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The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant , also known asIslamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS /ˈaɪsɪs/) or Islamic State,is an Islamic extremist rebel group controlling territory in Syria, Iraq, and Libya, with operations or affiliates inLebanon, Nigeria, Egypt, and other areas of the Middle East, North Africa, West Africa,South Asia, andSoutheast Asia.SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fīl-ʿIrāq wash-Shām, leading to the Arabic acronym Da'ish or DAESH . On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be aworldwide caliphate with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named its caliph and also renamed itself Islamic StateDELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

The new name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised and condemned, with the UN, various governments and mainstream Muslim groups refusing to acknowledge it.As caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's (caliphate's) authority and arrival of its troops to their areas".HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

Many Islamic and non-Islamic communities judge the group unrepresentative of Islam. Political scientist Graeme Wood comments on IS that "the religion preached by its most ardent followers derives from coherent and even learned interpretations of Islam".HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Egypt, India, and Russia.DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which was renamed Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—when the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. As Jama'at and later AQI, beginning in August 2003, the group participated in the Iraqi insurgency, which had followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq.DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which in October 2006, proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). ISI gained a significant presence in the Al Anbar Governorate, Diyala Governorate and Baghdad Governorate. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, ISI sent delegates into Syria in August 2011 after the Syrian Civil War had begun in March 2011. This group named itself Jabhat an-Nurah li-Ahli ash-Shām or al-Nusra Front, and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor and Aleppo. SONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery

In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of his ISI with al-Nusra Front, and announced that the name of the reunited group was now Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, both al-Julani and al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and of al-Qaeda, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014—citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery

On 29 June 2014, the group renamed itself: "Islamic State".ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of the beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, as well as the deliberate destruction of cultural heritage sites. SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

The group gained notoriety after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq. In Syria, it conducted ground attacks against both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive, initiated in early 2014, which senior US military commanders and members of the US House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a re-emergence of Sunni insurgents and al-Qaeda militants. SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

This territorial loss implied a failure of US foreign policy, and almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government that prompted renewal of US military action in Iraq.Current advances by Iraqi forces into ISIL-controlled territory are focused on Tikrit.The group has had various names since it was established.42 SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery

The group was founded in 1999 by Jordanian radical Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, under the name Jamāʻat al-Tawīd wa-al-Jihād, "The Organisation of Monotheism and Jihad" (JTJ).In October 2004, al-Zarqawi swore loyalty to Osama bin Laden and changed the group's name to Tanīm Qāʻidat al-Jihād fī Bilād al-Rāfidayn, "The Organisation of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery

commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq. (AQI). Although the group has never called itself al-Qaeda in Iraq, this has been its informal name over the years.In January 2006, AQI merged with several other Iraqi insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council.Al-Zarqawi was killed in June 2006. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

On 12 October 2006, the Mujahideen Shura Council merged with several more insurgent factions, and on 13 October the establishment of the Dawlah al-ʻIraq al-Islāmiyah, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), was announced.The leaders of this group were Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi and Abu Ayyub al-Masri. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

After they were killed in a U.S.–Iraqi operation in April 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadibecame the new leader of the group.On 8 April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, which more fully translates as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.These names are translations of the Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islāmīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-ShāmSONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery

al-Shām being a description of the Levant or Greater Syria.The translated names are commonly abbreviated as ISIL or ISIS, with a debate over which of these acronyms should be used.The Washington Post concluded that the distinction between the two "is not so great".The name Daʿish is often used by ISIL's Arabic-speaking detractors. Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

It is based on the Arabic letters Dāl, alif, ʻayn, and shīn, which form the acronym(داعش) of ISIL's Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām.5354 There are many spellings of this acronym, with DAESH gaining acceptance. ISIL considers the name Da'ish derogatory, because it sounds similar to the Arabic words Daes, "SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

one who crushes something underfoot", and Dahes, "one who sows discord".ISIL also reportedly uses flogging as a punishment for those who use the name in ISIL-controlled areas.On 14 May 2014, the United States Department of State announced its decision to use "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) as the group's primary name.However, in late 2014, top U.S. officials shifted toward DAESH, since it was the preferred term used by Arab partners.SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

On 29 June 2014, the group renamed itself the Islamic State (IS) and declared it was a worldwide "caliphate". "Accordingly, the 'Iraq and Shām' in the name of the Islamic State is henceforth removed from all official deliberations and communications, and the official name is the Islamic State from the date of this declaration." DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

This name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised, with the UN, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups refusing to use it.Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Jordanian Salafi Jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and his militant group Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, founded in 1999, achieved notoriety in the early stages of the Iraqi insurgency for the suicide attacks on Shia Islamic mosques, HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

civilians, Iraqi government institutions and Italian soldiers partaking in the U.S.-led 'Multi-National Force'. Al-Zarqawi's group officially pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network in October 2004, changing its name to Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidaynد "Organisation of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia"), also known as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

Attacks by the group on civilians, Iraqi Government and security forces, foreign diplomats and soldiers, and American convoys continued with roughly the same intensity. In a letter to al-Zarqawi in July 2005, al-Qaeda's deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri outlined a four-stage plan to expand the Iraq War. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

The plan included expelling U.S. forces from Iraq, establishing an Islamic authority as a caliphate, spreading the conflict to Iraq's secular neighbours, and clashing with Israel, which the letter says "was established only to challenge any new Islamic entity".Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

In January 2006, AQI joined hands with several smaller Iraqi insurgent groups under an umbrella organisation called the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC). This was claimed by Brian Fishman in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science to be little more than a media exercise and an attempt to give the group a more Iraqi flavour and perhaps to distance al-Qaeda from some of al-Zarqawi's tactical errors, HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard

more notably the 2005 bombings by AQI of three hotels in Amman. On 7 June 2006, a U.S. air-strike killed al-Zarqawi, who was succeeded as leader of the group by the Egyptian militant Abu Ayyub al-Masri.On 12 October 2006, MSC united with three smaller groups and six Sunni Islamic tribes to form the "Mutayibeen Coalition". DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard

It swore by Allah "...to rid Sunnis from the oppression of the rejectionists (Shi'ite Muslims) and the crusader occupiers, ... to restore rights even at the price of our own lives... to make Allah's word supreme in the world, and to restore the glory of Islam...".A day later, MSC declared the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), which should comprise Iraq's six mostly Sunni Arab governorates,with Abu Omar al-Baghdadi being announced as its Emir. Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard

Al-Masri was given the title of Minister of War within the ISI's ten-member cabinet.According to a study compiled by U.S. intelligence agencies in early 2007, the ISI – also known as AQI – planned to seize power in the central and western areas of the country and turn it into a Sunni Islamic state.HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard

The group built in strength and at its height enjoyed a significant presence in the Iraqi governorates of Al Anbar, Diyala and Baghdad, and claimed Baqubah as a capital city.The U.S. troops surge of 2007 supplied the U.S. military with more manpower for operations targeting the group, resulting in dozens of high-level AQI members being captured or killed.DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

Between July and October 2007, al-Qaeda in Iraq or ISI seemed to have lost their secure military bases in Anbar province and theBaghdad area.During 2008, a series of U.S. and Iraqi offensives managed to drive out the AQI-aligned insurgents from their former safe havens, such as the Diyala and Al Anbar governorates, to the area of the northern city of Mosul, the latest major battleground against ISI.DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

By 2008, the ISI was describing itself as being in a state of "extraordinary crisis".Its violent attempts to govern its territory led to a backlashfrom Sunni Iraqis and other insurgent groups and a temporary decline in the group, which was attributable to a number of factors,notably the Anbar Awakening.In late 2009, the commander of the U.S. forces in Iraq, General Ray Odierno, stated that the ISI "has transformed significantly in the last two years. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Laptop Keyboard

What once was dominated by foreign individuals has now become more and more dominated by Iraqi citizens". On 18 April 2010, the ISI's two top leaders, Abu Ayyub al-Masri andAbu Omar al-Baghdadi, were killed in a joint U.S.-Iraqi raid near Tikrit. In a press conference in June 2010, General Odierno reported that 80% of the ISI's top 42 leaders, including recruiters and financiers, had been killed or captured, with only eight remaining at large. SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard

He said that they had been cut off from al-Qaeda's leadership in Pakistan.On 16 May 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed as the new leader of the Islamic State of Iraq.Al-Baghdadi replenished the group's leadership, many of whom had been killed or captured, by appointing former Ba'athist military and intelligence officers who had served during the Saddam Hussein regime.Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

These men, nearly all of whom had spent time imprisoned by the U.S. military, came to make up about one-third of Baghdadi's top 25 commanders. One of them was a former Colonel, Samir al-Khlifawi, also known as Haji Bakr, who became the overall military commander in charge of overseeing the group's operations.Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

In July 2012, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement online announcing that the group was returning to the former strongholds from which U.S. troops and theirSunni allies had driven them in 2007 and 2008.99 He also declared the start of a new offensive in Iraq called Breaking the Walls, aimed at freeing members of the group held in Iraqi prisons.HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

Violence in Iraq had begun to escalate in June 2012, primarily by AQI's car bomb attacks, and by July 2013, monthly fatalities had exceeded 1,000 for the first time since April 2008.In March 2011, protests began in Syria against the government of Bashar al-Assad. In the following months, violence between demonstrators and security forces led to a gradual militarisation of the conflict.HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

In August 2011, al-Baghdadi began sending Syrian and Iraqi ISI members experienced in guerilla warfare across the border into Syria to establish an organisation inside the country. Led by a Syrian known as Abu Muhammad al-Julani, this group began to recruit fighters and establish cells throughout the country.On 23 January 2012, the group announced its formation as Jabhat al-Nusra li Ahl as-Sham—Jabhat al-Nusra—more commonly known as the al-Nusra Front. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

Al-Nusra grew rapidly into a capable fighting force, with popular support among Syrians opposed to the Assad government.On 8 April 2013, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement in which he announced that the al-Nusra Front had been established, financed, and supported by the Islamic State of Iraq, and that the two groups were merging under the name "Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham". HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

Al-Jawlani issued a statement denying the merger, and complaining that neither he nor anyone else in al-Nusra's leadership had been consulted about it.In June 2013, Al Jazeera reported that it had obtained a letter written by al-Qaeda's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, addressed to both leaders, in which he ruled against the merger, and appointed an emissary to oversee relations between them to put an end to tensions.HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

6 The same month, al-Baghdadi released an audio message rejecting al-Zawahiri's ruling and declaring that the merger was going ahead.The ISIL campaign to free imprisoned ISIL members culminated in July 2013, with the group carrying out simultaneous raids on Taji and Abu Ghraib prison, freeing more than 500 prisoners, many of them veterans of the Iraqi insurgency. FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

In October 2013, al-Zawahiri ordered the disbanding of ISIL, putting al-Nusra Front in charge of jihadist efforts in Syria,but al-Baghdadi contested al-Zawahiri's ruling on the basis of Islamic jurisprudence, and his group continued to operate in Syria. In February 2014, after an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda disavowed any relations with ISIL.Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

According to journalist Sarah Birke, there are "significant differences" between the al-Nusra Front and ISIL. While al-Nusra actively calls for the overthrow of the Assad government, ISIL "tends to be more focused on establishing its own rule on conquered territory". ISIL is "far more ruthless" in building an Islamic state, "carrying out sectarian attacks and imposing sharia law immediately". HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

While al-Nusra has a "large contingent of foreign fighters", it is seen as a home-grown group by many Syrians; by contrast, ISIL fighters have been described as "foreign 'occupiers'" by many Syrian refugees.110 It has a strong presence in central and northern Syria, where it has instituted sharia in a number of towns.Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

The group reportedly controlled the four border towns of Atmeh, al-Bab, Azaz and Jarablus, allowing it to control the entrance and exit from Syria into Turkey.Foreign fighters in Syria include Russian-speaking jihadists who were part of Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar (JMA).In November 2013, the JMA's Chechen leader Abu Omar al-Shishani swore an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi;DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

the group then split between those who followed al-Shishani in joining ISIL and those who continued to operate independently in the JMA under new leadership.In January 2014, rebels affiliated with the Islamic Front and the U.S.-trained Free Syrian Army launched an offensive against ISIL militants in and around the city of Aleppo in Syria.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

In May 2014, Ayman al-Zawahiri ordered al-Nusra Front to stop its attacks on its rival, ISIL.In June 2014, after continued fighting between the two groups, al-Nusra's branch in the Syrian town of Al-Bukamal pledged allegiance to ISIL. In mid-June 2014, ISIL captured the Trabil crossing on the Jordan–Iraq border,the only border crossing between the two countries. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

ISIL has received some public support in Jordan, albeit limited, partly owing to state repression there,but ISIL has undertaken a recruitment drive in Saudi Arabia,where tribes in the north are linked to those in western Iraq and eastern Syria.

On 29 June 2014, the organisation proclaimed a Worldwide Caliphate. HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi—known by his supporters as Amir al-Mu'minin, Caliph Ibrahim—was named its Caliph, and the group renamed itself the "Islamic State". As a "Caliphate," it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslimsworldwide.The concept of a Caliphate and the name "Islamic State" has been rejected by governments and Muslim leaders worldwide. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

In June and July 2014, Jordan and Saudi Arabia moved troops to their borders with Iraq, after Iraq lost control of, or withdrew from, strategic crossing points that had then come under the control of ISIL, or tribes that supported ISIL. There was speculation that Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki had ordered a withdrawal of troops from the Iraq–Saudi crossings in order "to increase pressure on Saudi Arabia and bring the threat of ISIS over-running its borders as well".HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

In July 2014, ISIL recruited more than 6,300 fighters, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, some of whom were thought to have previously fought for the Free Syrian Army.Also, on 23 July 2014, Abu Sayyaf leader Isnilon Hapilon swore loyalty to al-Baghdadi in a video, along with the rest of the organisation, giving ISIL a presence in the Philippines.  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

In September 2014, the group began kidnapping people for ransoming, in the name of ISIL.On 3 August 2014, ISIL captured the cities of Zumar, Sinjar, and Wana in northern Iraq.The need for food and water for thousands of Yazidis, who fled up a mountain out of fear of approaching hostile ISIL militants, and the threat of genocide to Yazidis and others as announced by ISIL,  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

in addition to protecting Americans in Iraq and supporting Iraq in its fight against the group, were reasons for the U.S. to launch a humanitarian mission on 7 August 2014, to aid the Yazidis stranded on Mount Sinjar and to start an aerial bombing campaign in Iraq on 8 August. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

On 11 October 2014, ISIL dispatched 10,000 militants from Syria and Mosul to capture the Iraqi capital city of Baghdad, and Iraqi Army forces and Anbar tribesmen threatened to abandon their weapons if the U.S. did not send in ground troops to halt ISIL's advance.On 13 October, ISIL fighters advanced to within 25 kilometres—15.5 miles—of Baghdad Airport.Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

At the end of October 2014, 800 radical militants gained control of the Libyan city of Derna and pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, thus making Derna the first city outside Syria and Iraq to be a part of the "Islamic State Caliphate." On 2 November 2014, according to the Associated Press, in response to the coalition airstrikes, representatives from Ahrar ash-Sham attended a meeting with the al-Nusra Front, HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

the Khorasan Group, ISIL, and Jund al-Aqsa, which sought to unite these hard-line groups against the U.S.-led coalition and moderate Syrian rebel groups.However, by 14 November 2014, it was revealed that the negotiations had failed. On 10 November 2014, a major faction of the Egyptian militant groupAnsar Bait al-Maqdis also pledged its allegiance to ISIL. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

In mid-January 2015, a Yemeni official said that ISIL had "dozens" of members in Yemen, and that they were coming into direct competition with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula with their recruitment drive.In January 2015, Afghan officials confirmed that ISIL had a military presence in Afghanistan, recruiting over 135 militants by late January. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

However, by the end of January 2015, 65 of the militants were either captured or killed by the Taliban, and ISIL's top Afghan recruiter, Mullah Abdul Rauf, was killed in a U.S. drone strike in February 2015.In late January 2015, it was revealed that ISIL members infiltrated the European Union and disguised themselves as civilian refugees who were emigrating from the war zones of Iraq and the Levant.ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

An ISIL representative said that ISIL had successfully smuggled 4,000 fighters, and that the smuggled fighters were planning attacks in Europe in retaliation for the airstrikes carried out against ISIL targets in Iraq and Syria. However, experts believe that the claim of 4,000 was exaggerated to boost their stature and spread fear, although they acknowledged that some Western countries were aware of the smuggling. LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

In early February 2015, ISIL militants in Libya managed to capture part of the countryside to the west of Sabha, and later, an area encompassing the cities ofSirte, Nofolia, and a military base to the south of both cities.In February 2015, it was reported that the majority of Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen had dissented from al-Qaeda and pledged allegiance to ISIL. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

On 16 February 2015, Egypt began conducting airstrikes in Libya, in retaliation against ISIL's beheading of 21 Egyptian Christians. By the end of that day, 64 ISIL militants in Libya had been killed by the airstrikes, including 50 militants in Derna.By early March 2015, ISIL had captured additional territory in Libya, including a city to the west of Derna, COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

additional areas near Sirte, a stretch of land in southern Libya, some areas near Benghazi, and an area to the east of Tripoli.On 7 March 2015, Boko Haram swore formal allegiance to ISIL, giving ISIL an official presence in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon.On 13 March 2015, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan swore allegiance to ISIL. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

On 30 March 2015, Ansar al-Sharia in Libya and its leader, Abdullah Al-Libi, pledged allegiance to ISIL.From at least since 2004, a significant goal of the group has been the foundation of an Islamic state. Specifically, ISIL has sought to establish itself as a Caliphate, an Islamic state led by a group of religious authorities under a supreme leader—the Caliph—who is believed to be the successor to Muhammad. HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

In June 2014, ISIL published a document in which it claimed to have traced the lineage of its leader al-Baghdadi back to Muhammad,and upon proclaiming a new Caliphate on 29 June, the group appointed al-Baghdadi as its caliph. As Caliph, he demands the allegiance of all devout Muslims worldwide, according to Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh).HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

When the Caliphate was proclaimed, ISIL stated: "The legality of all emirates, groups, states and organisations becomes null by the expansion of the khilafah's caliphate's authority and arrival of its troops to their areas."155 This was a rejection of the political divisions in the Middle East that were established by Western powers during World War I in the Sykes–Picot Agreement. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

In late 2014, a member of ISIL claimed that they would humiliate U.S. soldiers in Syria and raise the "flag of Allah" over the White House.The same member also threatened to "liberate" Istanbul if Turkey did not open a dam that has been limiting the flow of water to Syria and Iraq.Recruits are encouraged to "set out in jihad" if they "desire what God had promised."SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

Speaking to Westerners, one fighter from Belgium said, "God willing, the Caliphate has been established and we are going to invade you as you invaded us. We will capture your women as you captured our women. We will orphan your children as you orphaned our children."ISIL is a Salafi group.It follows an extreme interpretation of Islam, promotes religious violence, and regards those who do not agree with its interpretations as infidels or apostates.DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

ISIL has demonstrated that ideology and adherence to Islamic beliefs and laws are secondary to its criminal financial enterprises supporting the group's activities.According to Hayder al Khoei, ISIL's philosophy is represented by the symbolism in the Black Standard variant of the legendary battle flag of Muhammad that it has adopted: HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

the flag shows the Seal of Muhammad within a white circle, with the phrase above it, "There is no God but Allah". Such symbolism has been said to point to ISIL's belief that it represents the restoration of the caliphate of early Islam, with all the political, religious and eschatological ramifications that this would imply.Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

Saudi Arabia was criticised by Noam Chomsky in October 2014 of having "long been the major source of funding for ISIS as well as providing its ideological roots" (i.e. Salafism or Wahhabism).According to Owen Jones at The Guardian, "Salafists across the Middle East receive ideological and material backing from within the kingdom" of Saudi Arabia, and America knows this, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

with Hillary Clinton having called Saudi donors "the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide".Some people in Saudi Arabia applaud ISIL for fighting Iranian Shi'ite"fire" with Sunni "fire".According to some observers, ISIL emerged from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, the first post-Ottoman Islamist group dating back to the late 1920s in Egypt.DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

It adheres to global jihadist principles and follows the hard-line ideology of al-Qaeda and many other modern-day jihadist groups.However, other sources trace the group's roots not to the Islamism of the Muslim Brotherhood and the more mainstream jihadism of al-Qaeda, but to Wahhabism. The New York Times wrote: HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

For their guiding principles, the leaders of the Islamic State ... are open and clear about their almost exclusive commitment to the Wahhabi movement of Sunni Islam. The group circulates images of Wahhabi religious textbooks from Saudi Arabia in the schools it controls. Videos from the group’s territory have shown Wahhabi texts plastered on the sides of an official missionary van. SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

ISIL aims to return to the early days of Islam, rejecting all innovations in the religion, which it believes corrupts its original spirit. It condemns later caliphates and the Ottoman Empire for deviating from what it calls pure Islam, and seeks to revive the original Wahhabi project of the restoration of the caliphate governed by strict Salafist doctrine. HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

Following Salafi-Wahhabi tradition, ISIL condemns the followers of secular law as disbelievers, putting the current Saudi government in that category.Salafists such as ISIL believe that only a legitimate authority can undertake the leadership of jihad, and that the first priority over other areas of combat, such as fighting non-Muslim countries, is the purification of Islamic society.Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

For example, ISIL regards the Palestinian Sunni group Hamas as apostates who have no legitimate authority to lead jihad and it regards fighting Hamas as the first step toward confrontation with Israel.One difference between ISIL and other Islamist and jihadist movements is its emphasis on eschatology and apocalypticism, and its belief that the arrival of theMahdi is imminent.SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

ISIL believes it will defeat the army of "Rome" at the town of Dabiq in fulfilment of prophecy.According to The New York Times, "All of the most influential jihadist theorists are criticizing the Islamic State as deviant, calling its self-proclaimed caliphate null and void" and have denounced it for its beheading of journalists and aid workers.Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

ISIL is widely denounced by a broad range of Islamic clerics, including al-Qaeda-oriented and Saudi clerics.Sunni critics, including Salafi and jihadist muftis such as Adnan al-Aroor and Abu Basir al-Tartusi, say that ISIL and related terrorist groups are not Sunnis, but modern-day Khawarij—Muslims who have stepped outside the mainstream of Islam—serving an imperial anti-Islamic agenda. HP G71-340US CPU Fan

Other critics of ISIL's brand of Sunni Islam include Salafists who previously publicly supported jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda, for example the Saudi government official Saleh Al-Fawzan, known for his extremist views, who claims that ISIL is a creation of "Zionists, Crusaders and Safavids", and the Jordanian-Palestinian writer Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

the former spiritual mentor to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who was released from prison in Jordan in June 2014 and accuses ISIL of driving a wedge between Muslims.In Iraq and Syria, ISIL uses many of the existing Governorate boundaries to subdivide its claimed territory; it calls these divisions wilayah or provinces.HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

As of February 2015, it claims a total 24 provincial divisions divided between Iraq, Syria, Libya, Egypt (Sinai Peninsula), Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Algeria, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Of these countries, it controls territoryin Iraq, Syria, Sinai, and eastern Libya.ISIL also has members in Morocco, Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Israel and Palestine, but it does not control territory in these areas. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

ISIL divides Libya into three historical provinces, claiming authority over Cyrenaica in the east, Fezzan in the desert south, andTripolitania in the west, around the capital.On 5 October 2014, the Shura Council of Islamic Youth and other militants in Libya were absorbed and designated the Cyrenaica Province of ISIL. There are 800 fighters reported to be operating within Libya.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

The Libyan branch of ISIL has been the most active and successful out of all the ISIL branches outside of Iraq and Syria. They appear to be active mainly in the eastern urban centres of Derna and Benghazi. ISIL forces in Libya have also seized control of the city of Derna.On 4 January 2015, ISIL forces in Libya seized control of the eastern countryside of Sabha, executing 14 Libyan soldiers in the process. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

On 30 March 2015, Ansar al-Sharia in Libya and its leader, Abdullah Al-Libi, pledged allegiance to ISIL, boosting the group's membership there to 1,300–8,000 fighters.On 10 November 2014, many members of the group Ansar Bait al-Maqdis took an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIL. ISIL supporters from the group describe themselves as "Sinai Province" (Arabic: ولاية سيناء‎ Wilayat Sinai). HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

A faction of the Sinai group also operates in the Gaza Strip, which has renamed itself to the Islamic State in Gaza.When Ansar Bait al-Maqdis was dissolved, a large Sinai-based part of the group pledging allegiance to ISIL assumed the designation Sinai Province of ISIL.They are estimated to have 1,000–2,000 fighters.

Members of Jund al-Khilafah swore allegiance to ISIL in September 2014. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

ISIL in Algeria gained notoriety when it beheaded French tourist Herve Gourdel in September 2014. Since then, the group has largely been silent, with reports that its leader Khalid Abu-Sulayman was killed by Algerian forces in December 2014.

In November 2014, Jundallah,Tehreek-e-Khilafat, and Jamaat-ul-Ahrar pledged allegiance to ISIL, giving the organization an active presence in Pakistan. HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

However, on 12 March 2015, Jamaat-ul-Ahrar left ISIL and rejoined Tehrik-i-Taliban.On 29 January 2015, Hafiz Saeed Khan and Abdul Rauf swore an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIL. Khan was named as the Wāli (Governor) of the Wilayat (Province) and Rauf as his deputy. The province includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, and "other nearby lands".Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

On 9 February 2015, Mullah Abdul Rauf was killed by a NATO airstrike.202 On 18 March 2015, Hafiz Wahidi, ISIL's replacement deputy Emir in Afghanistan, was killed by the Afghan Armed Forces, along with 9 other ISIL militants who were accompanying him.On 13 March 2015, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan swore allegiance to ISIL. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

On 13 November 2014, unidentified militants in Yemen pledged allegiance to ISIL, who were designated as part of the Sanaa Province in Yemen, which was named after the Yemeni capital city of Sana'a. By December 2014, it was revealed that ISIL already had an active presence inside of Yemen, with their recruitment drive bringing them into direct competition with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

By February 2015, the majority of the non-AQAP members of Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen had pledged allegiance to ISIL, boosting the groups's presence to hundreds of fighters.The group is headed and run by al-Baghdadi, with a cabinet of advisers. There are two deputy leaders, Abu Muslim al-Turkmani (KIA) for Iraq andAbu Ali al-Anbari for Syria, and 12 local governors in Iraq and Syria. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Beneath the leaders are councils on finance, leadership, military matters, legal matters—including decisions on executions—foreign fighters' assistance, security, intelligence and media. In addition, a Shuracouncil has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group's interpretation of sharia. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

The majority of the ISIL's leadership is dominated by Iraqis, especially among former members of Saddam Hussein's regime. It has been reported that Iraqis and Syrians have been given greater precedence over other nationalities within ISIL.The Wall Street Journal estimated in September 2014 that eight million Iraqis and Syrians live in areas controlled by ISIL. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Ar-Raqqah in Syria is the de facto headquarters, and is said to be a test case of ISIL governance.As of September 2014, governance in Ar-Raqqah has been under the total control of ISIL where it has rebuilt the structure of modern government in less than a year. Former government workers from the Assad government maintained their jobs after pledging allegiance to ISIL. Institutions, restored and restructured, provided their respective services. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

The Ar-Raqqah dam continues to provide electricity and water. Foreign expertise supplements Syrian officials in running civilian institutions. Only the police and soldiers are ISIL fighters, who receive confiscated lodging previously owned by non-Sunnis and others who fled. Welfare services are provided, price controls established, and taxes imposed on the wealthy.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

ISIL runs a soft power programme in the areas under its control in Iraq and Syria, which includes social services, religious lectures and da'wah—proselytising—to local populations. It also performs public services such as repairing roads and maintaining the electricity supply.British security expert Frank Gardner has concluded that ISIL's prospects of maintaining control and rule are greater in 2014 than they were in 2006. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Despite being as brutal as before, ISIL has become "well entrenched" among the population and is not likely to be dislodged by ineffective Syrian or Iraqi forces. It has replaced corrupt governance with functioning locally controlled authorities, services have been restored and there are adequate supplies of water and oil. With Western-backed intervention being unlikely, Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

the group will "continue to hold their ground" and rule an area "the size of Pennsylvania for the foreseeable future", he said.Further solidifying ISIL rule is the control of wheat production, which is roughly 40% of Iraq's production. ISIL has maintained food production, crucial to governance and popular support. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

Although the Isil attracts extremists from different parts of the world by promoting the image of holy war, not all of them end up in combatant roles. There have been several cases of new recruits who expected to be mujihadeen that returned from Syria disappointed by the everyday jobs that had been assigned to them, like drawing water or cleaning toilets, or by the ban imposed on use of mobile phones during military training sessions.220 Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

ISIL also publishes material directed to women. Although women are not allowed to take up arms, media groups encourage them to play supportive roles within ISIL: providing first aid, cooking, nursing and sewing, to become "good wives of jihad".The United Nations Security Council in its Resolution 1267 (1999) described Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda associates as operators of a network of terrorist training camps.SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

The UN's Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee first listed ISIL in its Sanctions List under the name "Al-Qaida in Iraq" on 18 October 2004, as an entity/group associated with al-Qaeda. On 2 June 2014, the group was added to its listing under the name "Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant". The European Unionadopted the UN Sanctions List in 2002.SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

Many world leaders and government spokespeople have called ISIL a terrorist group or banned it, without their countries having formally designated it as such. Some examples:

The Government of Germany banned ISIL in September 2014. Activities banned include donations to the group, recruiting fighters, holding ISIL meetings and distributing its propaganda, flying ISIL flags, wearing ISIL symbols and all ISIL activities. Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

“The terror organisation Islamic State is a threat to public safety in Germany as well,” de Mazière said. “Today’s ban is directed solely against terrorists who abuse religion for their criminal goals.” The ban does not mean ISIL has been outlawed as a foreign terrorist organisation, as that requires a court judgement.In October 2014, Switzerland banned ISIL's activities in the country, including propaganda and financial support of the fighters, with prison sentences as potential penalties.SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

In mid-December 2014, India banned ISIL, after arresting the operator of a pro-ISIL Twitter account.Media sources worldwide have also called ISIL a terrorist organisation.In July 2014, the BBC reported the United Nations' chief investigator as stating: "Fighters from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) may be added to a list of war crimes suspects in Syria." HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

By June 2014, according to United Nations reports, ISIL had killed hundreds of prisoners of war and over 1,000 civilians. In August 2014, the UN accused ISIL of committing "mass atrocities" and war crimes,including the mass killing of up to 250 Syrian Army soldiers near Tabqa Air base. Other known killings of military prisoners took place in Camp Speicher, HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

where 1,095–1,700 Iraqi soldiers were shot and "thousands" more went "missing",and the Shaer gas field, where 200 Syrian soldiers were shot. Navi Pillay, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, said that they were performing "widespread ethnic and religious cleansing in the areas under their control."HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

In early September 2014, the United Nations Human Rights Council agreed to send a team to Iraq and Syria to investigate the abuses and killings being carried out by the ISIL on "an unimaginable scale". Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad, the newly appointed UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, urged world leaders to step in to protect women and children suffering at the hands of ISIL militants, who he said were trying to create a "house of blood". Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

He appealed to the international community to concentrate its efforts on ending the conflict in Iraq and Syria.In November 2014, the UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria said that ISIL was committing crimes against humanity.A report by Human Rights Watch in November 2014 accused ISIL groups in control of Derna, Libya of war crimes and human rights abuses and of terrorising residents. DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

Human Rights Watch documented three apparent summary executions and at least ten public floggings by the Islamic Youth Shura Council, which joined ISIL in November. It also documented the beheading of three Derna residents and dozens of seemingly politically motivated assassinations of judges, public officials, members of the security forces and others. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Sarah Leah Watson, Director of HRW Middle East and North Africa, said: "Commanders should understand that they may face domestic or international prosecution for the grave rights abuses their forces are committing."Speaking of ISIL's methods, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights has stated that the group "seeks to subjugate civilians under its control and dominate every aspect of their lives through terror, indoctrination, and the provision of services to those who obey".HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

ISIL compels people in the areas that it controls to declare Islamic creed and live according to its interpretation of Sunni Islamand sharia law.There have been many reports of the group's use of death threats, torture and mutilation to compel conversion to Islam, and of clerics being killed for refusal to pledge allegiance to the so-called "Islamic State". HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

ISIL directs violence against Shia Muslims,indigenous Assyrian, Chaldean, Syriac and Armenian Christians, Yazidis, Druze, Shabaksand Mandeans in particular.Amnesty International has held ISIL responsible for the ethnic cleansing of ethnic and religious minority groups in northern Iraq on a "historic scale". SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

In a special report released on 2 September 2014, it describes how ISIL has "systematically targeted non-Arab and non-Sunni Muslim communities, killing or abducting hundreds, possibly thousands, and forcing more than 830,000 others to flee the areas it has captured since 10 June 2014". Among these people are Assyrian Christians,  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

Turkmen Shia, Shabak Shia, Yazidis,Kaka'i and Sabean Mandeans, who have lived together for centuries in Nineveh province, large parts of which are now under ISIL's control.Among the known killings of religious and minority group civilians carried out by ISIL are those in the villages and towns of Quiniyeh (70–90 Yazidis killed), Hardan (60 Yazidis killed), Sinjar (500–2,000 Yazidis killed), ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

Ramadi Jabal (60–70 Yazidis killed), Dhola (50 Yazidis killed), Khana Sor (100 Yazidis killed),Hardan (250–300 Yazidis killed), al-Shimal (dozens of Yazidis killed), Khocho (400 Yazidis killed and 1,000 abducted), Jadala (14 Yadizis killed) and Beshir (700 Shia Turkmen killed), and others committed near Mosul (670 Shia inmates of the Badush prison killed), and in Tal Afar prison, Iraq (200 Yazidis killed for refusing conversion).HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

2 The UN estimated that 5,000 Yazidis were killed by ISIL during the takeover of parts of northern Iraq in August 2014.In late May 2014, 150 Kurdish boys from Kobani aged 14–16 were abducted and subjected to torture and abuse, according to Human Rights Watch.In the Syrian towns of Ghraneij, Abu Haman and Kashkiyeh 700 members of the Sunni Al-Shaitat tribe were killed for attempting an uprising against ISIL control.276277 HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The UN reported that in June 2014 ISIL had killed a number of Sunni Islamic clerics who refused to pledge allegiance to it.Christians living in areas under ISIL control who want to remain in the "caliphate" face three options: converting to Islam, paying a religious levy—jizya—or death. "We offer them three choices: Islam; the dhimma contract – involving payment of jizya; if they refuse this they will have nothing but the sword", ISIL said.HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan

ISIL had already set similar rules for Christians in Ar-Raqqah, once one of Syria's more liberal cities.On 23 February 2015, in response to a major Kurdish offensive in the Al-Hasakah Governorate, ISIL abducted 150 Assyrian Christians from villages near near Tal Tamr (Tell Tamer) in northeastern Syria, after launching a large offensive in the region.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

During the Iraqi conflict in 2014, ISIL released dozens of videos showing its ill treatment of civilians, many of whom had apparently been targeted on the basis of their religion or ethnicity. Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, warned of war crimes being committed in the Iraqi war zone, and disclosed a UN report of ISIL militants murdering Iraqi Army soldiers and 17 civilians in a single street in Mosul. DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan

The UN reported that in the 17 days from 5 to 22 June, ISIL killed more than 1,000 Iraqi civilians and injured more than 1,000.After ISIL released photographs of its fighters shooting scores of young men, the UN declared that cold-blooded "executions" by militants in northern Iraq almost certainly amounted to war crimes.ISIL's advance in Iraq in mid-2014 was accompanied by continuing violence in Syria. HP 550 CPU Fan

On 29 May, ISIL raided a village in Syria and at least 15 civilians were killed, including, according to Human Rights Watch, at least six children.A hospital in the area confirmed that it had received 15 bodies on the same day. TheSyrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that on 1 June, a 102-year-old man was killed along with his whole family in a village in Hama province.HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

According to Reuters, 1,878 people were killed in Syria by ISIL during the last six months of 2014, most of them civilians.In Mosul, ISIL has implemented a sharia school curriculum which bans the teaching of art, music, national history, literature and Christianity. DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan

Although Charles Darwin's theory of evolution has never been taught in Iraqi schools, the subject has been banned from the school curriculum. Patriotic songs have been declared blasphemous, and orders have been given to remove certain pictures from school textbooks. Iraqi parents have largely boycotted schools in which the new curriculum has been introduced.After capturing cities in Iraq, ISIL issued guidelines on how to wear clothes and veils. HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan

ISIL warned women in the city of Mosul to wear full-face veils or face severe punishment.A cleric told Reuters in Mosul that ISIL gunmen had ordered him to read out the warning in his mosque when worshippers gathered. ISIL ordered the faces of both male and female mannequins to be covered, in an order which also banned the use of naked mannequins.Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan

In Ar-Raqqah the group uses its two battalions of female fighters in the city to enforce compliance by women with its strict laws on individual conduct.ISIL released 16 notes labelled "Contract of the City", a set of rules aimed at civilians in Nineveh. One rule stipulated that women should stay at home and not go outside unless necessary. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Another rule said that stealing would be punished by amputation.In addition to the Muslim custom of banning the sale and use of alcohol, ISIL has banned the sale and use of cigarettes and hookah pipes. It has also banned "music and songs in cars, at parties, in shops and in public, as well as photographs of people in shop windows".HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

According to The Economist, dissidents in the ISIL capital of Ar-Raqqah report that "all 12 of the judges who now run its court system ... are Saudis". Saudi practices also followed by the group include the establishment of religious police to root out "vice" and enforce attendance at salat prayers, the widespread use of capital punishment, and the destruction of Christian churches and non-Sunni mosques or their conversion to other uses. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

ISIL carried out executions on both men and women who were accused of various acts and found guilty of crimes against Islam such as homosexuality, adultery, watching pornography, usage and possession of contraband, rape, blasphemy, renouncing Islam and murder. Before the accused are executed their charges are read toward them and the spectators.  HP 489126-001 CPU Fan

Executions take various forms, including stoning to death, crucifixions, beheadings, burning people alive, and throwing people from tall buildings.

ISIL has recruited Iraqi children as young as nine to its ranks, who can be seen with masks on their faces and guns in their hands patrolling the streets of Mosul.HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan

According to a report by the magazine Foreign Policy, children as young as six are recruited or kidnapped and sent to military and religious training camps, where they practise beheading with dolls and are indoctrinated with the religious views of ISIL. Children are used as human shields on front lines and to provide blood transfusions for Islamic State soldiers, according to Shelly Whitman of the Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative. ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

The second instalment of a Vice News documentary about ISIL focused on how the group is specifically grooming children for the future. A spokesman told VICE News that those under the age of 15 go to sharia camp to learn about religion, while those older than 16 can go to military training camp. Children are also used for propaganda. According to a UN report, "FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series CPU Fan

In mid-August, ISIL entered a cancer hospital in Mosul, forced at least two sick children to hold the ISIL flag and posted the pictures on the internet." Misty Buswell, a Save the Children representative working with refugees in Jordan, said, "It's not an exaggeration to say we could lose a whole generation of children to trauma."

There are many reports of sexual abuse and enslavement in ISIL controlled areas of women and girls, predominantly from the minority Christian and Yazidi communities. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

According to one report, ISIL's capture of Iraqi cities in June 2014 was accompanied by an upsurge in crimes against women, including kidnap and rape. The Guardian reported that ISIL's extremist agenda extended to women's bodies and that women living under their control were being captured and raped.Fighters are told that they are free to have sex with or rape non-Muslim captive women. Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

A Baghdad-based women's rights activist, Basma al-Khateeb, said that a culture of violence existed in Iraq against women generally and felt sure that sexual violence against women was happening in Mosul involving not only ISIL but all armed groups.During a meeting with Nouri al-Maliki, British Foreign Minister William Hague said with regard to ISIL: HP Pavilion dv7-4070us CPUFan

"Anyone glorifying, supporting or joining it should understand that they would be assisting a group responsible for kidnapping, torture, executions, rape and many other hideous crimes".According to Martin Williams in The Citizen, some hard-line Salafists apparently regard extramarital sex with multiple partners as a legitimate form of holy war and it is "difficult to reconcile this with a religion where some adherents insist that women must be covered from head to toe, with only a narrow slit for the eyes".HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

Haleh Esfandiari from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars has highlighted the abuse of local women by ISIL militants after they have captured an area. "They usually take the older women to a makeshift slave market and try to sell them. The younger girls ... are raped or married off to fighters", she said, adding, "It's based on temporary marriages, ACER Aspire 4820T Series CPUFan

and once these fighters have had sex with these young girls, they just pass them on to other fighters."Speaking ofYazidi women captured by ISIL, Nazand Begikhani said, "These women have been treated like cattle... They have been subjected to physical and sexual violence, including systematic rape and sex slavery. They've been exposed in markets in Mosul and in Raqqa, Syria, carrying price tags."HP Pavilion dv7-3007tx CPUFan

Yazidi girls in Iraq allegedlyraped by ISIL fighters have committed suicide by jumping to their death from Mount Sinjar, as described in a witness statement.A United Nations report issued on 2 October 2014, based on 500 interviews with witnesses, said that ISIL took 450–500 women and girls to Iraq's Nineveh region in August, where "150 unmarried girls and women, Dell Latitude E6510 CPUFan

predominantly from the Yazidi and Christian communities, were reportedly transported to Syria, either to be given to ISIL fighters as a reward or to be sold as sex slaves". In mid-October, the UN confirmed that 5,000–7,000 Yazidi women and children had been abducted by ISIL and sold into slavery.In November 2014 The New York Times reported on the accounts given by five who escaped ISIL of their captivity and abuse.HP Envy 17 Series CPUFan

In December 2014, the Iraqi Ministry of Human Rights announced that ISIL had killed over 150 women and girls in Fallujah who refused to participate in sexual jihad.Non-Muslim women have reportedly been married off to fighters against their will. ISIL claims the women provide the new converts and children necessary to spread ISIL's control. Toshiba Satellite A135-S4499 CPUFan

Shortly after the death of US hostage Kayla Mueller was confirmed on 10 February 2015, several media outlets reported that the US intelligence community believed she may have been given as a wife to an ISIL fighter. In its digital magazine Dabiq, ISIL explicitly claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women. HP 441137-001 CPUFan

According to The Wall Street Journal, ISIL appeals to apocalyptic beliefs and claims "justification by a Hadith that they interpret as portraying the revival of slavery as a precursor to the end of the world".339 ISIL appeals to the Hadith and Qur'an when claiming the right to enslave and rape captive non-Muslim women.According to Dabiq,HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPUFan

enslaving the families of the kuffar and taking their women as concubines is a firmly established aspect of the Sharia's that if one were to deny or mock, he would be denying or mocking the verses of the Qur'an and the narration of the Prophet ... and thereby apostatizing from Islam." Captured Yazidi women and children are divided among the fighters who captured them, with one fifth taken as a tax.ACER eMachines G620 Series CPUFan

ISIL has received widespread criticism from Muslim scholars and others in the Muslim world for using part of the Qur'an to derive a ruling in isolation, rather than considering the entire Qur'an and Hadith. According to Mona Siddiqui, ISIL's "narrative may well be wrapped up in the familiar language of jihad and 'fighting in the cause of Allah',  TOSHIBA UDQFRZH05C1N CPUFan

but it amounts to little more than destruction of anything and anyone who doesn't agree with them"; she describes ISIL as reflecting a "lethal mix of violence and sexual power" and a "deeply flawed view of manhood".Dabiq describes "this large-scale enslavement" of non-Muslims as "probably the first since the abandonment of Shariah law". Compaq Presario C714NR CPUFan

In late 2014, ISIL released a pamphlet that focused on the treatment of female slaves.It claims that the Quran allows fighters to have sex with captives, including adolescent girls, and to beat slaves as discipline. The pamphlet's guidelines also allow fighters to trade slaves, including for sex, as long as they have not been impregnated by their owner.  DELL DFS531205PC0T(F6K2-CCW) CPUFan

The Islamic state justifies sexual slavery by quoting Quran It is permissible to have sexual intercourse with the female captive. Allah the almighty said: 'Successful are the believers who guard their chastity, except from their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands possess, for then they are free from blame. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

Charlie Winter, a researcher at the counter-extremist think tankQuilliam, described the pamphlet as "abhorent". In response to this document Abbas Barzegar, a religion professor at Georgia State University, said Muslims around the world find ISIL's "alien interpretation of Islam grotesque and abhorrent". HP G42-221BR CPUFan

Muslim leaders and scholars from around the world have rejected the validity of these claims, claiming that the reintroduction of slavery is un-Islamic, that they are required to protect 'People of the Scripture' including Christians, Jews, Muslims and Yazidis, and that ISIL's fatwas are invalid due to their lack of religious authority and the fatwas' inconsistency with Islam. HP KSB06105HA CPUFan

The Committee to Protect Journalists states: "Without a free press, few other human rights are attainable."ISIL has tortured and murdered local journalists,352353 creating what Reporters Without Borders calls "news blackholes" in areas controlled by ISIL. ISIL fighters have reportedly been given written directions to kill or capture journalists.DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboardHP Pavilion dv5-1233se laptop keyboardHP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

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