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7 mai 2012 1 07 /05 /mai /2012 03:46

Isambard Kingdom Brunel

Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English civil engineer who built bridges and dockyards including the construction of the first major British railway, the Great Western Railway; a series of steamships, including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship; and numerous important bridges and tunnels. His designs revolutionised public transport and modern engineering. Sony VPCB11V9E/B Battery

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Though Brunel's projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. During his short career, Brunel achieved many engineering "firsts", including assisting in the building of the first tunnel under a navigable river and development of SS Great Britain, the first propeller-driven ocean-going iron ship, which was at the time (1843) also the largest ship ever built.[1][2]Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

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Brunel set the standard for a very well built railway, using careful surveys to minimise grades and curves. This necessitated expensive construction techniques and new bridges and viaducts, and the two-mile-long Box Tunnel. One controversial feature was the wide gauge, a "broad gauge" of 7 ft 0 14 in (2,140 mm), instead of what was later to be known as 'standard gauge' of4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm). Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

The wider gauge added to passenger comfort but made construction much more expensive and caused difficulties when eventually it had to interconnect with other railways using the narrower gauge. As a result of the Railway Regulation (Gauge) Act 1846 (after Brunel's death) the gauge was changed to standard gauge throughout the GWR network. Sony vaio VPCF11M1E/H battery

Brunel astonished Britain by proposing to extend the Great Western Railway westward to North America by building steam-powered iron-hulled ships. He designed and built three ships that revolutionised naval engineering. Sony vaio VPCF12F4E/H battery

In 2002, Brunel was placed second in a BBC public poll to determine the "100 Greatest Britons". In 2006, the bicentenary of his birth, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work under the name Brunel 200.[3]Sony vaio VPCF12M1E/H battery

The son of the eminent engineer Sir Marc Isambard Brunel and Sophia Kingdom Brunel, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was born on 7 April 1806 in Portsmouth, Hampshire, where his father was working on block-making machinery.[4][5] Sony vaio VPCF12S1E/B battery

He had two older sisters, Sophia and Emma, and the whole family moved to London in 1808 for his father's work. Brunel had a happy childhood, despite the family's constant money worries, with his father acting as his teacher during his early years. Sony vaio VPCF12Z1E/BI battery

His father taught him drawing and observational techniques from the age of four and Brunel had learned Euclidean geometry by eight. During this time he also learned fluent French and the basic principles of engineering. He was encouraged to draw interesting buildings and identify any faults in their structure.[6][7]Sony vaio VPCF13E4E battery

When Brunel was eight he was sent to Dr Morrell's boarding school in Hove, where he learned the classics. His father, a Frenchman by birth, was determined that Brunel should have access to the high-quality education he had enjoyed in his youth in France; accordingly, at the age of 14, the younger Brunel was enrolled first at the College of Caen in Normandy, Sony vaio VPCF13E8E/H battery

then at Lycée Henri-Quatre in Paris.[6][8] When Brunel was 15, his father, who had accumulated debts of over £5,000, was sent to a debtors' prison. After three months went by with no prospect of release, Marc let it be known that he was considering an offer from the Tsar of Russia. In August 1821, Sony vaio VPCF13J0E/H battery

facing the prospect of losing a prominent engineer, the government relented and issued Marc £5,000 to clear his debts in exchange for his promise to remain in Britain.[9][10] When Brunel completed his studies at Henri-Quatre in 1822, Sony vaio VPCF13L8E/H battery

his father had him presented as a candidate at the renowned engineering school École Polytechnique, but as a foreigner he was deemed ineligible for entry. Brunel subsequently studied under the prominent master clockmaker and horologist Abraham-Louis Breguet, who praised Brunel's potential in letters to his father.[6] In late 1822, having completed his apprenticeship, Brunel returned to England.[8]Sony vaio VPCF13M1E/B battery

Thames Tunnel

Brunel worked for several years as assistant engineer on the project to create a tunnel under London's River Thames, with tunnellers driving a horizontal shaft from one side of the river to the other under the most difficult and dangerous conditions. Brunel's father, Marc, was the chief engineer, and the project was funded by the Thames Tunnel Company.[11]Sony vaio VPCF13M1E/H battery

The composition of the riverbed at Rotherhithe was often little more than waterlogged sediment and loose gravel. An ingenious tunnelling shield designed by Marc Brunel helped protect workers from cave-ins,[12] but two incidents of severe flooding halted work for long periods, killing several workers and badly injuring the younger Brunel.[13] Sony vaio VPCF13S1E/B battery

The latter incident, in 1828, killed the two most senior miners, and Brunel himself narrowly escaped death. He was seriously injured, and spent six months recuperating.[14] The event stopped work on the tunnel for several years.[15]Sony vaio VPCF13S8E battery

Brunel is perhaps best remembered for designing the Clifton Suspension Bridge inBristol. Spanning over 700 ft (210 m), and nominally 200 ft (61 m) above theRiver Avon, it had the longest span of any bridge in the world at the time of construction. Sony vaio VPCF13S8E battery

Brunel submitted four designs to a committee headed by Thomas Telford, but Telford rejected all entries, proposing his own design instead. Vociferous opposition from the public forced the organising committee to hold a new competition, which was won by Brunel.[16] Sony vaio VPCF13S8E/B battery

Afterwards, Brunel wrote to his brother-in-law, the politician Benjamin Hawes: "Of all the wonderful feats I have performed, since I have been in this part of the world, I think yesterday I performed the most wonderful. I produced unanimity among 15 men who were all quarrelling about that most ticklish subject— taste".[17] In 2011 it was suggested, by historian and biographer Adrian Vaughan, that Brunel did not design the bridge.[18]Sony vaio VPCF13V5002B battery

Work on the Clifton bridge started in 1831, but was suspended due to the Queen Square riots caused by the arrival of Sir Charles Wetherell in Clifton. The riots drove away investors, leaving no money for the project, and construction ceased.[19][20] Sony vaio VPCF13Z1E/B battery

Brunel did not live to see the bridge finished, although his colleagues and admirers at the Institution of Civil Engineers felt it would be a fitting memorial, and started to raise new funds and to amend the design. Work recommenced in 1862 and was completed in 1864, five years after Brunel's death.[17] The Clifton Suspension Bridge still stands, and over 4 million vehicles traverse it every year.[21]Sony vaio VPCF13Z8E/BI battery

Brunel designed many bridges for his railway projects, including the Royal Albert Bridge spanning the River Tamar at Saltash nearPlymouth, Somerset Bridge (an unusual laminated timber-framed bridge near Bridgwater[22]), Sony vaio VPCF21Z1E battery

the Windsor Railway Bridge, and theMaidenhead Railway Bridge over the Thames in Berkshire. This last was the flattest, widest brick arch bridge in the world and is still carrying main line trains to the west, even though today's trains are about 10 times as heavy as any Brunel ever imagined.[23]Sony vaio VPCF21Z1E/BI battery

In 1845 Hungerford Bridge, a suspension footbridge across the Thames near Charing Cross Station in London, was opened. It was replaced by a new railway bridge in 1859, and the suspension chains were used to complete the Clifton Suspension Bridge.[16]Sony vaio VPCF22J1E battery


Throughout his railway building career, but particularly on the South Devon and Cornwall Railways where economy was needed and there were many valleys to cross, Brunel made extensive use of wood for the construction of substantial viaducts;[24] these have had to be replaced over the years as their primary material, Kyanised Baltic Pine became uneconomical to obtain.Sony vaio VPCF22L1E battery

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Brunel designed the Royal Albert Bridge in 1855 for the Cornwall Railway, after Parliament rejected his original plan for a trainferry across the Hamoaze—the estuary of the tidal Tamar, Tavy and Lynher. The bridge (of bowstring girder or tied archconstruction) consists of two main spans of 455 ft (139 m), 100 ft (30 m) above mean high spring tide, plus 17 much shorter approach spans. Opened by Prince Albert on 2 May 1859, it was completed in the year of Brunel's death.[25]Sony vaio VPCF22S1E battery

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Several of Brunel's bridges over the Great Western Railway might be demolished because the line is to be electrified, and there is inadequate clearance for overhead wires. Buckinghamshire County Council is negotiating to have further options pursued, in order that all nine of the remaining historic bridges on the line can be saved.[26][27]Sony vaio VPCF23A9E battery

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Great Western Railway

In the early part of Brunel's life, the use of railways began to take off as a major means of transport for goods. This influenced Brunel's involvement in railway engineering, including railway bridge engineering. Sony vaio VPCF23Q1E battery


In 1833, before the Thames Tunnel was complete, Brunel was appointed chief engineer of the Great Western Railway, one of the wonders of Victorian Britain, running from London to Bristol and later Exeter.[28] The company was founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1833,Sony vaio VPCF23S1E battery

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and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1835. It was Brunel's vision that passengers would be able to purchase one ticket at London Paddington and travel from London to New York, changing from the Great Western Railway to the Great Western steamship at the terminus in Neyland, South Wales.[28] Sony vaio VPCF24M1E battery

He surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself, with the help of many including his Solicitor Jeremiah Osborne of Bristol Law Firm Osborne Clarke who one occasion rowed Isambard Kingdom Brunel down the River Avon himself to survey the bank of the river for the route.[29][30]Sony vaio VPCF24Q1E battery

Brunel made two controversial decisions: to use a broad gauge of 7 ft 0 14 in (2,140 mm) for the track, which he believed would offer superior running at high speeds; and to take a route that passed north of the Marlborough Downs—an area with no significant towns, Sony VPCCA2S1E Battery

though it offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester—and then to follow the Thames Valley into London. His decision to use broad gauge for the line was controversial in that almost all British railways to date had used standard gauge. Sony VPCCA2S1E/D.G4 Battery

Brunel said that this was nothing more than a carry-over from the mine railways that George Stephenson had worked on prior to making the world's first passenger railway. Brunel proved through both calculation and a series of trials that his broader gauge was the optimum size for providing both higher speeds[31] and a stable and comfortable ride to passengers. In addition the wider gauge allowed for larger carriages and thus greater freight capacity.[32]Sony VPCCA2S1E/L Battery


Drawing on Brunel's experience with the Thames Tunnel, the Great Western contained a series of impressive achievements—soaringviaducts such as the one in Ivybridge, specially designed stations, and vast tunnels including the Box Tunnel, which was the longest railway tunnel in the world at that time.[33] Sony VPCCA3S1E Battery

There is an anecdote that the Box Tunnel may have been deliberately oriented so that the rising sun shines all the way through it on Brunel's birthday.[34]Sony VPCCA2S1E/R Battery


The initial group of locomotives ordered by Brunel to his own specifications proved unsatisfactory, apart from the North Star locomotive, and 20-year-old Daniel Gooch (later Sir Daniel) was appointed as Superintendent of Locomotives. Brunel and Gooch chose to locate their locomotive works at the village of Swindon, at the point where the gradual ascent from London turned into the steeper descent to the Avon valley at Bath. Sony VPCCB2S1E Battery

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Brunel's achievements ignited the imagination of the technically minded Britons of the age, and he soon became quite notable in the country on the back of this interest.[35]Sony VPCCB2S1E/W Battery

After Brunel's death the decision was taken that standard gauge should be used for all railways in the country. Despite the Great Western's claim of proof that its broad gauge was the better (disputed by at least one Brunel historian), Sony VPCCB3S1E Battery

the decision was made to use Stephenson's standard gauge, mainly because this had already covered a far greater amount of the country. However, by May 1892 when the broad gauge was abolished the Great Western had already been re-laid as dual gauge (both broad and standard) and so the transition was a relatively painless one.[citation needed] Sony VPCCB3S1E/B Battery

At the original Welsh terminus of the Great Western railway at Neyland, sections of the broad gauge rails are used as handrails at the quayside, and a number of information boards there depict various aspects of Brunel's life. There is also a larger than life bronze statue of him holding a steamship in one hand and a locomotive in the other.[36][37]Sony VPCCB3S1E/W Battery


The present London Paddington station was designed by Brunel and opened in 1854. Examples of his designs for smaller stations on the Great Western and associated lines which survive in good condition include Mortimer, Charlbury and Bridgend (all Italianate) and Culham (Tudorbethan). Surviving examples of wooden train sheds in his style are at Frome[38] and Kingswear.[39]Sony VPCCB4Z1E Battery


The great achievement that was the Great Western Railway has been immortalised at Swindon Steam Railway Museum.[40]Sony VPCCB4Z1E/B Battery


Overall, there were negative views as to how society viewed the railways. Some landowners felt the railways were a threat to amenities or property values and others requested tunnels on their land so the railway could not be seen.[31]Sony VPCCB4Z1E/W Battery


Brunel's "atmospheric caper"

Though ultimately unsuccessful, another of Brunel's interesting use of technical innovations was the atmospheric railway, the extension of the Great Western Railway (GWR) southward from Exeter towards Plymouth, Sony VPCCB4Z1E/W.G4 Battery

 technically the South Devon Railway (SDR), though supported by the GWR. Instead of using locomotives, the trains were moved by Clegg and Samuda's patented system of atmospheric (vacuum) traction, whereby stationary pumps sucked air from a pipe placed in the centre of the track.[41]Sony vaio VPCY11S1E battery


The section from Exeter to Newton (now Newton Abbot) was completed on this principle, and trains ran at approximately 68 miles per hour (109 km/h).[42] Pumping stations with distinctive square chimneys were sited at two-mile intervals.[42] Fifteen-inch (381 mm) pipes were used on the level portions, and 22-inch (559 mm) pipes were intended for the steeper gradients. Sony vaio VPCY11S1E/S battery


The technology required the use of leather flaps to seal the vacuum pipes. The natural oils were drawn out of the leather by the vacuum, making the leather vulnerable to water, rotting it and breaking the fibres when it froze. It had to be kept supple withtallow, which is attractive to rats. Sony vaio VPCY21S1E/G battery

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The flaps were eaten, and vacuum operation lasted less than a year, from 1847 (experimental service began in September; operations from February 1848) to 10 September 1848.[43] It has been suggested that the whole project was an expensive flop. In Brunel's favour, it has been noted that he had the courage to call a halt to the venture instead of struggling on with it at greater cost. Sony vaio VPCY21S1E/SI battery

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The accounts of the SDR for 1848 suggest that atmospheric traction cost 3s 1d (three shillings and one penny) per mile compared to 1s 4d/mile for conventional steam power. A number of South Devon Railway engine houses still stand, Sony vaio VPCYA1V9E/B battery

including that at Totnes(scheduled as a grade II listed monument in 2007 to prevent its imminent demolition, even as Brunel's bicentenary celebrations were continuing) and at Starcross, on the estuary of the River Exe, which is a striking landmark, and a reminder of the atmospheric railway, also commemorated as the name of the village pub.[44][45]Sony vaio VPCYB1S1E/S battery

  A section of the pipe, without the leather covers, is preserved at the Didcot Railway Centre.[46]

Transatlantic shipping

In 1835, before the Great Western Railway had opened, Brunel proposed extending its transport network by boat from Bristol across the Atlantic Ocean to New York. The Great Western Steamship Company was formed by Thomas Guppy for that purpose. Sony PCG-81111T battery

It was widely disputed whether it would be commercially viable for a ship powered purely by steam to make such long journeys. Sony vaio VPCYA15FH/R battery

Technological developments in the early 1830s—including the invention of the surface condenser, which allowed boilers to run on salt water without stopping to be cleaned—made longer journeys more possible,  Sony vaio VPCS13L8E/B battery

but it was generally thought that a ship would not be able to carry enough fuel for the trip and have room for a commercial cargo. Brunel formulated the theory that the amount a ship could carry increased as the cube of its dimensions,  Sony PCG-5J1L battery

whereas the amount of resistance a ship experienced from the water as it travelled only increased by a square of its dimensions. This would mean that moving a larger ship would take proportionately less fuel than a smaller ship. To test this theory, Brunel offered his services for free to the Great Western Steamship Company, which appointed him to its building committee and entrusted him with designing its first ship, the Great Western.[47] [48][49] Dell Inspiron 15z battery


When it was built, the Great Western was the longest ship in the world at 236 ft (72 m) with a 250-foot (76 m) keel. The ship was constructed mainly from wood, but Brunel added bolts and iron diagonal reinforcements to maintain the keel's strength. In addition to its steam-powered paddle wheels, the ship carried four masts for sails. Sony PCG-5L1L battery

The Great Western embarked on her maiden voyage fromAvonmouth, Bristol, to New York on 8 April 1838 with 600 long tons (610,000 kg) of coal, cargo and seven passengers on board. Brunel himself missed this initial crossing, having been injured during a fire aboard the ship as she was returning from fitting out in London. HP ProBook 4515s battery

As the fire delayed the launch several days, the Great Western missed its opportunity to claim title as the first ship to cross the Atlantic under steam power alone. Even with a four-day head start, the competing Sirius arrived only one day earlier and its crew was forced to burn cabin furniture, spare yards and one mast for fuel. Sony VGN-CR42Z/R battery

In contrast, the Great Westerncrossing of the Atlantic took 15 days and five hours, and the ship arrived at her destination with a third of its coal still remaining, demonstrating that Brunel's calculations were correct. The Great Western had proved the viability of commercial transatlantic steamship service, Sony VPCB11V9E/B Battery

which led the Great Western Steamboat Company to use her in regular service between Bristol and New York from 1838 to 1846. She made 64 crossings, and was the first ship to hold the Blue Riband with a crossing time of 13 days westbound and 12 days 6 hours eastbound. The service was commercially successful enough for a sister ship to be required, which Brunel was asked to design.[48][50][51]Sony VPCB11X9E/B Battery


Brunel had become convinced of the superiority of propeller-driven ships over paddle wheels. After tests conducted aboard the propeller-driven steam tug Archimedes, he incorporated a large six-bladed propeller into his design for the 322-foot (98 m) Great Britain, which was launched in 1843.[52] Great Britain is considered the first modern ship, Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

being built of metal rather than wood, powered by an engine rather than wind or oars, and driven by propeller rather than paddle wheel. She was the first iron-hulled, propeller-driven ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.[53] Her maiden voyage was made in August and September 1845, from Liverpool to New York. In 1846, she was run aground at Dundrum, County Down. She was salvaged and employed in the Australian service.[54]Sony VPCF11C5E Battery


In 1852 Brunel turned to a third ship, larger than her predecessors, intended for voyages to India and Australia. The Great Eastern(originally dubbed Leviathan) was cutting-edge technology for her time: almost 700 ft (210 m) long, fitted out with the most luxurious appointments, and capable of carrying over 4,000 passengers. Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

Great Eastern was designed to cruise non-stop from London to Sydney and back (since engineers of the time misunderstood that Australia had no coal reserves), and she remained the largest ship built until the turn of the century. Like many of Brunel's ambitious projects, the ship soon ran over budget and behind schedule in the face of a series of technical problems.[55] Sony vaio VPCF11M1E/H battery

The ship has been portrayed as a white elephant, but it has been argued by David P. Billington that in this case Brunel's failure was principally one of economics—his ships were simply years ahead of their time.[56] His vision and engineering innovations made the building of large-scale, Sony vaio VPCF12M1E/H battery

propeller-driven, all-metal steamships a practical reality, but the prevailing economic and industrial conditions meant that it would be several decades before transoceanic steamship travel emerged as a viable industry.[56]Sony vaio VPCF12F4E/H battery


Great Eastern was built at John Scott Russell's Napier Yard in London, and after two trial trips in 1859, set forth on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York on 17 June 1860.[57] Though a failure at her original purpose of passenger travel, Sony vaio VPCF12S1E battery

she eventually found a role as an oceanic telegraph cable-layer. Under Captain Sir James Anderson, the Great Eastern played a significant role in laying the first lasting transatlantic telegraph cable, which enabled telecommunication between Europe and North America.[58][59]Sony vaio VPCF12S1E/B battery


Renkioi Hospital

During 1854 Britain entered into the Crimean War, and an old Turkish barracks became the British Army Hospital in Scutari. Injured men contracted a variety of illnesses—including cholera, dysentery, typhoid and malaria—due to poor conditions there,[60] and Florence Nightingale sent a plea to The Times for the government to produce a solution. Sony vaio VPCF12Z1E/BI battery


Brunel was working on the Great Eastern amongst other projects, but accepted the task in February 1855 of designing and building the War Office requirement of a temporary, pre-fabricated hospital that could be shipped to Crimea and erected there. Sony vaio VPCF13E4E battery

In 5 months the team he had assembled designed, built, and shipped pre-fabricated wood and canvas buildings, providing them complete with advice on transportation and positioning of the facilities.[61] Brunel had been working Gloucester Docks-based William Eassrie on the launching stage for the Great Eastern, Sony vaio VPCF13E8E/H battery

a man who had designed and built wooden prefabricated huts used in both the Australian gold rush, as well as by the British and French Armies in the Crimea. Using wood supplied by timber importers Price & Co., Sony vaio VPCF13J0E/H battery

Eassrie fabricated 18 of the two-50 patient wards designed by Brunel, shipped directly via 16 ships from Gloucester Docks to the Dardanelles. The Renkioi Hospital was subsequently erected near Scutari Hospital, where Nightingale was based, in the malaria-free area of Renkioi.[62]Sony vaio VPCF13L8E/H battery


His designs incorporated the necessities of hygiene: access to sanitation, ventilation, drainage, and even rudimentary temperature controls. They were feted as a great success, with some sources stating that of the approximately 1,300 patients treated in the hospital, there were only 50 deaths.[63]Sony vaio VPCF13M1E/B battery

 In the Scutari hospital it replaced, deaths were said to be as many as 10 times this number. Nightingale referred to them as "those magnificent huts".[64] The practice of building hospitals from pre-fabricated modules survives today,[62] with hospitals such as the Bristol Royal Infirmary being created in this manner. Sony vaio VPCF13M1E/H battery

In 1843, while performing a conjuring trick for the amusement of his children, Brunel accidentally inhaled a half-sovereign coin, which became lodged in his windpipe. A special pair of forceps failed to remove it, as did a machine devised by Brunel to shake it loose. Sony vaio VPCF13S1E/B battery

At the suggestion of his father, Brunel was strapped to a board and turned upside-down, and the coin was jerked free.[66]He recuperated at Teignmouth, and enjoyed the area so much that he purchased an estate at Watcombe in Torquay, Devon. Here he designed Brunel Manor and its gardens to be his retirement home. He never saw the house or gardens finished, as he died before it was completed. Sony vaio VPCF13S8E battery


Brunel, a heavy smoker,[67] suffered a stroke in 1859, just before the Great Eastern made her first voyage to New York.[68] He died ten days later at the age of 53 and was buried, like his father, in Kensal Green Cemetery in London.[69]Sony vaio VPCF13S8E/B battery

 He left behind his wife Mary and three children: Isambard Brunel Junior (1837–1902), Henry Marc Brunel (1842–1903) and Florence Mary Brunel (1847–1876). Henry Marc followed his father and grandfather in becoming a successful civil engineer.[70][71]Sony vaio VPCF13V5002B battery


Personal life

A celebrated engineer in his era, Brunel remains revered today, as evidenced by numerous monuments to him. There are statues in London at Temple (pictured) and Brunel University, Bristol, Saltash, Swindon, Milford Haven, and Paddington station. A statue inNeyland was stolen in August 2010.[72]Sony vaio VPCF13Z1E/B battery

 The topmast of the Great Eastern is used as a flagpole at the entrance to Anfield, Liverpool Football Club's ground.[73] Contemporary locations bear Brunel's name, such as Brunel University in London,[74] a shopping centre in Bletchley, Milton Keynes, Sony VPCCA2S1E Battery

and a collection of streets in Exeter: Isambard Terrace, Kingdom Mews, and Brunel Close. A road, car park, and school in his home city of Portsmouth are also named in his honour, along with one of the city's largest public houses.[75] There is an engineering lab building at the University of Plymouth named in his honour. Sony VPCCA2S1E/D.G4 Battery


In a 2002 public television poll conducted by the BBC to select the "100 Greatest Britons", Brunel was placed second, behindWinston Churchill.[76] Brunel's life and works have been depicted in numerous books, films and television programs. Sony VPCCA2S1E/L Battery

Perhaps the most recent is the 2003 book and BBC TV series, Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, which included a dramatisation of the building of the Great Eastern. A 1975 short film about Brunel, "Great", won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film.[77]Sony VPCCA2S1E/R Battery

Many of Brunel's bridges are still in use, having stood the test of time. Brunel's first engineering project, the Thames Tunnel, is now part of the East London Overground Railway System. The Brunel Engine House at Rotherhithe, Sony VPCCA3S1E Battery

which once housed the steam engines that powered the tunnel pumps, now houses the Brunel Museum dedicated to the work and lives of Marc and Isambard Kingdom Brunel.[78] Many of Brunel's original papers and designs are now held in the Brunel collection at the University of Bristol.[70][79]Sony VPCCB2S1E Battery


Brunel is credited with turning the town of Swindon into one of the largest growing towns in Europe during the 1800s.[80] Brunel's choice to locate the Great Western Railway locomotive sheds there caused a need for housing for the workers, Sony VPCCB2S1E/B Battery

which in turn gave Brunel the impetus to build hospitals, churches and housing estates in what is known today as the 'Railway Village'.[81] According to some sources, Brunel's addition of a Mechanics Institute for recreation and hospitals and clinics for his workers gave Aneurin Bevan the basis for the creation of the National Health Service.[82]Sony VPCCB2S1E/W Battery

In 2006, the Royal Mint struck two £2 coins to "celebrate the 200th anniversary of Isambard Kingdom Brunel and his achievements".[83] The first depicts Brunel with a section of the Royal Albert Bridge and the second shows the roof of Paddington Station. Sony VPCCB3S1E Battery

The Post Office issued a set of commemorative stamps. For the 100-year anniversary of the Royal Albert Bridge, the words "I.K. BRUNEL ENGINEER 1859" were engraved on either end of the bridge to commemorate his enduring legacy. They became obscured by paint, but were cleaned up by Network Rail and revealed again in 2006.[84]Sony VPCCB3S1E/B Battery



Between 13–15 February 1945, British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees.[178] Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Following the bombing Churchill stated in a top secret telegram: Sony VPCCB3S1E/W Battery

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed... I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.[179]Sony VPCCB4Z1E Battery


On reflection, under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff and in response to the views expressed by Sir Charles Portal (Chief of the Air Staff) and Sir Arthur Harris (AOC-in-C of RAF Bomber Command), among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one.[180][181] This final version of the memo completed on 1 April 1945, stated: Sony VPCCB4Z1E/B Battery


It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies... We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy's war effort.[180][181]Sony VPCCB4Z1E/W Battery

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Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to occur. The German historian Jörg Friedrich claims that "Winston Churchill's decision to [area] bomb a shattered Germany between January and May 1945 was a war crime",[182] Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

and writing in 2006 the philosopher A. C. Grayling questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF, presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime that undermines the Allies' contention that they fought a just war.[183] Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

On the other hand, it has also been asserted that Churchill's involvement in the bombing of Dresden was based on the strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war. The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany. Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/P Battery

As the historian and journalist Max Hastings said in an article subtitled "the Allied Bombing of Dresden": "I believe it is wrong to describe strategic bombing as a war crime, for this might be held to suggest some moral equivalence with the deeds of the Nazis. Bombing represented a sincere, Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany's military defeat." British historian Frederick Taylor asserts that "All sides bombed each other's cities during the war. Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

That's roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids. But the Allied bombing campaign was attached to military operations and ceased as soon as military operations ceased."[184]Dell Inspiron M5030 battery

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In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year. After being attacked on three fronts by the Allies, and in spite of Allied failures, such as Operation Market Garden,  Sony VGN-FZ38 battery

and German counter-attacks, including the Battle of the Bulge, Germany was eventually defeated. On 7 May 1945 at the SHAEFheadquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany's surrender. On the same day in a BBC news flash John Snagge announced that 8 May would be Victory in Europe Day.[185]  Sony VGN-SR29XN/S battery

On Victory in Europe Day, Churchill broadcast to the nation that Germany had surrendered and that a final cease fire on all fronts in Europe would come into effect at one minute past midnight that night.[186][187]Afterwards, Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: Asus A32-F82 battery

"This is your victory." The people shouted: "No, it is yours", and Churchill then conducted them in the singing of Land of Hope and Glory. In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months.[52] The Japanese later surrendered on 15 August 1945. Sony VGN-CS11S/P battery

As Europe celebrated peace at the end of six years of war, Churchill was concerned with the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted.[188] He concluded that the UK and the US must anticipate the Red Army ignoring previously agreed frontiers and agreements in Europe, and prepare to "impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire."[189] HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax battery

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According to the Operation Unthinkable plan ordered by Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces, the Third World War could have started on 1 July 1945 with a sudden attack against the allied Soviet troops. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible. Sony vaio VPCYB35JC battery


Leader of the opposition

Although Churchill's role in the Second World War had generated much support for him amongst the British population, he was defeated in the 1945 election.[190] Many reasons for this have been given, key among them being that a desire for post-war reform was widespread amongst the population and that the man who had led Britain in war was not seen as the man to lead the nation in peace.[191] I HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax battery

it was anticipated that Churchill would step down and hand over the leadership to Anthony Eden, who became his deputy after the election defeat, but Churchill (despite now being in his seventies) was determined to fight on as leader and Eden was too loyal to challenge his leadership. It would be another decade before Churchill finally did hand over the reins to Eden.[192]HP Pavilion g6 battery


For six years he was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years Churchill continued to have an impact on world affairs. During his 1946 trip[193] to the United States, Churchill famously lost a lot of money in a poker game with Harry Truman and his advisors.[194](He also liked to play Bezique, which he learned while serving in the Boer War.) HP 513130-321 battery


During this trip he gave his Iron Curtain speech about the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc. Speaking on 5 March 1946 atWestminster College in Fulton, Missouri, he declared:  HP WD549AA battery

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.[195] HP WD548AA battery

Churchill also argued strongly for British independence from the European Coal and Steel Community, which he saw as a Franco-German project. He saw Britain's place as separate from the continent, much more in-line with the countries of the Commonwealth and the Empire, and with the United States, the so-called Anglosphere.[196][197] HP NBP6A175 battery

  Churchill held the office of Deputy Lieutenant (DL) of Kent in 1949.[198]


After the General Election of 1951, Churchill again held the office of Minister of Defence between October 1951 and January 1952. He also became prime minister in October 1951, and his third government—after the wartime national government and the brief caretaker government of 1945—lasted until his resignation in April 1955.  HP Pavilion dv3-2028tx battery

In domestic affairs, various reforms were introduced such as the Mines and Quarries Act of 1954 and the Housing Repairs and Rent Act of 1955. The former measure consolidated legislation dealing with the employment of young persons and women in mines and quarries, together with safety, health, and welfare. The latter measure extended previous housing Acts, Sony VGP-BPS10 battery

and set out details in defining housing units as “unfit for human habitation.”[199] In addition, tax allowances were raised,[200]construction of council housing was accelerated, and pensions and national assistance benefits were increased.[201] Controversially, however, charges for prescription medicines were introduced.[202] Sony VGN-CR290 battery

Housing was an issue the Conservatives were widely recognised to have made their own, after the Churchill government of the early 1950s, with Harold Macmillan as Minister for Housing, gave housing construction far higher political priority than it had received under the Attlee administration (where housing had been attached to the portfolio of Health Minister Aneurin Bevan,  Compaq Presario CQ42-100 battery

whose attention was concentrated on his responsibilities for the National Health Service). Macmillan had accepted Churchill's challenge to meet the latter's ambitious public commitment to build 300,000 new homes a year, and achieved the target a year ahead schedule.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv9000 Laptop Battery

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Churchill's domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, HP Pavilion dv7-4000eh battery

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Churchill would often meet such moments withdirect action. One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion.[203] Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, "I will not preside over a dismemberment."[203]Toshiba Tecra M5 Battery



This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency. In Malaya, a rebellion against British rule had been in progress since 1948.[204] Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

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Once again, Churchill's government inherited a crisis, and Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not.[52][205] While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustainable.[204][206] Sony VGP-BPS8B battery



Churchill also devoted much of his time in office to Anglo-American relations and, although Churchill did not always agree with President Dwight D. Eisenhower,[207]Churchill attempted to maintain the Special Relationship with the United States. He made four official transatlantic visits to America during his second term as prime minister.[208]Toshiba Satellite M55 Series Battery



Churchill had suffered a mild stroke while on holiday in the south of France in the summer of 1949. In June 1953, when he was 78, Churchill suffered a more severe stroke at 10 Downing Street. News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. He went to his country home, Chartwell, Ibm/Lenovo Thinkpad X300 Battery

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to recuperate from the effects of the stroke which had affected his speech and ability to walk.[52] He returned to public life in October to make a speech at a Conservative Party conference at Margate.[52][209] However, aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill retired as prime minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden. He suffered another mild stroke in December 1956. Dell Latitude C640 AC Adapter/Charger

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Retirement and death

Elizabeth II offered to create Churchill Duke of London, but this was declined due to the objections of his son Randolph, who would have inherited the title on his father's death.[210] After leaving the premiership, Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the 1964 General Election. As a mere "back-bencher," Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell and at his home in Hyde Park Gate, in London.[52]Acer Aspire 557x Battery


In the 1959 General Election Churchill's majority fell by more than a thousand, since many young voters in his constituency did not support an 85-year-old who could only enter the House of Commons in a wheelchair. As his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose the battle he had fought for so long against the "black dog" of depression.[52]Acer Aspire 5052ANWXMi Battery


There was speculation that Churchill may have had Alzheimer's disease in his last years, although others maintain that his reduced mental capacity was merely the result of a series of strokes. In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the United States,[211] but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony.[212]Acer Aspire 5920G AC Adapter,Charger

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Despite poor health, Churchill still tried to remain active in public life, and on St George's Day 1964, sent a message of congratulations to the surviving veterans of the 1918 Zeebrugge Raid who were attending a service of commemoration in Deal, Kent, Dell Mini 1010 Laptop Battery

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where two casualties of the raid were buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery. On 15 January 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke that left him gravely ill. He died at his London home nine days later, at age 90, on the morning of Sunday 24 January 1965, 70 years to the day after his father's death.[212]Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

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By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state for three days and a state funeral service was h

eld at St Paul's Cathedral on 30 January 1965.[213] Unusually, the Queen attended the funeral.[214] As his lead-lined coffin passed up the River Thames fromTower Pier to Festival Pier on the MV Havengore, dockers lowered their crane jibs in a salute.[215]HP Pavilion dv2-1000 Laptop Battery


The Royal Artillery fired the 19-gun salute due a head of government, and the RAF staged a fly-by of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Laptop Battery

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The coffin was then taken the short distance to Waterloo station where it was loaded onto a specially prepared and painted carriage as part of the funeral train for its rail journey to Handborough,[216] seven miles north-west ofOxford. The funeral also saw one of the largest assemblages of statesmen in the world.[1]HP Compaq 6710b AC Adapter/Charger

The funeral train of Pullman coaches carrying his family mourners was hauled by Battle of Britain class steam locomotive No. 34051 Winston Churchill. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects. Dell Latitude E6400 Laptop Battery

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At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin's Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace. Churchill's funeral van—Southern Railway van S2464S—is now part of a preservation project with the Swanage Railway, having been repatriated to the UK in 2007 from the US, to where it had been exported in 1965.[217]Dell Inspiron 1464 Laptop Battery

Later in 1965 a memorial to Churchill, cut by the engraver Reynolds Stone, was placed in Westminster Abbey.

Churchill as artist, historian, and writer

Winston Churchill was an accomplished artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915.[218] He found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression which he suffered throughout his life. Fujitsu Siemens LifeBook S6000 AC Adapter/Charger

As William Rees-Mogg has stated, "In his own life, he had to suffer the 'black dog' of depression. In his landscapes and still lives there is no sign of depression."[219] HP HSTNN-I81C Battery

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Churchill was persuaded and taught to paint by his artist friend, Paul Maze, whom he met during the First World War. Maze was a great influence on Churchill's painting and became a lifelong painting companion.[220]Compaq Presario C700 AC Adapter/Charger

Churchill is best known for his impressionist scenes of landscape, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France, Egypt or Morocco.[219] He continued his hobby throughout his life and painted hundreds of paintings, many of which are on show in the studio at Chartwell as well as private collections.[221] Sony DSC-P5 Battery

Most of his paintings are oil-based and feature landscapes, but he also did a number of interior scenes and portraits. In 1925 Lord Duveen, Kenneth Clark, and Oswald Birley selected hisWinter Sunshine as the prize winner in a contest for anonymous amateur artists.[33]:46–47 HP HSTNN-I79C Battery

Due to obvious time constraints, Churchill attempted only one painting during the Second World War. He completed the painting from the tower of the Villa Taylor in Marrakesh.[222]HP 586006-361 Laptop Battery

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Some of his paintings can today be seen in the Wendy and Emery Reves Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art. Emery Reves and Winston Churchill indeed were close friends[223] HP HSTNN-F02C Battery

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and Churchill often visited Emery and his wife in their villa in the South of France (villa La Pausa, originally built in 1927 for Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel). The villa was rebuilt within the museum in 1985 with a gallery of Churchill paintings and memorabilia.[224][225]Acer Aspire 5920 Battery

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Despite his lifelong fame and upper-class origins, Churchill always struggled to keep his income at a level that would fund his extravagant lifestyle. MPs before 1946 received only a nominal salary (and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act 1911) so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living.[226]ony VAIO PCG-SRX3E/BD Battery

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 From his first book in 1898 until his second stint as Prime Minister, Churchill's income was almost entirely made from writing books and opinion pieces for newspapers and magazines. The most famous of his newspaper articles are those that appeared in the Evening Standard from 1936 warning of the rise of Hitler and the danger of the policy of appeasement. Acer Travelmate 2200 AC Adapter/Charger

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Churchill was also a prolific writer of books, writing a novel, two biographies, three volumes of memoirs, and several histories in addition to his many newspaper articles. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".[227] HP Pavilion DV6500 AC Adapter/Charger

Two of his most famous works, published after his first premiership brought his international fame to new heights, were his six-volume memoir The Second World War and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples; a four-volume history covering the period from Caesar's invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).[228]HP Compaq nx6310 AC Adapter/Charger

He was also an amateur bricklayer, building garden walls and even a cottage at Chartwell. As part of this hobby he joined the Amalgamated Union of Building Trade Workers.[229]Sony VAIO PCG-955A Battery - 4400mAh


In addition to the honour of a state funeral, Churchill received a wide range of awards and other honours. For example, he was the first person to become an Honorary Citizen of the United States.[230]Sony VAIO PCG-NV Battery

In 1945, while Churchill was mentioned by Halvdan Koht as one of seven appropriate candidates for the Nobel Prize in Peace, the nomination went to Cordell Hull.[231]Sony NP-FH70 Battery

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Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his numerous published works, especially his six-volume set The Second World War. In a 2002 BBC poll of the "100 Greatest Britons", he was proclaimed "The Greatest of Them All" based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers. HP Pavilion N6195 Battery

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 [233] Churchill College, Cambridge was founded in 1958 to memorialise him.

Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. HP HSTNN-F01C Battery

Don't let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty-fifty about Yugoslavia?[173]Asus A31-K42 Laptop Battery

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Stalin agreed to this Percentages Agreement, ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In 1958, five years after the account of this meeting was published (in The Second World War), authorities of the Soviet Union denied that Stalin accepted the "imperialist proposal".[174]Sony vaio VPCY11V9E Laptop Battery

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One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference was that the Allies would return all Soviet citizens that found themselves in the Allied zone to the Soviet Union. This immediately affected the Soviet prisoners of war liberated by the Allies, Sony vaio VPCS139GC/B Laptop Battery

but was also extended to all Eastern Europeanrefugees.[175] Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn called the Operation Keelhaul "the last secret of World War II."[176] The operation decided the fate of up to two million post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe.[177]Sony vaio VPCY115FGS Laptop Battery

Khitān (Arabic: ختان‎) or Khatna (Arabic: ختنة‎) is the term for male circumcision carried out as an Islamic rite. It's considered by some as a sign of belonging or introduction to the wider Islamic community.[1] It is also referred to by the term Taharah, 'purity'. Sony vaio VPCM13M1E/L Laptop Battery

Islamic circumcision is analogous to Jewish circumcision, although there are a number of key differences. Muslims are currently the largest single religious group to practice widespread circumcision.[1] However, it is not a condition for converting to Islam or carrying out religious duties.[2][3][4] Circumcision is not mentioned in the Qur'an, but rather in the hadith. Sony vaio VPCYA16EC/R Laptop Battery

The Qur'an itself does not mention circumcision. In the time of Muhammad, circumcision was carried out by most Arabian tribes, among them pagan Arabs as well as Jews and Christians for religious reasons. The ritual dates back to the time of the Prophet Muhammad. HP 506066-721 Battery

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According to tradition Muhammad was born without a foreskin (aposthetic).[5] Many of his early disciples were circumcised to symbolise their inclusion within the emerging Islamic community. These facts are mentioned several times in the hadith. HP HSTNN-CB86 Battery

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Some hadith group circumcision with the fitra (acts considered to be of a refined person). Other such acts include: clipping or shaving pubic hair, cutting nails, cleaning teeth, plucking or shaving the hair under the armpits and clipping (or trimming) the moustache. HP HSTNN-XB87 Battery

(Reported in the hadiths of Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.) So, despite its absence from the Qur'an, it has been a religious norm from the beginning of Islam. However, there is another version of the hadith which does not name circumcision as one of the characteristics of fitra and yet anotherhadith which names ten characteristics, HP 586006-761 Battery

again without naming circumcision. According to some hadith(Abdullah Ibn Jabir and Aisha), Muhammad circumcised his grandsons on the seventh day after their birth[6]. This opinion is popular amongst the hadith and Islamic jurists. Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim also quotes from Muhammad that Prophet Abraham performed his own circumcision at the age of eighty.[7]HP 586007-121 Battery

Amongst Ulema (Muslim legal scholars), there are differing opinions about the compulsion of circumcision in Sharia (Islamic law). Imams Abū Ḥanīfa, founder of theHanafi school of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), and Malik ibn Anas, maintain that circumcision is a Sunnah Mu'akkadah—not obligatory but highly recommended. TheShafi`i and Hanbali schools see it as binding on all Muslims and the Shafi'i for both male and female.[8]HP 586007-141 Battery

Islamic sources do not fix a particular time for circumcision. It depends on family, region and country. A majority of Ulema however take the view that parents should get their child circumcised before the age of ten.[9] The preferred age is usually seven although some Muslims are circumcised as early as on the seventh day after birth and as late as at the commencement of puberty.[1]HP 586007-541 Battery

There is a Quran alone movement within Islam that rejects making male circumcision a religious requirement due to the fact it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. Advocates of this view point to several Qur'anic verses that indicate the perfection of creation (Quran 32:7, 82:7–8, 95:4), as well as common perceptions that circumcision is necessary for reasons of hygiene.[10]HP 586007-851 Battery

 Muslim activists include Canadian Dr. Arif Bhimji,[11] Libyan judge Mustafa Kamal al-Mahdawi,[12] and the Egyptian feminist Dr. Nawal El Saadawi, who links it with her own struggle against female genital mutilation.[13] Some Quranists claim circumcision is haram, claiming that suras such as 4:119 forbids altering one's body, and suras such as 95:4 which says man was created perfectly.[14][15][16]HP 586028-321 Battery

Whereas Jewish circumcision is closely bound by ritual timing and tradition, Islamic circumcision does not have a strictly mandated procedure or form of circumcision. These tend to change across cultures, HP HSTNN-CB0X Battery

families, and time. In some Islamic countries, circumcision is performed after Muslim boys have learned to recite the whole Qur'an from start to finish.[1] HP 586028-341 Battery

In Malaysia and other regions, the boy usually undergoes the operation between the ages of ten and twelve, and is thus apuberty rite, serving to introduce him into the new status of an adult.[17] The procedure is sometimes semi-public, accompanied with music, special foods, and much festivity.[17]HP 588178-141 Battery

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Traditional circumcisions however are steadily becoming rarer throughout the Islamic world, with many Muslim families preferring to have their sons circumcised at birth, or if it is done at an older age it is normally done by a doctor under local anesthetic. HP 593553-001 Battery

There is no equivalent of a Jewish mohel in Islam. Circumcisions are usually carried out in a clinic or hospital. The circumciser is not required to be a Muslim.[1] The general 'style' of circumcision is the traditional stretch and cut which is typically reasonably tight but leaves a lot of the inner foreskin.[17]HP 593554-001 Battery

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