Impact on popular culture
The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, beginning with its publication in the 1950s, but especially throughout the 1960s and 1970s, during which time young people embraced it as a countercultural saga. Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery
"Frodo Lives!" and "Gandalf for President" were two phrases popular among American Tolkien fans during this time.
In one scene of the 1993 film, Six Degrees of Separation, Paul (Will Smith) mocks The Lord of the Rings books in front of Ian McKellen's character. Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery
Less than a decade after this film was made, Ian McKellen would play the role of Gandalf in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.
Parodies like the Harvard Lampoon's Bored of the Rings, the VeggieTales episode "Lord of the Beans", Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery
the South Park episode "The Return of the Fellowship of the Ring to the Two Towers", the Futurama film "Bender's Game", The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius episode "Lights! Camera! Danger!", The Big Bang Theoryepisode "The Precious Fragmentation", and the American Dad! episode "The Return of the Bling" are testimony to the work's continual presence in popular culture. Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery
In 1969 Tolkien sold the merchandising rights to The Lord of The Rings (and The Hobbit) to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of £10,000 plus a 7.5% royalty after costs, payable to Allen & Unwin and the author. In 1976 (three years after the author's death) United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company, Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery
who trade as Tolkien Enterprises. Since then all "authorized" merchandise has been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises, although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery
Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations, from the late 1960s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise, from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Pauline Baynes and the Brothers Hildebrandt, to figurines and miniatures to computer, video, tabletop and role-playing games. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery
Recent examples include the Spiel des Jahres award winning (for best use of literature in a game) board game The Lord of the Rings by Reiner Knizia and the Golden Joystick award-winning massively multiplayer online role-playing game, The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmarby Turbine, Inc.. Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring is a 2001 epic fantasy film directed by Peter Jacksonbased on the first volume of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1954–1955). It was followed by The Two Towers(2002) and The Return of the King (2003), based on the second and third volumes of The Lord of the Rings. Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery
Set in Middle-earth, the story tells of the Dark Lord Sauron, who is seeking the One Ring. The Ring has found its way to the young hobbit Frodo Baggins (Elijah Wood). The fate of Middle-earth hangs in the balance as Frodo and eight companions who form the Fellowship of the Ring begin their journey to Mount Doom in the land of Mordor, Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery
the only place where the Ring can be destroyed.
Released on 10 December 2001, the film was highly acclaimed by critics and fans alike, especially as many of the latter judged it to be the most sufficiently faithful adaptation of the original story out of Jackson's film trilogy. Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery
It was a major box office success, earning over $870 million worldwide, and the second highest-grossing film of 2001 in the U.S. and worldwide (behind Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone) which made it the 5th highest-grossing film ever at the time.
Today it is the 26th highest-grossing worldwide film of all time. Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery
It won four Academy Awards and five BAFTAs, including Best Film and Best Director BAFTA awards. The Special Extended Edition was released to DVD on November 12, 2002 and toBlu-ray on June 28, 2011. In 2007, The Fellowship of the Ring was voted number 50 on the American Film Institute's list of 100 greatest American films. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery
The AFI also voted it the second greatest fantasy film of all time during their AFI's 10 Top 10 special.In the Second Age, the Dark Lord Sauron attempts to conquer Middle-Earth using his One Ring. In battle against theElves and Men, Prince Isildur cuts the Ring from Sauron's hand, destroying his physical form and vanquishing his army. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery
However, Sauron's "life force" is bound to the Ring, allowing him to survive while the Ring remains. Isildur, corrupted by the Ring's power, refuses to destroy it. When Isildur is killed by Orcs, the Ring is lost in a river for 2,500 years. The Ring is found by Gollum, who possesses it for centuries until it is found by the Hobbit Bilbo Baggins. Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery
Sixty years later, Bilbo leaves the Ring to his nephew, Frodo Baggins. Upon learning that the Ring belonged to Sauron, the Wizard Gandalf the Grey warns Frodo that Sauron's forces will come for him. Gandalf catches Frodo's gardenerSamwise Gamgee eavesdropping underneath a window and sends him with Frodo to leave the Shire. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery
Gandalf rides to Isengardto meet with the head of his order, Saruman the White, who reveals that Sauron's servants, the Nazgûl, have been sent to capture the Ring. Saruman reveals himself to be in service to Sauron, and imprisons Gandalf atop his tower. Saruman commands Sauron's Orcs to construct weapons of war and produce a new breed of Orc fighters: the Uruk-hai. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery
While traveling to Bree, Frodo and Sam are joined by Merry and Pippin, and are nearly captured by the Nazgûl. At theInn of the Prancing Pony, Frodo meets the mysterious ranger Aragorn, who hides them from their pursuers and agrees to lead them to Rivendell. During the journey they are attacked by the Nazgûl. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery
Aragorn fights off the creatures, but Frodo is wounded by their morgul blade, which will turn him into a wraith. While chased by the Nazgûl, Frodo is saved by theElf Arwen who uses her magic to summon a surge of water that sweeps away the pursuing Nazgûl. Arwen takes Frodo to Rivendell where he is healed by her father, Elrond. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery
Gandalf escapes Saruman's tower with the aid of Gwaihir the eagleand travels to Rivendell. Elrond calls a council of the races still loyal to Middle-earth to decide what should be done with the Ring. It is revealed that the Ring can only be destroyed by throwing it into the fires of Mount Doom, where it was forged. Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery
Frodo volunteers to take the Ring, accompanied by Sam, Merry, Pippin, Gandalf, and Aragorn. They are joined by the Elf Legolas, the Dwarf Gimli, and Boromir, man of Gondor, to form the Fellowship of the Ring.The Fellowship set out but are hindered by Saruman's magic. Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery
They travel through the dwarf Mines of Moria. Inside, they find that Orcs have overrun the mines and slain the Dwarves; they also realize that Gollum is following them, determined to reclaim the Ring. The Fellowship is attacked by Orcs and a Balrog, an ancient demon of fire and shadow. Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery
Gandalf confronts the Balrog, allowing the others to escape, but both Gandalf and the Balrog fall into an abyss. Mourning Gandalf's death, the group flees to Lothlórien, where they are sheltered by its rulers, the Elves Galadrieland Celeborn. That night, Galadriel informs Frodo that it is his destiny to destroy the Ring. Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery
The Fellowship continue their journey. Meanwhile, Saruman assembles a force of Uruk-hai to hunt the Fellowship.
After arriving at Parth Galen, Boromir gives in to the Ring's corruption and tries to take it from Frodo, believing that it is the only way to save his realm. Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery
Frodo manages to escape by wearing the Ring and becoming invisible. Boromir realizes what he has done, and attempts to find Frodo, who decides to continue his journey alone, heeding Galadriel's warning that the Ring will eventually corrupt the other members of the Fellowship.Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery
The Uruk-hai arrive and Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli attempt to hold them off while Frodo escapes. Merry and Pippin lead the Orcs away from Frodo and are nearly killed. Boromir tries to save them, but in the process is shot fatally by the Uruk-Hai leader, Lurtz. The Uruk-Hai capture Merry and Pippin. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery
Aragorn slays Lurtz and tends to a dying Boromir, and promises him that the world of men will not fall. Boromir dies with Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas by his side.
Sam finds Frodo, who reluctantly lets Sam join him. Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli set out to rescue Merry and Pippin. Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery
As Frodo and Sam gaze out at the land before them, they grieve over the others. Frodo says that he is glad that Sam is with him and the two Hobbits set off towards Mordor.
Before filming began on 11 October 1999, the principal actors trained for six weeks in sword fighting (with Bob Anderson), riding and boating. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery
Jackson hoped such activities would allow the cast to bond so chemistry would be evident on screen as well as getting them used to life in Wellington. They were also trained to pronounce Tolkien's verses properly. After the shoot, the nine cast members playing the Fellowship got a tattoo, Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery
the Elvish symbol for the number nine, with the exception of John Rhys-Davies, whose stunt double got the tattoo instead. The film is noted for having an ensemble cast, and some of the cast and their respective characters include: Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery
Elijah Wood as Frodo Baggins: A hobbit who inherits the One Ring from his uncle, Bilbo Baggins. He is accompanied on his quest by his best friend and fellow hobbit, Samwise Gamgee. Elijah Wood was the first actor to be cast on 7 July 1999. Wood was a fan of the book, and he sent in an audition dressed as Frodo, reading lines from the novel. Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery
Wood was selected from 150 actors who auditioned.
Ian McKellen as Gandalf the Grey: An Istari wizard and mentor to Frodo, who helps him decide what to do with the Ring. He becomes the leader of the Fellowship after it is decided to take the Ring to Mount Doom and destroy it. Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery
Sean Connery was approached for the role, but did not understand the plot,while Patrick Stewart turned it down, as he disliked the script. Before being cast, McKellen had to sort his schedule with 20th Century Fox as there was a two-month overlap with X-Men. He enjoyed playing Gandalf the Grey more than his transformed state in the next two films, Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery
and based his accent on Tolkien. Unlike his on-screen character, McKellen did not spend much time with the actors playing the Hobbits, instead working with their scale doubles.
Sean Astin as Samwise "Sam" Gamgee: A Hobbit gardener and Frodo's best friend. Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery
When caught eavesdropping, Sam is made to become Frodo's companion and from then on becomes very loyal. Astin, who had recently become a father, bonded with the 18-year-old Wood in a protective manner, which mirrored Sam's relationship with Frodo.Viggo Mortensen as Aragorn: Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery
Dubbed Strider, he is a Dúnedain ranger and the heir to the throne of Gondor. He travels with the Fellowship on their journey toMordor. He is unsure of whether to become King following the failure of his ancestor, Isildur, to destroy the Ring. Nicolas Cage turned down the role because of "family obligations",Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery
while Vin Diesel, a fan of the book, auditioned for Aragorn. Stuart Townsend was cast in the role, before being replaced during filming when Jackson realised he was too young. Russell Crowe was considered as a replacement, but he turned it down after taking what he thought to be a similar role in Gladiator. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery
Producer Mark Ordesky saw Mortensen in a play. Mortensen's son, a fan of the book, convinced him to take the role. Mortensen read the book on the plane, received a crash course lesson in fencing from Bob Anderson and began filming the scenes on Weathertop.[ Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery
Mortensen became a hit with the crew by patching up his costume and carrying his "hero" sword around with him offscreen.Sean Bean as Boromir: A prince of the Stewards of Gondor, he journeys with the Fellowship towards Mordor, although he is tempted by the power of the Ring. Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery
Bruce Willis, a fan of the book, expressed interest in the role, while Liam Neeson was sent the script, but passed.
Orlando Bloom as Legolas: Prince of the Elves' Woodland Realm and a skilled archer who accompanies the Fellowship on their journey to Mordor. Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery
Bloom initially auditioned for Faramir, who appears in the second film, a role which went to David Wenham.Billy Boyd as Peregrin "Pippin" Took: A Hobbit who travels with the Fellowship on their journey to Mordor, along with his best friend Merry. He is a prankster, often being a nuisance for Gandalf. Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery
Together with Meriadoc Brandybuck (see below), he serves as a comic relief.
Dominic Monaghan as Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck: A Hobbit and a friend (and distant cousin) of Frodo. He helps him find a raft-ferry to escape the Nazgûl, and later travels with the Fellowship on their journey to Mordor, along with his best friend Pippin.Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery
Monaghan was cast as Merry after auditioning for Frodo. Together with Pippin (see above), he serves as a comic relief.John Rhys-Davies as Gimli: A Dwarf who accompanies the Fellowship to Mordor after they set out from Rivendell. He initially hates Elves, but changes his attitude in the course of the story, particularly after meeting Lady Galadriel. Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery
Billy Connolly was considered for the part of Gimli. Rhys-Davies wore heavy prosthetics to play Gimli, which limited his vision, and eventually he developed eczema around his eyes.
Christopher Lee as Saruman the White: The fallen head of the Istari Order, who succumbed to Sauron's will via his use of the palantír. Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery
After capturing Gandalf, he creates an army of Uruk-hai to find and capture the Ring from the Fellowship. Lee is a major fan of the book, and reads it once a year. He has also met J. R. R. Tolkien. He originally auditioned for Gandalf, but was judged too old.
Sala Baker as Sauron: The titular character of the story, who created the One Ring to conquer Middle-earth. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery
He lost the Ring to Isildur, and now seeks it in order to initiate his reign over Middle-earth. He cannot yet take physical form, and is spiritually incarnate as an Eye.
Hugo Weaving as Elrond: The Elven master and Lord of Rivendell, who leads the Council of Elrond which ultimately decides to destroy the One Ring. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery
He lost faith in the strength of Men after witnessing Isildur's failure 3,000 years before. David Bowie expressed interest in the role, but Jackson stated, "To have a famous, beloved character and a famous star colliding is slightly uncomfortable."Marton Csokas as Celeborn: An Elf and the co-ruler of Lothlórien along with his wife Galadriel. Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery
Cate Blanchett as Galadriel: An Elf and the co-ruler of Lothlórien along with her husband Celeborn. She shows Frodo a possible outcome of events in hermirror and gives him the Light of Eärendil. Tilda Swinton was also a possibility to the role, but she turned it down, since she was going to play a similar role as Jadis, Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery
the White Witch in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.
Liv Tyler as Arwen: An elf, Arwen escorts Frodo to Rivendell after he is stabbed by the Witch-king. She is the daughter of Elrond, and Aragorn's lover to whom she gives the Evenstar necklace. Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI Battery
The filmmakers approached Tyler after seeing her performance in Plunkett & Macleane, and New Line Cinema leaped at the opportunity of having one Hollywood star in the film. Actress Helena Bonham Carter had expressed interest in the role.Tyler came to shoot on short occasions, and bonded most with Bloom. Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery
She was one of the last actors to be cast, on 25 August 1999.
Ian Holm as Bilbo Baggins: Frodo's uncle who gives him the Ring after he decides to retire to Rivendell. At Rivendell, he gives Frodo a mithril mail-shirt and his own sword, Sting, which can detect the presence of nearby orcs by emitting a bluish glow. Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI Battery
Holm previously played Frodo in a 1981 radio adaption ofThe Lord of the Rings, and was cast as Bilbo after Jackson remembered his performance. Sylvester McCoy was contacted about playing the role, and was kept in place as a potential Bilbo for six months before Jackson went with Holm. Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery
Lawrence Makoare as Lurtz: The commander of Saruman's orc forces who leads the hunt for the Fellowship as they head to Mordor.Craig Parker as Haldir: Leader of The Galadhrim warriors guarding the border of Lothlórien.Mark Ferguson as Gil-galad: An Elven-King and last ruler of Noldor who fought in the War of the Last Alliance. Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery
Peter McKenzie as Elendil: High King of Arnor and Gondor who fought in The War Of The Last Alliance and father of Isildur. Killed by Sauron.
Harry Sinclair as Isildur: Son of Elendil and ancestor of Aragorn who fought in The War Of The Last Alliance. Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery
He got ambushed by Mordor Orcs when The One Ring is passed onto him after he cut off Sauron's hand with his father's sword, Narsil during the war.
Comparison with the source material
Jackson, Walsh and Boyens made numerous changes to the story, for purposes of pacing and character development. Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery
Jackson said his main desire was to make a film focused primarily on Frodo and the Ring, the "backbone" of the story. The prologue condenses Tolkien's backstory, in which The Last Alliance's seven year siege of the Barad-dûr is a single battle, where Sauron is shown to explode, though Tolkien only said his spirit flees. Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery
Events at the beginning of the film are condensed or omitted altogether. In the book the time between Gandalf leaving the Ring to Frodo and returning to reveal its inscription, which is 17 years, is compressed for timing reasons. Frodo also spends a few months preparing to move to Buckland, on the eastern border of the shire. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery
This move is omitted and combined with him setting out for Rivendell. Also compressed is the time between Frodo and Sam leaving Bag End and their meeting Merry and Pippin. Characters such asTom Bombadil are left out to simplify the plot and increase the threat of the Ringwraiths. Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E Battery
Such sequences are left out to make time to introduce Saruman, who in the book doesn't appear until a flashback told at the Council of Elrond. Saruman's role is enhanced: he is to blame for the blizzard on Caradhras, a role taken from Sauron and/or Caradhras itself in the book. Gandalf's capture by Saruman is also expanded with a fight sequence. Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery
The role of Barliman Butterbur at the Prancing Pony is largely removed for time and dramatic flow.The events at Weathertop were also altered. The location of the fight against the Ringwraiths was changed to the ruins on top of the hill rather than a campsite at its base. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI Battery
When Frodo was stabbed in the book, the party spent two weeks travelling to Rivendell, but in the film this is shortened to less than a week, with Frodo's condition worsening at a commensurately greater rate. Arwen was given a greater role in the film, accompanying Frodo all the way to Rivendell, Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery
while in the book Frodo faced the Ringwraiths alone at the Ford of Bruinen. The character of Glorfindel was omitted entirely and his scenes were also given to Arwen. She was tacitly credited with the river rising against the Ringwraiths, which was the work of her father Elrond with aid from Gandalf in the book. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L Battery
A significant new addition is Aragorn's self-doubt, which causes him to hesitate to claim the kingship of Gondor. This element is not present in the book, where Aragorn intends to claim the throne at an appropriate time. In the book Narsil is reforged immediately when he joins the Fellowship, Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery
but this event is held over until Return of the King in film to symbolically coincide with his acceptance of his title. These elements were added because Peter Jackson believed that each character should be forced to grow or change over the course of the story.
Elrond's character gained an adversarial edge; Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery
he expresses doubts in the strength of Men to resist Sauron's evil after Isildur's failure to destroy the ring as depicted in the prologue. Jackson also shortens the Council of Elrond by spreading its exposition into earlier parts of the film. Elrond's counsellor, Erestor—who suggested the Ring be given to Tom Bombadil—was completely absent from this scene. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery
Gimli's father, Glóin, was also deemed unnecessary.
The tone of the Moria sequence was altered. Although in the book the Fellowship only realises the Dwarves are all dead once they reach Balin's tomb, the filmmakers chose to use foreshadowing devices instead. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery
Gandalf says to Gimli he would prefer not to enter Moria, and Saruman is shown to be aware of Gandalf's reticence, and also reveals an illustration of the Balrog in one of his books. The corpses of the dwarves are instantly shown as the Fellowship enter Moria.In terms of dramatic structure, the book simply ends; Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAH Battery
there is no climax, because Tolkien wrote the "trilogy" as a single story published in three volumes. Jackson's version incorporates the first chapter of '"The Two Towers" and makes its events, told in real time instead of flashback, simultaneous with the Breaking of the Fellowship. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
This finale is played as a climactic battle, into which he introduces the Uruk-hai referred to as Lurtz in the script. In the book, Boromir is unable to tell Aragorn which hobbits were kidnapped by the orcs before he dies. From there, Aragorn deduces Frodo's intentions when he notices that a boat is missing and Sam's pack is gone. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery
In the film, Aragorn and Frodo have a scene together in which Frodo's intentions are explicitly stated.Jackson began working with Christian Rivers to storyboard the trilogy in August 1997, as well as getting Richard Taylor and Weta Workshop to begin creating his interpretation of Middle-earth. Sony VAIO VGN-SR49VN/H Battery
Jackson told them to make Middle-earth as plausible and believable as possible, to think of Middle-earth in a historical manner.In November, Alan Lee and John Howe became the primary conceptual designers for the film trilogy, having had previous experience as illustrators for the book and various other tie-ins. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/P Battery
Lee worked for the Art Department creating places such as Rivendell, Isengard, Moria and Lothlórien, giving art nouveau and geometryinfluences to the Elves and Dwarves respectively. Though Howe contributed with Bag End and the Argonath, he focused working on armour having studied it all his life. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/S Battery
Weta and the Art Department continued to design, with Grant Major turning the Art Department's designs into architecture, and Dan Hennah scouting locations. On 1 April 1999, Ngila Dickson joined the crew as costume designer. She and 40 seamstresses would create 19,000 costumes, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF Battery
40 per version for the actor and their doubles, ageing and wearing them out for impression of age.The Fellowship of the Ring makes extensive use of digital, practical and make-up special effects throughout. One noticeable illusion that appears in almost every scene involves setting a proper scale so that the characters are all the correct height. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery
Elijah Wood, who plays Frodo, is 5 ft 6in (1.68 m) tall in real life, but the character of Frodo Baggins is barely four feet in height. Many different tricks were used to depict the hobbits (and Gimli the Dwarf) as being of diminutive stature. (In a happy coincidence, John-Rhys Davies — who played Gimli —Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/S Battery
is as tall compared to the Hobbit actors as his character needed to be compared to theirs, so he did not need to be filmed separately as a third variation of height, and is quite taller than Orlando Bloom, who played Legolas.) Large and small scale doubles were used in certain scenes, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery
while entire duplicates of certain sets (including Bag End in Hobbiton) were built at two different scales, so that the characters would appear to be the appropriate size. At one point in the film, Frodo runs along a corridor in Bag End, followed by Gandalf. Elijah Wood and Ian McKellen were filmed in separate versions of the same corridor, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery
built at two different scales, and a fast camera pan conceals the edit between the two. Forced perspective was also employed, so that it would look as though the short Hobbits were interacting with taller Men and Elves. Even the simple use of kneeling down, to the filmmakers' surprise, turned out to be an effective method in creating the illusion. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG Battery
For the battle between the Last Alliance and the forces of Sauron that begins the film, an elaborate CGI animation system, called MASSIVE, was developed byStephen Regelous; it allowed thousands of individual animated "characters" in the program to act independently. This helped give the illusion of realism to the battle sequences. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG/H Battery
The "Making of" Lord of the Rings DVD reports some interesting initial problems: in the first execution of a battle between groups of characters, the wrong groups attacked each other. In another early demo, some of the warriors at the edge of the field could be seen running away.Sony VAIO VGN-SR70B/S Battery
They were initially moving in the wrong direction, and had been programmed to keep running until they encountered an enemy.
The digital creatures were important due to Jackson's requirement of biological plausibility. Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/P Battery
Their surface was scanned from large maquettes before numerous digital details of their skeletons and muscles were added. In the case of the Balrog, Gary Horsfield created a system that copied recorded imagery of fire.
The musical score for the Lord of the Rings films was composed by Howard Shore. Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/S Battery
It was performed by the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, The London Philharmonic Orchestra, The London Voices, and featured several vocal soloists. Two original songs, "Aníron", and the end title theme "May It Be", were composed and sung byEnya, who allowed her label, Reprise Records, to release the soundtrack to this and its two sequels. Sony VAIO VGN-SR73JB/S Battery
In addition to this, Shore composed "In Dreams", which was sung by Edward Ross of the London Oratory School Schola.
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was released on 19 December 2001 in 3,359 cinemas where it grossed $47.2 million on its opening weekend. Sony VAIO VGN-SR74FB/S Battery
It went on to make $314.7 million in North America and $555.9 million in the rest of the world for a worldwide total of $870.7 million.The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring received mostly positive reviews from major film critics and was one of the best reviewed films of 2001, receiving 92% positive reviews on Rotten Tomatoes. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90FS Battery
Roger Ebert gave the film three out of four stars and wrote, "Peter Jackson ... has made a work for, and of, our times. It will be embraced, I suspect, by many Tolkien fans and take on aspects of a cult. It is a candidate for many Oscars. It is an awesome production in its daring and breadth, and there are small touches that are just right".Sony VAIO VGN-SR90NS Battery
USA Today also gave the film three out of four stars and wrote, "this movie version of a beloved book should please devotees as well as the uninitiated". In his review for The New York Times, Elvis Mitchell wrote, "The playful spookiness of Mr. Jackson's direction provides a lively, light touch, Sony VAIO VGN-SR90S Battery
a gesture that doesn't normally come to mind when Tolkien's name is mentioned".Entertainment Weekly magazine gave the film an "A" rating and Lisa Schwarzbaum wrote, "The cast take to their roles with becoming modesty, certainly, but Jackson also makes it easy for them: Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery
His Fellowship flows, never lingering for the sake of admiring its own beauty ... Every detail of which engrossed me. I may have never turned a page of Tolkien, but I know enchantment when I see it".
In her review for The Washington Post, Rita Kempley praised the cast, Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery
in particular, "Mortensen, as Strider, is a revelation, not to mention downright gorgeous. And McKellen, carrying the burden of thousands of years' worth of the fight against evil, is positively Merlinesque". Time magazine's Richard Corliss praised Jackson's work: "His movie achieves what the best fairy tales do: Sony VAIO VGN-SR91PS Battery
the creation of an alternate world, plausible and persuasive, where the young — and not only the young — can lose themselves. And perhaps, in identifying with the little Hobbit that could, find their better selves". In his review for The Village Voice, J. Hoberman wrote, "Peter Jackson's adaptation is certainly successful on its own terms".Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery
Rolling Stone magazine's Peter Travers wrote, "It's emotion that makes Fellowship stick hard in the memory ... Jackson deserves to revel in his success. He's made a three-hour film that leaves you wanting more".However, in his review for The Guardian, Peter Bradshaw wrote, Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery
"there is a strange paucity of plot complication, an absence of anything unfolding, all the more disconcerting because of the clotted and indigestible mythic back story that we have to wade through before anything happens at all.
In 2002, the film won four Academy Awards out of thirteen nominations. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery
The winning categories were for Best Cinematography, Best Visual Effects, Best Makeup, and Best Original Score. Despite its praise by fans, the other nominated categories of Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Ian McKellen), Best Art Direction, Best Director, Best Film Editing, Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery
Best Original Song (Enya, Nicky Ryan and Roma Ryan for "May It Be"), Best Picture, Best Sound (Christopher Boyes, Michael Semanick,Gethin Creagh and Hammond Peek), Costume Design and Best Adapted Screenplay were not won.As of June 2010, it is the 19th highest-grossing film worldwide, with takings of US$870,761,744 from worldwide theatrical box office receipts. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92S Battery
The film won the 2002 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. It also won Empire readers' Best Film award, as well as five BAFTAs, including Best Film, theDavid Lean Award for Direction, the Audience Award (voted for by the public), Best Special Effects, and Best Make-up. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery
The film was nominated for an MTV Movie Award for Best Fight between Gandalf and Saruman.
In June 2008, AFI revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was acknowledged as the second best film in the fantasy genre.
Theatrical and Extended release
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was released on VHS and DVD on 6 August 2002. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery
A few months later, on 12 November 2002, an Extended Edition was released on VHS and DVD, with 30 minutes of new material, added special effects and music, plus 20 minutes of fan-club credits. The DVD set included four commentaries and over three hours of supplementary material. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery
On 29 August 2006, a Limited Edition of The Fellowship of the Ring was released on DVD. The set included both the Theatrical and Extended editions of the film on a double-sided disc along with all-new bonus material. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery
The theatrical Blu-ray version of The Lord of the Rings was released in the United States on April 6, 2010. There were two separate sets: one with digital copies and one without. The individual Blu-ray disc of The Fellowship of the Ring was released on September 14, 2010 with the same special features as the complete trilogy release, Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery
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