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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."[7] HP Pavilion dv3-2150ec Battery

His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, lays the foundations for most ofclassical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. HP Pavilion dv3-2150ej Battery

Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestialbodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. HP Pavilion dv3-2150el Battery

The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written, due, independently, to the specific physical laws the work successfully described, and for the style of the work, which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. HP Pavilion dv3-2150ep Battery

Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In mathematics, Newton shares the creditwith Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. HP Pavilion dv3-2150es Battery

He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series. Newton's work on infinite series was inspired by Simon Stevin's decimals.[9] HP Pavilion dv3-2150ev Battery

Newton, although an unorthodox Christian, was deeply religious, and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism, and feared being accused of refusing holy orders.[10]HP Pavilion dv3-2150tx Battery

 

Early life

Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. At the time of Newton's birth, HP Pavilion dv3-2150us Battery

England had not adopted theGregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Born prematurely, HP Pavilion dv3-2154ca Battery

he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1.1 litres). When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. HP Pavilion dv3-2155ee Battery

The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and maintained some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them."[11] Although it was claimed that he was once engaged,[12] Newton never married. HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl Battery

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found atWoolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, HP Pavilion dv3-2160eo Battery

where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming.[13] Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, HP Pavilion dv3-2200 Battery

persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student.[14] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome.[15]HP Pavilion dv3-2175ee Battery

In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role.[16] At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle,[17]whom Newton supplemented with modern philosophers, such as Descartes, andastronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. HP Pavilion dv3-2225TX Battery

In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student,[18] HP Pavilion dv3-2301tu Battery

Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus,[19] optics and the law of gravitation. In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.[20] HP Pavilion dv3-2301tx Battery

Fellows were required to become ordained priests, something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Luckily for Newton, there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. HP Pavilion dv3-2303tx Battery

For such a significant appointment, ordaining normally could not be dodged. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). HP Pavilion dv3-2304tx Battery

 

Middle years

Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied".[21] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus, seen in a manuscript of October 1666, is now published among Newton's mathematical papers.[22]HP Pavilion dv3-2305tx Battery

The author of the manuscript De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas, sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669, was identified by Barrow in a letter sent to Collins in August of that year as:[23]HP Pavilion dv3-2306tx Battery

 

Mr Newton, a fellow of our College, and very young ... but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things. HP Pavilion dv3-2307tx Battery

 

Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developedinfinitesimal calculus independently, although with very different notations. HP Pavilion dv3-2308tx Battery

Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693, and did not give a full account until 1704, while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method",HP Pavilion dv3-2309tx Battery

nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations, were adopted by continental European mathematicians, and after 1820 or so, also by British mathematicians.) Such a suggestion, however, fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts, HP Pavilion dv3-2310ea Battery

such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"), of 1684. ThePrincipia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form, HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Battery

based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in thePrincipia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[24] and explained why he put his expositions in this form,[25] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. HP Pavilion dv3-2310sw Battery

 

Because of this, the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[26] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time.[27] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[28] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684".[29]HP Pavilion dv3-2310tx Battery

 

Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism.[30] He was close to the Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. In 1691, Duillier started to write a new version of Newton's Principia, and corresponded with Leibniz.[31] In 1693 the relationship between Duillier and Newton deteriorated, and the book was never completed. HP Pavilion dv3-2311tx Battery

Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. HP Pavilion dv3-2312tx Battery

This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716.[32]HP Pavilion dv3-2313tx Battery

Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem, valid for any exponent. He discovered Newton's identities, Newton's method, classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables), made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences, HP Pavilion dv3-2314tx Battery

and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula), and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. HP Pavilion dv3-2315tx Battery

He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. In that day, any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. However, the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). HP Pavilion dv3-2316tx Battery

Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, andCharles II, whose permission was needed, accepted this argument. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.[33]HP Pavilion dv3-2317tx Battery

A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Societyin 1672[34]

From 1670 to 1672, Newton lectured on optics.[35] During this period he investigated therefraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrumof colours, and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.[36]HP Pavilion dv3-2319tx Battery

 

He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same colour. Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. This is known as Newton's theory of colour.[37]HP Pavilion dv3-2320ep Battery

 

From this work, he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration). As a proof of the concept, he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem.[38]HP Pavilion dv3-2320es Battery

Building the design, the first known functional reflecting telescope, today known as aNewtonian telescope,[38] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. HP Pavilion dv3-2321tx Battery

In late 1668[39] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. In 1671, the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope.[40] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour, which he later expanded into his Opticks. HP Pavilion dv3-2322tx Battery

When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80, when Hooke, appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions,[41] HP Pavilion dv3-2323tx Battery

which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History andDe motu corporum in gyrum). But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death.[42]HP Pavilion dv3-2324tx Battery

 

Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk.II, Props. 12), HP Pavilion dv3-2326tx Battery

but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props.13). Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns, and the general phenomenon of diffraction. Today'squantum mechanics, photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. HP Pavilion dv3-2327tx Battery

 

In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675, Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. The contact with the theosophist Henry More, revived his interest in alchemy. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, HP Pavilion dv3-2329tx Battery

stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians."[43] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science.[5] This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance, across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.) HP Pavilion dv3-2330tx Battery

In 1704, Newton published Opticks, in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutationHP Pavilion dv3-2340ez Battery

"Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, ...and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[44] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe (Optics, 8th Query). HP Pavilion dv3-2350ed Battery

In an article entitled "Newton, prisms, and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[45] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. In the same book he describes, via diagrams, HP Pavilion dv3-2350ee Battery

the use of multiple-prism arrays. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion, multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. Also, the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory.[45]HP Pavilion dv3-2350el Battery

Mechanics and gravitation

In 1679, Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke, HP Pavilion dv3-2355ee Battery

who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions.[41] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680–1681, HP Pavilion dv3-2360ee Battery

on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[46] After the exchanges with Hooke, Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). HP Pavilion dv3-2380eg Battery

Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum, a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684.[47] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. HP Pavilion dv3-2390eg Battery

The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help fromEdmond Halley. In this work, Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years, HP Pavilion dv3-2390eo Battery

and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity, and defined the law of universal gravitation. HP Pavilion dv3t-2000 Battery

In the same work, Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios', gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air, inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth, HP Pavilion g4-1010us Battery

accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness, initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon, provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets, and much more. HP Pavilion g4-1011nr Battery

Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way, because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system.[48] HP Pavilion g4-1013tx Battery

For Newton, it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest, but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth, the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World", and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre, wherever it was, was at rest).[49]HP Pavilion g4-1014tx Battery

Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science.[50] Later, in the second edition of the Principia (1713), Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium, HP Pavilion g4-1015tx Battery

 writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction, as they did; but they did not so far indicate its cause, and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). HP Pavilion g4-1016tx Battery

With the Principia, Newton became internationally recognised.[51] He acquired a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, with whom he formed an intense relationship. This abruptly ended in 1693, and at the same time Newton suffered a nervous breakdown.[52]HP Pavilion g4-1017tu Battery

Later life

In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. HP Pavilion g4-1018tu Battery

Later works –The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) – were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). HP Pavilion g4-1020us Battery

 

Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed.[53]HP Pavilion g4-1021tx Battery

 

Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, HP Pavilion g4-1022TU Battery

1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer. He took charge of England's great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas, Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). HP Pavilion g4-1022tx Battery

Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699, a position Newton held for the last 30 years of his life.[54][55] These appointments were intended as sinecures, but Newton took them seriously, HP Pavilion g4-1023TU Battery

retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701, and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. HP Pavilion g4-1026TX Battery

This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. In his position at the Royal Society, Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica, which Newton had used in his studies.[56]HP Pavilion g4-1027TX Battery

Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac Newton[57]

In April 1705, Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College, Cambridge. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705, rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint.[58] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted, after Sir Francis Bacon. HP Pavilion g4-1038tx Battery

Towards the end of his life, Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park, near Winchesterwith his niece and her husband, until his death in 1727.[59] His half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt,[60] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her "very loving Uncle,"[61] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. HP Pavilion g4-1047tx Battery

Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726],[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's hair was examined and found to contain mercury, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits.Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[62]

After death

French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[63] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: HP Pavilion g4-1048tx Battery

HP Pavilion g4-1049tu Battery

Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.

Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: HP Pavilion g4-1050tx Battery

 

If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[64]

Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] HP Pavilion g4-1051xx Battery

On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. HP Pavilion g4-1052TX Battery

 

In a later memoir, Newton wrote:

I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67]HP Pavilion g4-1053TX Battery

HP Pavilion G42 Battery

 

Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. HP Pavilion g4 Battery

HP Pavilion g4t-1000 CTO Battery

Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]HP Pavilion g6-1000 Battery

 

Commemorations

Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. HP Pavilion g6-1005tu Battery

HP Pavilion g6-1006tu Battery

The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: HP Pavilion g6-1008tx Battery

HP Pavilion g6-1009tx Battery

Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. HP Pavilion g6-1010tx Battery

Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. HP Pavilion g6-1011tx Battery

Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71]HP Pavilion g6-1012tx Battery

From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72]HP Pavilion g6-1013tu Battery

A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. HP Pavilion g6-1013tx Battery

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, HP Pavilion g6-1014tu Battery

"Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith—which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] HP Pavilion g6-1014tx Battery

Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take thesacrament when it was offered to him.[6]HP Pavilion g6-1015tu Battery

In a view disputed by Snobelen,[6] T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arianview of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, HP Pavilion g6-1016tu Battery

he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76]HP Pavilion g6-1022tx Battery

Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion ofJesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. HP Pavilion g6-1023tx Battery

Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationallyimmanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. HP Pavilion g6-1024tx Battery

In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing thePrincipia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". HP Pavilion g6-1025sf Battery

But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. HP Pavilion g6-1025tx Battery

He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence. A century later, Pierre-Simon Laplace's work "Celestial Mechanics" had a natural explanation for why the planet orbits don't require periodic divine intervention.[81]HP Pavilion g6-1026tx Battery

 

Effect on religious thought

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalistpamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[82]HP Pavilion g6-1027tx Battery

The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional andmetaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[83]and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion".HP Pavilion g6-1030ef Battery

 

The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofsand, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[84] HP Pavilion g6-1030tx Battery

Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[85] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[86]HP Pavilion g6-1031tx Battery

 

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[87][88][89] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicywhich cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[90] HP Pavilion g6-1040ef Battery

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But the unforeseen theologicalconsequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[91] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[92]HP Pavilion g6-1041ef Battery

 

End of the world

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, HP Pavilion g6-1045ef Battery

but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[93]HP Pavilion g6-1042ef Battery

 

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[94]HP Pavilion g6-1046ef Battery

 

It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[95] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; HP Pavilion g6-1046sf Battery

the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature. HP Pavilion g6-1047ef Battery

 

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[96] HP Pavilion g6-1050ef Battery

Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[97] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. HP Pavilion g6-1050sf Battery

Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[98] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[99]HP Pavilion g6-1051ef Battery

One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[100]Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. HP Pavilion G62 Battery

Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. HP Pavilion G62t Battery

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He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[101] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. HP Pavilion g7-1000 Battery

But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[100] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[102]HP Pavilion g7-1000eg Battery

Laws of motion

The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular, they may be at rest). HP Pavilion g7-1000sa Battery

 

Newton's Second Law states that an applied force, , on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum, , with time. Mathematically, this is expressed asHP Pavilion g7-1000sg Battery

If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0), the first term vanishes, and by substitution using the definition of acceleration, the equation can be written in the iconic formHP Pavilion g7-1001eg Battery

The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle, in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. The SI unit of force is thenewton, named in Newton's honour. HP Pavilion g7-1001sg Battery

Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. A common example is of two ice skaterspushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. HP Pavilion g7-1001xx Battery

Another example is therecoil of a firearm, in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass, the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). HP Pavilion g7-1002sg Battery

Unlike Aristotle's, Newton's physics is meant to be universal. For example, the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. HP Pavilion g7-1003eg Battery

The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. Before Newton, it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the Sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. HP Pavilion g7-1004eg Battery

Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the Sun. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia, this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted, and many scientists preferredDescartes' theory of vortices.[103]HP Pavilion g7-1004sa Battery

Apple incident

Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree, at the Cambridge University Botanic Gardenand the Instituto Balseiro library gardenHP Pavilion g7-1004sg Battery

Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree.[104] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment,[105]HP Pavilion g7-1006eg Battery

 acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley, whose manuscript account, published in 1752, has been made available by the Royal Society)[106] do in fact confirm the incident, though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726:[107]HP Pavilion g7-1006sg Battery

... We went into the garden, & drank tea under the shade of some appletrees, only he, & myself. amidst other discourse, he told me, he was just in the same situation, as when formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. HP Pavilion g7-1007sg Battery

"why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground," thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple, as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways, or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly, the reason is, that the earth draws it. HP Pavilion g7-1010eg Battery

there must be a drawing power in matter. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre, not in any side of the earth. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly, or toward the centre. if matter thus draws matter; it must be in proportion of its quantity. therefore the apple draws the earth, as well as the earth draws the apple." HP Pavilion g7-1011eg Battery

John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life:[108]HP Pavilion g7-1017cl Battery

In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, HP Pavilion g7-1019wm Battery

but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so, that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit, whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. HP Pavilion g7-1020eg Battery

In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Ess

ay on Epic Poetry (1727), "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree." HP Pavilion g7-1022eg Battery

It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends, in an inverse-square proportion, to the Moon; however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory.[109] HP Pavilion g7-1023eg Battery

The question was not whether gravity existed, but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the Moon to its orbit. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period, and get good agreement. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation".HP Pavilion g7-1024eg Battery

Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. The King's School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. HP Pavilion g7-1025eg Battery

The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. A descendant of the original tree [110] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, HP Pavilion g7-1030sf Battery

Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[111] can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent, a coarse-fleshed cooking varietyHP Pavilion g7-1033cl Battery

The term Holy Orders is used by many Christian churches to refer to ordination or to those individuals ordained for a special role or ministry. In the Roman Catholic (Latin: sacri ordines), Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox (ιερωσύνη [hierōsynē], HP Pavilion g7-1033eg Battery

ιεράτευμα [hierateuma], Священство [Svyashchenstvo]), Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic churches and some Lutheran churches Holy Orderscomprise the three orders of bishop, priest and deacon, HP Pavilion g7-1033sg Battery

or the sacrament or rite by which candidates are ordained to those orders. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament (the sacramentum ordinis). The Anglo-Catholic party within Anglicanism tends to identify with the Roman Catholic position with regard to the sacramental nature of ordination. HP Pavilion g7-1040ef Battery

Denominations have varied conceptions of Holy Orders. In the Anglican churches and some Lutheran churches the traditional orders of bishop, priest and deacon are bestowed using ordination rites. The extent to which ordination is considered sacramental in these traditions has, HP Pavilion g7-1040sf Battery

however, been a matter of some internal dispute. Many other denominations do not consider the role of ministry as being sacramental in nature and would not think of it in terms of "holy orders" as such. Historically, the word "order" (Latinordo) designated an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, HP Pavilion g7-1045ef Battery

and ordinatiomeant legal incorporation into an ordo. The word "holy" refers to the Church. In context, therefore, a holy order is set apart for ministry in the Church. Other positions such aspope, patriarch, cardinal, monsignor, archbishop, archimandrite, archpriest,protopresbyter, hieromonk, protodeacon, archdeacon, etc., are not sacramental orders. These are simply offices or titles. HP Pavilion g7-1045sf Battery

Eastern Christianity

Metropolitan Hilarion performs the laying on of hands (Cheirotonia), conferring the Holy Order of presbyter (priest) upon an Orthodox deacon. HP Pavilion g7-1046ef Battery

After the transmutation of the Holy Gifts, the bishop presents to the newly ordained priest a portion of the Lamb (i.e., the Body of Christ)"

The laying on of hands (Cheirotonia), conferring the Holy Order of deacon upon an Orthodox subdeacon. HP Pavilion g7-1046sf Battery

The Eastern Orthodox Church considers ordination (known as Cheirotonia, "laying on of hands") to be a Sacred Mystery (what in the West is called a sacrament). Although all other mysteries may be performed by a presbyter, ordination may only be conferred by a bishop, and ordination of a bishop may only be performed by several bishops together. Cheirotonia always takes place during the Divine Liturgy. HP Pavilion g7-1050sa Battery

It was the mission of the Apostles to go forth into all the world and preach the Gospel, baptizing those who believed in the name of the Holy Trinity (Matthew 28:18–20). In theEarly Church those who presided over congregations were referred to variously asepiscopos (bishop) or presbyteros (priest). These successors of the Apostles were ordained to their office by the laying on of hands, HP Pavilion g7-1050sf Battery

and according to Orthodox theologyformed a living, organic link with the Apostles, and through them with Jesus Christhimself.[1] This link is believed to continue in unbroken succession to this day. Over time, the ministry of bishops (who hold the fullness of the priesthood) and presbyters or priests (who hold a portion of the priesthood as bestowed by their bishop) came to be distinguished. HP Pavilion g7-1051ef Battery

In Orthodox terminology, priesthood or sacerdotal refers to the ministry of bishops and priests.

The Eastern Orthodox Church also has ordination to minor orders (known as cheirothesia, "imposition of hands") which is performed outside of the Divine Liturgy, typically by a bishop, although certain archimandrites of stavropegial monasteries may bestow cheirothesia on members of their communities. HP Pavilion g7-1051sf Battery

bishop is the Teacher of the Faith, the carrier of Sacred Tradition, and the living Vessel of Grace through whom the energeia (divine grace) of the Holy Spirit flows into the rest of the church.[1] A bishop is consecrated through the laying on of hands by several bishops. HP Pavilion g7-1051xx Battery

 (With the consent of several other bishops, a single bishop has performed the ordination another bishop, in emergency situations, such as times of persecution), The consecration of a bishop takes place near the beginning of the Liturgy, since a bishop can, in addition to performing the Mystery of the Eucharist, HP Pavilion g7-1053ef Battery

also ordain priests and deacons. Before the commencement of the Holy Liturgy, the bishop-elect professes, in the middle of the church before the seated bishops who will consecrate him, in detail the doctrines of the Orthodox Christian Faith and pledges to observe the canons of the Apostles and Councils, the Typikon and customs of the Orthodox Church and to obey ecclesiastical authority. HP Pavilion g7-1053sf Battery

After the Little Entrance, the arch-priest and arch-deacon conduct the bishop-elect before the Royal Gates where he is met by the bishops and kneels before the altar on both knees and the Gospel Book is laid over his head and the consecrating bishops lay their hands upon the Gospel Book, HP Pavilion g7-1054sa Battery

while the prayers of ordination are read by the eldest bishop; after this, the newly consecrated bishop ascends the synthranon (bishop's throne in the sanctuary) for the first time. [2] Customarily, the newly consecrated bishop ordains a priest and a deacon at the Liturgy during which he is consecrated. HP Pavilion g7-1070us Battery

priest may serve only at the pleasure of his bishop. A bishop bestows faculties(permission to minister within his diocese) giving a priest chrism and an antimins; he may withdraw faculties and demand the return of these items. HP Pavilion g7-1075dx Battery

The ordination of a priest occurs before the Anaphora (Eucharistic Prayer) in order that he may on the same day take part in the celebration of the Eucharist[2]: During the Great Entrance, the candidate for ordination carries the Aër (chalice veil) over his head (rather than on his shoulder, as a deacon otherwise carries it then) HP Pavilion g7-1075nr Battery

as a symbol of giving up his diaconate, and comes last in the procession and stands at the end of the pair of lines of the priests. After the Aër is taken from the candidate to cover the chalice and diskos, a chair is brought for the bishop to sit on by the northeast corner of the Holy Table (altar). HP Pavilion g7-1081nr Battery

Two deacons go to priest-elect who, at that point, had been standing alone in the middle of the church, and bow him down to the west (to the people) and to the east (to the clergy), asking their consent by saying “Command ye!” and then lead him through the holy doors of the altar where the archdeacon asks the bishop’s consent, saying, HP Pavilion g7-1086eg Battery

“Command, most sacred master!” after which a priest escorts the candidate three times around the Holy Table, during which he kisses each corner of the Holy Table as well as the bishop's epigonation and right hand and prostrates himself before the holy table at each circuit. HP Pavilion g7-1090sg Battery

The candidate is then taken to the southeast corner of the Holy Table and kneels on both knees, resting his forehead on the edge of the Holy Table. The ordaining bishop then places his omophor and right hand over the ordinand's head and recites aloud the first Prayer of Cheirotonia and then prays silently the other two prayers of cheirotonia while a deacon quietly recites a litany and the clergy, then the congregation, HP Pavilion G72 Battery

chant “Lord, have mercy”. Afterwards, the bishop brings the newly-ordained priest to stand in the Holy Doors and presents him to the faithful. He then clothes the priest in each of his sacerdotal vestments, at each of which the people sing,Worthy!. Later, after the Epiklesis of the Liturgy, the bishop hands him a portion of theLamb (Host) saying: HP Pavilion G72t Battery

Receive thou this pledge, and preserve it whole and unharmed until thy last breath, because thou shalt be held to an accounting therefore in the second and terrible Coming of our great Lord, God, and Saviour, Jesus Christ.[3]HP Pavilion g7 Battery

deacon may not perform any Sacrament and, indeed, performs no liturgical services on his own but serves only as an assistant to a priest and may not even vest without the blessing of a priest. The ordination of a deacon occurs after the Anaphora (Eucharistic Prayer) since his role is not in performing the Holy Mystery but consists only in serving[2]; HP Pavilion g7t-1000 CTO Battery

the ceremony is much the same as at the ordination of a priest, but the deacon-elect is presented to the people and escorted to the holy doors by two sub-deacons (his peers, analogous to the two deacons who so present a priest-elect) is escorted three times around the Holy Table by a deacon, HP Pavilion dm4 Battery

and he kneels on only one knee during the Prayer of Cheirotonia. After being vested as a deacon and given a liturgical fan (ripidion or hexapterygion)), he is led to the side of the Holy Table where he uses the ripidion to gently fan the Holy Gifts (consecrated Body and Blood of Christ). HP Pavilion dm4-1000 Battery

Anglicanism

The Anglican churches hold their bishops to be in Apostolic Succession, although there is some difference of opinion with regard to whether ordination is to be regarded as a sacrament. The Anglican Articles of Religion hold that only Baptism and the Lord's Supper are to be counted as sacraments of the gospel, HP Pavilion dm4-1001tu Battery

and assert that other rites considered to be sacraments by such as the Roman Catholic and Eastern churches were not ordained by Christ and do not have the nature of a sacrament in the absence of any physical matter such as the water in Baptism and the Bread and Wine in the Eucharist. The Book of Common Prayer provides rites for ordination of bishops, HP Pavilion dm4-1001tx Battery

priests and deacons. Only bishops may ordain. Within Anglicanism, three bishops are normally required for ordination to the episcopate, while one bishop is sufficient for performing ordinations to the priesthood and diaconate. HP Pavilion dm4-1002tu Battery

Lutheranism

Lutherans reject the Roman Catholic understanding of holy orders because they do not think sacerdotalism is supported by the Bible. Martin Luther taught that each individual was expected to fulfill his God-appointed task in everyday life. HP Pavilion dm4-1003xx Battery

The modern usage of the termvocation as a life-task was first employed by Martin Luther.[4] In Luther's Small Catechism, the holy orders include, but are not limited to the following: bishops, pastors, preachers, governmental offices, citizens, husbands, wives, children, employees, employers, young people, and widows.[5]HP Pavilion dm4-1004tu Battery

Roman Catholicism

The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church include the orders of bishops, deacons andpresbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos.[6] The ordained priesthood and common priesthood (or priesthood of the all the baptized) are different in function and essence.[7]HP Pavilion dm4-1004xx Battery

A distinction is to be made between "priest" and "presbyter." In the 1983 Code of Canon Law, "The Latin words sacerdos and sacerdotium are used to refer in general to the ministerial priesthood shared by bishops and presbyters. The words presbyter, presbyterium and presbyteratus refer to priests [in the English use of the word] and presbyters".[8]HP Pavilion dm4-1006tu Battery

The priesthood in the Catholic Church includes the priests of both the Latin Rite and theEastern Rites. As of May 2007, the Vatican website stated that there were some 406,411 priests serving the Church worldwide.[9]HP Pavilion dm4-1006tx Battery

While the consecrated life is neither clerical nor lay by definition,[10] clerics can be members of institutes of consecrated, or secular (diocesan), life.[11]HP Pavilion dm4-1008tu Battery

Process and sequence

At priestly ordination the bishop imposes hands upon the deacon who is by that matter and the form of the consecratory preface ordained to the priesthood. Pictured is the third imposition of hands as in the pre-1968 Roman Pontifical, in 1999, France. HP Pavilion dm4-1008tx Battery

The sequence in which holy orders are received are: minor orders, deacon, priest, bishop. HP Pavilion dm4-1009tx Battery

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