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Imperial College London Imperial College London (officially The Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine)[1] is apublic research university located in London, United Kingdom, specialising in science, engineering, medicine and business.[5] Formerly a constituent college of the federal University of London, Imperial became fully independent in 2007, the 100th anniversary of its founding.[6]HP 6037B0013901 Laptop Keyboard Imperial's main campus is located in the South Kensington area of central London on the boundary between the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and the City of Westminster. It has additional campuses in the Chelsea,Hammersmith and Paddington areas of central London. With a total of 525,233 square metres of operational property,  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard it has one of the largest estates of any higher education institution in the UK.[7] Imperial is organised into four main academic units – Imperial College Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College Faculty of Engineering and the Imperial College Business School – within which there are over 40 departments, institutes and research centres.[8] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Imperial has around 13,500 full-time students and 3,330 academic and research staff[9] and had a total income of £705 million in 2010/11, of which £299 million was from research grants and contracts.[2] Imperial is a major centre for biomedical research and is a founding member of the Imperial College Healthcare academic health science centre.[10] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 Laptop Keyboard It is consistently ranked among the top universities in the world, ranking 6th in the world (and 4th in Europe) in the 2012 QS World University Rankings,[11] 24th in the world (and 5th in Europe) in the 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities,[12] and 8th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) in the 2012 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[13] There are currently 14 Nobel Prize winners and two Fields Medal winners amongst Imperial's alumni and current and former faculty.[14][15]SAMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard Imperial is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, the European University Association, the G5, the IDEA League, the League of European Research Universities, Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Russell Group. It forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.[16]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R52 1870 Laptop Keyboard The origins of the constituent elements of Imperial can be traced back as far as the 15th century. The College of St Gregory and St Martin at Wye was originally founded in 1447 as a seminary, with an agricultural college being established at Wye in the 1890s after the removal of the theological college.  HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard The medical schools of Charing Cross Hospital, Westminster Hospital and St Mary's Hospital were opened in 1823, 1834 and 1854 respectively.[17][18][19] The Royal School of Mines was founded by Sir Henry de la Beche in 1851, laying one of the foundation stones for scientific teaching in Britain. The Royal College of Science was established in 1881 and theCity and Guilds College in 1884.[17]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1907, the newly established Board of Education found that greater capacity for higher technical education was needed and a proposal to merge the City and Guilds College, the Royal School of Mines and the Royal College of Science was approved and passed, creating The Imperial College of Science and Technology as a constituent college of the University of London. Imperial's Royal Charter, granted by Edward VII, was officially signed on 8 July 1907. The main campus of Imperial College was constructed beside the buildings of the Imperial Institute in South Kensington. HP Mini 110-1179TU Laptop Keyboard The Imperial College Boat Club was founded on 12 December 1919. Imperial acquired Silwood Park in 1947, to provide a site for research and teaching in those aspects of biology not well suited for the main London campus. Felix, Imperial's student newspaper, was launched on 9 December 1949. On 29 January 1950, the government announced that it was intended that Imperial should expand to meet the scientific and technological challenges of the 20th century and a major expansion of the College followed over the next decade. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard In 1959 the Wolfson Foundation donated £350,000 for the establishment of a new Biochemistry Department. A special relationship between Imperial and the Indian Institute of Technology (Delhi) was established in 1963. The Department of Management Science was created in 1971 and the Associated Studies Department was established in 1972. The Humanities Department was opened in 1980, formed from the Associated Studies and History of Science departments. TOSHIBA V000120240 Laptop Keyboard In 1988 Imperial merged with St Mary's Hospital Medical School, becoming The Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine. In 1995 Imperial launched its own academic publishing house, Imperial College Press, in partnership with World Scientific.[20] Imperial merged with the National Heart and Lung Institute in 1995 and the Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Royal Postgraduate Medical School (RPMS) and the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in 1997. In that year the Imperial College School of Medicine was formally established. In 1998 the Sir Alexander Fleming Building was opened in order to provide purpose-built headquarters for the College's medical and biomedical research. HP G42-161LA Laptop Keyboard In 2000 Imperial merged with both the Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology and Wye College, the University of London's agricultural college in Wye, Kent. It agreed to keep Agricultural Sciences at Wye, but closed them in 2004.[21] In December 2005, Imperial announced a science park programme at the Wye campus, with extensive housing;[22] however, this was abandoned in September 2006 following complaints that the proposal infringed on Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and that the true scale of the scheme, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard which could have raised £110m for the College, was known to Kent and Ashford Councils and their consultants but concealed from the public.[21] Wye College will now be run by the University of Kent from September 2007 in association with Imperial College London and Wye College, graduates will receive a degree from the University of Kent and an Imperial Associateship of Wye College.[23] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard 21st century In May 2001 a new faculty structure was established, with all departments being assigned to the Faculties of Engineering, Medicine, Physical Sciences and Life Sciences. A merger with University College London was proposed in October 2002, but was abandoned a month later following protests from staff over potential redundancies.[24]ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 2003 Imperial was granted degree-awarding powers in its own right by the Privy Council. The London Centre for Nanotechnology was established in the same year as a joint venture between UCL and Imperial College London.[25][26] In 2004 the Tanaka Business School (now named the Imperial College Business School) and a new Main Entrance on Exhibition Road were opened by Her Majesty The Queen. In November 2005 the faculties of Life Sciences and Physical Sciences merged to become the Faculty of Natural Sciences.  Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard On 9 December 2005, Imperial College announced that it would commence negotiations to secede from the University of London.[27] Imperial College became fully independent of the University of London in July 2007[28][29] and the first students to register for an Imperial College degree were postgraduates beginning their course in October 2007, with the first undergraduates enrolling for an Imperial degree in October 2008. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard In May 2012 Imperial, UCL and the IT company Intel announced the establishment of the Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Sustainable Connected Cities, a London-based institute for research into the future of cities.[30][31]Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard In August 2012 it was announced that Imperial would be the lead institution for the MRC-NIHR Phenome Centre, a new research centre for personalised medicine to be based at GlaxoSmithKline's research and development facility in Harlow, Essex, inheriting the anti-doping facilities used to test samples during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.[32][33]DELL XPS M1330 Laptop Keyboard Imperial's main campus is located in the South Kensington area of central London. It is situated in an area of South Kensington known as Albertopolis which has a high concentration of cultural and academic institutions, including the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Royal College of Music, SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard the Royal College of Art, theRoyal Geographical Society and the Royal Albert Hall. The expansion of the South Kensington campus in the 1960s absorbed the site of the former Imperial Institute, designed by Thomas Collcutt, of which only the 287 foot (87 m) high Queen's Towerremains among the more modern buildings.[34][35] SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard Imperial has two other major campuses – at Silwood Park (near Ascot in Berkshire) and at Wye (near Ashford in Kent). The Wye campus, some of it dating back to the 15th century, is currently vacant and available for sale or rent. The Imperial College NHS Trust has multiple hospitals throughout Greater London and various lectures for medical students are conducted within these hospitals, including St. Mary's Hospital, Charing Cross Hospital, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Northwick Park Hospital & St. Mark's Hospital andHammersmith Hospital. In 1997, the parliamentary Imperial College Act 1997 officially transferred all of the property of Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, the National Heart and Lung Institute and the Royal Postgraduate Medical School to Imperial.  HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard Recent major projects include the Imperial College Business School, the Ethos sports centre, the Southside hall of residence and the Eastside hall of residence. Current major projects include the reconstruction of the south-eastern quadrant of the South Kensington campus. SONY VAIO VGN-CR325 Laptop Keyboard The Imperial College Business School, Department of Humanities and Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine exist as academic units outside of the faculty structure. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X301 Laptop Keyboard The humanities department's main purpose is to provide elective subjects and language courses outside the field of science for students in the other faculties and departments. Students are encouraged to take these classes either for credit or in their own time, and in some departments this is mandatory.[36] Courses exist in a wide range of topics including philosophy, ethics in science and technology, history, modern literature and drama, art in the 20th century,  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2778 Laptop Keyboard film studies.[37] Language courses are available in French, German, Japanese, Italian, Russian, Spanish, Arabic and Mandarin Chinese.[38] The humanities department also runs a full-time course in scientific translation,[39] and is home to the Science Communication Group[40] which offers Masters degrees in Science Communication and Science Media Production for science graduates. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Finances In the financial year ended 31 July 2011, Imperial had a total net income of £704.2 million, the fifth-highest of any British university,[41] (2009/10 – £693.2 million) and total expenditure of £660.4 million (2009/10 – £651.2 million).[2] Key sources of income included £299.2 million from research grants and contracts (2009/10 – £296.8 million), HP G42-221BR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan £168.6 million from Funding Council grants (2009/10 – £172.2 million), £137.9 million from academic fees and support grants (2009/10 – £120.9 million) and £5.6 million from endowment and investment income (2009/10 – £15.0 million).[2] During the 2010/11 financial year Imperial had a capital expenditure of £76.9 million (2009/10 – £115.0 million).[2] IBM ThinkPad T40p 2373 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At 31 July 2011 Imperial had endowments of £75.6 million (2009/10 – £58.8 million) and total net assets of £843.2 million (2009/10 – £744.6 million).[2] Imperial had a total income from research grants and contracts in 2010/11 of £299 million, the second-highest of any British university in that year (after the University of Oxford).[42]SONY Vaio VGN-CR231E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the December 2001 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), 75% of staff achieved a 5* rating, the highest proportion in any UK university.[43] The College was second in the country with an overall score of 6.68 out of 7.[44] The most recent RAE returned 26% of the 1225 staff submitted as being world-leading (4*) and a further 47% as being internationally excellent (3*).[44][45] HP Pavilion dv6-3126sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise five subjects – Pure Mathematics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, and Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing Engineering – were assessed to be the best in terms of the proportion of internationally recognised research quality.[46]Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Imperial has a dedicated technology transfer company known as Imperial Innovations. Imperial actively encourages its staff to commercialise its research and as a result has given rise to a proportionally large number of spin-out companies based on academic research. SONY VAIO PCG-FR395EP Laptop Keyboard Imperial College, in conducting research on Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis, hosts a brain bank consisting of brains donated by individuals affected with either of these diseases.[47] This brain bank is the largest in the world, consisting of 296 samples.[48]SONY VAIO VGN-NW235D Laptop Keyboard The Imperial Faculty of Medicine is one of the largest faculties of medicine in the UK. It was formed through mergers between Imperial and the St Mary’s, Charing Cross and Westminster, and Royal Postgraduate medical schools and has six teaching hospitals. It accepts more than 300 undergraduate medical students per year and has around 321 taught and 700 research full-time equivalent postgraduate students. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust was formed on 1 October 2007 by the merger of Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust (Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospital and Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital) and St Mary's NHS Trust (St. Mary's Hospitaland Western Eye Hospital) with Imperial College London Faculty of Medicine.[49]  Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard It is an academic health science centre and manages five hospitals: Charing Cross Hospital, Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Hammersmith Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, and Western Eye Hospital. The Trust is currently the largest in the UK and has an annual turnover of £800 million, treating more than a million patients a year.[citation needed]ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard Other (non-academic health science centres) hospitals affiliated with Imperial College include Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Royal Brompton Hospital, West Middlesex University Hospital, Hillingdon Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital, Harefield Hospital, Ealing Hospital, Central Middlesex Hospital, Northwick Park Hospital, St. Mark's Hospital, St. Charles' Hospital and St.Peter's Hospital (UK).[50]Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard Imperial is among the most selective universities in the UK.[51] From 1999 to 2009 (dates of all the online available records), the overall acceptance rate of Imperial College programmes has been consistently below 20%[52] and, in 2009, the acceptance rate of the college for undergraduates was 15.3%.[53] The acceptance rate for postgraduate courses was 19.5%.[53]DELL XPS M1330 Laptop Keyboard Imperial, along with University College London[54] and the University of Cambridge[55] was one of the first universities in the UK to make use of the A* grade at A Level for admissions, with engineering and physics courses requiring an A* in Mathematics. Aeronautical Engineering is the course with the highest entry standards requiring an A* in Mathematics (A grades in every single module) and an A* in Physics and another A grade at A Level (Further Mathematics preferred). Mathematics courses themselves require A* grades in Mathematics and Further Mathematics, along with another A grade at A Level. SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard Imperial announced in summer 2008 that it was exploring the possibility of entrance exams to help it select the most suitable students.[56] Since then, the College has been reviewing and piloting a range of assessment approaches, such as subject-specific tests, skills tests and motivation-based tests as part of enhanced interviews and will continue to do so during the 2009–10 academic year. HP 594706-001 Laptop Keyboard The Cambridge Thinking Skills assessment (TSA) was one test trialled on existing Imperial College students. No date is set for the implementation of any entrance exam for applicants. Medicine and BioMedical Sciences at Imperial already uses the BMAT (BioMedical Attainment Test) as part of the selection process. DELL Inspiron 1435 Laptop Keyboard Imperial College is consistently ranked one of the top universities in the world. Most rankings place it in the top 10 globally. In the 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Imperial is ranked 24th overall in the world (and 5th in Europe).[12] In the subject tables it is ranked 23rd in the world (and 5th in Europe) for clinical medicine and pharmacy,[64] 30th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for engineering/technology and computer sciences,[65]FUJITSU Lifebook S6240 Laptop Keyboard 24th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for natural sciences and mathematics[66] and 14th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for physics.[67] In the 2010 QS World University Rankings, Imperial is ranked 7th overall in the world (and 4th in Europe).[11] In the subject tables it is ranked 6th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for engineering and technology,[68] 11th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for life sciences and medicine[69] and 11th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for natural sciences.[70]HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard In the 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Imperial is ranked 8th overall in the world (and 3rd in Europe).[13]In the subject tables it is ranked 3rd in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for clinical, pre-clinical and health,[71] 9th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for engineering and technology,[72] 9th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for life sciences[73] and 13th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for physical sciences.[74]HP Mini 210-2056tu Laptop Keyboard Imperial is also consistently one of the highest ranked universities in the UK university rankings and is 3rd overall in the 2011Complete University GuideSunday Times University Guide and Times Good University Guide and 7th in the 2011 Guardian University Guide. In the Complete University Guide subject tables Imperial is currently ranked 3rd for biological sciences, 2nd for chemical engineering, 1st for civil engineering, 3rd for computer science and 3rd for medicine.[75] TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard In the Guardian University Guide subject tables it is currently ranked 2nd for chemical engineering, 1st for civil engineering, 3rd for materials and mineral engineering and 3rd for mechanical engineering.[76] The college has been the only institution to have displaced Oxford from the top two spots in a major university league table.[77]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The Financial Times placed Imperial's Business School within the top 20 in Europe.[78] The Business School is also consistently ranked in the top 10 worldwide for entrepreneurship[citation needed]. The business school also offers a full-time MBA that is ranked 17th in Europe by the Financial Times[citation needed] and a part-time Executive MBA programme that is ranked 4th in Europe.[citation needed]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Human Resources & Labor Review, a human competitiveness index & analysis published in Chasecareer Network, ranked Imperial 26th internationally in 2010 as one of the 300 Best World Universities.[79] IBM 42X4399 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Furthermore, in terms of job prospects, Imperial is one of the best in the UK. The average starting salary of an Imperial graduate is £25,780 which is the highest of any UK university.[7] In 2009, the Sunday Times ranked Computing graduates from Imperial as earning the second highest average starting salary behind Cambridge economics graduates, £34,960,[80] after graduation, over all universities and courses.[81]SONY Vaio VGN-NW120D Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For the 2007–08 academic year, Imperial College had a total full-time student body of 12,319: 8,741 undergraduate students and 3,578 postgraduates. In addition there were 1,036 part-time students, all postgraduates. 29% of all full-time students come from outside the European Union Average age in Imperial College is 23 for Post Grad.[53]HP Pavilion dv9335nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Imperial's male:female ratio for undergraduate students is uneven at approximately 64:36 overall[53] and 5:1 in some engineering courses. However, medicine has an approximate 1:1 ratio with biology degrees tending to be higher.[82]SONY Vaio VGN-NR150FE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Imperial College Union, the students' union at Imperial College, is run by five full-time sabbatical officers elected from the student body for a tenure of one year, and a number of permanent members of staff. The Union is given a large subvention by the university, much of which is spent on maintaining around 300 clubs,  HP Envy 17-1050eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan projects and societies.[83] Examples of notable student groups and projects are Project Nepal which sends Imperial College students to work on educational development programmes in rural Nepal[84]and the El Salvador Project, a construction based project in Central America.[85] The Union also hosts sports-related clubs such asImperial College Boat Club and Imperial College Gliding Club.  Compaq Presario CQ50-215ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Union operates on two sites; Beit Quad, South Kensington and Reynold's, Hammersmith while the Imperial College School of Medicine Students' Union additionally looks after the social, academic and welfare needs of the 2,200 students within the faculty of medicine. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5814 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Facilities Sports facilities at Imperial's London campuses include four gyms, two swimming pools and two sports halls.[86] Imperial has additional sports facilities at the Teddington and Hartington sports grounds.  Toshiba Satellite A205-S5809 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On the South Kensington campus, there are a total of six music practice rooms which consist of upright pianos for usage by people of any grade, and grand pianos which are exclusively for people who have achieved Grade 8 or above.[87] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG N148 Laptop Keyboard There are two student bars on the South Kensington campus, one at the Imperial College Union and one at Eastside.[88] There is also a bar for postgraduates and staff called the Holland Club.[89]IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard Imperial College Radio (or ICRadio) was founded in November 1975 with the intention of broadcasting to the student halls of residence from a studio under Southside, actually commencing broadcasts in late 1976. It now broadcasts from the West Basement of Beit Quad over the internet www.icradio.com[90] and, since 2004, on 1134 AM in Wye. The radio station has a library of over 51,000 tracks, which are searchable on their website. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard In 2006 IC Radio received two nominations in the Student Radio Awards: Best Entertainment Show for Liquid Lunch[91] and Best Male Presenter for Martin Archer.[92]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Popular shows on IC Radio in recent years (2006/2007) include: RocktopiaSchool Daze (pop), Instru(Mental) (dance), VPT[93] (Entertainment/Shambles), Peter and James[94]'Moon Unit'[95] and The Cornerstone[96] (both of which play rock and alternative) and Album – A Discourse in Musical History[97] (devoted to seminal albums). Compaq Presario CQ42-139TU Laptop Keyboard Imperial College Radio is now best known for its specialist dance music shows, with the likes of Believe The Hype (Electro/Indie), Peer Pressure (Techno) and On Dancefloors (Electro/House) gaining critical acclaim and notoriety not just in college but throughout London. DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard stoic TV (Student Television of Imperial College) is Imperial College Union's TV station, founded in 1969 and operating from a small TV studio in the Electrical Engineering block. The department had bought an early AMPEX Type A 1-inch videotape recorder and this was used to produce an occasional short news programme which was then played to students by simply moving the VTR and a monitor into a common room. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard A cable link to the Southside halls of residence was laid in a tunnel under Exhibition Road in 1972. Besides the news, early productions included a film of the Queen opening what was then called College Block and interview programmes with DJ Mike Raven, Richard O'Brian and Monty Python producer Ian MacNaughton. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard In 2006 it was named Best Broadcaster at NaSTA and also won awards for Best On-Screen Male and Best On-Screen Female. It now broadcasts from studios in the specially built media centre in the Student Union to the Junior Common Room and occasionally DaVinci's Bar. Programmes are also available to watch on their website.[98]DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Live![99] is an online student news source and forum run by the City and Guilds College Union. Live! also enables readers to view published articles from Livic, the monthly newspaper of CivSoc, the student society in the department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Content on Live! is text-based news, with one or more photographs per article to illustrate the event. At the start of 2007 the ability to display videos was added, increasing the breadth of its coverage. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard Co-operation with Imperial's student television station, stoic TV has led to the introduction of politically-focused video content on the site by syndicating weekly news bulletins and the "Ask the President" show. Live! was also named the best student website in the 2007 Guardian Student Media Awards. HP Pavilion dv3-2103tx Laptop Keyboard Imperial College owns and manages twenty halls of residence in Inner London, Ealing, Ascot and Wye. Over three thousand rooms are available, guaranteeing first year undergraduates a place in College residences. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard The majority of halls offer single or twin accommodation with some rooms having en suite facilities. Study bedrooms are provided with basic furniture and with access to shared kitchens and bathrooms. The majority of rooms come with internet access and access to the Imperial network. Most of them are considered among the newest student halls at London universities. SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard Most students in college or university accommodation are first-year undergraduates, since they are granted a room once they have selected Imperial College as their firm offer at UCAS. The majority of older students and postgraduates find accommodation in the private sector, help for which is provided by the College private housing office. However a handful of students may continue to live in halls in later years if they take the position of a "hall senior".Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Some students are also selected to live in International Students House, London. The El Salvador Project is a charitable volunteer project that is constructing earthquake-proof buildings in the poorer areas of El Salvador. About 10 students from the Civil and Environmental Engineering department travel to El Salvador each year to carry out construction work. The project has resulted in a registered charity run by Imperial College alumni and former leaders of the El Salvador Project called Engage for Development (www.engagefordevelopment.org). Compaq Presario CQ57-319WM Laptop Keyboard The charity still continues to run and support the annual El Salvador Project within Imperial College but has also taken on a range of other projects such as the Imperial College Tanzania Raincatcher Project.  Toshiba Satellite A305-S6825 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Chelsea is an affluent area of central London,[1] England, bounded to the south by the River Thames, where its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along the Chelsea Embankment, Cheyne Walk, Lots Road and Chelsea Harbour. Its eastern boundary was once defined by the River Westbourne, which is now in a pipe above Sloane Square tube station. The modern eastern boundary is Chelsea Bridge Road and the lower half of Sloane Street, including Sloane Square, along with parts ofBelgravia. HP Pavilion dv6-2121eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan To the north and northwest, the area fades into Knightsbridge and South Kensington, but it is safe to say that the area north of King's Road as far northwest as Fulham Road is part of Chelsea.  HP Pavilion dv7-6106so Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The district is part of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. From 1900, and until the creation of Greater Londonin 1965, it formed the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea in the County of London. Packard Bell EasyNote TJ75 Laptop Keyboard Chelsea is an upmarket neighbourhood equivalent to that of New York's Upper East Side, Los Angeles' Beverly Hills or the16th arrondissement of Paris. This is shown in the average housing price in Chelsea which is above £1.3 million.[2] The exclusivity of Chelsea as a result of its high property prices has historically resulted in the term Sloane Ranger to be used to describe its residents. Recently, Channel 4 has broadcast a reality television show called Made in Chelsea, documenting the "glitzy" lives of several young people living in Chelsea. Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard Chelsea Football Club is located in Fulham, adjacent to Chelsea. As a result of Chelsea's expensive location and wealthy residents, Chelsea FC has the wealthiest supporters in England.[3] Chelsea are the current UEFA Champions League title holders, with its ground (Stamford Bridge) lying on the border between Chelsea and neighbouring Fulham. The club is owned by Russian billionaire and Chelsea-resident, Roman Abramovich. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard The word Chelsea originates from the Old English term for "landing place [on the river] for chalk or limestone" (Cealc-hyð: chalk-wharf, in Anglo-Saxon). The first record of the Manor of Chelsea precedes the Domesday Book and records the fact that Thurstan, governor of the King's Palace during the reign of Edward the Confessor, Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard gave the land to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster. Abbot Gervace subsequently assigned the manor to his mother, and it passed into private ownership. Modern-day Chelsea was the site of the Synod of Chelsea in 787 AD. In the ancient records, it is written as Chelchith, which Norden, a writer of considerable note, derives from the Saxon words ceale or cele, meaning "coldness", and hyd, meaning "hythe", (landing-place, port or haven). acer eMachines E640 Laptop Keyboard King Henry VIII acquired the manor of Chelsea from Lord Sandys in 1536; Chelsea Manor Street is still extant. Two of his wives, Catherine Parr and Anne of Cleves, lived in the Manor House; Princess Elizabeth – the future Queen Elizabeth I – was a resident; and Thomas More lived more or less next door at Beaufort House. James I established a theological college on the site of Chelsea Royal Hospital, which was later founded by Charles II.  Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard By 1694, Chelsea – always a popular location for the wealthy, and once described as "a village of palaces" – had a population of 3,000. Even so, Chelsea remained rural and served London to the east as a market garden, a trade that continued until the 19th-century development boom which caused the district finally to be absorbed into the metropolis. The street crossing that was known as "Little Chelsea", Park Walk, linked Fulham Road to King's Road and continued to the Thames and local ferry down Lover's Lane, renamed "Milmans Street" in the 18th century. HP Pavilion dv5-1125em Laptop Keyboard King's Road was named for Charles II, recalling the King's private road from St James's Palaceto Fulham, which was maintained until the reign of George IV. One of the more important buildings in King's Road is the former Chelsea Town Hall, a fine neo-classical buildingcontaining important frescos. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard Part of the building contains the Chelsea Public Library. Almost opposite is the former Odeon Cinema, now Habitat, with its iconic façade which carries high upon it a large sculptured medallion of the now almost-forgotten William Friese-Greene, who claimed to have invented celluloid film and cameras before any subsequent patents. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the better residential portion of Chelsea is the eastern, near Sloane Street and along the river; the western, extending north to Fulham Road, is mainly a poor quarter". This is no longer the case, although Housing trusts and Council property do remain. The areas to the west also attract very high prices. SONY VGN-FE31H Laptop Keyboard The memorials in the churchyard of Chelsea Old Church (All Saints), near the river, illustrate much of the history of Chelsea. These include Lord and Lady Dacre (1594–1595); Sir John Lawrence (1638);Lady Jane Cheyne (1698); Francis Thomas, "director of the china porcelain manufactory"; Sir Hans Sloane (1753); Thomas Shadwell, Poet Laureate (1692). Sir Thomas More's tomb can also be found there. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard Chelsea was once famous for the manufacture of Chelsea buns (made from a long strip of sweet doughtightly coiled, with currants trapped between the layers, and topped with sugar). The area is still famous for its "Chelsea China" ware, though the works, the Chelsea porcelain factory – thought to be the first workshop to make porcelain in England – were sold in 1769, and moved to Derby. Examples of the original Chelsea ware fetch high values.  HP Mini 110-1033cl Laptop Keyboard The best-known building is Chelsea Royal Hospital for old soldiers, set up by Charles II (supposedly on the suggestion ofNell Gwynne), and opened in 1694. The beautifully proportioned building by Christopher Wren stands in extensive grounds, where the Chelsea Flower show is held annually. The former Duke of York's Barracks (built 1801-3) off King's Road is now part of Duke of York Square, a redevelopment including shops and cafes and the site of a weekly "farmers' market".HP G42-265LA Laptop Keyboard The Saatchi Gallery opened in the main building in 2008. Chelsea Barracks, at the end of Lower Sloane Street, was also in use until recently, primarily by ceremonial troops of the Household Division. Situated on the Westminster side of Chelsea Bridge Road, it was bought for re-development by a property group from Dubai. HP G62-346NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Chelsea's modern reputation as a centre of innovation and influence originated in a period during the 19th century, when the area became a Victorian artists' colony (see Borough of artists below). It became prominent once again as one of the centres of 1960s "Swinging London", when house prices were lower than in the staid Royal Borough of Kensington. Toshiba Portege R835 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Chelsea once had a reputation as London's bohemian quarter, the haunt of artists, radicals, painters and poets. Little of this seems to survive now – the comfortable squares off King's Road are homes to, amongst others, investment bankers and film stars. The Chelsea Arts Club continues in situ; however, the Chelsea College of Art and Design, originally founded in 1895 as the Chelsea School of Art, moved from Manresa Road to Pimlico in 2005. Compaq Presario V3670tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Its reputation stems from a period in the 19th century when it became a sort of Victorian artists' colony: painters such asDante Gabriel Rossetti, J. M. W. Turner, James McNeill Whistler, William Holman Hunt, and John Singer Sargent all lived and worked here. There was a particularly large concentration of artists in the area around Cheyne Walk and Cheyne Row, where thePre-Raphaelite movement had its heart. HP Envy 14-1085eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Chelsea was also home to writers such as George Meredith, Algernon Charles Swinburne, Leigh Hunt, and Thomas Carlyle.Jonathan Swift lived in Church Lane, Richard Steele and Tobias Smollett in Monmouth House. Carlyle lived for 47 years at No. 5 (now 24) Cheyne Row. After his death, the house was bought and turned into a shrine and literary museum by the Carlyle Memorial Trust, a group formed by Leslie Stephen, father of Virginia Woolf. Virginia Woolf set her 1919 novel Night and Dayin Chelsea, where Mrs. Hilbery has a Cheyne Walk home. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-273TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In a curious book, Bohemia in London by Arthur Ransome which is a partly fictional account of his early years in London, published in 1907 when he was 23, there are some fascinating, rather over-romanticised accounts of bohemian goings-on in the quarter. The American artist Pamela Colman Smith, the designer of A. E. Waite's Tarot card pack and a member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, features as "Gypsy" in the chapter "A Chelsea Evening".Compaq Presario C745EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A central part of Chelsea's artistic and cultural life was Chelsea Public Library, originally situated in Manresa Road. Its longest serving member of staff was Armitage Denton, who joined in 1896 at the age of 22, and he remained there until his retirement in 1939; he was appointed Chief Librarian in 1929. In 1980, the building was purchased by Chelsea College of Art and Design. Toshiba Satellite P200-13Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Chelsea Collection is a priceless anthology of prints and pictures of old Chelsea. Begun in 1887, it contains works by artists as notable and diverse as Rossetti and Whistler. During his time at the Library, Armitage Denton built the Collection assiduously, so that by the time of his death in July 1949 it numbered more than 1,000 items. At the end of the 20th century, the Collection totalled more than 5,000 works, and it continues to grow. Compaq Presario CQ50-215nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Chelsea Society, formed in 1927, remains an active amenity society concerned with preserving and advising on changes in Chelsea's built environment. Chelsea Village and Chelsea Harbour are new developments outside of Chelsea itself.  HP Pavilion dv5129tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Swinging Chelsea and Today

Chelsea shone again, brightly but briefly, in the 1960s Swinging London period and the early 1970s. The Swinging Sixties was defined on King's Road, which runs the length of the area. The Western end of Chelsea featured boutiques Granny Takes a Trip and The Sweet Shop, the latter of which sold medieval silk velvet caftans, tabards and floor cushions, with many of the cultural cognoscenti of the time being customers, including Keith Richards, Twiggy, and many others.  ACER Aspire 5733 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Chelsea at this time was home to both the Beatles, and Rolling Stones members Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, and Keith Richards. In the 1970s, the World's End area of King's Road was home to Malcolm McLaren and Vivienne Westwood's boutique "SEX", and saw the birth of the British punk movement.  HP 580718-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By the late 1970s, the growing bohemian and punk population moved from Chelsea into nearby Notting Hill and further north toCamden Town, which lead to rapid gentrification of the two areas. Both of which remain places with a significantly high population of artists, musicians and those who work in other creative industries, particularly Camden Town. SONY Vaio VGN-TX3HP/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan King's Road remains the major artery through Chelsea and a very busy road, despite its continuing reputation as a shopping mecca, it is now home to many of the same shops found on other British high streets, HP G42-364LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan such as Gap, and McDonald's. Sloane Street is quickly catching up with Bond Street as one of London's premier shopping destinations, housing a variety of high-end fashion or jewellery boutiques such as Cartier, Tiffany & Co, Dolce & Gabbana, Prada, Gucci, Harrods, Dior,Louis Vuitton, Jimmy Choo, Giorgio Armani, Yves Saint Laurent, Chanel, Valentino, Bvlgari, Gianni Versace and Graff. FUJITSU Siemens Amilo Pro V2055 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS World University Rankings is a ranking of the world’s top 700 universities by Quacquarelli Symonds using a method that has published annually since 2004. HP Pavilion dv7-4083cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS rankings were originally published in publication with Times Higher Education from 2004 to 2009 as the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings. In 2010, Times Higher Education and QS ended their collaboration. QS assumed sole publication of the existing methodology, while Times Higher Education created a new ranking methodology with Thomson Reuters, published as Times Higher Education World University Rankings. ACER Aspire 4750G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS World University Rankings is regarded to be one of the three most influential and widely observed international university rankings, along with the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities.[1][2][3] HP Pavilion dv7-1267cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The need for an international ranking of universities was highlighted in December 2003 in Richard Lambert’s review of university-industry collaboration in Britain[4] for HM Treasury, the finance ministry of the United Kingdom. Amongst its recommendations were world university rankings, which Lambert said would help the UK to gauge the global standing of its universities. SONY Vaio VGN-AW290 Laptop Keyboard The idea for the rankings was credited in Ben Wildavsky's book, The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World,[5] to then-editor of Times Higher Education (THE), John O'Leary. THE chose to partner with educational and careers advice company Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) to supply the data, appointing Martin Ince,[6] formerly deputy editor and later a contractor to THE, to manage the project. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Between 2004 and 2009, QS produced the rankings in partnership with THE. In 2009, THE announced they would produce their own rankings, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, in partnership with Thomson Reuters. THE cited a weakness in the methodology of the original rankings,[7] as well as a perceived favoritism in the existing methodology for science over the humanities,[8] as one of the key reasons for the decision to split with QS. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard QS retained the intellectual property in the Rankings and the methodology used to compile them[citation needed] and continues to produce the rankings, now called the QS World University Rankings.[9] THE created a new methodology with Thomson Reuters, published as the Times Higher Education World University Rankings in September 2010. SAMSUNG Q330-JS0E Laptop Keyboard QS publishes the results of the original methodology in key media around the world, including US News & World Report in the United States and Chosun Ilbo in Korea. The first rankings produced by QS independently of THE, and using QS's consistent and original methodology, were released on September 8, 2010, with the second appearing on September 6, 2011. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Academic peer review (40%)

The most controversial part of the QS World University Rankings is their use of an opinion survey referred to as the Academic Peer Review. Using a combination of purchased mailing lists and applications and suggestions, this survey asks active academicians across the world about the top universities in fields they know about. QS has published the job titles and geographical distribution of the participants. Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard The 2011 rankings made use of responses from 33,744 people from over 140 nations in its Academic Peer Review, including votes from the previous two years rolled forward provided there was no more recent information available from the same individual. Participants can nominate up to 30 universities but are not able to vote for their own. They tend to nominate a median of about 20, which means that this survey includes over 500,000 data points. More here [1]. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard In 2004, when the rankings first appeared, academic peer review accounted for half of a university's possible score. In 2005, its share was cut to 40 per cent because of the introduction of the Recruiter Review. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Citations per faculty (20%) Citations of published research are among the most widely used inputs to national and global university rankings. The QS World University Rankings used citations data from Thomson (now Thomson Reuters) from 2004 to 2007, and since then uses data from Scopus, part of Elsevier. The total number of citations for a five-year period is divided by the number of academicians in a university to yield the score for this measure, which accounts for 20 per cent of a university’s possible score in the Rankings. GATEWAY MT3422 Laptop Keyboard QS has explained that it uses this approach, rather than the citations per paper preferred for other systems, because it reduces the effect of biomedical science on the overall picture – bio-medicine has a ferocious “publish or perish” culture. Instead QS attempts to measure the density of research-active staff at each institution. But issues still remain about the use of citations in ranking systems, especially the fact that the arts and humanities generate comparatively few citations. More here [3]. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard QS has conceded the presence of some data collection errors regarding citations per faculty in previous years' rankings.[10] One interesting issue is the difference between the Scopus and Thomson Reuters databases. For major world universities, the two systems capture more or less the same publications and citations. For less mainstream institutions, Scopus has more non-English language and smaller-circulation journals in its database. But as the papers there are less heavily cited, this can also mean fewer citations per paper for the universities that publish in them. 5-s3004-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 Laptop Keyboard More on this at [4] This area has been criticized for undermining universities which do not use English as their primary language.[11] Citations and publications in a language different from English are harder to come across. The English language is the most internationalized language and therefore the most popular when citing. HP Pavilion dv5-1142la Laptop Keyboard The data are aggregated into columns according to its Z score, an indicator of how far removed any institution is from the average. Between 2004 and 2007 a different system was used whereby the top university for any measure was scaled as 100 and the others received a score reflecting their comparative performance. According to QS, this method was dropped because it gives too much weight to some exceptional outliers, such as the very high faculty/student ratio of theCalifornia Institute of Technology. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, the last year before the Z score system was introduced, Caltech was top of the citations per faculty score, receiving 100 on this indicator, because of its highly research and science-oriented approach. The next two institutions on this measure, Harvard and Stanford, each scored 55. In other words, 45 per cent of the possible difference between the world's universities was between the top university and the next one (in fact two) on the list, leaving every other university on Earth to fight over the remaining 55 per cent. TOSHIBA P205-S7476 Laptop Keyboard Likewise in 2005, Harvard was top university and MIT was second with 86.9, so that 13 per cent of the total difference between all the world's universities was between first and second place. In 2011, the University of Cambridge was top and the second institution, Harvard, got 99.34. So the Z score system allows the full range of available difference to be used in a more informative way.  HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

Faculty-level analysis

QS publishes a simple analysis of the top 400 institutions in each of the five faculty-level areas mentioned above: natural sciences, technology, biology and medicine, social sciences and the arts and humanities. These five tables list universities in order of their Academic Peer Review score. They also give the citations per paper for each institution, but the two data sets are not aggregated. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315B Laptop Keyboard QS uses citations per paper rather than per person partly because it does not hold details of the academic staff in each subject area, and partly because the number of citations per paper should be a consistent indicator of impact within a specific field with a defined publishing culture. second place, ahead of its neighbour MIT in third place. Yale remained in fourth place, ahead of the University of Oxford in fifth. COMPAQ Presario CQ50 Series Laptop Keyboard The rankings covered 712 institutions out of 2,919 on which QS held data. There were universities from 32 nations in the top 200 and from 50 in the top 500. The average age of the top 200 universities was 187.3 years. The newest top 10 university, Chicago, was founded in 1890. The 2011 rankings list the top 400 universities in rank order, followed by institutions 401-600 in bands of 50 and a further 112 grouped as "601+."ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) launched a department of the QS Asian University Rankings in partnership with The Chosun Ilbo newspaper in Korea. They rank the top 200 Asian universities and has now appeared three times. They release an independent list of rankings each time, different to that of the QS World University Rankings.  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard These rankings use some of the same criteria as the World University Rankings but they use other measures, such as incoming and outgoing exchange students as well. As the criteria and their weightings are different,  Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard the QS World university rankings and the QS Asian University rankings released in the same academic year may be different. For example, the University of Hong Kong being 22th in the world was regarded as the best in Asia in the QS World University Rankings (2012) but the Hong Kong University of Science & Technology was at the top of the list of the QS Asian University Rankings (2012). ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard The QS Latin American University Rankings [7] were launched in 2011. They use academic opinion (30 per cent), employer opinion (20 per cent), publications per faculty member, citations per paper, academic staff with a PhD, faculty/student ratio and web visibility (10 per cent each) as measures. These criteria were developed in consultation with experts in Latin America, and the web visibility data come from Webometrics [8]. This ranking showed that the University of São Paulo in Brazil is the region's top institution, top in the first and second editions in 2011 and 2012 respectively.  Packard Bell Easynote TK83 Laptop Keyboard In September 2012 the British newspaper The Independent described the QS World University Rankings as being "widely recognised throughout higher education as the most trusted international tables".[21] Several universities in the UK and the Asia-Pacific region have commented on the rankings positively. Vice-Chancellor of New Zealand's Massey University, ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard Professor Judith Kinnear, says that the Times Higher Education-QS ranking is a "wonderful external acknowledgement of several University attributes, including the quality of its research, research training, teaching and employability." She says the rankings are a true measure of a university's ability to fly high internationally: "The Times Higher Education ranking provides a rather more and more sophisticated, robust and well rounded measure of international and national ranking than either New Zealand's Performance Based Research Fund (PBRF) measure or the Shanghai rankings."[22]HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Martin Ince,[23] chair of the Advisory Board for the Rankings, points out that their volatility has been reduced since 2007 by the introduction of the Z-score calculation method and that over time, the quality of QS's data gathering has improved to reduce anomalies. In addition, the academic and employer review are now so big that even modestly ranked universities receive a statistically valid number of votes. QS has published extensive data [24] on who the respondents are, where they are, and the subjects and industries to which the academicians and employers respectively belong.  HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard

General criticisms

The QS World University rankings, like other college and university rankings, have received a variety of criticism. Main arguments are listed below. Many are concerned with the use of survey data. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard Since the split from Times Higher Education, further concerns about the methodology QS uses for its rankings have been brought up by several experts. Simon Marginson, professor of higher education at University of Melbourne, in the article "Improving Latin American universities' global ranking" for University World News on 10 June 2012, said: "I will not discuss the QS ranking because the methodology is not sufficiently robust to provide data valid as social science." [25]SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard In an article for the New Statesman entitled "The QS World University Rankings are a load of old baloney", David Blanchflower, a leading labour economist, said: "This ranking is complete rubbish and nobody should place any credence in it. The results are based on an entirely flawed methodology that underweights the quality of research and overweights fluff... The QS is a flawed index and should be ignored." [26]HP Pavilion DV6-1040ej Laptop Keyboard In an article titled The Globalisation of College and University Rankings and appearing in the January/February 2012 issue of Change magazine, Philip Altbach, professor of higher education at Boston College, said: “The QS World University Rankings are the most problematical. From the beginning, the QS has relied on reputational indicators for half of its analysis … it[clarification needed] TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard probably accounts for the significant variability in the QS rankings over the years. In addition, QS queries employers, introducing even more variability and unreliability into the mix. Whether the QS rankings should be taken seriously by the higher education community is questionable."[27]HP Pavilion dv7-4101sl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS World University Rankings have been criticised by many for placing too much emphasis on peer review, which receives 40 percent of the overall score. Some people have expressed concern about the manner in which the peer review has been carried out.[28] In a report,[29] Peter Wills from the University of Auckland, New Zealand wrote of the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings:  HP Pavilion dv6-3034ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan But we note also that this survey establishes its rankings by appealing to university staff, even offering financial enticements to participate (see Appendix II). Staff are likely to feel it is in their greatest interest to rank their own institution more highly than others. This means the results of the survey and any apparent change in ranking are highly questionable, and that a high ranking has no real intrinsic value in any case. We are vehemently opposed to the evaluation of the University according to the outcome of such PR competitions. HP Pavilion dv6115tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Note that QS denies that any survey participant has been offered a financial incentive to respondents, who cannot in any case vote for their own institution. THES-QS introduced several changes in methodology in 2007 which were aimed at addressing some of the above criticisms,[30] the ranking has continued to attract criticisms. In an article[31] in the peer-reviewed BMC Medicine authored by several scientists from the US and Greece, it was pointed out:  HP Pavilion dv6-3033sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan If properly performed, most scientists would consider peer review to have very good construct validity; many may even consider it the gold standard for appraising excellence. However, even peers need some standardized input data to peer review. The Times simply asks each expert to list the 30 universities they regard as top institutions of their area without offering input data on any performance indicators. Research products may occasionally be more visible to outsiders,  HP Pavilion dv6-3150ej Laptop CPU Cooling Fan but it is unlikely that any expert possesses a global view of the inner workings of teaching at institutions worldwide. Moreover, the expert selection process of The Times is entirely unclear. The survey response rate among the selected experts was only <1% in 2006 (1,600 of 190,000 contacted). In the absence of any guarantee for protection from selection biases, measurement validity can be very problematic.  HP Pavilion dv6695el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alex Usher, vice president of Higher Education Strategy Associates in Canada, commented: Most people in the rankings business think that the main problem with The Times is the opaque way it constructs its sample for its reputational rankings - a not-unimportant question given that reputation makes up 50% of the sample. Moreover, this year's switch from using raw reputation scores to using normalized Z- HP Pavilion dv7-4020sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan scores has really shaken things up at the top-end of the rankings by reducing the advantage held by really top universities -University of British Columbia (UBC) for instance, is now functionally equivalent to Harvard in the Peer Review score, which, no disrespect to UBC, is ludicrous. I'll be honest and say that at the moment the THES Rankings are an inferior product to the Shanghai Jiao Tong’s Academic Ranking of World Universities. COMPAQ Presario V6145EA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Academicians have also been critical of the use of the citation database, arguing that it undervalues institutions who excel in the social sciences. Ian Diamond, former chief executive of the Economic and Social Research Council and now vice-chancellor of the University of Aberdeen wrote to Times Higher Education in 2007, saying:[32] Gateway MA3 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The use of a citation database must have an impact because such databases do not have as wide a cover of the social sciences (or arts and humanities) as the natural sciences. Hence the low position of the London School of Economics, caused primarily by its citations score, is a result not of the output of an outstanding institution but the database and the fact that the LSE does not have the counterweight of a large natural science base.  Toshiba Tecra A2-S336 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The most recent criticism of the old system came from Fred L. Bookstein, Horst Seidler, Martin Fieder and Georg Winckler in the journal Scientomentrics for the unreliability of QS's methods: ACER Aspire 5672WLMi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Several individual indicators from the Times Higher Education Survey (THES) data base the overall score, the reported staff-to-student ratio, and the peer ratings—demonstrate unacceptably high fluctuation from year to year. The inappropriateness of the summary tabulations for assessing the majority of the “top 200” universities would be apparent purely for reason of this obvious statistical instability regardless of other grounds of criticism. There are far too many anomalies in the change scores of the various indices for them to be of use in the course of university management.[33]HP Pavilion dv7-6056eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS subject rankings have been dismissed as unreliable by some critics, including most notably Brian Leiter, who points out that programs which are known to be high quality, and which rank highly in the Blackwell rankings (e.g., the University of Pittsburgh) fare poorly in the QS ranking for reasons that are not at all clear [9] [10]. Toshiba Satellite L645-S4038 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In other areas, QS has highly ranked programs which do not exist [11], as in Geography, in which 5 of the top 10 did not actually have graduate programs in geography. In Linguistics, the QS rankings are entirely out of step with the most recent NRC rankings; NRC ranks the University of Massachusetts Amherst and the University of Maryland at College Park among the very best the world (tied for #3 in S-Rank), while QS ranks them 29th and 49th, respectively [12].  SONY Vaio VGN-NW91VS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Toshiba Satellite A215-S7416 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Toshiba Satellite L655-158 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sony PCG-GRX580 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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