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In cases of triplets or more, it is a challenge for a mother to organize feeding around the appetites of all the babies. Breasts can respond to the demand and produce large quantities of milk; mothers have been able to breastfeed triplets successfully.

Tandem nursing occurs when a woman has a baby while breastfeeding an older child. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

During the late stages of pregnancy, the milk will change to colostrum, and some older nurslings will continue to feed even with this change, while others may wean due to the change in taste or drop in supply. Breastfeeding a child while being pregnant with another can also be considered a form of tandem feeding for the nursing mother, as she also provides the nutrition for two. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

It used to be common worldwide, and still is in some developing nations such as those found in Africa, for more than one woman to breastfeed a child. Shared breastfeeding has now been found to be a risk factor for HIV infection in infants.[134] A woman who is engaged to breastfeed another's baby is known as a wet nurse. Shared breastfeeding can sometimes incur negative reactions in the Anglosphere;[135] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

American feminist activist Jennifer Baumgardner has written about her experiences in New York with this issue.

The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the baby's first 6 months of life, and continued breastfeeding complemented with appropriate foods up to two years old and beyond.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

According to a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the results of which were published in the journal Pediatrics, as of 2013 in the United States reliance on out-dated recommendations and considerations of convenience and cost sometimes resulted in inappropriate earlier attempts to switch to solid food.[138] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

In many Western countries, however, breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old is considered "extended breastfeeding".

These movements in the West towards earlier weaning, however, are recent. Breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old was at one time a very common practice worldwide.ASUS G2P CPU Fan

Dr. Martin Stein wrote in Parental Concerns about Extended Breastfeeding in a Toddler that "The discussion about extended nursing is similar to that of co-sleeping. They are both characteristics of child rearing that are closely linked to time and place. In most cultures before the 20th century, both practices were the norm. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

Changes in social, economic, and sexual expectations altered our views of the meaning of breastfeeding and bed sharing." Extended breastfeeding was encouraged in Ancient Greek, Hebrew, and Muslim cultures. The Koran, the Talmud, and the writings of Aristotle all recommend breastfeeding for 2 to 3 years.[140] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

In Breastfeeding Beyond 6 Months: Mothers' Perceptions of the Negative and Positive Consequences, Dr. S. B. Reamer states that "Over the past 100 years of American history, the acceptance of unrestricted nursing decreased and the age acceptable for weaning dropped dramatically, until the average weaning age was 3 months in the 1970s." HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

In reaction to the move in the West towards earlier weaning, several organizations have been founded in Western countries to support mothers who practice extended breastfeeding. These organizations include the International Childbirth Education Association and La Leche League International.[141] Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

The US CDC recommends exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age. Their latest figures (2008) show that 76.9% of US women had ever breastfed but only 47.2% were still breastfeeding at six months and 25.5% at twelve months. Figures for exclusive breastfeeding at three months were 36% and at six months only 16.3%.Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Women who are breastfeeding need to be careful about what they eat and drink, since things can be passed to the baby through the breast milk. Just like during pregnancy, breastfeeding women should avoid fish that are high in mercury, and limit lower mercury fish intake.[143] If a woman ingests alcohol, a small amount can be passed to the baby through breast milk. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Alcohol-containing breastmilk has been shown to have a detrimental effect on motor development.[144] Caffeine intake should be kept to no more than 300 milligrams (about one to three cups of regular coffee) per day for breastfeeding women, as excess caffeine in breastmilk can cause irritability and restlessness in infants. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

When consumed in normal, everyday amounts, caffeine is considered to be compatible with breastfeeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics.[145] Nursing mothers concerned about the chemical bisphenol A, which has been shown to affect a childs health, should be aware that it can be passed to their baby though breast milk; SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

they may want to limit their dietary intake of certain foods and adjust their shopping habits to avoid as much exposure as possible.

The average breastfed baby doubles its birth weight in 5–6 months. By one year, a typical breastfed baby will weigh about 2½ times its birth weight. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

At one year, breastfed babies tend to be leaner than formula fed babies, which is healthier, especially in the long-run. A general guide to the growth of breastfed babies is the following:Weight gain of 4–7 ounces (112–200 grams) a week during the first month,An average of 1–2 pounds (1/2 to 1 kilogram) per month for the first six months, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

An average of one pound (1/2 kilogram) per month from six months to one year,Babies usually grow in length by about an inch a month (2.5 cm) during the first six months, and around one-half inch a month from six months to one year.

Weaning is the process of introducing the infant to other food and reducing the supply of breast milk. The infant is fully weaned when it no longer receives any breast milk. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

Most mammals stop producing the enzyme lactase at the end of weaning, and become lactose intolerant. Figures vary, but worldwide, humans lose about 75 to 95 percent of birth lactase levels by early childhood, and there is a continuous decline in lactase during the course of a lifetime. However, the prevalence varies widely among ethnic backgrounds. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Estimates range from 2 to 5 percent in persons from Northern Europe to nearly 100 percent in adult Asians and American Indians. Blacks and Ashkenazi Jews have prevalences of 60 to 80 percent, and Latinos have a prevalence of 50 to 80 percent.

In humans, the psychological factors involved in the weaning process are crucial for both mother and infant as issues of closeness and separation are very prominent during this stage. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

In the past bromocriptine was in some countries frequently used to reduce the engorgement experienced by many women during weaning. This is now done only in exceptional cases as it causes frequent side effects, offers very little advantage over non-medical management and the possibility of serious side effects can not be ruled out.[ Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

Other medications such as cabergoline, lisuride or birth control pills may occasionally be used as lactation suppressants.

Elizabeth Baldwin says in Extended Breastfeeding and the Law, "Because our culture tends to view the breast as sexual, it can be hard for people to realize that breastfeeding is the natural way to nurture children."[153HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

In Western countries such asThe United States of America, Canada, and Great Britain, extended breastfeeding is a taboo act. It is difficult to obtain accurate information and statistics about extended breastfeeding in these countries because of the mother's embarrassment. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

Mothers who nurse longer than the social norm sometimes hide their practices from all but very close family members and friends. This is called "closet nursing".[141] In a study published by the Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 24% of American and Canadian mothers nursing past 6 months felt social hostility towards them. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

This number grew to 42% when mothers were nursing after 1 year of age. Also, 10% of mothers claimed embarrassment when more mobile, verbal toddlers made known in public the fact that they were nursed.[141]

In the United States, breastfeeding beyond 1 year of age is considered 'extended breastfeedingHP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

and in contrast to WHO recommendations, the American Academy of Pediatrics stated in 1997 that, "Breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child".[

In the United States overall, according to a 2010 CDC "report card", 43% of babies are breastfed until 6 months and 22.4% are breastfed until 12 months, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

though breastfeeding rates varied among the states.[154]

Breastfeeding rates in the U.S. at 6 months rose from 34.2% in 2000 to 43.5% in 2006 and the rates at 12 months rose from 15.7% in 2000 to 22.7% in 2006. The U.S. Healthy People 2010 goals were to have at least 60% of babies exclusively breastfed at 3 months and 25% of babies exclusively breastfed at 6 months so this goal has yet to be met.[155] Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

In the United States a study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 75 percent of mothers began breastfeeding. However, by 6 months, the rate fell to 43% and was just 22% after a year. Breastfeeding rates vary across the country, from nearly 90 percent initiating breastfeeding in Utah to 52.5 percent in Mississippi. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

The health care law now requires large employers to provide breastfeeding mothers with breaks and a private space to feed their babies.There have been several cases in the United States where children have been taken away from their mother's care because American courts or government agencies found the mother's extended breastfeeding to be inappropriate. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

In 1992, a New York State mother lost custody of her child for a year. She was still breastfeeding the child at age 3 and had reported experiences of sexual arousal while breastfeeding the child. The authorities took the child from the home in the fear that the mother might sexually abuse the child. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

Later, the social service agency that took over the case said that there was more to the case than could be released to the press due to confidentiality laws.[139] In 2000, an Illinois child was removed from the mother's care after a judge ruled that the child might suffer emotional damage because of not being weaned. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

The child was later returned to the mother and the judge vacated the finding of neglect.[139] A social service agency in Colorado removed a 5-year-old child from the mother because she was still breastfeeding, but the court ordered the child returned to its family immediately.

In India, mothers commonly breastfed their children until 2 to 3 years of age. Cows milk is given in combination with breast milk though use of formula has been on the rise.[140] HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

As of November 2012,[158] the Ministry of Women and Child Development, with UNICEF as a technical partner, have kicked off a nationwide campaign to promote exclusive breastfeeding to infants up to the age of six months - one among a series of advisories it is issuing - as part of an awareness program targeted at eradicating malnutrition in the country. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

Indian actor Aamir Khan serves as the brand ambassador, and has acted in numerous televised public service announcements.

In the Philippines, the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Milk Code require that breastfeeding be encouraged for babies up to the age of 2 years old or beyond. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

Under the same code, it is prohibited to advertise infant formula or breastmilk substitutes intended for infants and young children 24 months old and below.[159] In practice, however, a 2008 WHO survey found that on average, mothers in the Philippines breastfed their babies until 14 months of age, with breastfeeding extending up to 17 months on average in rural areas.HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

Almost fifty-eight percent of mothers surveyed around the nation were still breastfeeding their babies when the babies were a year old, and 34.2% of mothers were still breastfeeding when their babies were 2 years old.In 2012, it was reported that legislation had been introduced which would narrow down the application of the Milk Code DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

(reducing the period recommending against artificial baby foods for babies from 0 to 36 months to 0 to six months only), would lift the restriction on donations of artificial milk products in emergency situations (encouraging mothers who suffer from disabilities to shift to milk substitutes instead of encouraging them to continue breastfeeding assisted by support persons), SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

would change the legally mandated lactation break period for breastfeeding mothers from paid to unpaid status, and would remove the prohibition against milk companies giving away free samples of artificial milk products in the health care system.

Priscilla Colletto stated in Beyond Toddlerhood: The Breastfeeding Relationship ContinuesHP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

"The adverse health effects of weaning a child before or during toddlerhood are well documented for Third World countries such as Guinea-Bissau, where children who were no longer breastfed at ages 12–35 months had a 3.5 times higher mortality rate than did their peers who continued to breastfeed."[ Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Dr. Laurence Grummer-Strawn, widely known in the breastfeeding research and advocacy communities,[164] observed that breastfeeding is protective against diarrheal diseases and other infections and that breastfed children aged 12 to 36 months in Indonesia have much greater mid-arm circumference than children who have been weaned at an early age. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

He also noted that the incidence of malnourishment in breastfed Indonesian children is 3–5% less common than generally encountered in early-weened children. In one study, artificially fed infants had 2 to 3 times as many episodes of significant illnesses (defined as "otitis media, lower respiratory disease, significant vomiting or diarrhea, and any illness requiring hospital admission").[Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

In traditional human societies, the lack of nutrients missing in breast milk such as iron, zinc, and vitamin b12 was supplemented through premastication and feeding of meat to the child.

In A Time to Wean, Katherine Dettwyler states that "Western, industrialized societies can compensate for some (but not all) of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding with antibiotics, Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

vaccines and improved sanitation. But the physical, cognitive, and emotional needs of the young child persist."Many children who are breast-fed into their toddler years use the milk as a comforting, bonding moment with their mothers. In a 1974 survey of 152 mothers, ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

17% said that the security their toddlers obtained through extended breastfeeding helped them become more independent, 14% said that extended breastfeeding created a strong mother-child bond, and 14.6% said that extended breastfeeding strengthened their abilities as a mother. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Four mothers said that they felt their child was too dependent and one mother considered her child a poor eater.[141] Dr. Stein said "A mother in my practice who breastfed 2 children until 2 years of age explained that she would slow down and give her undivided attention to her child several times each day when breastfeeding. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

Her children knew that she always had time for those moments each day. This time was also important to the mother for relaxing and unwinding.... For many nursing toddlers, the breast comes to serve the same function as a favorite blanket or stuffed animal in providing comfort and a sense of security." SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

One issue with extended breastfeeding is the ability of the mother and the child to separate. Some say that the desire for extended breastfeeding comes from the mother's inability to let go of "her baby".[140] Baldwin refutes this statement, saying that the child is the one who chooses when they are weaned, as it is very difficult to force a child to breastfeed. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

International board certified lactation consultants (IBCLCs) are an excellent source of assistance for breastfeeding mothers. IBCLCs are health care professionals certified in lactation management. They work with mothers to solve breastfeeding problems and educate families and health care professionals about the benefits of breastfeeding. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Research shows that rates of exclusive breastfeeding and of any breastfeeding are higher among women who have had babies in hospitals with IBCLCs on staff.

While breastfeeding is a natural human activity, difficulties and complications are not uncommon. Putting the baby to the breast as soon as possible after the birth helps to avoid many problems, including mastitis. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

The AAP breastfeeding policy says: "Delay weighing, measuring, bathing, needle-sticks, and eye prophylaxis until after the first feeding is completed."[17] Many breastfeeding difficulties can be resolved with proper hospital procedures, properly trained midwives, doctors and hospital staff, and lactation consultants.[170] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

There are some situations in which breastfeeding may be harmful to the infant, including infection with HIV and acute poisoning by environmental contaminants such as lead.The Institute of Medicine has reported that breast surgery, including breast implants or breast reduction surgery, reduces the chances that a woman will have sufficient milk to breast feed. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

Research shows that women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies.

The majority of mothers intend to breastfeed when their baby is born. There are many things that happen that disrupt or intervene in this plan. Here are just a few of the barriers that women face when attempting to breastfeed. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

Birth procedures – routine separation of the baby from the mother, delayed breastfeeding initiation, vigorous routine suctioning, medications and mode of delivery all interfere with breastfeeding. A "substantial" number of hospital and facilities implemented procedures and policies that were not evidenced based and that were known to interfere with lactation.[ COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

Nursery policies – additional separation, rooming in policies, routine bottles and pacifiers can also prevent the baby from learning to latch and establishing a supply. About a quarter of all breastfeeding infants receive formula supplementation in the first two days of life.Ignorance

Personal – breastfeeding is the biologic norm but in absence of watching others nurse their babies, Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

it is a lost art as well. Classes, books and personal counseling (professional or lay) can be beneficial. Some women do not want to breastfeed because they fear that breastfeeding will negatively impact the look of their breasts, although medical evidence attributes "drooping" or "sagging" of the breasts to pregnancy, aging, and smoking habits. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Jae Ireland reports “the idea that breastfeeding causes saggier, smaller breasts is a myth, as proven by a 2008 study published in the Aesthetic Surgery Journal. The study found that while breastfeeding had no effect on a woman's breasts, other factors did contribute to sagginess, such as a mother's advanced age, her number of pregnancies and whether or not she smoked. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

All three factors can result in altered breasts, but breastfeeding was not identified as a marker for a change in overall breast appearance.”Partner – Partners also lack basic breastfeeding knowledge and are typically unsure of their role in breastfeeding.Practitioner – Physicians and nurses have surprisingly little training in lactation and lactation support. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

One of the main action items in The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding is to help educate practitioners about breastfeeding and breastfeeding issues.

Workforce – Returning to work is the most common cited reason for discontinuing breastfeeding.Maternity leave in the US varies widely despite theFamily Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which provides most working mothers up to 12 weeks. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

Many mothers are forced to take unpaid time off from their job and the majority do not use FMLA for the full twelve weeks. Fathers are also allowed to use FMLA for the birth or adoption of the child. Maternity leave varies widely by state. Save the Children recently examined maternity leave laws, the right to nursing breaks at work, HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

and several other indicators to create a ranking of 36 industrialized countries measuring which ones have the most – and the least – supportive policies for women who want to breastfeed. Norway topped the scorecard and the United States came in last.Poor latch - Pain caused from mis-positioning the baby on the breast or a tongue-tie in the infant can cause great pain in the mother and therefore discourage her from breastfeeding. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

These problems are generally easy to correct (by re-positioning or clipping the tongue-tie).

Researchers have found several social factors that correlate with differences in initiation, frequency, and duration of breastfeeding practices of mothers. Race, ethnic differences and socioeconomic status and other factors have been shown to affect a mother's choice whether or not to breastfeed, and how long she breastfeeds her child. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

A recent study found that on average women that breastfed their infants had higher levels of education, were older, and were more likely to be white.

The reasons for the persistently lower rates of breastfeeding among African American women are not well understood, but employment may play a role. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

African American women tend to return to work earlier after childbirth than white women, and they are more likely to work in environments that do not support breastfeeding. Although research has shown that returning to work is associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding, a supportive work environment may make a difference in whether mothers are able to continue breastfeeding.[ Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

Deborah L. Dee's research found that women and children who qualify for WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children were among those who were least likely to initiate breastfeeding. Income level can also contribute to women discontinuing breastfeeding early. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

More highly educated women are more likely to have access to information regarding difficulties with breastfeeding, allowing them to continue breastfeeding through difficulty rather than weaning early. Women in higher status jobs are more likely to have access to a lactation room and suffer less social stigma from having to breastfeed or express breastmilk at work. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

In addition, women who are unable to take an extended leave from work following the birth of their child are less likely to continue breastfeeding when they return to work. Low income women are more likely to have unintended pregnancies, and women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions, not addressed by law in others, and a granted legal right in public and the workplace in yet others. Where it is a legal right, some mothers may nevertheless be reluctant tobreastfeed, and some people may object to the practice. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

There have been incidents of owners of premises, or people present, objecting to or forbidding breastfeeding. In some cases the mothers have left; in others, where a law guaranteeing the right to breastfeed has been broken, there has been legal action. Sometimes a company has apologised after the fact. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

In 2006, the editors of US Babytalk magazine received many complaints from readers after the cover of the August issue depicted a baby nursing at a bare breast. Even though the model's nipple was not shown, readers—many of them mothers—wrote that the image was "gross". HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

In a follow-up poll, one-quarter of 4,000 readers who responded thought the cover was negative.Babytalk editor Susan Kane commented, "There's a huge puritanical streak in Americans." In a 2004 survey conducted by theAmerican Dietetic Association, only 43% of the 3,719 respondents believed women ought to have the right to breast-feed in public. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Negative perception of breastfeeding in social settings has led some women to feel discomfort when breastfeeding in public.[186] Even though many women are educated about the health benefits of breastfeeding, less than 25% choose to breastfeed their children. Western society tends to think of breasts in sexual terms instead of for their biological purpose, to bring nourishment to infants.[ HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

The misuse of the purpose of breasts has led many to have an adverse reaction to breastfeeding because people do not like to associate feeding an infant with sexual pleasure. The consequences of Western culture’s sexualization of breasts has led women feeling embarrassed to breast feed in public. This fear immobilizes women and keeps them restricted to their homes. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

] Limitations on places in which women can breastfeed, as well as negative cultural connotations with breastfeeding may play a role in the amount of time a woman will breastfeed.[189] The end result is often that the woman may give up breastfeeding and switch to a bottle. When mothers lack support to breastfeed they are often destined to fail. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

Research has shown that maternal guilt and shame is often associated with how a mother feeds their infant. This guilt and shame is a result of the inability to achieve the idealized notion of what it means to be a good mother. Mothers of both bottle and breast fed babies often feel shame and/or guilt for different reasons. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

Mothers who bottle feed their infants may feel that they are failures at breastfeeding.[190] On the other hand, mothers who breastfeed may feel exposed when breastfeeding in public places because of sexual connotations associated with breasts. They may also fear ridicule from emotional responses to an exposed breast. HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

Some may see breastfeeding as, ““indecent, disgusting, animalistic, sexual, and even possibly a perverse act.In response to scrutiny concerning public breastfeeding, advocates use nurse-ins to show others that there should be no shame in breastfeeding in public.However some advocates don’t fight the shame a woman can feel when she cannot breastfeed and must bottle-feed her baby. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

Shame should not be used as a tool to advocate breastfeeding, rather women should be able to individually define what a good mother is. Rather than focusing on the choice a woman has made on whether or not to breastfeed, it is suggested that there be a redirection with the emphasis of providing women with education on the benefits of breastfeeding as well as problem solving skills for women who may find it difficult. IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

The cultural context of Western society, does not always seem to advocate for breastfeeding in public.[186] According to one study published in the Journal of American Dietetic Association, over half the people who voted believed that women should not be allowed to breastfeed in public. SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

This study confirms previous studies that indicate that Americans do not want to see breasts in public places. Thus the stigma associated with breastfeeding in public can guide parents to seek an alternative to breastfeeding, even though it may not be as healthy for the child.[191] There used to be only two options for feeding infants: Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

breastfeeding or formula. With the introduction of formula as a scientifically proven way of nourishing infants, many people chose to feed their child formula over breast milk. Formula was popular for the convenience it offered by opening care opportunities to others.When examining the invention of formula from a bio cultural perspective, Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

one might also see the invention of formula as a way in which western culture adapted to negative cultural perceptions of breastfeeding in public.In response to negativism against breastfeeding, HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

the La Leche League began a breastfeeding advocacy movement that aimed to educate the public about the short and long term benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and child. With the introduction of the breast pump came a “third option,” that offered the benefits of mobility associated with formula feeding and the health benefits of breastfeeding. Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

This allowed care relationships to extend across further distances without compromising the health benefits of breast milk.

Controversy has arisen over the marketing of breast milk vs. formula; particularly how it affects the education of mothers in third world countries and their comprehension (or lack thereof) of the health benefits of breastfeeding.Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

The most famous example, the Nestlé boycott, arose in the 1970s and continues to be supported by high-profile stars and international groups to this day.

In 1981, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted Resolution WHA34.22 which includes the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Subsequently, the Innocenti Declaration was made by WHO and UNICEF policy-makers in August 1990 to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.[196] According to the WHO report published ahead of World Breastfeeding Week, 2013, only 37 countries (19 per cent) of 199 countries, subscribing to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, have passed laws incorporating all of the Code’s recommendations. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

The central concern about breastfeeding with HIV is whether or not it places the child at risk of becoming infected. Varying factors, such as the viral load in the mother’s milk, contribute to the difficulty in creating breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers It is also possible for the infant to be infected with HIV throughout the duration of the pregnancy or during the birthing process (intrapartum). HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

Breastfeeding with HIV guidelines established by the WHO suggest that HIV-infected mothers (particularly those in resource-poor countries) practice exclusive breastfeeding only, rather than mixed breastfeeding practices that involve other dietary supplements or fluids. Many studies have revealed the high benefit of exclusive breastfeeding to both mother and child, HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

documenting that exclusive breastfeeding for a period of 6 months significantly reduces transmission, provides the infant with a greater chance of survival in the first year of life, and helps the mother to recover from the negative health effects of birth much more quickly.[ Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

However, a recent study conducted by researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine suggests that women infected with HIV can, in fact, breastfeed without transmitting the virus to their children, because components in breast milk are understood as able to kill the virus.[ HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

High levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk (including eicosadienoic, arachidonic and gamma-linolenic acids) are associated with a reduced risk of child infection when nursed by HIV-positive mothers. Arachidonic acid and gamma-linolenic acid may also reduce viral shedding of HIV in breast milk.[203] HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

Despite these positive indicators, other studies have determined that bottle-fed babies of HIV-infected mothers approximately has a 19 percent chance of becoming infected, in comparison to breastfed babies who had an approximate 49 percent chance of infection. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

Such a variance in findings makes it difficult to institute a proper set of guidelines for HIV-infected women in third-world or developing countries, where alternative forms of feeding are not always acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe (AFASS).Thus after much research, the benefits and/or consequences of breastfeeding with HIV are still currently under debate.SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

The practice of breastfeeding for HIV positive mothers is a highly contested and controversial global public health concern. Programs for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and other international guidelines offer preventative interventions to address mother to child transmission(MTCT) of HIV in Third World countries.[ Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

PMTCT programs provide HIV-positive women with recommendations and services including antiretroviral therapy (ART), modifications in infant feeding practices (i.e., exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive replacement feeding), and counseling.

Although prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs have been implemented across different regions,Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

their success in resource-constrained settings is still widely debated upon.[207] In 2008, the majority of sub-Saharan Africa as a whole had an estimate of 430,000 HIV infections among children under the age of 15. HIV-positive women’s lack of participation and adherence to PMTCT services and infant feeding guidelines has made the success of these policies difficult, HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

despite the knowledge and technology that has been dedicated to them.[207] Many women fear knowing their HIV status. Generally speaking, HIV-positive mothers lack support, especially from males, thus resulting in their stigmatization and exclusion by members of the community.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

It is because of this that most women end up losing contact with development programs, which end soon after the mother delivers.[207] The discontinuation of these programs makes a knowledge and understanding of different feeding options difficult for these mothers, because these programs are not there to present them with the necessary information. HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

Access to available resources for the prevention of MTCT of HIV varies across different cultural regions. “MTCT of HIV has been virtually eliminated in well-resourced settings such as the United States and Europe”.[150] Available medical and therapeutic resources in developed countries can include drugs for HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy and labour, Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

cesarean delivery to reduce the infant’s exposure to infection; and modifications in infant feeding practices.In third world settings, medical resources and technology can be very hard to find and can serve as a financial burden to HIV-positive mothers. HIV-infected mothers refer to counselors for expert knowledge and recommendations on infant feeding and health.DELL R859C CPU Fan

Treatment amenities in resource-constrained settings are also available to HIV-positive mothers in the form of antiretroviral therapy (ART) which is one resource that has contributed to the elimination of MTCT of HIV in first world countries. In order to have access to resources, HIV-positive mothers must be able maintain follow up appointments regularly, Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan

however, this is problematic in resource-limited settings due to weak infrastructure in health care systems in countries such as India,Tanzania and Nigeria.This can also serve as a dilemma for HIV-positive mothers because although limited resources are available to them,financial constraint can prevent women from accessing available treatments.SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan

This can influence HIV-positive mother’s decision to rely solely on breastfeeding as a primary feeding option due to financial instability.Anthropological research demonstrates that in contexts where breastfeeding is essential to infant survival, such as in resource poor settings, PMTCT infant feeding guidelines challenge notions of motherhood and women’s decision making power over infant care, ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

and colour HIV positive mothers’ infant feeding experiences. In eastern Africa, infant mortality is high and breastfeeding is vital for infant survival. Here, motherhood is defined as the responsibility for ensuring the child’s proper growth and health. Breastfeeding is also seen as a cultural practice that helps create a social bond between mother and child.[ SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan

However, there is a disjuncture between PMTCT policy’s infant feeding guideline and what is considered to be good mothering behavior. The PMTCT policy promotes replacement feeding because it is believed to prevent the risk of transmission of HIV. However, adhering to such guidelines are difficult for mothers in resource-limited settings who believe that not breastfeeding one’s child would be harmful to their health and survival, HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan

as well as threaten the “development of close bodily and emotional bonds between mother and child”.As such, not breastfeeding, for HIV-positive women, is perceived as failing to be a good mother.Thus, PMTCT programs impact HIV-positive women’s agency and decision-making in infant care, as well as challenge their cultural conceptions of good motherhood. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan

In an effort to further refine the United Nations guideline for optimal infant feeding options for HIV-infected mothers, the World Health Organization (WHO) held a three-day convention in Geneva in 2006 to review new evidence that had been established since they last established a guideline in 2000. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan

Participants included UN agencies, representative from nongovernmental organizations, researchers, infant feeding experts, and WHO headquarters departments. The convention concluded with the following recommendations: If replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable and safe, HIV-infected mothers are recommended to use replacement feeding. HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan

Otherwise, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. At six months, if replacement feeding is still not available, HIV-infected mothers are encouraged to slowly introduce food while continuing breastfeeding. Those with HIV-infected infants are recommended to continue breastfeeding even after 6 months. SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan

In a 2010 update the WHO stated that significant programmatic experience and research evidence regarding HIV and infant feeding had accumulated since WHO's recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV were last revised in 2006. In particular, HP Envy 15 CPU Fan

evidence has been reported that antiretroviral (ARV) interventions to either the HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant can significantly reduce the risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. This evidence has major implications for how women living with HIV might feed their infants, and how health workers should counsel these mothers. HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan

Together, breastfeeding and ARV intervention have the potential to significantly improve infants' chances of surviving while remaining HIV uninfected.

While the 2010 recommendations are generally consistent with the previous guidance, they recognize the important impact of ARVs during the breastfeeding period, Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan

and recommend that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice, i.e. breastfeeding with an ARV intervention to reduce transmission or avoidance of all breastfeeding, should be promoted and supported by their Maternal and Child Health services.  IBM MCF-208AM05-1 CPU Fan

This differs from the previous recommendations in which health workers were expected to individually counsel all HIV-infected mothers about the various infant feeding options, and it was then for mothers to decide between them.

Where national authorities promote breastfeeding and ARVs, IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

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mothers known to be HIV-infected are now recommended to breastfeed their infants until at least 12 months of age. The recommendation that replacement feeding should not be used unless it is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe remains. HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan

In a review article published in the journal Pediatrics, data from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed to discern any safety issue for mothers taking prescription drugswhile breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises that mothers can take most prescription drugs but should avoid certain painkillers,psychiatric drugs and herbal supplements. HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan

The health benefits of mother taking drugs and breastfeeding should be weighed against the risk of drug exposure to the infant. The report recommends consulting the NIH database 'LactMed' on the most up-to-date information on drugs and breastfeeding.HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan

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