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9 septembre 2013 1 09 /09 /septembre /2013 04:27

In the last few years the government constructed a 106-kilometer toll road that connects Santo Domingo with the country's northeastern peninsula. Travelers may now arrive in the Samaná Peninsula in less than two hours. Other additions are the reconstruction of the DR-28 (Jarabacoa – Constanza) and DR-12 (Constanza – Bonao).  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Despite these efforts, many secondary routes still remain either unpaved or in need of maintenance. There is currently a nation-wide program to pave these and other commonly used routes.

The Santiago light rail system is in planning stages and currently on hold.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard

There are two main bus transportation services in the Dominican Republic: one controlled by the government, through the Oficina Técnica de Transito Terrestre (OTTT) and the Oficina Metropolitana de Servicios de Autobuses (OMSA); and the other controlled by private business, HP 519004-001 Laptop Keyboard

among them, Federación Nacional de Transporte La Nueva Opción (FENATRANO) and the Confederacion Nacional de Transporte (CONATRA). The government transportation system covers large routes in metropolitan areas, such as Santo Domingo and Santiago.

There are many privately owned bus companies, such as Metro Servicios Turísticos and Caribe Tours, that run daily routes.  HP G61-465SL Laptop Keyboard

The Dominican government has put effort towards providing efficient public transportation with the construction of the Santo Domingo Metro, the first mass transit system in the country, and second in the Caribbean and Central American nations, after the Tren Urbano in San Juan, Puerto Rico. HP Pavilion ze5715ca Laptop Keyboard

On February 27, 2008 president Leonel Fernández tested the system for the first time and free service was offered thereafter several times. Commercial service started on January 30, 2009. Several additional lines are currently being planned.  GATEWAY MX8715 Laptop Keyboard

The population of the Dominican Republic in 2007 was estimated by the United Nations at 9,760,000,[93] which placed it number 82 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 5% of the population was over 65 years of age, while 35% of the population was under 15 years of age. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

There were 103 males for every 100 females in the country in 2007.[1] According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2006–2007 is 1.5%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 10,121,000.

It was estimated by the Dominican government that the population density in 2007 was 192 per km² (498 per sq mi), and 63% of the population lived in urban areas.[94] TOSHIBA Satellite L455 Laptop Keyboard

The southern coastal plains and the Cibao Valley are the most densely populated areas of the country. The capital city, Santo Domingo, had a population of 3,014,000 in 2007. Other important cities are Santiago de los Caballeros (pop. 756,098), La Romana (pop. 250,000), Lenovo 39T7417 laptop keyboard

San Pedro de Macorís, San Francisco de Macorís, Puerto Plata, and La Vega. Per the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 2.3%.

The Dominican Republic's population is 73% mulatto, 16% white, and 11% black.[1][96] There is also a large Haitian minority. Other ethnic groups in the country include West Asians—mostly Lebanese, Syrians and Palestinians.[97]  HP Mini 110-3102sl laptop keyboard

There are about 30,000Jamaicans living in the Dominican Republic.[98] A significant presence of East Asians, primarily ethnic Chinese and Japanese, can also be found.[97] Europeans are represented mostly by Spanish, German Jews, Italians, Swiss, Portuguese, British, Dutch,Danes, and Hungarians.[ TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1EI laptop keyboard

In regards to the Jews in the country, The Sephardic Jews were exiled from Spain and the Mediterranean area in 1492 and 1497,[101] coupled with other migrations dating the 1700s[102] and during the second world war[103] contribute to Dominican ancestry.[104][105] Some of the Sephardic Jews still presently reside in Sosúa while others are dispersed throughout the country.  HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa laptop keyboard

The amount of known Jews (or those with genetic proof of Jewish ancestry and/or practiced Jewish customs/religion throughout generations) are close to 3,000; the exact number of Dominicans with Jewish lineages aren't known, however, because of the miscegenation of the Jews and Dominicans over a period of more than five centuries. HP Mini 110-1116NR laptop keyboard

There is also an expatriate community of Dominicans born in the United States residing in the country.

A system of racial stratification was imposed on Santo Domingo by Spain, as elsewhere in the Spanish Empire.[HP Pavilion dv6-3106tu laptop keyboard

 Its effects have persisted, reaching their culmination in the antihaitianismo of the Trujillo regime, as the dictator used racial persecution and nationalistic fervor against Haitians.[64][107] In October 2007, a U.N. envoy found that racism against blacks in general, and Haitians in particular, is rampant in every segment of Dominican society.[108] SONY VAIO VGN-CS31Z/Q laptop keyboard

According to Silvio Torres-Saillant of the CUNY Dominican Studies Institute, close to 90% of the contemporary Dominican population are either blacks or mulattos.[109] However, most Afro-Dominicans do not self-identify as black, in contrast to people of West African ancestry in other countries. SONY VAIO VGN-SR290 laptop keyboard

Torres-Saillant writes: "... no other country in the hemisphere exhibits greater indeterminacy regarding the population's sense of racial identity. To the bewilderment of outside observers, Afro-Dominicans have traditionally failed to flaunt their blackness as a collective banner to advance economic, cultural or political causes."[109] SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R laptop keyboard

 A variety of terms are used to represent a range of skin tones, such as moreno/a (brown), canelo/a (red/brown) ["cinnamon"], indio/a (Indian), blanco/a oscuro/a(dark white), and trigueño/a (literally "wheat colored", or olive skin).[110] Ramona Hernández, director of the Dominican Studies Institute at City College of New York asserts that the terms were originally a defense against racism: IBM 42T3297 laptop keyboard

"During the Trujillo regime, people who were dark skinned were rejected, so they created their own mechanism to fight it." She went on to explain, "When you ask, 'What are you?' they don't give you the answer you want ... saying we don't want to deal with our blackness is simply what you want to hear."  HP Pavilion dv6-2135er laptop keyboard

In a research study it was revealed that the Dominican Republic's population racial admixture is European and African, but there is also a minor Taíno element in the population;[34] research published in 2010 showed that 70% of Dominicans have African genes, and 15% of Dominicans have Taíno ancestry.[112] HP Pavilion G7T-1000 Series laptop keyboard

Even though it was found out that the Dominican Republic overall DNA admixture is multiracial with a significant amount ofTaíno DNA which is consistent with both the historical background of the nation but, being that Dominicans range from full Whites to full Blacks to Mulattoes, these genetic findings are not assigned to the whole nation's population. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Therefore, it does not suggest that Dominicans in general have Taíno DNA, but rather it means that individuals may or may not have it.

The Dominican Republic is 68.9% Roman Catholic, 18.2% Evangelical, 10.6% with no religion, and 2.3% other.[113] SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

However, other sources place the irreligious ratio at 7% and nearly 10%.[114] Recent immigration, as well as proselytizing, has brought other religions, with the following shares of the population: Spiritist: 2.2%,[115] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: 1.1%,[116] Buddhist: 0.1%, Bahá'í: 0.1%,[115HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard

Chinese Folk Religion: 0.1%,[115] Islam: 0.02%, Judaism: 0.01%. The nation has two patroness saints: Nuestra Señora de la Altagracia (Our Lady Of High Grace) and Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes (Our Lady Of Mercy).

The Catholic Church began to lose popularity in the late 19th century.  HP Pavilion dv6-2157sb Laptop Keyboard

This was due to a lack of funding, of priests, and of support programs. During the same time, the Protestant evangelical movement began to gain support. Religious tension between Catholics and Protestants in the country has been rare.

There has always been religious freedom throughout the entire country. HP Mini 1116NR Laptop Keyboard

Not until the 1950s were restrictions placed upon churches by Trujillo. Letters of protest were sent against the mass arrests of government adversaries. Trujillo began a campaign against the church and planned to arrest priests and bishops who preached against the government. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

This campaign ended before it was even put into place, with his assassination.

During World War II, a group of Jews escaping Nazi Germany fled to the Dominican Republic and founded the city of Sosúa. It has remained the center of the Jewish population since. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

The population of the Dominican Republic is entirely Spanish-speaking; its local dialect is called Dominican Spanish and it has influences from African languages and borrowed vocabularies from the Arawak language. Schools are based on a Spanish educational model,[118] ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard

with English being taught as a secondary language in most private schools, it is also being taught in public school as well. Haitian Creole is spoken by the population of Haitian descent. There is a community of about 8,000 speakers of Samaná English in the Samaná Peninsula. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard

They are the descendants of formerly enslaved African Americans who arrived in the nineteenth century.[119] Tourism, American pop culture, the influence of Dominican Americans, and the country's economic ties with the United States motivate other Dominicans to learn English. HP G62-a30SP Laptop Keyboard

In the 20th century, many Arabs (primarily from Lebanon and Syria), Japanese, and, to a lesser degree, Koreans settled in the country as agricultural laborers and merchants. The Chinese companies found business in telecom, mining and railroads. The current Chinese Dominican population totals 50,000.[ DELL FM8 Laptop Keyboard

TheArab community is rising at an increasing rate. Estimates are at 3,400.[citation needed] Japanese immigrants, who mostly work in the business districts and markets, are at an estimate of 1,900 living in the country.[] The Korean presence is minor but evident, at a population of 500.[ Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

In addition, there are descendants of immigrants who came from other Caribbean islands, including St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua, St. Vincent, Montserrat,Tortola, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and Guadeloupe. They worked on sugarcane plantations and docks, and settled mainly in the cities of San Pedro de Macoris andPuerto Plata.  Lenovo 3000 C100 Laptop Keyboard

There is an increasing number of Puerto Rican immigrants, especially in and around Santo Domingo; they are believed to number around 10,000.[120]Before and during World War II, 800 Jewish refugees moved to the Dominican Republic.

Haiti is the neighboring nation to the Dominican Republic and was its former ruler. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

In 2003, 80% of all Haitians were poor (54% in abject poverty) and 47.1% were illiterate. The country of nine million people has a fast-growing population, but over two-thirds of the labor force lack formal jobs. Haiti's per capita GDP (PPP) was $1,300 in 2008, or less than one-sixth of the Dominican figure.[1][122] ASUS F3F Laptop Keyboard

As a result, hundreds of thousands of Haitians have migrated to the Dominican Republic, with some estimates of 800,000 Haitians in the country,[15] while others put the Haitian-born population as high as one million.[123] They usually work at low-paying and unskilled jobs in building construction, household cleaning, and in sugar plantations.[124]  HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

There have been accusations that some Haitian immigrants work in slavery-like conditions and are severely exploited.[125]

Children of illegal Haitian immigrants are often stateless and denied services, as their parents are denied Dominican nationality, being deemed transient residents due to their illegal or undocumented status;  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

the children, though often eligible for Haitian nationality,[126] are denied it by Haiti because of a lack of proper documents or witnesses.[127][128][129][130]

A large number of Haitian women, often arriving with several health problems, cross the border to Dominican soil during their last weeks of pregnancy to obtain much-needed medical attention for childbirth, HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

since Dominican public hospitals do not refuse medical services based on nationality or legal status. Statistics from a hospital in Santo Domingo report that over 22% of childbirths are by Haitian mothers.[131]

In 2005, Dominican President Leonel Fernández criticized collective expulsions of Haitians as having taken place "in an abusive and inhuman way".[132] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

After a UN delegation issued a preliminary report stating that it found a profound problem of racism and discrimination against people of Haitian origin, Dominican Foreign Minister Carlos Morales Troncoso issued a formal statement denouncing it, asserting that "Our border with Haiti has its problems, HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

this is our reality and it must be understood. It is important not to confuse national sovereignty with indifference, and not to confuse security with xenophobia".

The first of three, late-20th century emigration waves began in 1961, after the assassination of dictator Trujillo,[134]  TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard

due to fear of retaliation by Trujillo's allies, and political uncertainty in general. In 1965, the United States began a military occupation of the Dominican Republic to end a civil war. Upon this, the U.S. eased travel restrictions, making it easier for Dominicans to obtain US visas.[135] DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

 From 1966 to 1978, the exodus continued, fueled by high unemployment and political repression. Communities established by the first wave of immigrants to the U.S. created a network that assisted subsequent arrivals. In the early 1980s, underemployment, inflation, DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

and the rise in value of the dollar all contributed to a third wave of emigration from the island nation. Today, emigration from the Dominican Republic remains high.[136] In 2006, there were approximately 1.3 million people of Dominican descent in the US, counting both native- and foreign-born.[16] HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

 There is also a growing Dominican immigration to the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico.

The culture and people of the Dominican Republic, like its Spanish Caribbean neighbors, is a blend of the cultures of the Spaniard colonists, African slaves, and Taíno natives. HP Pavilion dv6-3080tx Laptop Keyboard

European, African and Taíno cultural elements are most prominent in food, family structure, religion and music. Many Arawak/Taíno names and words are used in daily conversation and for many foods native to the Dominican Republic.

Dominican cuisine is predominantly Spanish, Taíno, and African. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

The typical cuisine is quite similar to what can be found in other Latin American countries, but many of the names of dishes are different. One breakfast dish consists of eggs and mangú (mashed, boiled plantain), a dish that the Dominican Republic shares with Cuba and Puerto Rico. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

For heartier versions, mangú is accompanied by deep-fried meat (Dominican salami, typically) and/or cheese. Similarly to Spain, lunch is generally the largest and most important meal of the day. Lunch usually consists of rice, meat (such as chicken, beef, pork, or fish), beans, and a side portion of salad. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

"La Bandera" (literally "The Flag") is the most popular lunch dish; it consists of meat and red beans on white rice. Sancocho is a stew often made with seven varieties of meat.

Meals tend to favor meats and starches over dairy products and vegetables. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

Many dishes are made with sofrito, which is a mix of local herbs used as a wet rub for meats and sautéed to bring out all of a dish's flavors. Throughout the south-central coast, bulgur, or whole wheat, is a main ingredient in quipes or tipili(bulgur salad). Other favorite Dominican foods are chicharrónCompaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

yucacasabepastelitos (empanadas), batata, yam, pasteles en hojachimichurristostones. Some treats Dominicans enjoy are arroz con leche (or arroz con dulce), bizcocho dominicano (lit. Dominican cake), habichuelas con dulce, flan, frío frío (snow cones), dulce de leche, and caña (sugarcane). HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

The beverages Dominicans enjoy include Morir Soñando, rum, beer, Mama Juanabatida (smoothie), jugos naturales (freshly squeezed fruit juices), mabí, coffee, and chaca (also called maiz caqueao/casqueadomaiz con dulce and maiz con leche), the last item being only found in the southern provinces of the country such as San Juan. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Musically, the Dominican Republic is known for the creation of the musical style called merengue,[137]:376–7 a type of lively, fast-paced rhythm and dance music consisting of a tempo of about 120 to 160 beats per minute (though it varies) based on musical elements like drums, brass, chorded instruments, TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

and accordion, as well as some elements unique to the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, such as the tambora and güira. Its syncopated beats use Latin percussion, brass instruments, bass, and piano or keyboard. Between 1937 and 1950 merengue music was promoted internationally by Dominicans groups like Billo's Caracas BoysLenovo ThinkPad T410-2516 Laptop Keyboard

, Chapuseaux and Damiron "Los Reyes del Merengue", Joseito Mateo, and others. Radio, television, and international media popularized it further. Some well-known merengue performers include Johnny Ventura, singer/songwriter Juan Luis Guerra, Fernando Villalona, Eddy Herrera, Sergio Vargas, TTOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard

oño Rosario, Milly Quezada, and Chichí Peralta. Merengue became popular in the United States, mostly on the East Coast, during the 1980s and 1990s,[137]:375 when many Dominican artists, among them Victor Roque y La Gran Manzana, Henry Hierro, Zacarias Ferreira, Aventura, and Milly Jocelyn Y Los Vecinos, residing in the U.S. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

 (particularly New York) started performing in the Latin club scene and gained radio airplay. The emergence of bachata, along with an increase in the number of Dominicans living among otherLatino groups in New York, New Jersey, and Florida have contributed to Dominican music's overall growth in popularity. HP Mini 110-3120se laptop keyboard

Bachata, a form of music and dance that originated in the countryside and rural marginal neighborhoods of the Dominican Republic, has become quite popular in recent years. Its subjects are often romantic; especially prevalent are tales of heartbreak and sadness. HP Mini 210-1066SB laptop keyboard

In fact, the original name for the genre was amargue ("bitterness", or "bitter music", or blues music), until the rather ambiguous (and mood-neutral) term bachata became popular. Bachata grew out of, and is still closely related to, the pan-Latin American romantic style called bolero. Over time, it has been influenced by merengue and by a variety of Latin American guitar styles.  SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

Dominican rock is also popular. Many, if not the majority, of its performers are based in Santo Domingo and Santiago.

Particularly among the young, hip-hop/rap has been growing in popularity in recent years. Also known as Rap del Patio("backyard rap"), Dominican rap is created by Dominican crews and solo artists. Packard Bell Easynote TM94 laptop keyboard

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Originating in the early 2000s with crews such as Charles Family, successful rappers such as Lapiz Conciente, Vakero, Toxic Crow, and R-1 emerged. The youth have embraced the music, sometimes over merengue, merengue típico, bachata, as well as salsa, and, most recently, reggaeton. Lenovo 45N2036 laptop keyboard

Dominican rap differs from reggaeton in the fact that Dominican rap does not use the traditional Dem Bow rhythm frequently used in reggaeton, instead using more hip hop-influenced beats.

Baseball is by far the most popular sport in the Dominican Republic.[137]:59  HP Pavilion dv4-1131tx laptop keyboard

The country has a baseball league of six teams. The Milwaukee Brewers have a summer league here called the baseball academy.[138] Its season usually begins in October and ends in January. After the United States, the Dominican Republic has the second-highest number of Major League Baseball (MLB) players. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 laptop keyboard

 Ozzie Virgil, Sr. became the first Dominican-born player in the MLB on September 23, 1956. Juan Marichal is the only Dominican-born player in the Baseball Hall of Fame.[139] Other notable baseball players born in the Dominican Republic are: Robinson Cano, Julian Javier,Pedro Martínez, HP Pavilion dv2-1007ax laptop keyboard

Francisco Liriano, Manny Ramírez, Jose Bautista, Hanley Ramírez, David Ortiz, Albert Pujols, Ubaldo Jiménez, José Reyes, Alcides Escobar, Plácido Polanco and Sammy Sosa. Felipe Alou has also enjoyed success as a manager,[140] and Omar Minaya as a general manager. HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

 In 2013, the Dominican team went undefeated en route to winning the World Baseball Classic.

In boxing, the country has produced scores of world-class fighters and several world champions.[141] Basketball also enjoys a relatively high level of popularity. HP Pavilion dv5-1221tx laptop keyboard

Al Horford, Felipe Lopez, and Francisco Garcia are among the Dominican-born players currently or formerly in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Olympic gold medalist and world champion hurdler Félix Sánchez hails from the Dominican Republic, as does NFL defensive end Luis Castillo.[142] HP G61-400SP laptop keyboard

Other important sports include, Volleyball, which was introduced in 1916 by US Marines, is controlled by the Dominican Volleyball Federation. Other sports include taekwondo, in which Gabriel Mercedes is an Olympic silver medalist, and judo.  HP G61-110SA laptop keyboard

World famous fashion designer Oscar de la Renta was born in the Dominican Republic in 1932, and became a US citizen in 1971. He studied under the leading Spaniard designer Cristóbal Balenciagaand then worked with the house of Lanvin in Paris. HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

 Then by 1963, de la Renta had designs carrying his own label. After establishing himself in the US, de la Renta opened boutiques across the country. His work blends French and Spaniard fashion with American styles.[144][145]Although he settled in New York, de la Renta also marketed his work in Latin America,  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

where it became very popular, and remained active in his native Dominican Republic, where his charitable activities and personal achievements earned him the Juan Pablo Duarte Order of Merit and the Order of Cristóbal Colón. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Primary education is officially free and compulsory for children between the ages of 3 and 17, although those who live in isolated areas have limited access to schooling. Primary schooling is followed by a two-year intermediate school and a four-year secondary course, after which a diploma called the bachillerato (high school diploma) is awarded. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

Relatively few lower-income students succeed in reaching this level, due to financial hardships and limitation due to location. Most of the wealthier students attend private schools, which are frequently sponsored by religious institutions. DELL Studio 1458 Laptop Keyboard

Some public and private vocational schools are available, particularly in the field of agriculture, but this too reaches only a tiny percentage of the population.

In 2007 the Dominican Republic had a birth rate of 22.91 per 1000, and a death rate of 5.32 per 1000.[1] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic in 2003 stood at an estimated 1.7%, with an estimated 88,000 HIV/AIDS-positive Dominicans.[146] A mission based in the United States is helping to combat AIDS in the Dominican Republic.[147] Dengue is endemic to the country, and there are cases of malaria.[148]  Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard

The practice of abortion is illegal in all cases in the Dominican Republic, a ban that includes conceptions following rape, incest, and in situations where the health of the mother is in danger, even if life threatening.[149] This ban was reiterated by the Dominican government in a September 2009 provision of a constitutional reform bill. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard,DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop KeyboardSONY Vaio PCG-K23 Laptop Keyboard

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