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Indiana University Bloomington Indiana University Bloomington (IU Bloomington) is a public research university located in Bloomington, Indiana, in the United States.[3] IU Bloomington is the flagship campus of the Indiana University system.[4] Being the flagship campus, IU Bloomington is often referred to simply as IU or Indiana. However, in recent years, the name "Indiana University" has been applied more broadly to the entire Indiana University system.[5][6]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Of students enrolled in the Spring 2012 term, 1,664 were African-Americans, 1,655 were Asian, 1,488 were Hispanic, and 64 were Native American. More women (20,290) were enrolled than men (20,189). While 55.2% of the student body was from Indiana, students from 49 of the 50 states, Washington D.C., and 165 foreign nations were also enrolled.[2]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Indiana University Bloomington also has a wide variety of extracurricular organizations and clubs to keep students active and involved beyond academics. IU is also home to a Greek system of about 17 percent of undergraduates. Indiana's state government in Corydon founded Indiana University in 1820 as the "State Seminary." It was originally located at what is now called Seminary Square Park near the intersection of Second Street and College Avenue.[7] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard The 1816 Indiana state constitution required that the General Assembly (Indiana's state legislature) create a "general system of education, ascending in a regular gradation, from township schools to a state university, wherein tuition shall be gratis, and equally open to all." It took some time for the legislature to fulfill its promise, HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard partly due to a debate regarding whether the Indiana Territory'spublic university—what is now Vincennes University—should be adopted as the State of Indiana's public university or whether a new public university should be founded in Bloomington to replace the territorial university. While the original state-issued legislative charter for IUB was granted in 1820, construction began in 1822; the first professor, Baynard Rush Hall, was hired in 1823; classes were offered in 1824.  SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard The first class graduated in 1830. Throughout this period and until the rechartering of Vincennes University from a four-year institution to a two-year institution in 1889, a legal-political battle was fought between the territorial-chartered public university in Vincennes and the State of Indiana on behalf of the state-chartered public university in Bloomington, including the legal case (Trustees for Vincennes University v Indiana, 1853) which was appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard IU developed rapidly in its first years. The hiring of Andrew Wylie, its first president, in 1829 signified the school's growing professionalism. The General Assembly changed the school's name to "Indiana College" in the same year. In 1838 the legislature changed the school's name for a final time to Indiana University. HP Mini 311-1033CA Laptop Keyboard Wylie's death in 1851 marks the end of the university's first period of development. IU now had nearly a hundred students and seven professors. Despite the university's more obviously secular purpose, presidents and professors were still expected to set a moral example for their charges. It was only in 1885 that a non-clergyman, biologist David Starr Jordan, became president. DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard Between Wylie and Jordan's administrations, the University grew slowly. Few changes rocked the university's repose. One development is interesting to modern scholars: the college admitted its first woman student, Sarah Parke Morrison in 1867, making IU only the fourth public university to admit women on an equal basis with men. Morrison went on to become the first female professor at IU in 1873. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Laptop Keyboard In mid-passage In 1883, IU awarded its first Ph.D. and played its first intercollegiate sport (baseball) prefiguring the school's future status as a major research institution and a power in collegiate athletics. But another incident that year was far more important to the university: the university's original campus in Seminary Square near the center of Bloomington burned to the ground. Instead of rebuilding in Seminary Square, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard as had been the practice following previous blazes, the college was rebuilt between 1884 and 1908 at the far eastern edge of Bloomington. (Today, Bloomington has expanded eastward, and the "new" campus is once again at the center of the city.) HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Laptop Keyboard One of the challenges facing Indiana University in the early 20th century was providing the university campus with a sufficient amount of water for its operation. (Bloomington, and the IU campus in particular, is located on a high ground without any major rivers or lakes in the vicinity, and with little usablegroundwater).[8] The city's waterworks existing in the early 20th century being utterly inadequate, in 1909 the university's Board of Trustees made the decision that the university should solve the water problem on its own. University president William Lowe Bryan commissioned a team of IU researchers, led by the geologist E.R. Cumings, to investigate the campus' water situation. On March 8, 1910, the Cumings commission recommended a site for the new reservoir, Compaq Presario CQ42-173TU Laptop Keyboard a couple miles northeast of the campus; the reservoir, which became known as the University Lake, was constructed in 1910-1914.[9] Although not used for water supply anymore, the reservoir exists to this day, and is the centerpiece of Indiana University's Research and Teaching Preserve (Griffy Woods).[10]HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard The first extension office of IU was opened in Indianapolis in 1916. In 1920/1921 the School of Music and the School of Commerce and Finance (what later became the Kelley School of Business) were opened. In the 1940s Indiana University opened extension campuses in Kokomo and Fort Wayne. The controversial Kinsey Institute for sexual research was established in 1945.  ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard IUB's 1,933 acres (7.8 km²) includes abundant green space and historic buildings dating to the university's reconstruction in the late nineteenth century. The campus rests on a bed of Indiana limestone, specifically Salem limestone and Harrodsburg limestone, with outcroppings of St. Louis limestone. HP Pavilion dv7-3169wm Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The "Jordan River" is a stream flowing through the center of campus. A section of Bloomington's Clear Creek,[11] it is named for David Starr Jordan, Darwinist,ichthyologist, and president of IU and later Stanford University.[12] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard any of the campus's buildings, especially the older central buildings, are made from Indiana limestone quarried locally. TheWorks Progress Administration built much of the campus's core during the Great Depression. Many of the campus's buildings were built and most of its land acquired during the 1950s and 1960s, when first soldiers attending under the GI Bill and then the baby boom swelled the university's enrollment from 5,403 in 1940 to 30,368 in 1970. HP G72-b10SW Laptop Keyboard Some buildings on campus underwent similar expansion. As additions were constructed by building onto the outside of existing buildings, exterior surfaces were incorporated into their new interiors, making this expansion clearly visible in the affected buildings' architecture. The Chemistry and Biology buildings serve as examples, where two of the interior walls of the latter's library are clearly constructed as limestone exteriors. The Bryan House is the traditional on-campus home of the university president. SONY VGN-FE28B Laptop Keyboard The 1979 movie Breaking Away was filmed on location in Bloomington and the IU campus. It also featured a reenactment of the annual Little 500 bicycle race. The IU campus also has trails that many use for biking and running. The trails in Bloomington and nearby areas total nearly 1,200 miles (1,900 km). SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard IU's Herman B Wells Library is the 13th largest university library in North America. Prior to a ceremony in June 2005 when it was renamed for IU's former president and chancellor, this building was simply called the Main Library. Built in 1969, the building contains eleven floors in the Eastern Tower (research collection, used primarily for graduate students) and five floors in the Western Tower (the undergraduate collection). The building also contains the Information Commons, a fully integrated technology center for learning and collaboration which attracts 82 percent of all undergraduate students. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard An oft-repeated urban legend holds that the library sinks over an inch every year because when it was built, engineers failed to take into account the weight of all the books that would occupy the building. A webpage hosted on the Indiana.edu domain debunks this myth, stating, among other things, that the building rests on a 94 ft (28.6 m) thick limestone bedrock.[15] Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard The Lilly Library is one of the largest rare book and manuscript libraries in the United States. Founded in 1960 with the collection of Josiah K. Lilly, Jr., of Eli Lilly and Company in Indianapolis, the library now contains approximately 400,000 rare books, 6.5 million manuscripts, and 100,000 pieces of sheet music.[16] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The library's holdings are particularly strong in British and American history and literature, religious texts, Latin Americana, medicine and science, food and drink, children's literature, fine printing and binding, popular music, medieval and Renaissance manuscripts, and early printing. Notable items in the library's collections include the New Testament of the Gutenberg Bible, a first edition copy of the Book of Mormon, the first printed collection of Shakespeare's works, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Audubon's Birds of America, one of 25 extant copies of the "First Printing of the Declaration of Independence" (also known as the "Dunlap Broadside") that was printed in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, George Washington's letter accepting the presidency of the United States, Abraham Lincoln's desk from his law office, a leaf from the famous Abraham Lincoln "Sum Book" ca. 1824-1826, Lord Chesterfield's letters to his son, the manuscripts of Robert Burns's "DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard Auld Lang Syne", the Boxer Codex, J. M. Synge's The Playboy of the Western World, and J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan, and typescripts of many of Ian Fleming's James Bond novels. The library also owns the papers of Hollywood directors Orson Welles and John Ford, the poets Sylvia Plath and Ezra Pound, and authors Edith Wharton, ASUS Z99Jc Laptop Keyboard Max Eastman and Upton Sinclair. In 2006, the library received a collection of 30,000 mechanical puzzles from Jerry Slocum. The collection will be on permanent display. Special permission is not required to use the collections, and the library has several exhibition galleries which are open to the public. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Within the Lilly Library is the Ruth E. Adomeit collection of miniature books, one of the world’s largest.[17] Among the collection are rare miniature books such as "From Morn Till Eve", a miniature book that presents biblical quotations in a devotional form, with one phrase for each morning and evening of a month. The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) had listed that, "the only known copy as being in the collection of famed miniature book collector Ruth E. Adomeit",[18] which is now in the Lilly Library. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard The Fine Arts Library houses Indiana University's books and journals in the fields of the visual arts, art history, architecture, design and related disciplines and supports the academic needs of the Henry Radford Hope School of Fine Arts, and the Indiana University Department of Fine Arts. The collection comprises over 140,000 volumes and 322 periodicals, including collections of circulating slides and plates and a non-circulating collection of over 1200 artists' books. SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard IU's first Fine Arts Library was established in the late 1930s as part of the Departmental office on the second floor, east wing of the University Library which was then located in Franklin Hall. In 1941, two important events occurred: Henry Radford Hope became chairman of the Fine Arts Department in the Fall and the Fine Arts Center was created by remodeling Mitchell Hall Annex. The Fine Arts Library moved into its current quarters inside the IU Art Museum designed by I.M. Pei in August, 1981.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard In January 2002, IU opened the Lee Norvelle Theatre and Drama Center on the Bloomington campus, adjacent to the old Theatre Building. The Ruth N. Halls Theatre is a 443-seat proscenium space and is the venue for four season productions each academic year in addition to a University faculty dance concert. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The Wells-Metz Theatre is a 236 seat venue which is home to 4 season productions each academic year. An intimate space with audience as close as 5 feet (1.5 m) from the action, the Wells-Metz has been the location of musicals and large Shakespearean productions, as well as small cast shows. With a full stage trap room and overhead suspension grid, the theatre has become known for its environmental productions with performers playing throughout the space from trap to grid. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard On October 16, 2007, Simon Hall (MSB I), IU's first new science structure completed in 50 years, was dedicated by Eli Lilly's CEO Sidney Taurel. The $55.7 million 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) structure is part of Indiana University's life science initiative. The building will house cell biologists, microbiologists, molecular biologists, geneticists, analytical chemists and biochemists, and biophysicists. Designed by Flad Architects, the building received High Honors from R&D Magazine’s 2008 Lab of the Year competition. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard Multidisciplinary Science Building II, also designed by Flad Architects, officially opened in October 2009 and aims to expand and deepen IU's research operations. The $45.9 million 128,006-square-foot (11,892.1 m2) structure is located near the Fee Lane Parking Garage and features many environmentally friendly design elements. TOSHIBA V000120240 Laptop Keyboard IU has over 120 majors and programs ranked in the nation's top 20. Twenty-nine graduate programs and four schools at Indiana University are ranked among the top 25 in the country in the US News & World Report's Best Graduate Schools 2001–02. Time magazine named IU its 2001 College of the Year among major research universities. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Newsweek named it the Hottest Big State School in the Nation in 2005. The Institute of Higher Education at Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranked Indiana University as the 28th best in the world in the social sciences and the 90th best in the world overall.[26] Also the Russianbased Global University Ranking placed Indiana University among top 90 in the world in 2009.[27] Acceptance rate for the University is 60%. Average SAT's range from 1010-1180. HP G42-161LA Laptop Keyboard In 2010, the Academic Ranking of World Universities gave IU Bloomington a world rank of 90 and a national rank of 50.[19] Time named IU Bloomington its "2001 College of the Year" among major research universities.[28] The University is considered a Public Ivy. Indiana is one of 61 members of the Association of American Universities, the leading American research universities. Additionally, IU has over 110 academic programs ranked in the top twenty nationwide. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The tenth annual Newsweek-Kaplan College Guide, which appeared in the August 22, 2005 issue of Newsweek magazine, chose IU as its "Hottest Big State School" and extolled the campus's blend of tradition with emerging technologies.[29][30] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In January 2011 Kiplinger's Personal Finance ranked IU Bloomington the 30th out of the "Best Values in Public Colleges 2011".[31]USA Today called Bloomington one of the top 10 student-friendly college towns with a population of less than 1 million.[32]The university offers the latest in technology: IU was ranked as one of the top five wired universities in America according to Princeton Review and PC Magazine[33] in 2007. On the 2011 Green Report Card, issued by the Sustainable Endowments Institute, the university received a B.[34]HP Pavilion dv6736nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Upon assuming leadership of Indiana University, one of President Adam Herbert's biggest initiatives focused on "mission differentiation" for IU's eight campuses, which includes making the flagship Bloomington campus choosier among freshman applicants. Under the proposal, IUB would educate the professionals, SONY Vaio VGN-SZ43CN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan executives and researchers while the regional campuses would educate the state's remaining labor force. Advocates believe it will rejuvenate Indiana's economy while critics argue it betrays the university's mission of educating more of Indiana's populace.[35] The university's academic system is divided into one large "College" (which itself contains one school) and twelve other schools and divisions. Together, these thirteen units offer more than 900 individual degree programs and majors. HP Pavilion dv2670br Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The College of Arts and Sciences, known as the College, is the largest of the University's academic divisions, and is home to more than 40 percent of IU's undergraduates. In addition, the College offers many electives and general education courses for students enrolled in most other schools on campus. Toshiba Satellite L300-217 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are more than 50 academic departments in the College, encompassing a broad range of disciplines from the traditional (such as biology, chemistry, biochemistry, English, economics, Geography, mathematics, and physics) to more modern and specialized areas, including Jewish Studies, History and Philosophy of Science, and International Studies.  HP Envy 15-1099eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Through the College, IU also offers instruction in over 40 foreign languages, one of the largest language study offerings at any American university. IU is the only university in the nation that offers a degree in Hungarian (although it was done through the Individualized Major Program) and is the first university in the United States to offer a doctorate in Gender Studies.[36] The Department of Geography has highly recognized programs in climate and environmental change, HP Pavilion dv6-2009eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan GIS, human-environment interaction, and human geography. Indiana University is also home to the nation's only degree-granting Department of Central Eurasian Studies. The university's catalog at one time boasted that a student could study any language from Albanian to Uzbek. The College is the parent division for fifteen individual research institutes,  Toshiba Satellite L630-08R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and holds the distinction of being the only academic division within the university to house an autonomous school (The Henry Radford Hope School of Fine Arts) within it. A number of first- and second-year students from the Indiana University School of Medicine (which is based at IUPUI) complete their preclinical education at the Bloomington campus's Medical Science Program, which is housed within the Department of Biology and the Indiana Molecular Biology Institute. Gateway LT31 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The College is also home to the Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, the first formally established academic department in folklore at any United States university, and the only such department to integrate these two practices into one field. IU also features a world-class cyclotron, the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, HP Pavilion dv6-2005et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan operated by the Department of Physics. The College also houses IU's Department of Theatre and Drama which offers a Bachelor of Arts in Theatre, a Master of Fine Arts in Acting, Directing, Playwriting or Design/Technology, and as of the 2007-2008 school year, a BFA in Musical Theatre. In 2009, professor of political science Elinor Ostrom became the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences since its inception in 1969. HP Pavilion dv7-6080eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Founded in the beginning of the 20th century by Charles Campbell, the Jacobs School of Music focuses on voice, opera, orchestral conducting, and jazz studies. It has been ranked #1 in the country tied with Juilliard and Eastman School of Musicby U.S. News & World Report.[41] With more than 1,600 students, the school is one of the largest of its kind in the US and among the largest in the world. FUJITSU LifeBook A6110 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The school's facilities, including five buildings located in the heart of campus, comprise recital halls, more than 170 practice rooms, choral and instrumental rehearsal rooms,  HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard and more than 100 offices and studios. Its prestigious faculty has included such notable names as János Starker, Costanz Cuccaro, Timothy Noble André Watts, Menahem Pressler, Linda Strommen, Abbey Simon, Ray Cramer, David Baker, Earl Bates, Carol Vaness, Sylvia McNair, Howard Klug, violinist Joshua Bell, conductor Leonard Slatkin, and composer Sven-David Sandström. Notable alumni include Edgar Meyer andsoprano Angela Brown. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

Kelley School of Business

Main article: Kelley School of Business The Kelley School of Business (known colloquially as "Kelley" or "The B-School") was founded in 1920 as the University's School of Commerce and Finance. Approximately 6,100 students are enrolled in undergraduate, graduate Accountancy and Information Systems degrees, MBA and PhD programs, and online degree program Kelley Direct. SONY VAIO VGN-CR325 Laptop Keyboard It is one of only three business schools in the nation for whom all undergraduate and graduate programs rank in the top 20 of the US News & World Report college rankings. In 2010, US News ranked the undergraduate program 10th in the nation (6th among public schools) and, in 2010, the MBA program 23rd in the nation (7th among public schools). In 2007, the Wall Street Journal ranked Kelley's MBA program fifth in the nation among regional programs. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X301 Laptop Keyboard Kelley's programs in consumer products, and energy and industrial products and services were second, marketing was third and accounting, eighth. Business Week ranked the undergraduate program 16th in 2008 (6th among public schools) and the graduate program 15th in the nation in 2008[42] and fourth among public schools. In addition, Business Week gave the undergraduate program an A in teaching and an A+ in career services.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2778 Laptop Keyboard The Division of Labor Studies, formerly a unit housed within the School of Continuing Studies, was founded in the 1940s during the tenure of Herman B Wells in response to the growing role of organized labor in American society. Today, the Division is one of only several degree-granting programs in the nation for the area of labor studies or industrial relations. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Over the past year, the Division has come under increased pressure to move to a larger academic unit, such as the College of Arts and Sciences.[43] Notable faculty in recent years have included Leonard Page, General Counsel for the National Labor Relations Board during the Clinton Administration, and labor economist/author Michael Yates. HP 6037B0013901 Laptop Keyboard Established in 1946 as the first School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation in the United States, the school and programs have grown to encompass a broad spectrum of academic interests and professional fields. HPER has more than 2,500 students and almost 17,000 living alumni, with undergraduate and advanced degree programs in Applied Health Science,  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Environmental Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies. Campus Recreational Sports provides sport and fitness services for the IU community and the public. On June 24, 2011, the Indiana University Board of Trustees approved to change the name of this school to the IU School of Public Health. This change is part of the IU Public Health Initiative but will not be put into immediate use.[44] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The school's resources include more than 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2) of research and teaching laboratories, and nearly 275,000 square feet (25,500 m2) of indoor and outdoor sport and fitness facilities, including recreation centers, aquatics centers, and acreage that includes Bradford Woods. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 Laptop Keyboard The School of Public and Environmental Affairs (or SPEA) is the largest school of its kind in the United States. Founded in 1972 and celebrating its 40th anniversary, SPEA is known for its distinctive interdisciplinary approach. It brings together the social, natural, behavioral, and administrative sciences in one faculty. SPEA has a sister "core" campus at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (or IUPUI) and an affiliate program is operated at Indiana University's Gary campus. SAMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard In the most recent "Best Graduate Schools" (2012) survey by U.S. News & World Report, SPEA ranked second and is the nation's highest-ranked graduate program in public affairs at a public institution. SPEA was ranked just behind Syracuse University and ahead of Harvard.[45] SPEA is also the highest ranked graduate school at Indiana University in Bloomington, In. Four of its specialty programs are ranked in the top 10 listings. Similar rankings do not yet exist for graduate schools of environmental science or for undergraduate schools in either public affairs or environmental science. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R52 1870 Laptop Keyboard SPEA is the headquarters of the Public Administration Review, the premier journal of public administration research, theory and practice. SPEA is also home to the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, the Journal of Public Budgeting and Finance and Small Business Economics.  HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard SPEA has more than a dozen joint programs in social and natural sciences and professional fields. Popular majors include nonprofit management, public policy, public finance and arts administration. SPEA alumni include radio and television host Tavis Smiley and former U.S. Treasury Secretary Paul O’Neill. Among SPEA's faculty is Elinor Ostrom, the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Economics. She was named by Time Magazine one of the 100 most influential people in the United States. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Housed in a building named for famed war correspondent and alumnus Ernie Pyle, the School of Journalism[46] celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011. The school offers undergraduate and graduate programs for those preparing for careers as reporters, editors, broadcasters, public relations professionals, multimedia specialists, and educators. The School of Journalism draws students from as far away as China and Ukraine and as close as Bloomington or other Indiana towns. HP Mini 110-1179TU Laptop Keyboard Among the alumni are more than 30 Pulitzer Prize winners. Alumni work in every field of journalism, from the oldest form of print publishing to newest form as online journalists. Many remain active in supporting the school by mentoring students, facilitating internship programs, and donating time and financial gifts to the school.  Toshiba Satellite A205-S5809 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1999, the Indiana University School of Informatics[47] was established as an environment for research professors and students to develop new uses for information technology in order to solve specific problems in areas as diverse as biology, fine arts, and economics. Informatics is also interested in "how people transform technology, and how technology transforms us."[48HP G42-221BR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan ] In 2005 the Department of Computer Science moved from the College of Arts and Sciences to the School of Informatics, prompting the school to expand its name to "School of Informatics and Computing".[49] This move merged several faculty, bringing the total core faculty to over 100. Informatics also has strong ties with the School of Library and Information Sciences, Department of Telecommunications,Jacobs School of Music, and the Cognitive Science program.  IBM ThinkPad T40p 2373 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The School is one of a handful that offer degrees in Human-Computer Interaction.[50] The School is the only one in the country to offer a formal degree which combines Human-Computer Interaction and Computer Security. In addition to the innovative HCI/security degree, the School offers master's degrees in Human-Computer Interaction Design, Music Informatics, Bioinformatics, Chemical Informatics, Security Informatics, and Computer Science, and Ph.D. SONY Vaio VGN-CR231E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan degrees in Computer Science and in Informatics. Specialization areas for the Ph.D. in Computer Science include artificial intelligence, databases, distributed systems, formal methods, high-performance computing, programming languages, and security. The Informatics Ph.D. program offers tracks in bioinformatics, cheminformatics, complex systems, human-computer interaction design, logic and mathematical foundations of informatics, music informatics, security informatics, and social informatics.  HP Pavilion dv6-3126sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan IU's intercollegiate athletics program has a long tradition in several key sports. From its beginnings with baseball in 1867, the Hoosier athletic program has grown to include over 600 male and female student-athletes on 24 varsity teams boasting one of the nation's best overall records. Sports sponsored by the university include football, men's basketball, women's basketball, cross country and track, baseball, golf, tennis, rowing, volleyball, swimming & diving and more. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard The Hoosiers became a member of the prestigious Big Ten Conference on December 1, 1899. The school's national affiliation is with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). National team titles (now totaling 25; 24 NCAA, 1 AIAW) have been won in nine men's sports and one women's sport (tennis), SONY VAIO PCG-FR395EP Laptop Keyboard topped by a record-setting six straight men's swimming & diving titles, seven men'ssoccer crowns and five titles in men's basketball. Indiana student-athletes have won 133 NCAA individual titles, including 79 in men's swimming and diving and 31 in men's track and field. In addition, IU teams have won or shared 157 Big Ten Conferencechampionships. SONY VAIO VGN-NW235D Laptop Keyboard The IU athletics endowment is $42 million, the largest in the Big Ten Conference.[51] The Varsity Club, which is the fundraising arm of the Athletics Department, drew a record $11.5 million in gifts and pledges in the fiscal year 2004–05. In addition, overall annual giving has increased 8.3% in the last year and 44.8 percent in the last three years. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard In addition to its rich tradition in intervarsity sports, IU also boasts a strong reputation in many non-varsity sports. Many of these "club" teams, especially those in ice hockey and rugby union, have achieved a great deal of success in intercollegiate competition. Hurling has also become more popular, with the Indiana University Hurling Club becoming the first American national champions in history. The consistent success of these athletic clubs has several times led the university to establish varsity programs in sports in which there had previously not been a team for NCAA intervarsity competition.  Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard With over 1,823 full-time faculty members, Indiana University leads the Big Ten public universities in the number of endowed faculty positions, with 333 chairs, professorships, and curators. IUB also reported in fall 2004 that it employed 334 part-time faculty, totaling 1,877 full-time equivalents. Of the full-time faculty, ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard 76% were tenured. Like the student body, IUB's faculty is predominantly white. Of full-time administrators, faculty, and lecturers, 118 (6%) were Asian, 74 (4%) were African-American, 62 (4%) were Hispanic, 5 (0.3%) were Native American, and 1,535 (85%) were "other." More men (62%) than women held academic appointments at the university. Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard Professors at IUB were better paid than their counterparts in the IU system. A full professor earned an average of $126,500, an associate professor $89,000, and an assistant professor $74,400. DELL XPS M1330 Laptop Keyboard There are known fraternal organizations which existed as far back as ancient Greece and in the Mithraic Mysteries of ancient Rome. Analogous institutions developed in the late medieval period called confraternities, which were lay organizations allied to the Catholic Church. Some were groups of men and women who were endeavoring to ally themselves more closely with the prayer and activity of the Church. Others were groups of tradesmen, SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard which are more commonly referred to as guilds. These later confraternities evolved into purely secular fraternal societies, while the ones with religious goals continue to be the format of the modern Third Orders affiliated with the mendicant orders.  SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard The development of modern fraternal orders was especially dynamic in the United States, where the freedom to associate outside governmental regulation is expressly sanctioned in law.[1] There have been hundreds of fraternal organizations in the United States, and at the beginning of the 20th century the number of memberships equaled the number of adult males. (Due to multiple memberships, probably only 50% of adult males belonged to any organizations.)[2]Compaq Presario CQ57-319WM Laptop Keyboard In 1944 Arthur M. Schlesinger coined the phrase "a nation of joiners" to refer to the phenomenon.[3] Alexis de Tocqueville also referred to the American reliance on private organization in the 1830s in Democracy in America. HP 594706-001 Laptop Keyboard There are many attributes that fraternities may or may not have, depending on their structure and purpose. Fraternities can have differing degrees of secrecy, some form of initiation or ceremony marking admission, formal codes of behavior, disciplinary procedures, very differing amounts of real property and assets. DELL Inspiron 1435 Laptop Keyboard The only true distinction between a fraternity and any other form of social organization is the implication that the members freely associate as equals for a mutually beneficial purpose, rather than because of a religious, governmental, commercial, or familial bond, although there are fraternities dedicated to each of these fields.[2] On college campuses, fraternities may be divided into groups: social, service, professional and honorary. FUJITSU Lifebook S6240 Laptop Keyboard Fraternities can be organized for many purposes, including university education, work skills, ethics, ethnicity, religion, politics, charity, chivalry, other standards of personal conduct, asceticism, service, performing arts, family command of territory, and even crime. There is almost always an explicit goal of mutual support, and while there have been fraternal orders for the well-off there have also been many fraternities for those in the lower ranks of society, especially for national or religious minorities. Trade unions also grew out of fraternities such as the Knights of Labor. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard The ability to organize freely, apart from the institutions of government and religion, was a fundamental part of the establishment of the modern world. In Living the Enlightenment, Margaret C. Jacobs showed the development of Jurgen Habermas' 'public space' in 17th century Netherlands was closely related to the establishment of lodges of Freemasons.[4]HP Mini 210-2056tu Laptop Keyboard The development of fraternities in England can be traced from guilds that emerged as the forerunners of trade unions and friendly societies. These guilds were set up to protect and care for their members at a time when there was no welfare state, trade unions or universal health care. Various secret signs and handshakes were created to serve as proof of their membership allowing them to visit guilds in distant places that are associated with the guild they belong. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Over the next 300 years or so, the idea of "ordinary" people joining together to improve their situation met with varying degrees of opposition (and persecution) from "People in Power", depending on whether they[clarification needed] were seen as a source of revenue (taxes) or a threat to their power. WhenHenry VIII broke from the Roman Catholic Church, he viewed the guilds as supporters of the Pope, and in 1545 expropriate their property. Later, Elizabeth Iappropriated apprenticeships away from guilds,[how?] and by the end of her reign most guilds had been suppressed. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The suppression of these trade guilds removed an important form of social and financial support from ordinary men and women. In London and other major cities, some Guilds (like the Freemasons and the Odd Fellows) survived by adapting their roles to a social support function. Eventually, these groups evolved in the early 18th century into more philosophical organizations focused on brotherly love and ethical living. Among guilds that became prosperous are the Freemasons,Odd Fellows and Foresters. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In many instances fraternities are limited to male membership, but this is not always the case, and there are mixed male and female, and even wholly female, fraternities. For example, for general fraternities: the Grande Loge Mixte de France, the Honorable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons, the Grande Loge Féminine de France, the various Orders of Odd Fellows, Orange Order, Daughters of Rebekah and the Order of the Eastern Star.  IBM 42X4399 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Fraternities have a history in American colleges and universities and form a major subsection of the whole range of fraternities.[5] In Europe, students were organized in nations and corporations since the beginnings of the modern university in the late medieval period, but the situation can differ greatly by country. SONY Vaio VGN-NW120D Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the United States, fraternities in colleges date to the 1770s, but did not fully assume an established pattern until the 1820s. Many were strongly influenced by the patterns set by Freemasonry.[2] The main difference between the older European organizations and the American organizations is that the American student societies virtually always include initiations, the formal use of symbolism, and the lodge-based organizational structure (chapters) derived from usages in Freemasonry[2] and other fraternal organizations such as the Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias.[6]HP Pavilion dv9335nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The oldest active American college fraternity is The Kappa Alpha Society founded in November 1825, at Union College in Schenectady, New York, followed closely by Sigma Phi Society (1827) and Delta Phi Fraternity (1827) at the same school. Other fraternities are also called literary societies because they focus on the literary aspect of the organization and its role in improving public speaking. In Germany the German Student Corps are the oldest academic fraternities. SONY Vaio VGN-NR150FE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The next year, in 1811, Wylie was elected unanimously to serve as president of Jefferson College. He was licensed to preach in 1812, and in 1813 was ordained as a Presbyterian minister. In 1813 he married Margaret Ritchie, daughter of a wealthy Canonsburg merchant.  HP Envy 17-1050eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan While president of Jefferson College, Wylie led a controversial effort to merge with nearby Washington College. When that effort failed, in 1816 Wylie moved on to become president of Washington College and pastor of the Presbyterian church. In 1825 Wylie was given an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from Union College, in Schenectady, New York. Wylie resigned his presidency in 1828, over a theological dispute among local Presbyterian groups in Washington, Pennsylvania.  Compaq Presario CQ50-215ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He was close friends with William Holmes McGuffey, who lived in Wylie's house for a time; they often would walk the 3 miles to Washington College together.[2]Toshiba Satellite A205-S5814 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1828, the trustees of the newly formed Indiana College wrote to Wylie offering him the position of president. Wylie accepted and began in the fall of 1829. There he joined two other faculty members, Baynard Rush Hall who taught Ancient Greek and Latin, and John Hopkins Harney who taught mathematics, natural philosophy, mechanical philosophy and chemistry. In addition to serving as President Wylie taught classes in moral philosophy, mental philosophy, rhetoric,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard evidences of Christianity, belles lettres, and the Constitution of the United States. When he arrived at Indiana College the total enrollment was 40 students. Additionally he found local schools lacking and established a preparatory department in the College. Several students from Washington College followed Wylie, to complete their degrees at Indiana College. SAMSUNG N148 Laptop Keyboard In 1837 he recruited his half-cousin Theophilus Adam Wylie to Indiana College to teach mathematics, natural philosophy and chemistry. He guided the school through an important time of transition as the state legislature rechartered the college as Indiana University in 1838. 1842 Wylie established the law department at Indiana University, which became the School of Law in 1889. IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard In Bloomington, Wylie continued to have conflicts with Presbyterians over Calvinist theology. In 1841, he left the Presbyterian Church to become a deacon in theProtestant Episcopal Church, and became an ordained priest in 1842. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard In the context of academic degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer solely to the field of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of Europe, all fields other than theology, law and medicine were traditionally known as philosophy.  Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard The doctorate of philosophy as it exists today originated as a doctorate in the liberal arts at the Humboldt University of Berlin, and was eventually adopted by United States universities, becoming common in large parts of the world in the 20th century.[1] In many countries, the doctorate of philosophy is still awarded only in the liberal arts, which is known as "philosophy" in continental Europe. Compaq Presario CQ42-139TU Laptop Keyboard In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organised in four faculties: the basic faculty of arts, and the three higher faculties of theology, medicine and law (canonical and civil). All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees (bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine) and final degrees. Initially, DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard the titles of master and doctor were used interchangeably for the final degrees, but by the late Middle Ages the terms Master of Arts and Doctor of Theology/Divinity, Doctor of Laws and Doctor of Medicine had largely become standard. The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current Ph.D. degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard only lengthy residency requirements and examinations. Besides these degrees there was the licentiate. Originally this was a license to teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master or doctor degree by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it evolved into an academic degree in its own right, in particular in the continental universities. So in theory the full course of studies might lead in succession to the degrees of e.g. Bachelor of Arts, DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard Licentiate of Arts, Master of Arts, Bachelor of Medicine, Licentiate of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine; the same succession, bachelor-licentiate-doctor, has persisted till today, for instance, in Sacred theology: Bachelor of Sacred Theology (STB), Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL), DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard and Doctor of Sacred Theology (STD), and inCanon law: Bachelor of Canon Law (JCB), Licentiate of Canon Law(JCL), and Doctor of Canon Law (JCD). There were many exceptions to this however, e.g. most students left the university before becoming masters of arts, whereas regulars (members of monastic orders) could skip the arts faculty entirely.[2][3][4]HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard This situation changed in the early 19th century through the educational reforms in Germany, most strongly embodied in the model of the Humboldt University. The arts faculty, which in Germany was labelled the faculty of philosophy, started demanding contributions to research, attested by a dissertation, HP Pavilion dv3-2103tx Laptop Keyboard for the award of their final degree, which was labelled Doctor of Philosophy (abbreviated as Ph.D.) - originally this was just the German equivalent of the Master of Arts degree. Whereas in the Middle Ages the arts faculty had a set curriculum, based upon the trivium and the quadrivium, by the 19th century it had come to house all the courses of study in subjects now commonly referred to as sciences and humanities.[5]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard These reforms proved extremely successful, and fairly quickly the German universities started attracting foreign students, notably from the United States. The American students would go to Germany to obtain a Ph.D. after having studied for a bachelor's degrees at an American college. So influential was this practice that it was imported to the United States, where in 1861 Yale University started granting the Ph.D. degree to younger students who, SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard after having obtained the bachelor's degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis/dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities.[6] This research degree of doctor of philosophy was the first to be given.[7] The current triple structure of bachelor-master-doctor degrees in one discipline was therefore created on American soil by fusing two different European traditions - Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard the medieval B.A. and M.A. degrees, awarded after a course of study and inherited from the British Universities, and the research based Ph.D. taken over from the early 19th century German educational reforms. Even though in Germany the name of the doctorate was adapted accordingly after the philosophy faculty started being split up - e.g. Dr. rer. nat. for doctorates in the faculty of natural sciences - in most of the Anglo-Saxon world the name of Doctor of Philosophy was retained for research doctorates in all disciplines. HP Pavilion dv6-2121eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From the United States, the degree spread to Canada in 1900, and then to the United Kingdom in 1917.[8][9] This displaced the existing Doctor of Philosophy degree in some universities; for instance, the DPhil (higher doctorate in the faculty of philosophy) at the University of St Andrews was discontinued and replaced with the Ph.D.  HP Pavilion dv7-6106so Laptop CPU Cooling Fan (research doctorate). Oxford retained the DPhil abbreviation for their research degrees. Some newer UK universities, for exampleBuckingham (est. 1976), Sussex (est. 1961), and, until a few years ago, York (est. 1963), chose to adopt the DPhil, as did some universities in New Zealand. Packard B

ell EasyNote TJ75 Laptop Keyboard The detailed requirements for award of a Ph.D. degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school. In some schools in the US, Canada and Denmark, for example, many universities require coursework in addition to research for Ph.D. degrees. In other countries (such as the UK) there is generally no such condition. Some individual universities or departments specify additional requirements for students not already in possession of a bachelor's degree or equivalent or higher. Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard A candidate must submit a project or thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context.[10] In many countries a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university; in other countries, the dissertation is examined by a panel of expert examiners who stipulate whether the dissertation is in principle passable and the issues that need to be addressed before the dissertation can be passed. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard Some universities in the non-English-speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the Anglophone PhD degree for their research doctorates (see the Bologna process).[11]Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard A Ph.D. student or candidate (abbreviated to Ph.D.c)[12] is conventionally required to study on campus under close supervision. With the popularity of distance education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode. acer eMachines E640 Laptop Keyboard In a "sandwich Ph.D." program, Ph.D. candidates do not spend their entire study period at the same university. Instead, the Ph.D. candidates spend the first and last periods of the program at their home universities, and in between conduct research at another institution or field research.[13] Occasionally a "sandwich Ph.D." will be awarded by two universities.[14] A number of Ethiopian universities have "capacity-building" Ph.D. arrangements with various Western universities.[15] Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard PhD students are often motivated to pursue the PhD by the desire for further education beyond the undergraduate level, scientific and humanistic curiosity, the desire to contribute to the academic community, service to others, or personal development. A career in academia generally requires a PhD, though in some countries, HP Pavilion dv5-1125em Laptop Keyboard it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. The motivation may also include increased salary, but in many cases this is not the result. Research by Casey suggests that, over all subjects, PhDs provide an earnings premium of 26%, but notes that masters degrees provide a premium of 23% already. While this is a small return to the individual (or even an overall deficit when lost earnings during training are accounted for), Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard he claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training.[16] However, some research suggests that overqualified workers are often less satisfied and less productive at their jobs.[17] These difficulties are increasingly being felt by graduates of professional degrees, such as law school, looking to find employment. PhD students often have to take on debt to undertake their degree. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard The Economist published an article[which?] citing various criticisms against the state of PhDs.[citation needed] Richard B. Freeman explains that, based on pre-2000 data, at most only 20% of life science PhD students end up getting jobs specifically in research. In Canada, where the overflow of PhD degree holders is not as severe, 80% of postdoctoral research fellows earn less than or equal to the average construction worker (roughly $38,000 a year) during their postdoctoral research tenure.[17]SONY VGN-FE31H Laptop Keyboard Only in the fastest developing countries (e.g. China or Brazil) is there a shortage of PhDs. Higher education systems often offer little incentive to move students through PhD programs quickly (and may even provide incentive to slow them down). Germany is one of the few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by reconceptualizing PhD programs to be training for careers, outside of academia, but still at high-level positions. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard This development can be seen in the extensive number of PhD holders, typically from the fields of law, engineering and economics, at the very top corporate and administrative positions. To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, since 1992, the EngD. Mark C.  HP Mini 110-1033cl Laptop Keyboard Taylor opines that total reform of PhD programs in almost every field is necessary in the U.S., and that pressure to make the necessary changes will need to come from many sources (students, administrators, public and private sectors, etc.). These issues and others are discussed in an April 2011 issue of the journal Nature.[18][19][20][21]HP G42-265LA Laptop Keyboard Within the research occupations in which a PhD is widely viewed as being necessary, career progression is typically aided by publication in peer-reviewed journals; yet many such journals print research papers without any reference to academic certificates in their author by-lines. The quality of a peer reviewed publication is expected to be self-evident, and letters after authors' names are therefore superfluous. In contrast, applicants for research grants may be required to disclose which academic certificates they hold, Compaq Presario C745EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan leading to the risk that a PhD qualification representing as little as three years' work will outweigh a rival applicant's superior publication record. Given the need for self-evident quality in research publications, the role played by PhD degrees in research occupations differs markedly from the quality assurance role played by professional qualifications in other fields, and is arguably a form of closed shop. Toshiba Satellite P200-13Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Doctor of Philosophy degrees across the globe Admission to a PhD program at a Canadian university usually requires completion of a Master's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours Bachelor's degree to a PhD program; other programs allow a student to fast-track to a doctoral program after one year of outstanding work in a Master's program (without having to complete the Master's). Compaq Presario CQ50-215nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or Graduate Record Examination scores. A common criterion for prospective PhD students is the comprehensive or qualifying examination, a process that often commences in the second year of a graduate program. Generally,  HP Pavilion dv5129tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student's faculty committee (or a separate qualifying committee), or written tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area (see below) or both.  ACER Aspire 5733 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  HP 580718-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination (e.g., Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)). Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability. SONY Vaio VGN-TX3HP/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan While some students work outside the university (or at student jobs within the university), in some programs students are advised (or must agree) not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities (e.g., employment) outside of their studies, particularly if they have been given funding. For large and prestigious scholarships, such as those from NSERC, this is an absolute requirement. FUJITSU Siemens Amilo Pro V2055 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At some Canadian universities, most PhD students receive an award equivalent to part or all of the tuition amount for the first four years (this is sometimes called a tuition deferral or tuition waiver). Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. Some programs may require all PhD candidates to teach, HP G42-364LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which may be done under the supervision of their supervisor or regular faculty. Besides these sources of funding, there are also various competitive scholarships, bursaries, and awards available, such as those offered by the federal government via NSERC, CIHR, or SSHRC. HP Pavilion dv7-4083cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the comprehensive examinations. At this stage, the student is known as a "PhD student" or "doctoral student". It is usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage. Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams. ACER Aspire 4750G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a "PhD candidate". From this stage on, the bulk of the student's time will be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a PhD thesis or dissertation. The final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to the public in some, but not all, universities. At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a PhD degree typically ranges from four to six years[citation needed].  HP Pavilion dv7-1267cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It is, however, not uncommon for students to be unable to complete all the requirements within six years, particularly given that funding packages often support students for only two to four years; many departments will allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis supervisor and/or department chair. Alternate arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form.  Toshiba Satellite A305-S6825 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office. In other words, if a PhD student defers or delays the initial submission of their thesis they remain obligated to pay fees until such time that the thesis has been received in good standing. Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard Denmark and Norway were some of the first countries to introduce the Doctor of Philosophy degree, inspired by the German university system, in 1824. The degree was written as Doctor Philosophiae, abbreviated dr. phil. or dr. philos. The two countries' systems of higher education were more or less identical at that time; IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard following the dissolution of Denmark-Norway in 1814, the only university of Norway (the Royal Frederick University) nonetheless followed the regulations of the only university of Denmark (and for centuries the only university of both countries), the University of Copenhagen, for several years. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard The dr. phil. degree was used for all other fields than theology, law and medicine, which had separate degrees: doctor theologiaedoctor juris and doctor medicinae. In the 20th century new degrees were created in the fields of natural sciences, humanities and social sciences, but it was still possible to obtain the dr. phil. degree in any field. Most people who started at a doctoral degree had already studied for six or seven years and obtained a Candidate degree (six years) GATEWAY MT3422 Laptop Keyboard or a Magister degree (seven–eight years), sometimes a Licentiate (a "smaller doctorate"). The former were considered entry-level research degrees required before finding permanent employment as a researcher, while the dr. phil. degree was often obtained by people who were already well established academics, sometimes even full professors. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Following reforms in the late 1990s and early 2000s (decade), both countries introduced a new Doctor of Philosophy degree, based upon the American PhD and written as Philosophiae Doctor (PhD). In Norway the PhD replaced all other doctoral degrees except dr. philos., while in Denmark, the traditional doctorates are still awarded. TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 Laptop Keyboard In Norway the new PhD and the dr. philos. are equivalent. In Denmark, the original dr. phil. degree is today considered a higher doctorate, as opposed to the PhD, which is considered a "smaller doctorate" at the same level as the former Licentiate and Magister's degree. Unlike the PhD, the dr. phil. degree is not a supervised degree, does not include any coursework and requires a much larger degree of independent research in both countries. HP Pavilion dv5-1142la Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA P205-S7476 Laptop Keyboard

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