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25 février 2011 5 25 /02 /février /2011 07:28

The IEEE 1394 interface is a serial bus interface standard for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer, frequently used bypersonal computers, as well as in digital audio, digital video, automotive, and aeronautics applications    (Dell XPS M1210 Batteryhttp://www.hdd-shop.co.uk .

The interface is also known by the brand names ofFireWire (Apple), i.LINK (Sony), and Lynx (Texas Instruments). IEEE 1394 replaced parallel SCSI in many applications, because of lower implementationcosts and a simplified, more adaptable cabling system. The 1394 standard also defines a backplane interface, though this is not as widely used  Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery .

IEEE 1394 is the High-Definition Audio-Video Network Alliance (HANA) standard connection interface for A/V (audio/visual) component communication and control. FireWire is also available in wireless, fiber optic, and coaxial versions using the isochronous protocols  Dell Vostro 1710 Battery .

Nearly all digital camcorders have included a four-circuit 1394 interface, though, except for premium models, such inclusion is becoming less common. It remains the primary transfer mechanism for high-end professional audio and video equipment  Dell KM958 battery .

Since 2003, many computers intended for home or professional audio/video use have built-in FireWire/i.LINK ports, especially prevalent with Sony and Apple's computers. The legacy (alpha) 1394 port is also available on premium retail motherboards Dell Studio 1555 battery .

History and development

FireWire is Apple's name for the IEEE 1394 High Speed Serial Bus. It was initiated by Apple (in 1986[2]) and developed by the IEEE P1394 Working Group, largely driven by contributions from Apple, although major contributions were also made by engineers from Texas Instruments, Sony, Digital Equipment Corporation, IBM, and INMOS/SGS Thomson (now STMicroelectronics)   Sony VGP-BPS13 battery .

IEEE 1394 is a serial bus architecture for high-speed data transfer. Compared to older avionics data buses such as MIL-STD-1553, FireWire is a serial bus, meaning that information is transferred one bit at a time. Parallel buses utilize a number of different physical connections, and as such are usually much less efficient, more costly, and typically heavier   Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery .

Unlike other serial buses, such as PCI, FireWire fully supports both isochronous and asynchronous applications such as in safety-critical systems in the F-22 Raptor.

Apple intended FireWire to be a serial replacement for the parallel SCSI bus while providing connectivity for digital audio and video equipment   Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery .

Apple's development began in the late 1980s, later presented to the IEEE,  and was completed in 1995. As of 2007, IEEE 1394 is a composite of four documents: the original IEEE Std. 1394-1995, the IEEE Std. 1394a-2000 amendment, the IEEE Std. 1394b-2002 amendment, and the IEEE Std. 1394c-2006 amendment   Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery .

On June 12, 2008, all these amendments as well as errata and some technical updates were incorporated into a superseding standard IEEE Std. 1394-2008.

Apple's internal long-time code-name for FireWire was "Chefcat" starting in 1988 as the team sat around a conference table contemplating what to call the project and staring at Michael Johas Teener's famous Kliban coffee mug  Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery .

That was the "aha" moment articulating the goals of the new interconnect, at low cost and ultimate simplicity presented to the user to replace and unify all other PC interconnections and expand beyond that base to enable ultimate miniaturization of electronics  Sony VGP-BPL9 battery .

The concept of the current loop electronics that became the now pervasive LVDS was code named "Greyhound" around 1992.

Sony's implementation of the system, "i.LINK", used a smaller connector with only the four signal circuits, omitting the two circuits which provide power to the device in favor of a separate power connector  Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery .

This style was later added into the 1394a amendment.This port is sometimes labeled "S100" or "S400" to indicate speed in Mbit/s.

The system is commonly used for connection of data storage devices and DV (digital video) cameras, but is also popular in industrial systems for machine vision and professional audio systems   Sony VGP-BPL15 battery .

It is preferred over the more common USB for its greater effective speed and power distribution capabilities. Perhaps more important, FireWire uses all SCSI capabilities and has high sustained data transfer rates, important for audio and video editors  Dell Inspiron E1505 battery .

Benchmarks show that the sustained data transfer rates are higher for FireWire than for USB 2.0, but lower than USB 3.0. Results are marked on Apple Mac OS X but more varied on Microsoft Windows.

However, the expensive hardware needed to implement it (US$1–$2) has prevented FireWire from displacing USB in low-end mass-market computer peripherals, where product cost is a major constraint  Dell Latitude E6400 battery .

Under the license offered by MPEG LA, a royalty of US$0.25 per unit is payable upon the manufacture of each 1394 product.

Technical specifications

FireWire can connect up to 63 peripherals in a tree chain topology (as opposed to Parallel SCSI's electrical bus topology)  HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery .

It allows peer-to-peer device communication — such as communication between a scanner and a printer — to take place without using system memory or the CPU. FireWire also supports multiple hosts per bus. It is designed to support plug and play but not hot swapping  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery .

The copper cable it uses (1394's most common implementation) can be up to 4.5 metres (15 ft) long and is more flexible than most Parallel SCSI cables. In its six-circuit or nine-circuit variations, it can supply up to 45 watts of power per port at up to 30 volts, allowing moderate-consumption devices to operate without a separate power supply  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery .

FireWire devices implement the ISO/IEC 13213 "configuration ROM" model for device configuration and identification, to provide plug-and-play capability. All FireWire devices are identified by an IEEE EUI-64 unique identifier (an extension of the 48-bit Ethernet MAC address format) in addition to well-known codes indicating the type of device and the protocols it supports  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery .

FireWire devices are organized at the bus in a tree topology. Each device has a unique self-id. One of the nodes is elected root node and always has the highest id. The self-ids are assigned during the self-id process, which happens after each bus resets  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery - 5200mAh/7800mAh/10400mAh, 11.10V .

The order in which the self-ids are assigned is equivalent to traversing the tree depth-first, post-order.

FireWire is capable of operating safety critical systems due to the way multiple devices interact with the bus and how the bus allocates bandwidth to the devices  SONY VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery - 5200mAh/7800mAh/10400mAh, 11.10V .

FireWire is capable of both asynchronous and isochronous transfer methods at once. Isochronous data transfers are transfers for devices that require continuous, guaranteed bandwidth. Isochronous devices include control of the rudder, mouse operations and data from pressure sensors outside the aircraft       SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery .

All these elements require constant, uninterrupted bandwidth. Asynchronous data transfers are for devices which use a buffer, such as streaming video, speakers and CD drives. To support both elements, FireWire dedicates a certain percentage to isochronous data and the rest to asynchronous data    SONY VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery .

In IEEE 1394 80% of the bus is reserved for isochronous cycles, leaving asynchronous data with a minimum of 20% of the bus.

Encoding Scheme

FireWire uses Data strobe encoding (D/S encoding).  In D/S encoding, two non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signals are used to transmit the data with high reliability         SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery .

The NRZ signal sent is fed with the clock signal through an XOR gate, creating a strobe signal. This strobe is then put through another XOR gate along with the data signal to reconstruct the clock.This in turn acts as the bus's PLL for synchronization purposes  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery .

Arbitration

The process of the bus deciding which node gets to transmit data at what time is known as arbitration. Each arbitration round lasts about 125 micro-seconds. During the round, the root node (device nearest the processor) sends a cycle start packet. All nodes requiring data transfer respond, with the closest node winning  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery .

After the node is finished, the remaining nodes take turns in order. This repeats until all the devices have used their portion of the 125 micro-seconds, with isochronous transfers having priority. Up to 80% of the time can be given to isochronous nodes  Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery .

Standards and versions

The previous standards and its three published amendments are now incorporated into a superseding standard, IEEE 1394-2008.The features individually added give a good history on the development path  Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery .

FireWire 400 (IEEE 1394-1995)

The original release of IEEE 1394-1995  specified what is now known as FireWire 400. It can transfer data between devices at 100, 200, or 400 Mbit/s half-duplex data rates (the actual transfer rates are 98.304, 196.608, and 393.216 Mbit/s, i.e., 12.288, 24.576 and 49.152 megabytes per second respectively)  Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery .

These different transfer modes are commonly referred to as S100, S200, and S400.

Cable length is limited to 4.5 metres (14.8 ft), although up to 16 cables can be daisy chained using active repeaters; external hubs, or internal hubs are often present in FireWire equipment     Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery .

The S400 standard limits any configuration's maximum cable length to 72 metres (236 ft). The 6-circuit connector is commonly found on desktop computers, and can supply the connected device with power.

The 6-circuit powered connector, now referred to as an alpha connector, adds power output to support external devices  Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery .

Typically a device can pull about 7 to 8 watts from the port; however, the voltage varies significantly from different devices. Voltage is specified as unregulated and should nominally be about 25 volts (range 24 to 30). Apple's implementation on laptops is typically related to battery power and can be as low as 9 V     Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery .

Improvements (IEEE 1394a-2000)

An amendment, IEEE 1394a, was released in 2000,  which clarified and improved the original specification. It added support for asynchronous streaming, quicker bus reconfiguration, packet concatenation, and a power-saving suspend mode  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery .

IEEE 1394a offers a couple of advantages over IEEE 1394. 1394a is capable of arbitration accelerations, allowing the bus to accelerate arbitration cycles to improve efficiency. It also allows for arbitrated short bus reset, in which a node can be added or dropped without causing a big drop in isochronous transmission  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery .

1394a also standardized the 4-circuit alpha connector developed by Sony and trademarked as "i.LINK", already widely in use on consumer devices such as camcorders, most PC laptops, a number of PC desktops, and other small FireWire devices. The 4-circuit connector is fully data-compatible with 6-circuit alpha interfaces but lacks power connectors SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery .

FireWire 800 (IEEE 1394b-2002)

 

IEEE 1394b-2002  introduced FireWire 800 (Apple's name for the 9-circuit "S800 bilingual" version of the IEEE 1394b standard) This specification and corresponding products allow a transfer rate of 786.432 Mbit/s full-duplex via a new encoding scheme termed beta mode  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ430E Battery .

It is backwards compatible to the slower rates and 6-circuit alpha connectors of FireWire 400. However, while the IEEE 1394a and IEEE 1394b standards are compatible, FireWire 800's connector, referred to as a beta connector, is different from FireWire 400's alpha connectors, making legacy cables incompatible  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery .

A bilingual cable allows the connection of older devices to the newer port. In 2003, Apple was the first to introduce commercial products with the new connector.

The full IEEE 1394b specification supports data rates up to 3200 Mbit/s (i.e., 400 megabytes/s) over beta-mode or optical connections up to 100 metres (330 ft) in length. Standard Category 5e unshielded twisted pair supports 100 metres (330 ft) at S100SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery .

The original 1394 and 1394a standards used data/strobe (D/S) encoding (renamed to alpha mode) on the circuits, while 1394b adds a data encoding scheme called 8B10B referred to as beta mode  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ4000 Battery .

Beta mode is based on 8B/10B (Gigabit Ethernet & Fibre Channel). 8B/10B encoding involves expanding an 8 bit data word into 10 bits, with the extra bits after the 5th and 8th data bits. The partitioned data is sent through a Running Disparity calculator function  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery .

The Running Disparity calculator attempts to keep the number of 1s transmitted equal to 0s, thereby assuring a DC-balanced signal. Then, the different partitions are sent through a 5B/6B encoder for the 5 bit partition and a 3B/4B encoder for the 3 bit partitionSONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery .

This gives the packet the ability to have at least two 1s, ensuring synchronization of the PLL at the receiving end to the correct bit boundaries for reliable transfer. An additional function of the coding scheme is to support the arbitration for bus access and general bus control     SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery .

This is possible due to the "surplus" symbols afforded by the 8B/10B expansion. (While 8-bit symbols can encode a maximum of 256 values, 10-bit symbols permit the encoding of up to 1024.) Symbols invalid for the current state of the receiving PHY indicate data errors   SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery .

FireWire S1600 and S3200

In December 2007, the 1394 Trade Association announced that products would be available before the end of 2008 using the S1600 and S3200 modes that, for the most part, had already been defined in 1394b and was further clarified in IEEE Std. 1394-2008 SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery .

The 1.6 Gbit/s and 3.2 Gbit/s devices use the same 9-circuit beta connectors as the existing FireWire 800 and will be fully compatible with existing S400 and S800 devices. It will compete with the forthcoming USB 3.0.

S1600 (Symwave  ) and S3200 (Dap Technology ) development units have been made, with the latter promising a consumer version by late 2010  SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery .

FireWire S800T (IEEE 1394c-2006)

It provided a major technical improvement, namely new port specification that provides 800 Mbit/s over the same 8P8C (Ethernet) connectors with Category 5e cable       SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery ,

which is specified in IEEE 802.3 clause 40 (gigabit Ethernet over copper twisted pair) along with a corresponding automatic negotiation that allows the same port to connect to either IEEE Std 1394 or IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) devices  SONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery .

Though the potential for a combined Ethernet and FireWire 8P8C port is intriguing, as of November 2008, there are no products or chipsets which include this capability.

Future enhancements (including P1394d)

A project named IEEE P1394d was formed by the IEEE on March 9, 2009 to add single mode fiber as an additional transport medium to FireWire    SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery .

Other future iterations of FireWire are expected to bring a bump in speed to 6.4 Gbit/s and additional connectors such as the small multimedia interface.

Operating system support

Full support for IEEE 1394a and 1394b is available for Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD,  Linux, Apple Mac OS 8.6 through Mac OS 9, Mac OS X, NetBSD, and Haiku  SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery .

In Windows XP, a degradation in performance of 1394 devices may have occurred with installation of Service Pack 2. This was resolved in Hotfix 885222 and in SP3. Some FireWire hardware manufacturers also provide custom device drivers which replace the Microsoft OHCI host adapter driver stack  SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery ,

enabling S800-capable devices to run at full 800 Mbit/s transfer rates on older versions of Windows (XP SP2 w/o Hotfix 885222) and Windows Vista. At the time of its release, Microsoft Windows Vista supported only 1394a, with assurances that 1394b support would come in the next service pack  SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery .

Service Pack 1 for Microsoft Windows Vista has since been released, however the addition of 1394b support is not mentioned anywhere in the release documentation. The 1394 bus driver was rewritten for Windows 7 to provide support for higher speeds and alternative media  Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery .

In Linux, support was originally provided by libraw1394 making direct communication between user space and IEEE 1394 buses. Subsequently a new kernel driver stack, nicknamed JuJu, has been implemented.

Cable TV system support

Cable TV providers (in the US, with digital systems) must, upon request of a customer, provide a high-definition capable cable box with a functional FireWire interface  Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery .

This applies only to customers leasing high-definition capable cable boxes from said cable provider after April 1, 2004. The relevant law is 47 CFR 76.640 Section 4 Subsections i and ii. The interface can be used to display or record Cable TV, including HDTV programming    Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery .

Comparison with USB

While USB 2.0 (introduced in 2001) is quoted as running at a higher signaling rate (480 Mbit/s) than legacy FireWire 400 (400 Mbit/s, available since 1995), data transfers over S400 FireWire interfaces generally outperform similar transfers over USB 2.0 interfaces in real world environments    Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery .

Few if any USB 2.0 device implementations are capable of saturating the entire 480 Mbit/s, but this can be achieved with multiple devices on the same bus. In real world tests USB PC hosts rarely can sustain transfers exceeding 280 Mbit/s, with 240 Mbit/s being the norm  Dell Studio 1450 Battery .

This is likely due to USB's reliance on the host processor to manage low-level USB protocol, whereas FireWire delegates the same tasks to the interface hardware (requiring less or no CPU usage). For example, the FireWire host interface supports memory-mapped devices, allowing high-level protocols to run without loading the host CPU with interrupts and buffer-copy operations  Dell Studio 1457 Battery .

Other differences are that FireWire uses simpler bus networking, provides more power over the chain and more reliable data transfer, and is less taxing on a CPU. USB requires the presence of a bus master, typically a PC, whereas FireWire is a true peer-to-peer network, thus allowing either device to serve as the host or the slave  Dell Latitude D610 Battery .

Automobiles

IDB-1394 Customer Convenience Port (CCP) is the automotive version of the 1394 standard.

Wind power turbines

Audio monitoring for vibrations in the power transmission in wind driven electrical turbines uses a 1394 network for data gatheringToshiba NB100 Battery .

Networking over FireWire

FireWire can be used for ad-hoc (terminals only, no routers except where a FireWire hub is used) computer networks. Specifically, RFC 2734 specifies how to run IPv4 over the FireWire interface, and RFC 3146 specifies how to run IPv6  Toshiba Satellite M65 battery .

Mac OS X, Linux, and FreeBSD include support for networking over FireWire . Windows Me, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 include native support for IEEE 1394 networking. Windows 2000 does not have native support but may work with third party drivers  Toshiba Satellite M60 battery .

A network can be set up between two computers using a single standard FireWire cable, or by multiple computers through use of a hub. This is similar to Ethernet networks with the major differences being transfer speed, circuit length, and the fact that standard FireWire cables can be used for point-to-point communication  Dell Latitude D830 Battery .

On December 4, 2004, Microsoft announced that it would discontinue support for IP networking over the FireWire interface in all future versions of Microsoft Windows. Consequently, support for this feature is absent from Windows Vista and later Windows releases  Dell Latitude D620 Battery .

Microsoft rewrote their 1394 driver in Windows 7   but networking support for FireWire is not present. Unibrain offers free FireWire networking drivers for Windows called ubCore  which support Windows Vista and later versions  Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery .

The PlayStation 2 console had an i.LINK-branded 1394 connector. This was used for networking until the release of an Ethernet adapter late in the console's lifespan, but very few software titles supported the feature  Sony VGN-FW11S Battery .

IIDC

IIDC (Instrumentation & Industrial Digital Camera) is the FireWire data format standard for live video, and is used by Apple's iSight A/V camera. The system was designed for machine vision systems but is also used for other computer vision applications and for some webcams  Sony VGN-FW11M Battery .

Although they are easily confused since they both run over FireWire, IIDC is different from, and incompatible with, the ubiquitous AV/C (Audio Video Control) used to control camcorders and other consumer video devices  Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery .

DV

Digital Video (DV) is a standard protocol used by some digital camcorders. All DV cameras that recorded to tape media had a FireWire interface (usually a 4-circuit)  Dell Latitude E5400 Battery .

Labeling of the port varies by manufacturer, with Sony using either its i.LINK trademark or the letters 'DV'. Many digital video recorders have a "DV-input" FireWire connector (usually an alpha connector) which can be used to record video from a directly-connected DV camcorder ("computer-free")  Dell Latitude E4200 Battery .

The protocol also allows remote control (play, rewind, etc.) of connected devices.

It was not possible to use a USB interface for tape based systems because the video was streamed from the tape at a constant rate. USB relied on processor support and this was not guaranteed to service the USB port in time  Dell Inspiron 300M Battery .

The recent move away from tape towards solid state memory or disc media (e.g. SD Cards, DVD disc or Hard Drives), has enabled a switch to USB.

Frame grabbers

IEEE 1394 interface is commonly found in frame grabbers, devices that capture and digitize an analog video signal  Dell Vostro A840 Battery ;

however, IEEE 1394 is facing competition from the Gigabit Ethernet interface (citing speed and availability issues).

Security issues

Devices on a FireWire bus can communicate by direct memory access (DMA), where a device can use hardware to map internal memory to FireWire's "Physical Memory Space"   Dell Studio 1737 battery .

The SBP-2 (Serial Bus Protocol 2) used by FireWire disk drives uses this capability to minimize interrupts and buffer copies. In SBP-2, the initiator (controlling device) sends a request by remotely writing a command into a specified area of the target's FireWire address space     Dell Inspiron E1505 battery .

This command usually includes buffer addresses in the initiator's FireWire "Physical Address Space", which the target is supposed to use for moving I/O data to and from the initiator.

On many implementations, particularly those like PCs and Macs using the popular OHCI, the mapping between the FireWire "Physical Memory Space" and device physical memory is done in hardware, without operating system intervention  Dell RM791 battery .

While this enables high-speed and low-latency communication between data sources and sinks without unnecessary copying (such as between a video camera and a software video recording application, or between a disk drive and the application buffers), this can also be a security risk if untrustworthy devices are attached to the bus   Dell XPS M1530 battery .

For this reason, high-security installations will typically either purchase newer machines which map a virtual memory space to the FireWire "Physical Memory Space" (such as a Power Mac G5, or any Sun workstation), disable the OHCI hardware mapping between FireWire and device memory, physically disable the entire FireWire interface, or do not have FireWire  Dell XPS M2010 battery .

This feature can be used to debug a machine whose operating system has crashed, and in some systems for remote-console operations. On FreeBSD, the dcons driver provides both, using gdb as debugger. Under Linux, firescope  and fireproxy exists  Acer Aspire One battery .

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (read I-Triple-E) is a non-profit professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation related to electricity. It has more than 395,000 members in more than 160 countries, 45% outside the United States  Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery .

The IEEE is incorporated under the Not-for-Profit Corporation Law of the state of New York, United States. It was formed in 1963 by the merger of theInstitute of Radio Engineers (IRE, founded 1912) and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE, founded 1884)  SONY VGN-FZ210CE Battery .

The major interests of the AIEE were wire communications (telegraph and telephony) and light and power systems. The IRE concerned mostly radioengineering, and was formed from two smaller organizations, the Society of Wireless and Telegraph Engineers and the Wireless Institute   Dell Precision M70 Battery .

With the rise ofelectronics in the 1930s, electronics engineers usually became members of the IRE, but the applications of electron tube technology became so extensive that the technical boundaries differentiating the IRE and the AIEE became difficult to distinguish   Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery .

After World War II, the two organizations became increasingly competitive, and in 1961, the leadership of both the IRE and the AIEE resolved to consolidate the two organizations. The two organizations formally merged as the IEEE on January 1, 1963  Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery .

Notable Presidents of IEEE and its founding organizations include Elihu Thomson (AIEE, 1889–1890), Alexander Graham Bell (AIEE, 1891–1892), Charles Proteus Steinmetz (AIEE, 1901–1902), Lee De Forest (IRE, 1930), Frederick E. Terman (IRE, 1941), William R. Hewlett (IRE, 1954), Ernst Weber (IRE, 1959; IEEE, 1963), and Ivan Getting (IEEE, 1978)  Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery .

IEEE's Constitution defines the purposes of the organization as "scientific and educational, directed toward the advancement of the theory and practice ofElectrical, Electronics, Communications and Computer engineering, as well as computer science, the allied branches of engineering and the related arts andsciences  Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery ."

In pursuing these goals, the IEEE serves as a major publisher of scientific journals and a conference organizer. It is also a leading developer of industrial standards (having developed over 900 active industry standards) in a broad range of disciplinesToshiba Satellite 1200 Battery ,

including electric power and energy, biomedical technology and healthcare, information technology, information assurance, telecommunications, consumer electronics, transportation, aerospace, andnanotechnology. IEEE develops and participates in educational activities such as accreditation of electrical engineering programs in institutes of higher learning  Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery .

The IEEE logo is a diamond-shaped design which illustrates the right hand grip rule embedded in Benjamin Franklin's kite, which was created in the 1963 merger.IEEE also sponsors or cosponsors more than 1000 international technical conferences each year  SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

IEEE has a dual complementary regional and technical structure - with organizational units based on geography (e.g., for example the IEEE Philadelphia Section, IEEE South Africa Section ) and technical focus (e.g., the IEEE Computer Society)  SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery .

It manages a separate organizational unit (IEEE-USA) which recommends policies and implements programs specifically intended to benefit the members, the profession and the public in the United States.

The IEEE consists of 38 societies, organized around specialized technical fields, with more than 300 local organizations that hold regular meetings  SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery .

The IEEE Standards Association is in charge of the standardization activities of the IEEE.

Publications

IEEE produces 30% of the world's literature in the electrical and electronics engineering and computer science fields, publishing well over 100 peer-reviewed journals  SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery .

The content in these journals as well as the content from several hundred annual conferences are available in the IEEE's online digital library.

IEEE publications have received a Green rating the from SHERPA/RoMEO guide for affirming "authors and/or their companies shall have the right to post their IEEE-copyrighted material on their own servers without permission" (IEEE Publication Policy 8.1.9.D )SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery .

This open access policy effectively allows authors, at their choice, to make their article openly available. Roughly 1/3 of the IEEE authors take this route.

Like most other standards bodies, IEEE distributes its standards documents for a fee  SONY VGP-BPS13/Q Battery .

Educational opportunities

The IEEE provides learning opportunities within the engineering sciences, research, and technology. The goal of the IEEE education programs is to ensure the growth of skill and knowledge in the electricity-related technical professions and to foster individual commitment to continuing education among IEEE members  SONY VGP-BPS21A/B Battery ,

the engineering and scientific communities, and the general public.

IEEE offers educational opportunities such as IEEE eLearning Library, the Education Partners Program, Standards in Educationand Continuing Education Units (CEUs)  SONY VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

IEEE eLearning Library is a collection of online educational courses designed for self-paced learning. Education Partners, exclusive for IEEE members, offers on-line degree programs, certifications and courses at a 10% discount. The Standards in Education website explains what standards are and the importance of developing and using them   SONY VGP-BPS21B Battery .

The site includes tutorial modules and case illustrations to introduce the history of standards, the basic terminology, their applications and impact on products, as well as news related to standards, book reviews and links to other sites that contain information on standards       SONY VGP-BPS21A Battery .

Currently, twenty-nine states require Professional Development Hours (PDH) to maintain P.E. licensure, encouraging engineers to seek Continuing Education Units (CEUs) for their participation in continuing education programs. CEUs readily translate into Professional Development Hours (PDHs) (1 CEU is equivalent to 10 PDHs)   SONY VGP-BPS21 Battery .

Countries outside the United States, such as South Africa, also require continuing professional development (CPD) credits. In South Africa, the IEEE South Africa Section is a voluntary association of the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA), a signatory of Washington Accord   Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery .

To maintain registration with ECSA, professional engineers (Pr Eng) must pursue CPD, and now the IEEE, via its local reflection in South Africa, can enable CPD provision. In 2010, it is anticipated that IEEE Expert Now courses will feature in the CPD listing for the IEEE membership in South Africa to derive benefit  Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery .

IEEE also sponsors a website designed to help young people understand better what engineering means, and how an engineering career can be made part of their future. Students (ages 8–18), parents, and teachers can explore the site to prepare for an engineering career  Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery ,

ask experts engineering-related questions, play interactive games, explore curriculum links, and review lesson plans. This website also allows students to search for accredited engineering degree programs in Canada and the United States; visitors are able to search by state/province/territory, country, degree field, tuition ranges, room and board ranges, size of student body, and location (rural, suburban, or urban)  Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery .

Standards and development process

IEEE is one of the leading standards-making organizations in the world. IEEE performs its standards making and maintaining functions through the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA)  Sony Vaio PCG-5G2L Battery .

EEE standards affect a wide range of industries including: power and energy, biomedical and healthcare, Information Technology (IT), telecommunications, transportation, nanotechnology, information assurance, and many more. In 2005, IEEE had close to 900 active standards, with 500 standards under development   Sony Vaio PCG-5G3L Battery .

One of the more notable IEEE standards is the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN group of standards which includes the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard and the IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networking standard.

Membership and member grades

Most IEEE members are electrical engineers and electronics engineers  Sony Vaio PCG-5J1L Battery ,

but the organization's wide scope of interests has attracted engineers in other disciplines (e.g., computer science, mechanicaland civil engineering) as well as biologists, physicists, and mathematicians. An individual can join the IEEE as an student member, professional member, or associate member   Sony Vaio PCG-5K2L Battery .

In order to qualify for membership, the individual must comply with certain academic or professional criteria and abide to the code of ethics and bylaws of the organization. Student memberships are available to those who are enrolled in a accredited institution of higher education as undergrad or graduate students for a reduced fee  Sony Vaio PCG-5J2L Battery .

A professional membership however requires from the individual proof of having been graduated from an higher education institution and received the diploma or engineer. In the case of some countries like the U.S.A. and Canada, a bachelor in electrical, electronics or computer science are almost automatically considered for membership  Sony Vaio PCG-5K1L Battery .

An associate membership is given to an individual whose area of expertise falls outside the scope of the IEEE and/or don't have at the time of enrollment all the requirements for applying for full memberships. Other individuals who don't want to be directly linked to electrical engineering for reasons of having membership on another sister organizations  Sony Vaio PCG-6S2L Battery ,

may choose to be called affiliates before that professional members of the IEEE. Students and Associates have all the privileges of members, except the right to vote and hold certain offices. Upon meeting certain requirements, a member can apply for a Senior Membership  Sony Vaio PCG-6S3L Battery ,

which is the highest recognition a professional member can host for his(her) contributions and advancement to the field of electrical and electronics engineering. Although an application for Senior Member is personal and optional, the applicant must have at least two letters of recommendation from other senior members and rigorously fulfill the requirements of education Sony Vaio PCG-6V1L Battery ,

achievement, remarkable contribution and experience in the field. The Senior Members are a selected group who are entitled to hold specific IEEE officer positions and is the requirement for those who are nominated and elevated to the grade IEEE Fellow, a distinctive honor  Sony Vaio PCG-6W1L Battery .

Awards

Through its awards program, the IEEE advances the interests of its members by recognizing their contributions in advancing the fields of interest to IEEE to the benefit of society   Sony Vaio PCG-6W2L Battery .

By this means, the image and prestige of the organization, its members, and the profession are all enhanced. The IEEE Awards Program honors members and other professionals for their service to the society  Sony Vaio PCG-6W3L Battery .

For nearly a century, the IEEE Awards Program has paid tribute to technical professionals whose exceptional achievements and outstanding contributions have made a lasting impact on technology, society and the engineering profession  Sony Vaio PCG-7111L Battery .

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