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Israel Institute of Technology The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (Hebrew: הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל‎) is a public research university in Haifa, Israel. Founded in 1912, Technion is the oldest university in Israel. The university offers degrees in science and engineering, and related fields such as architecture, medicine, industrial management and education. It has 18 academic departments and 52 research centers. Since its founding, it has awarded 95,821 degrees and its graduates are cited to have provided the skills and education behind the creation and protection of the State of Israel.[1][2]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard The university's principal language of instruction is Hebrew, and Technion was the scene of a critical struggle over the language of instruction which helped consolidate Hebrew as the spoken language in the State of Israel.[3] Technion's 616 faculty members include three Nobel Laureates in chemistry. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard On December 19, 2011, a bid by a consortium of Cornell University and Technion won a competition to establish a new high-tier applied science and engineering institution in New York City. The competition was established by New York City MayorMichael Bloomberg in order to increase entrepreneurship and job growth in the city's technology sector. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The winning bid consisted of a 2.1 million square feet state-of-the-art tech campus being built on Roosevelt Island, which will have its first phase completed by 2017, with a temporary off-site campus opening in 2012.[4] The new 'School of Genius' in New York City has been named the Technion Cornell Institute of Innovation (TCII).[5] This is the first time any Israeli university has moved into establishing a center of global advanced research in the United States. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard The President of the Technion is Prof. Peretz Lavie, who was ranked in 2012 by the Israeli national newspaper The Markeras among the country's 100 most influential people.[6] The Technion was conceived in the early 1900s by the German-Jewish fund Ezrah, as a school of engineering and sciences. It was to be the only institution of higher learning in the then Ottoman Palestine, other than the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem (founded in 1907). Its cornerstone was laid in 1912, and studies began 12 years later in 1924. The Technion witnessed Israel's "battle of the languages": an intense debate over the language of instruction. HP 496121-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1923, Albert Einstein visited the Technion. During his visit, he planted a now-famous first palm tree, as an initiative of Nobel tradition. The first palm tree still stands today in front of the old Technion building in Hadar. Einstein founded the first Technion Society, and served as its President upon his return to Germany after his visit to the Technion campus. HP NSK-H7A01 Laptop Keyboard As the university matures, the Technion is increasingly becoming a global example of how investment in higher education can impact the destiny of a young nation.[7][8]Technion City generally refers to the 1.2 square kilometer site located on the pine-covered north-eastern slopes of Mount Carmel. The campus comprises 100 buildings, occupied by thousands of people every day.  TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5998 Laptop Keyboard The Technion has two additional campuses. Its original building in midtown Haifa, in use by the Technion until the mid-1980s, now houses the Israel National Museum of Science, Technology and Space. The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine is located in the neighborhood of Bat Galim, adjacent to Rambam Hospital, the largest medical center in Northern Israel. DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard Recreational activities on the main campus include an olympic-size swimming pool as well as gymnastics, squash and tennis facilities.[9] The Technion Symphony Orchestra and Choir are composed mainly of Technion students and staff. Each term, the Orchestra offers a series of daytime and evening concerts. Films and live performances by leading Israeli artists take place on campus on a regular basis.  lENOVO IdeaPad G550 Laptop Keyboard The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine is home to two Nobel Laureates: Prof. Avram Hershko and Prof. Aaron Ciechanover. It is one of four state-sponsored medical schools in Israel. It was founded in 1979 through the philanthropy ofBruce Rappaport and is active in basic science research and pre-clinical medical training in anatomy, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard biochemistry,biophysics, immunology, microbiology, physiology, and pharmacology.[19] Other facilities on the Faculty of Medicine campus include teaching laboratories, a medical library, lecture halls, and seminar rooms. Academic programs are offered at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine leading to Master of Science (M.S.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard  TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S7422 Laptop Keyboard and Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degrees. It has developed collaborative research and medical education programs with various institutions in medicine and bio-medical engineering including Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Toronto, and Mayo Medical School. The Bruce and Ruth Rappaport Faculty of Medicine offers medical training leading to a M.D. degree to qualified American and Canadian graduates of pre-med programs under the Technion American Medical Students Program (TeAMs).[20]HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard Technion has an impressive track record in technology transfer. Its dedicated office to bridge the transition of scientific and technological discovery to successfully commercialized innovation has been active since 2007 as T3 - Technion Technology Transfer. As of 2011, 424 patents were granted to Technion innovations, with 845 patents pending. T3's partners include incubators, entrepreneurs, private investors, VCs and angel groups. It has strategic partnerships with Microsoft, IBM, Intel,Philips, Johnson & Johnson, Coca Cola, among others. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard In 2012, the Shanghai Academic Ranking rated the Technion as 78th in its list of the top 100 universities in the world.[26]Also in 2012, the magazine Business Insider ranked Technion among the top 25 engineering schools in the world.[27][28]In 2012, the Center for World University Rankings ranked Technion 51st in the world and third in Israel in its CWUR World University Rankings.[29]HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For national rankings in 2011, Technion was ranked the #2 of universities in Israel by ARWU. In global rankings for that year, Technion was ranked #102-150 by ARWU, #220 by QS,.[30]Technion offers many after-school and summer enrichment courses for young people on subjects ranging from introductory electronics and computer programming to aerospace, architecture, biology, chemistry and physics. Two examples are Scitech[22] and the Math Summer Camp, devoted to number theory.[23]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad T61 8895 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Technion recently set up and orchestrated the Israeli chapter of Engineers Without Borders,[24] which among other projects, installed a network of biogas systems in rural Nepal providing sustainable energy and improved sanitation.[25]SONY Vaio VPC-EB11FM/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Academics Texas A&M University (often referred to as A&M or TAMU) is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas, United States. It is the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System, the sixth-largest university in the United States and the largest university in Texas.[12][13] Texas A&M's designation as a land, sea, HP Pavilion dv7t-3100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan andspace grant institution reflects a broad range of research with ongoing projects funded by agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and theOffice of Naval Research. The school ranks in the top 20 American research institutes in terms of funding and has made notable contributions to such fields as animal cloning and petroleum engineering. HP Mini 110-3100ew Laptop Keyboard The first public institution of higher education in Texas, the school opened on October 4, 1876[14] as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. Originally, the admission was limited to white males and education consisted of agricultural and military techniques. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard in the 1960s A&M desegregated, became coeducational, and dropped the requirement for participation in the Corps of Cadets. To reflect the institution's expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963. The letters "A&M", originally short for "Agricultural and Mechanical", are retained only as a link to the university's past. The school's students, alumni, and sports teams are known as "Aggies".ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The main campus is one of the largest in America, spanning 5,500 acres (22 km2),[1][15] and includes the George Bush Presidential Library. Approximately one-fifth of the student body lives on campus. Texas A&M has approximately 800 officially recognized student organizations. Many students also observe the traditions of Texas A&M University, HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard which govern daily life as well as special occasions, including sports events. On July 1, 2012, the school joined theSoutheastern Conference. A&M operates two branches: Texas A&M at Qatar and Texas A&M University at Galveston. Working with agencies such as the Texas AgriLife Research and Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M has a direct presence in each of the 254 counties in Texas. The university offers degrees in over 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes. Texas A&M has awarded over 320,000 degrees, including 70,000 graduate and professional degrees. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard As a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of three public universities with a full-time, volunteer Corps of Cadets. The U.S. Congress laid the groundwork for the establishment of Texas A&M in 1862 with the adoption of the Morrill Act. The act auctioned land grants of public lands to establish endowments for colleges where the "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanical arts... ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life".[16] In 1871, the Texas Legislature used these funds to establish the state's first public institution of higher education,[17] the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, then known as Texas A.M.C.[16]Brazos County donated 2,416 acres (10 km2) near Bryan, Texas, for the school's campus.[16]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Classes began on October 4, 1876, with 40 students and 6 faculty members. Admission was limited to white males, and all students were required to participate in the Corps of Cadets and receive military training.[18] Enrollment climbed to 258 students before declining to 108 students in 1883, the year the University of Texas opened in Austin, Texas.[19] Though originally envisioned and annotated in the Texas Constitution as a branch of the University of Texas, Texas A.M.C. had a separate Board of Directors from the University of Texas from the first day of classes and was never enveloped into the University of Texas System.[16]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard In the late 1880s, many Texas residents saw no need for two colleges in Texas and clamored for an end of Texas A.M.C. In 1891, Texas A&M was saved from potential closure by its new president Lawrence Sullivan Ross, former governor of Texas, and well-respectedConfederate Brigadier General. Ross made many improvements to the school and enrollment doubled to 467 cadets as parents sent their sons to Texas A&M "to learn to be like Ross".[20] HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard During his tenure, many enduring Aggie traditions were born, including the creation of the first Aggie Ring.[20] After his death in 1898, a statue was erected in front of what is now Academic Plaza to honor Ross and his achievements in the history of the school.[20]HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Under pressure from the legislature, in 1911 the school began allowing women to attend classes during the summer semester.[21] At the same time, A&M began expanding its academic pursuits with the establishment of the School of Veterinary Medicine in 1915.[16]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

World Wars era

Many Texas A&M graduates served during World War I. By 1918, 49% of all graduates of the college were in military service, more than any other school.[16] In early September 1918, the entire senior class enlisted, with plans to send the younger students at staggered dates throughout the next year. Many of the seniors were fighting in France when the war ended two months later.[22] Over 1,200 former students served as commissioned officers. After the war, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M grew rapidly and became nationally recognized for its programs in agriculture, engineering, and military science.[16] The first graduate school was organized in 1924 and the school awarded its first PhD in 1940.[16] In 1925, Mary Evelyn Crawford Locke became the first female to receive a diploma from Texas A&M, although she was not allowed to participate in the graduation ceremony.[23] The following month the Board of Directors officially prohibited all women from enrolling.[21]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Many Aggies again served in the military during World War II, with the college producing 20,229 combat troops. Of those, 14,123 Aggies served as officers, more than any other school and more than the combined total of the United States Naval Academy and theUnited States Military Academy.[24] During the war, 29 A&M graduates reached the rank of general.[16]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard At the start of WWII, Texas A&M was selected as one of six engineering colleges to participate in the Electronics Training Program, a 10-month activity of 12-hour study days to train Navy personnel who were urgently needed to maintain the new, highly complex electronic equipment such asradar. These colleges provided the Primary School, wherein the key topics of the first two years of a college electrical engineering curriculum were condensed into three months. The instructional effort at College Station was developed and led by Frank Bolton, TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard EE department head and future Texas A&M president. At a given time, some 500 Navy students were on the campus, a significant fraction of the then-years enrollment. Students graduating from the Primary Schools then went to a Secondary School, one of which was at Ward Island, Texas (the future location of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi).[25]Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard Enrollment soared after the war as many former soldiers used the G.I. Bill to further their education.[26] In 1948, the state Legislature formally recognized Texas A&M as a separate university system from the University of Texas System, codifying the de facto arrangement between the schools.[27]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard University era On March 26, 1960, Major General James Earl Rudder, class of 1932, became the 16th president of the college.[28] Rudder's tenure (1959–1970) marked a critical turning point in the school's history. Under his leadership, Texas A&M underwent a dramatic expansion in terms of its physical plant construction, but more importantly, ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard it diversified and expanded its student body by admitting women and minorities. The Corps of Cadets became voluntary. In the face of growing student activism during the 1960s, Rudder worked diligently to ensure that school continue to fulfill its mission of providing a quality education for all Aggies. By his death in 1970, Rudder had overseen the growth of the school from 7,500 to 14,000 students from all 50 states and 75 nations.[29][30]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard In 1963, the 58th Legislature of Texas approved of Rudder's changes, and officially renamed the school "Texas A&M University",[29] specifying that the "A" and the "M" were purely symbolic, reflecting the school's past, and no longer stood for "Agricultural and Mechanical".[16] In the following 35 years, Texas A&M more than tripled its enrollment from 14,000 students to over 45,000.[15]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Much of the legislative work allowing the expansion of Texas A&M and the admission of women was pushed by State Senator William T. "Bill" Moore, who served from 1949 to 1981. Known as "the Bull of the Brazos" and "the father of the modern Texas A&M University", Moore was a Bryan attorney and businessman originally fromWheelock in Robertson County. He also taught economics at TAMU prior to his entry into World War II.[31]DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M became one of the first four universities given the designation sea-grant for its achievements in oceanography and marine resources development in 1971. In 1989, the university earned the title space-grant by NASA, to recognize its commitment to space research and participation in the Texas Space Grant Consortium.[32]HP 383495-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1997, the school became the home of the George Bush Presidential Library. Operated by the National Archives and Records Administration, it is one of thirteen American presidential libraries. Former President George Bush remains actively involved with the university, frequently visiting the campus and participating in special events.[33][34]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M received national media attention on November 18, 1999, when Aggie Bonfire, a ninety-year-old student tradition, collapsed during construction. Twelve current and former students died and twenty-seven others were injured. The accident was later attributed to improper design and poor construction practices.[35] The victims' family members filed six lawsuits against Texas A&M officials, the student Bonfire leaders, and the university. Half of the defendants settled their portion of the case in 2005,[36] and a federal appeals court dismissed the remaining lawsuits against the university in 2007.[37]Toshiba Satellite A105-S2716 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With strong support from Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin, the Association of American Universitiesinducted Texas A&M in May 2001, on the basis of the depth of the university's research and academic programs.[38] In December 2006, university President Robert Gates resigned from his position to become the U.S. Secretary of Defense.[39] Elsa Murano became his replacement in January 2008, but later resigned in June 2009[40] and was replaced by R. Bowen Loftin. Toshiba Satellite P200-1FT Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M left the Big 12 Conference for the Southeastern Conference on July 1, 2012.[41] This ended Texas A&M's scheduled NCAA athletic competitions with formerSouthwest Conference rivals, UT Austin, Baylor, and Texas Tech, for the foreseeable future. Dell Vostro 3700 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the fall 2008 semester, Texas A&M was the seventh largest American university with an enrollment of 48,039 students pursuing degrees in 10 academic colleges. The student body represents all 50 US states and 130 foreign countries. Texas residents account for 86% of the student population, and 28.9% are either of international origin or members of ethnicminority groups. The student body consists of 46.8% women and 53.2% men.[42]Compaq Presario CQ61-312TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although Texas A&M is a secular institution, its student body has a reputation for being religious and conservative. According to a 2005 student survey published in the Princeton Review, Texas A&M ranked 13th highest in the category "students pray on a regular basis".[43] Four years later, the Princeton Review ranked Texas A&M the eighth most socially conservativecampus in the nation.[44] The Princeton Review also ranked the university in 2012 as the "10th least friendly" college in the United States for LGBT people, and the least friendly among public schools.[45]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The university consistently ranks among the top ten public universities each year in enrollment of National Meritscholars.[46] According to the College Board, the fall 2008 entering freshman class consisted of 54% students in the top 10% of their high school graduating class, 86% in the top quarter, and 99% in the top half.[47] DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard Seventy-four percent of these students took the SAT. The middle 50% of the freshmen had average scores as follows: in critical reading, 520–630, math, 560–670, and in writing 500–610. Twenty-six percent of the incoming freshmen took the ACT, with the middle 50% scoring between a 23 and 29.[48] About 80 percent of the student body receives about $420 million in financial aid annually.[49]HP Mini 210-2190nr Laptop Keyboard In the fall 2008 semester, the Dwight Look College of Engineering had the largest enrollment of 20.5%. The College of Liberal Arts and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences followed, enrolling 15% and 14% of the student body, respectively. The College of Education and Human Development enrolls 12%, andMays Business School enrolled about 11%. Colleges with less than 10% enrollment included the College of Architecture, the College of Science, the George Bush School of Government and Public Service, the College of Geosciences, and the College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences. Approximately 8% of the student body had not declared a major.[42] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-122EL Laptop Keyboard In the 2011 U.S. News and World Report ranking of public universities, Texas A&M is listed 19th; among "national universities" the school is 58th.[58][Note 2] According to The Washington Monthly criteria, which considers research, community service, and social mobility, Texas A&M ranks second nationally.[59] The John Templeton Foundation listed Texas A&M as one of the thirty-five American college programs that "communicate[s] the values of honesty, trust, respect, responsibility, integrity, and fairness in the classroom".[60]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The 2011 Kiplinger's Personal Finance ranked the school as the 23rd best-value public university on the basis of in-state tuition, and the 35th best-value public university on the basis of out-of-state tuition.[61] After conducting a survey of leading employment recruiters, the Wall Street Journalranked Texas A&M 2nd nationally, as "most likely to help students land a job in key careers and professions".[62][63] In 2009 the National Science Foundation has recognized Texas A&M as one of the top 20 research institutions.[64]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Internationally, the university is also well-regarded. Newsweek International ranked Texas A&M as the 77th university globally on the basis of "openness and diversity" as well as "distinction in research".[65] In a comparison of educational quality, faculty quality, and research output, Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranked Texas A&M 53rd in the Americas[66] and 88th internationally.[67]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The Times Higher Education Supplement listed Texas A&M 60th among the world's top 100 technology universities, 24th among America's topbiomedicine universities, and 50th among North America's top 50 universities.[68] The 2011 QS World University Rankings[69] ranked the university 158th overall in the world, 40 places up from 2010. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M has an endowment valued at more than $5 billion, which ranks fourth among U.S. public universities and 10th overall.[70] Apart from revenue received from tuition and research grants, the university, as part of the Texas A&M University System (TAMUS), is partially funded from two endowments. The smaller endowment, totaling $1.17 billion in assets, is run by the private Texas A&M Foundation.[4] A larger sum is distributed from the Texas Permanent University Fund (PUF). ACER Aspire 5110 Laptop Keyboard TAMUS holds a minority stake (one-third) in this fund; the remaining two-thirds belongs to the University of Texas system. As of 2006, the PUF ending net asset value stood at $10.3 billion; $400.7 million was distributed to the two university systems in fiscal year 2007.[71][72] Combined, the total endowment for the TAMUS stands at $7.0 billion, as of 2011.[4]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The Texas A&M University system, in 2006, was the first to explicitly state in its policy that technology commercialization was a criterion that could be used for tenure. Passage of this policy was intended to give faculty more academic freedom and strengthen the university's industry partnerships.[73][74] Texas A&M works with both state and university agencies on various local and international research projects to forge innovations in science and technology that can have commercial applications. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard This work is concentrated in two primary locations–Research Valley and Research Park. Research Valley, an alliance of educational and business organizations, consists of 11,400 acres (50 km2) with 2,500,000 square feet (232,000 m2) of dedicated research space. An additional 350 acres (1 km2), with 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of research space, is located in Research Park.[75] Among the school's research entities are the Texas Institute for Genomic Medicine, the Texas Transportation Institute, the Cyclotron Institute, the Institute of Biosciences and Technology, and the Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology.[76]SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard In 2011 with $705 million Texas A&M ranked in the top 20 universities for research expenditures; third behind only MIT and UC Berkeley for universities without medical schools.[70] In 2004, Texas A&M System faculty and research submitted 121 new inventions and established 78 new royalty-bearing licensing agreements; the innovations resulted in income of $8 million. The Texas A&M Technology Licensing Office filed for 88 patents for protection of intellectual property in 2004.[77]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP6003M Laptop Keyboard Spearheaded by the College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M scientists created the first cloned domestic animal, a cat named 'cc', on December 22, 2001.[78]Texas A&M was also the first academic institution to clone each of six different species: cattle, a Boer goat, pigs, a cat, a deer and a horse.[79]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard In 2004, Texas A&M joined a consortium of universities to build the Giant Magellan Telescope in Chile. Estimated to be the largest optical telescope ever constructed, the facility will have seven mirrors, each with a diameter of 8.4 meters (9.2 yd). This will give the telescope the equivalent of a 24.5 meters (26.8 yd) primary mirror and will be ten times more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope. Construction is slated to be complete in 2016.[80]HP G62-225DX Laptop Keyboard As part of a collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, Texas A&M completed the first conversion of a nuclear research reactor from using highly enriched uranium fuel (70%) to utilizing low-enriched uranium (20%). The eighteen-month project ended on October 13, 2006 FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M has participated in over 500 research projects in over 80 countries and leads the Southwestern United States in annual research expenditures. The university conducts research on every continent and has formal research and exchange agreements with 100 institutions in 40 countries.[82] Texas A&M ranks 13th among U.S. research universities in exchange agreements with institutions abroad and student participation in study abroad programs,[83] and has strong research collaborations with the National Natural Science Foundation of China and many leading universities in China.[82]SONY Vaio VPC-EB1J1E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M owns three international facilities, a multipurpose center in Mexico City, Mexico, the Soltis Research and Education Center near the town of San Isidro, Costa Rica, and the Santa Chiara Study Abroad Center in Castiglion Fiorentino, Italy.[84][85] In 2003, over 1,200 Aggie students, primarily undergraduates, studied abroad.[86] Marine research occurs an the University's branch campus, Texas A&M University at Galveston.[87]Toshiba Satellite A300-21H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M's Center for International Business Studies is one of 28 supported by the U.S. Department of Education.[88] The university is also one of only two American universities in partnership with CONACyT, Mexico's equivalent of the National Science Foundation, to support research in areas including biotechnology, telecommunications, energy, and urban development.[89] In addition, the university is the home of "Las Americas Digital Research Network", an online architecture network for 26 universities in 12 nations, primarily in Central and South America.[90]Toshiba Satellite A40-261 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M's College Station campus, one of the largest in America, spans 5,200 acres (21 km2) plus 350 acres (1 km2) for Research Park.[1][15] The university is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area located within Brazos County in the Brazos Valley (Southeast Central Texas) region, an area often referred to as "Aggieland".[91] According the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2008, the population of Brazos County is estimated at 175,122.[92] Money Magazine, in 2006, SONY VGN-SZ640 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan named College Station the most educated city in Texas, and the 11th most educated American city, due largely to the presence of the university and the size and scope of its research.[93] Aggieland is centrally located within 200 miles (320 km) of 3 of the 10 largest cities in the US and 75% of the Texas and Louisiana populations (approximately 13 million people). The area's major roadway is State Highway 6, and several smaller state highways and Farm to Market Roads connect the area to larger highways such as Interstate 45.[94]SONY Vaio VPC-EB2Z1E/BQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The campus is bisected by a railroad track operated by Union Pacific.[95] The area east of the tracks, known as Main Campus, includes buildings for the colleges of engineering, architecture, geosciences, science, education and liberal arts. Dormitories, as well as the main dining centers and many campus support facilities, are also on Main Campus. Notable buildings on Main Campus include Kyle Field, Sterling C. Evans Library, the Academic Building, Harrington Hall, the Memorial Student Center, the Administration Building,  HP Envy 17-2090eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rudder Tower, Albritton Bell Tower, and the Bonfire Memorial.[96] To the west of the railroad tracks lies West Campus, which includes most of the sports facilities, the business school, agricultural programs, life sciences, the veterinary college, the political science and economics school, the George Bush School of Government and Public Service, the George Bush Presidential Library and two schools within the Texas A&M Health Science Center. Research Park, the area of West Campus along Kimbrough Boulevard, includes many research facilities.[97]HP Pavilion dv6-3114et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Outside the main campus, the institution formally includes two additional branch campuses: Texas A&M at Qatar located in Education City in Doha, Qatar devoted to engineering disciplines[98] and Texas A&M University at Galveston in Galveston, Texas, devoted to marine research and host to the Texas Maritime Academy.[87]All degrees at the Qatar campus are granted by the university's Dwight Look College of Engineering.[99]DELL Inspiron 1721 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M also maintains Texas A&M Riverside Campus, an extension of the main campus, located 10 miles (16 km) to the northwest. Unlike Galveston and Qatar, this extension is only a research facility.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv6-3188la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the 2006 fall semester, 20.5 percent of the student body lived on campus in one of two distinct housing sections located on opposite ends of campus.[8] Both the Northside and Southside areas contain student dormitories, also known as residence halls. While some halls are single-sex, others are co-educational. Usually students of different genders live on alternate floors, although some halls are segregated by room or suite.[100] Residence hall styles vary. ASUS U3S Laptop Keyboard Many halls offer only indoor access to individual rooms, but other halls locate room entrances on an outdoor balcony. Room sizes vary by building. Halls with larger rooms include en-suite or private bathrooms, while halls with smaller rooms have a common bathroom on each floor. Several halls include a "substance-free" floor, where residents pledge to avoid bringing alcohol, drugs, or cigarettes into the hall.[101]DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard Northside consists of 17 student residence halls, including the 3 university honors dorms.[102] Two of the university honors dorms are freshman only. The halls are located near local entertainment district Northgate, and offer convenient access to campus dining establishments: Sbisa Dining Hall, The Underground and Bernie's Cafe. The demolition of Moore Hall, Crocker Hall, HP Pavilion G6-1V71HE Laptop Keyboard and McInnis Hall is scheduled for August 2011.[103] A $58 million 600-bed residence hall will replace the demolished halls that have accommodated roughly the same number. Some halls (particularly Walton) have unofficially claimed tables within the Sbisa Dining Hall and many halls congregate for dinner at a specific time each weekday.[104] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Several of the residence halls located on Southside are reserved for members of the Corps of Cadets. Non-corps halls in this area center around the Commons, a hub for activities and dining.[105] Southside has two Learning Living Communities, which allow freshmen to live in a cluster with other students who share common interests.[106] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Facilities for the Corps of Cadets are located in the Quadrangle, or "The Quad", an area consisting of dormitories, Duncan Dining Hall, and the Corps training fields.[107] The Corps Arches, a series of 12 arches that "[symbolize] the spirit of the 12th Man of Texas A&M", mark the entrance to the Quadrangle.[108] All cadets, except those who are married or who have had previous military service, musHP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M is one of six United States Senior Military Colleges. The schools' Corps of Cadets (or the Corps) is one of the largest uniformed student bodies outside the service academies. Many members participate in ROTC programs and earn commissions in the United States Armed Forces upon graduation. Members of the Corps have served in every armed conflictfought by the United States since 1876. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard There were 20,229 Aggies who served in WWII, of these, 14,123 served as officers, more than any other school, including the combined totals of the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy. Since 1876, 225 Aggies have served as generals or Flag Officers.[110]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Until 1965, Corps membership was mandatory. The Corps welcomed female members in the fall of 1974,[111] and as of spring 2012, the co-ed Corps boasts an enrollment of more than 2000 cadets.[112]HP Pavilion dv6-2144nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Corps is composed of three Air Force Wings, three Army Brigades, two Navy and Marine Regiments, as well as the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, whose members may be affiliated with any military branch.[113] Parson's Mounted Cavalry is the only mounted ROTC unit in the United States.[114] The Ross Volunteer Company, the oldest student-run organization in the state, IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan is the official honor guard for the Governor of Texas.[115] The Fish Drill Team, a precision, close-order rifle drill team composed entirely of Corps freshmen, represents the school in local and national competitions. They have won the national championship almost every year since their creation in 1946, and have appeared in several Hollywood productions, with prominent roles in the movies A Few Good Men and Courage Under Fire.[116] ACER Aspire 3500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, the world's largest precision military marching band, provides music for University functions and presents intricate halftime performances at football games.[115] Some band drills are so complicated that they require band members to step between each other's feet to complete the maneuvers.[117] These drills must be drawn by hand as computer marching programs have returned errors; their calculations require two people to be in the same spot at the same time.[118]ACER Aspire 5741 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M has over 800 student organizations, including academic, service, religious, Greek, and common interest organizations. Orientation programs encourage students to become involved in campus activities and organizations from the beginning.[119] An April 2005 campus survey found that 74% of the students were currently involved with at least one organization and that 88% participated in a campus organization in the past.[120]HP Pavilion dv7-1135nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One of the oldest student organizations is the Singing Cadets, founded in 1893. Known as the "Voice of Aggieland", the Singing Cadets are an all-male choral group with about 70 members not affiliated with the Corps of Cadets. The group travels nationally and has completed several international tours; most recently, South Africa in 2010.[121]HP Pavilion dv7-4295us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M Hillel, the oldest Hillel organization in the United States, was founded in 1920 at the original college. The organization occurred three years before the national Hillel Foundation was organized at University of Illinois.[122][123] GLBT Aggies is the descendant organization of Gay Student Services (GSS), the only student organization to ever successfully sue the institution for official recognition.[124] In the decision Gay Student Services v. Texas A&M University the Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals held that the First Amendment required public universities to recognize student organizations aimed at gay students.[125]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ1M/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Graduate Student Council, founded in 1995, serves as the student government for Texas A&M University’s graduate and professional students. It is a council representing all TAMU graduate students with a purpose to improve graduate students’ academic, living and social experiences. The GSC represents student’s concerns and is their liaison with the University Administration.[126]HP Pavilion dv2530er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Students exercise at the Student Rec Center, a three-story facility encompassing 373,000 square feet (34,650 m2), which includes exercise equipment, athletic courts, an indoor running track, a rock-climbing tower, and one of the top competitive pools and diving wells in America. The Rec Center also organizes intramural sports throughout the year.[127]Compaq Presario CQ60-218ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Some national service organizations originated at A&M. Aggie students founded the largest one-day student-run service project in America known as The Big Event. The annual service project allows students to give back to their community by assisting local residents.[128] The organization CARPOOL, a student run, safe ride program has provided over 179,000 free rides (as of January 2011) to Aggies unable to transport themselves home. Compaq Presario CQ60-140ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Its organizers also assist other universities in establishing similar programs.[129][130] In addition, the Corporation for National and Community Service listed A&M among the 500 academic institutions in the 2005–06 President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll.[131]Compaq Presario CQ60-211DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Student Government Association (SGA), one of A&M's largest organizations, consists of over 1,300 student members in 3 branches, 15 committees, and 4 commissions. SGA has changed little since 1972, except its relative position within the official framework of the university.[132]SONY Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Princeton Review ranked The Battalion, founded in 1893, as the 5th best college newspaper in America in 2010.[133] Students also publish a secondary school newspaper, the Maroon Weekly.[134] The Aggieland, formerly known as The Olio and The Longhorn, is one of America's largest college yearbooks in number of pages and copies sold.[135][136] The university houses the public broadcasting stations: KAMU-TV, a PBS member station since 1970, KAMU-FM an NPR affiliate since 1977,[137]HP Pavilion dv6-3211tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and the student-run KANM, "the college station of College Station".[138] W5AC broadcast the first live, play-by-play broadcast of a college football game, at Kyle Field, in November 1921. The game, played in Dallas between Aggies and University of Texas, ended in a scoreless tie.[139] The Texas A&M culture is a product of the university's founding as a rural military and agricultural school. Although the school and surrounding community have grown, and military training is no longer required, the school's history has instilled in students "the  HP Pavilion dv5-1021et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan , tradition, loyalty, optimism, and unabashed sentimentality."[140] Texas Monthly posits that Texas A&M students' respect for school traditions and values is the university's greatest strength.[141] Some of the school traditions date to the 1890s, while others have been introduced more recently. These traditions help current and former students to cultivate the Aggie Spirit, a sense of loyalty and respect for the school.[142] They dictate many aspects of student life, including how to greet others (using the official school greeting "Howdy!"),[143] how to act at an A&M sporting event, and, in many cases, what words a student may use in conversation.[144] TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The most visible tradition among seniors and former students is the wearing of the Aggie Ring, whose design has been relatively unchanged since its introduction in 1894.[145] Students may order a ring after completing 90 credit hours of coursework, including at least 45 hours at A&M, or after graduation. Graduate students may receive a ring after 75% of their graduate coursework is completed or after the acceptance of their dissertation or thesis.[146] Though unsanctioned by the University, many students "dunk" their newly acquired Aggie Rings into a pitcher of beer and quickly chug the entire pitcher to "earn" the ring. Some students dunk their rings in alternative substances, including ice cream or nonalcoholic beverages.[147]ACER AB6505HB-E03 ZL2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggie football fans are called the 12th Man. The meaning is that they support the 11 players on the field and, moreover, are willing to enter the game if necessary. To further symbolize their "readiness, desire, and enthusiasm," the entire student body stands throughout the game.[153] The tradition began on January 2, 1922, SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard at the Dixie Classic where A&M played Centre College. A&M had so many injuries in the first half of the game that Coach Dana X. Bible feared he wouldn’t have enough men to finish the game. He called into the stands for E. King Gill, a reserve who had left football after the regular season to play basketball. Although he did not actually play, his readiness symbolized the willingness of all Aggies to support their team to the point of actually entering the game. A&M won 22–14, but E. King Gill was the only man left standing on the sidelines for the Aggies.[154] In recent decades, the 12th Man is represented on the field by a walk-on player who wears the No. 12 jersey and participates in kick-offs.[155]SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard The 12th Man uses a variety of school yells, rather than cheers, to support Aggie teams. Each year the student body elects five students to serve as the Yell Leaders.[156] At midnight before each home football game at Kyle Field or at a predesignated location at away games, the fans gather together to practice the yells for the next day's game.[143][157] Led by the Yell Leaders, and the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, the Twelfth Man files into the stadium to participate in Midnight Yell Practice to practice yells, SONY VAIO VPCF123FX/H Laptop Keyboard sing the War Hymn, and joke about their opponents. At the conclusion of the yell practice, the stadium lights are extinguished and fans kiss their dates. This is also done as practice, because Aggies are expected to "mug down", or kiss their dates, every time the football team scores on the field.[157][158] Sports Illustrated named Midnight Yell as one of the "100 Things You Gotta Do Before You Graduate."[159]SONY VAIO VPCF1290X Laptop Keyboard In keeping with the idea that all current and former students comprise a family, Aggies have created two traditions to honor members of the Aggie family who have died. Aggie Muster is held annually on the anniversary of the Battle of San Jacinto, April 21, to honor any current and former student who died during the previous year. Over 300 Musters are held around the world, SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard with the largest taking place at Reed Arena on the Texas A&M University campus.[148] All Muster ceremonies feature the Roll Call for the Absent. As the names of the deceased Aggies are called, a family member or friend answers "Here" and lights a candle, to symbolize that although their loved one is not present in body, his or her spirit will shine forever.[149][150]The event received worldwide attention during World War II, when 25 Aggies "mustered" during the battle for the island ofCorregidor.[151]HP Mini 110-3018cl Laptop Keyboard Students who die while enrolled at Texas A&M are also honored at Silver Taps, a ceremony held, when necessary, on the first Tuesday of the month. This tradition began as a memorial for former Texas A&M president Lawrence Sullivan Ross.[152] On the day of the ceremony, flags fly half-staff and notices are posted throughout campus. SAMSUNG R45 Laptop Keyboard At 10:15 pm the lights around campus are extinguished and hymns chime from Albritton Tower while students and faculty collect in the Academic Plaza. Following a 21-gun salute by the Ross Volunteer Firing Squad, six buglers play an A&M version of the song Taps, Silver Taps, three times from the dome of the school's Academic Building: once to the north, the south and to the west. The song is not played to the east symbolizing that the sun will never rise on that Aggie again.[150]HP Mini 311-1002TU Laptop Keyboard Almost every year since 1909, A&M students have built a large bonfire to celebrate their "burning desire to beat the hell outta" the University of Texas.[160]Aggie Bonfire was traditionally lit around Thanksgiving in conjunction with the festivities surrounding the annual college football game be

tween the schools.[161] Though it began as a trash pile,[162] ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Aggie Bonfire evolved into a massive six-tiered structure, the world record being held at 109 feet (30 m).[161][163] After the collapse of the 1999 structure, causing the death of 11 students and one former student, the university suspended Bonfire indefinitely, but the tradition continues off-campus without direct University involvement, sanction, or participation.[164][165]HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard The Aggies are a member of the Southeastern Conference in all sports as of July 1, 2012.[166][167] Previously a charter member of the Southwest Conference until its dissolution in 1996, A&M competed in the Big 12 Conference until June 30, 2012. The school's 20 sports teams are known as the Aggies, and the school's colors are maroon and white.[168] As of April 2011, Aggies have earned 138 Southwest and Big 12 conference regular-season and tournament titles and 11 team national championships.[169]T HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard he women's soccer team, formed in 1993, earned 15 consecutive NCAA Tournament appearances from 1995 to 2009, advancing at least as far as the round of 16 in seven of the last eight appearances.[170] The women's volleyball team earned 12 consecutive NCAA Tournament appearances from 1993 to 2004, advancing past the first round each time.[171][172] In 2004 Sports Illustrated on Campus ranked Olsen Field "the best college baseball venue".[173] Sports Illustrated ranked the university 46th, in a 2002 analysis of "America's Best Sports College[s]"[174] and College Station the 9th best college sports town.[175]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard A&M's archrival is the University of Texas. In 2004, sporting events between the Aggies and Longhorns became known as theLone Star Showdown. The most-watched event in the rivalry is the annual football game held the day of Thanksgiving.[176][177]Other rivalries include Texas Tech, Baylor University, and the recently renewed rivalries with the University of Arkansas andLouisiana State University.[178][179][180][181]TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1894, the football team has won 18 Southwest Conference championships, 3 Big 12 South Division championships, 1 Big 12 championship, and 1 national championship.[182] The team has appeared in 30 bowl games, winning 13,[183] and has produced 41 first Team All-Americans, 5 Academic All-Americans, and 2 Heisman Trophy winners, John David Crow and Johnny Manziel, in 1957 and 2012 respectively.[184] Twenty-one Aggies currently play in the NFL.[185][186]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Since 1904, home football games have been played at Kyle Field, a stadium with a current capacity of 83,002.[187] In 2004, CBS SportsLine.com ranked Kyle Field the top football stadium while Sporting News ranked it fourth.[188][189] The same year Sports Illustrated on Campus ranked an A&M football weekend the third best college football experience.[190]Compaq Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1912, the men's basketball team won 11 Southwest Conference championships and 2 Southwest Conference Tournament championships. The team has appeared in the National Invitation Tournament 6 times and in theNCAA Tournament 11 times, of which 3 resulted in Sweet Sixteen appearances, the highest round to which the Aggies have advanced.[191] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard The women's basketball team has 1 Southwest Conference Tournament championship,1 regular season Big 12 Conference championship and 2 Big 12 Tournament championships, most recently in 2011. The women have advanced to 8 NCAA Tournament appearances, winning the National Championship in 2011. They have also competed in the WNIT twice, winning that tournament in 1995.[192]TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard The men's basketball team was coached by head coach Mark Turgeon for four years until he left for the head coaching position at the University of Maryland.[193] The current head basketball coach is Billy Kennedy; he is entering his second season and leading the Aggies into the Southeastern Conference. The women's team has been coached by Gary Blair since 2003.[194] Home games are played at the 12,989-seat Reed Arena.[195] G. Rollie White Coliseum, formerly the home of the volleyball and basketball teams, hosted basketball games before Reed Arena opened in 1998.[196]HP G71-347CL Laptop Keyboard With over 280,000 former students,[197] A&M has one of the largest and most active alumni groups in America. Many Aggies have attained local, national, and international prominence.[198] Jorge Quiroga and Martin Torrijos have served as heads of statefor Bolivia and Panama, respectively, and Rick Perry is the current Governor of Texas and 2012 US Presidential candidate. Robert Gates, Secretary of Defense in the George W. Bush and Obama administrations,is a past president of the university. Congressmen Joe Barton, Bill Flores, Jeb Hensarling, and Louie Gohmert, and former Austin, Texas, mayor Will Wynn are all graduates.[199]TOSHIBA 9J.N9082.001 Laptop Keyboard Aggies made their mark on the gridiron with Houston Texans head coach Gary Kubiak, title-winning coach Gene Stallings,Houston Oilers defensive tackle Ray Childress, Heisman Trophy winners John David Crow and Johnny Manziel, Heisman runner-up, legislator, and actor John Kimbrough, punt returner Dante Hall, offensive tackle Richmond Webb, Detroit Lions defensive end and punter Yale Lary, former Dallas Cowboys assistant coach and former player Dat Nguyen, punter Shane Lechler, and defensive end Ty Warren.[200][201]HP 381068-001 Laptop Keyboard Paul "Bear" Bryant coached at A&M where "survivors" of his grueling football practice camp atJunction, Texas were nicknamed named The Junction Boys.[202][203] Other famous Aggie athletes include Randy Barnes, indoor/outdoor shotput world record holder, baseball standouts Chuck Knoblauch and Wally Moon; along with Stacy Sykora, Libero for the USA national volleyball team.[201]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Aggies have also made a mark on pop culture. Robert Earl Keen and Lyle Lovett, who often strummed their guitars on the porch of their Northgate home, have become popular country singers.[204] William A. Pailes and Michael E. Fossum became NASA astronauts.[205]Rip Torn is a veteran of the silver screen[201] and Neal Boortz is a nationally syndicated talk show host with the sixth largest listening audience in the United States.[206][207] Wen Ho Lee, a doctoral graduate of A&M, became the subject of a 1999 espionage investigation; though arrested, charges were dropped in 2000.[208]HP 456624-001 Laptop Keyboard Many Aggies have become business leaders, particularly in the fields of energy, construction, communications, and chemistry. Current leaders include Jack Whiteside, President of Barnes & Click, Inc.;[209] Lowry Mays, chairman and CEO of Clear Channel Communications;[201] George P. Mitchell, chairman and CEO, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp.;[199] HP Pavilion dv6-2046ez Laptop Keyboard H. B. Zachry, President of the H.B. Zachry Company; John Zachry, CEO of Zachry Corp.; David Zachry, President of Zachry Corp.;[210] Khalid A. Al-Falih, President and CEO of Saudi Aramco;[211] Stephen M. Johnson, Chairman, President and CEO of McDermott International, Inc. and Eduardo Castro-Wright, CEO of Wal-Mart Stores USA.[212]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Because of A&M's military roots, many Aggies have become leaders in the armed forces, and were featured in the 1943 propaganda filmWe've Never Been Licked.[213] George H. Gay, Jr., was the sole survivor of Torpedo Squadron 8 in the Battle of Midway.[214] Lieutenant General Jay T. Robbins became a fighter ace in World War II with 22 aerial victories.[215]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Major General Robert B. Williams led World War II raid on the Schweinfurt ball bearing factories.[216] General Bernard Adolph Schriever, known as "the architect of the Air Force’s ballistic missile and military space program", became the namesake of Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado.[217][218] GeneralMichael Moseley is a former Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force.[219]HP Pavilion dv6-3250us Laptop Keyboard The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of Texas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives. The Legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin. The Legislature is arguably considered the most powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purseto control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and theLieutenant Governor of Texas, but also due to Texas's plural executive.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard The Legislature is the constitutional successor of the Congress of the Republic of Texas since Texas's 1845 entrance into the Union. The Legislature held its first regular session from February 16 to May 13, 1846. HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard The Legislature meets in regular session on the second Tuesday in January of each odd-numbered year.[1] The Texas Constitution limits the regular session to 140 calendar days. The lieutenant governor, elected statewide separately from the governor, presides over the Senate, while the Speaker of the House is elected from that body by its members. Both have wide latitude in choosing committee membership in their respective houses and have a large impact on lawmaking in the state.  HP AELX9U00110 Laptop Keyboard Only the Governor may call the Legislature into special sessions, unlike other states where the legislature may call itself into session. The Governor may call as many sessions as he wishes. For example, Governor Rick Perry called three consecutive sessions to address the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting. The Texas Constitution limits the duration of each special session to 30 days; lawmakers may consider only those issues designated by the Governor in his "call," or proclamation convening the special session (though other issues may be added by the Governor during a session). TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Any bill passed by the Legislature takes effect 90 days after its passage unless two-thirds of each house votes to give the bill either immediate effect or earlier effect. The Legislature may provide for an effective date that is after the 90th day. Under current legislative practice, most bills are given an effective date of September 1 in odd-numbered years (September 1 is the start of the state's fiscal year). TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Although members are elected on partisan ballots, both houses of the Legislature are officially organized on a nonpartisan basis, with members of both parties serving in leadership positions such as committee chairmanships. Currently (2011), a majority of the members of each chamber are members of the Republican Party.  HP Pavilion dv6-3122sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The traditions of Texas A&M University are a key aspect of the culture of Texas A&M University. Some of the school traditions date to the 1890s, shortly after the opening of the school, while others have been introduced more recently. These traditions help current and former students (Aggies) to cultivate the Aggie Spirit, a sense of loyalty and respect for the school, and dictate many aspects of student life, including how to greet others, how to act at an A&M sporting event, and, in many cases, HP Pavilion dv6-2110ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan what words a student may use in conversation. The most visible tradition among seniors and former students is the wearing of the Aggie Ring, whose design has been relatively unchanged since its introduction in 1894. Not all Aggie traditions are recognized by the university, and some, like Bonfire, have been discontinued for safety reasons. Texas Monthly states that the students' respect for school traditions and values is the university's greatest strength.[1]HP Pavilion dv6-2015sg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Incoming students are generally first exposed to traditions when they are greeted with the official Texas A&M greeting "Howdy". Since the 1950s, incoming students have been offered orientations, led by current students, which teach the various traditions, songs, and yells in current use. On campus, the Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets is known as the "Keepers of the Spirit" for its staunch defense of Aggie traditions. A subset of the Corps, the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, is the official marching band of the university.  HP Pavilion dv7-2230es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many school traditions revolve around sporting events, especially football. Before games, university yell leaders host yell practice, similar to other schools' pep rallies. Instead of cheers, students learn yells. Since 1922, students, known as the 12th Man, stand throughout football games, symbolizing their willingness to step in and assist the team. The official mascot, a dog named Reveille, is present at most official university activities, including sporting events. Toshiba Satellite L500-1CQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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