGN-FS730F laptop keyboard

It wasn't until August 1, 2009 that UTMB's emergency room was reopened.

As a historical comparison, on September 8, 1900 the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 landed along a path similar to Ike's, bringing with it a storm surge that inundated most of Galveston Island, which was Texas' largest city and a major U.S. port. HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl laptop keyboard

As a result, much of the city was destroyed, and at least 6,000 people were killed in a few hours. Engineers subsequently increased the average elevation of the island by 4 ft (1.2 m) and constructed a 17-foot (5.2-m) seawall to block incoming waves.

After Hurricane Ike hit the Gulf Coast, nearly 150 apartment complexes in Houston, SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Texas and surrounding areas were destroyed. Most of these apartments were occupied by low income populations. Also many communities within this area assumed that residents had their own personal transportation, but in reality most of the low income population groups, especially in the urban neighborhoods, only had public transportation. HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl laptop keyboard

This was a big issue when it came to the evacuation plan set out for areas in Houston, Texas and other surrounding locations.[129]

Most people living in low income households prior to Hurricane Ike were more likely to return home shortly after Hurricane Ike hit because they were unable to repair their homes and were not able to find an alternative home because of financial resources. HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

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Most of them relied on local employment for income. In addition, they didn't have the resources to move away from their home and/or job for a long period of time. High income populations, on the other hand, mostly had savings that got them through nearly a year of being away from home and/or their jobs.[130]  LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

Parts of Galveston (north of Broadway) are home to the highest volume of rental housing on the Island to low income and minority population. According to Galveston Housing Authority, Over 50,000 families were approved to participate in government programs following Hurricane Ike. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

There were many negative lash outs against some of the charity groups such as Lone Star Legal Aid for helping a lot of “low income populations, criminals, illegal immigrants, and welfare-vacuums”.[131]

Prior to Hurricane Ike, U.S. Census 2000 classified Texas as having an above national average of individuals below the poverty line. HP Mini 110-1150EV laptop keyboard

Nearly 22.3% were below poverty line. According to Hurricane Impact Report, City of Galveston total population was 57,523, with 22.3% under poverty line, compared to 16.2% Texas average and 12.7% U.S. average. In addition, the total number of homelessness in City of Galveston/ Gulf Coast were 215 people, who were in shelters, while 68 were unsheltered, HP Envy 15-1090eg laptop keyboard

with a total homeless population of 283 people. This is 67.49% were just individuals and 32.5% were groups of families with children.

On September 14, after Ike became extratropical and was enhanced by an upper level shortwave trough, a major wind event took place across the lower and middle Ohio Valley and lower Great Lakes, and significant rainfall and flooding took place to the west. SONY Vaio VGN-FW390 laptop keyboard

Several areas in Illinois and Indiana, already flooded by the frontal boundary to the north, saw significant additional rainfall.[133] Due to flooding in Chicago, Todd Stroger declared a state of emergency for Cook County due to flooding of theDes Plaines River. Hurricane-force wind gusts were reported to the east of the center across parts of Kentucky, Indiana, TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 laptop keyboard

Ohioand Pennsylvania with significant wind damage including structural damage to buildings and trees. The Louisville area declared a state of emergency due to major damage and power outages, and the Louisville International Airport was closed temporarily. A LG&E spokesperson said that this was the worst power outage in 30 years.[134] GATEWAY MX8715 laptop keyboard

Later in the day, a statewide state of emergency was declared in Kentucky by Governor Steve Beshear.[135] Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport was also temporarily shut down, and the control tower was evacuated.In Cincinnati, numerous reports of roof damage and up-rooted trees were called in to law enforcement, and on September 15, SONY Vaio VGN-AW330J laptop keyboard

most of the schools in Hamilton County, Butler County, and Clermont County had classes cancelled because of power outages, some of which lasted seven days. Wind gusts of 75 miles per hour (121 km/h) were recorded in both Cincinnati and Columbus, which is equivalent to sustained wind levels found in a Category 1 hurricane.[136] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

Additionally, a state of emergency was declared in Ohio on Monday.[137] Also in Salem, Indianaand Scottsburg, Indiana, wind gusts up to 81 miles per hour (130 km/h) were recorded. In Floyds Knobs, Indiana near Louisville, Kentucky, winds were reported in excess of 70 mph. HP Business Notebook nx9000 Laptop Keyboard

In Indiana, high winds caused more than 200,000 customers to be without power throughout the state. Wind gusts of 63 miles per hour (101 km/h) were recorded at Indianapolis International Airport. Coming to Indianapolis, on September 14, Ike also caused damages to the first-ever motorcycle Grand Prix held in Indianapolis,  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

stopping both 125cc and MotoGP races after the two thirds of the distance, and causing the cancellation of the 250cc race. In Shannon County Missouri, an outdoor music festival was taking place; though a large tree fell causing a power outage and Sinking Creek was high there were no injuries reported.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard

In Arkansas, about 200,000 customers lost power as a result of the winds, the worst power loss in that state since an ice storm in 2000.[138] In the Louisville area, over 300,000 customers were without power — the worst power outage in the utility's history.[134] The Cincinnati metropolitan area was hard hit as well, with over 927,000 customers losing power in that region.[139] HP 519004-001 Laptop Keyboard

 A Duke Energy spokesperson said "We have never seen anything like this. Never. We’re talking about 90 percent of our customers without power." There were so many power outages and so few workers available Duke Energy was thinking of sending workers from their base in Charlotte, North Carolina.[140]  ACER Aspire One D150-1577 Laptop Keyboard

Many homes and business were without power for 3–7 days. In the Dayton, Ohio area 300,000 of 515,000 Dayton Power & Light Co. customers lost power at some point following severe wind storms on the afternoon of September 14, according to a company spokesperson. As of Thursday morning, September 18, 90,000 DP&L customers remained without power. HP G61-465SL Laptop Keyboard

Also hard hit were central Ohio (with over 350,000 customers losing power) and northeastern Ohio (with over 310,000 customers losing power),[142] as well as Illinois (49,000),[143] Missouri (85,000),[144] and western Pennsylvania (with over 180,000 customers losing power).[145] In western Kentucky, outside crews had to be brought in from as far away as Mississippi to restore power.[1HP Pavilion ze5715ca Laptop Keyboard

In Indiana, about 350,000 customers lost power statewide, mainly in the southern part of the state.[147] In New York State, over 100,000 customers were reported without power.[148] In total, 50 deaths have been blamed on Ike in the inland states.

In Ontario, Ike's remnants brought a record amount of rain on Sunday,  GATEWAY MX8715 Laptop Keyboard

September 14, in the Windsor region. It was closely following a slow-moving frontal system that had drenched the city the day before, dumping 75.2 mm (2.96 in) of rain and breaking the old record of 39.1 mm (1.54 in) in 1979, according to Environment Canada. Most damage in the Windsor area with Ike was confined to downed power lines and toppled tree branches with the wind gusts reaching 80 km/h (50 mph), DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

with spotty street flooding that made driving completely treacherous in some areas.[150] Highways were washed out in the Bruce Peninsula, and trees were uprooted in London, Ontario. The storm continued to cause wind and rain damage as it continues east along the St. Lawrence River leaving around 25,000 customers without electricity, TOSHIBA Satellite L455 Laptop Keyboard

especially in Belleville, Brockville, Bancroft, Peterborough, Bowmanville, Huntsville and Timmins.[151]

In Quebec, regions to the north of the Saint Lawrence River received 50 mm (2.0 in) to 70 mm (2.8 in) of rainfall (Hautes-Laurentides, Haute-Mauricie, Réserve faunique des Laurentides, Lenovo 39T7417 laptop keyboard

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