Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
2 août 2013 5 02 /08 /août /2013 03:22

Israel was the only internationally recognised country and UN member to afford some sort of diplomatic recognition to any of the Bantustans, though formal acknowledgment of the Bantustans as full-fledged countries never occurred.[52] In late 1982, the Ciskei Trade Mission opened in Tel Aviv, flying its own flag and staffed by two Israelis, Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

Yosef Schneider and Nat Rosenwasser, who were employed by the Ciskei Foreign Ministry. Bophuthatswana also had a representative in Israel, Shabtai Kalmanovich,[52] who in 1988 was sentenced by Israel to seven years in jail for spying for the KGB.[53] In 1983 Israel was visited by the presidents of both Bophuthatswana and Ciskei, as well as by Venda’s entire chamber of commerce.[52] Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

During this visit Lennox Sebe, the Ciskeian President secured a contract with the Israeli government to supply and train his armed forces.[52] Initially, six planes – at least one a military helicopter – were sold to Ciskei, and 18 Ciskei residents arrived in Israel for pilot training.[52] In 1985 Israel received Buthelezi as Chief Minister of KwaZulu during an unofficial visit in 1985. Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

During the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the government implemented a policy of 'resettlement', to force people to move to their designated "group areas". Millions of people were forced to relocate during this period. These removals included people relocated due to slum clearance programmes, labour tenants on white-owned farms, the inhabitants of the so-called 'black spots', Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery

areas of black owned land surrounded by white farms, the families of workers living in townships close to the homelands, and 'surplus people' from urban areas, including thousands of people from the Western Cape (which was declared a 'Coloured Labour Preference Area'[54]) who were moved to the Transkei and Ciskei homelands. Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery

The best-publicised forced removals of the 1950s occurred in Johannesburg, when 60,000 people were moved to the new township of Soweto (an abbreviation for South Western Townships).[55][56]

Until 1955 Sophiatown had been one of the few urban areas where blacks were allowed to own land, and was slowly developing into a multiracial slum. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

As industry in Johannesburg grew, Sophiatown became the home of a rapidly expanding black workforce, as it was convenient and close to town. It could also boast the only swimming pool for black children in Johannesburg.[57] As one of the oldest black settlements in Johannesburg, Sophiatown held an almost symbolic importance for the 50,000 blacks it contained, Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery

both in terms of its sheer vibrancy and its unique culture. Despite a vigorous ANC protest campaign and worldwide publicity, the removal of Sophiatown began on 9 February 1955 under the Western Areas Removal Scheme. In the early hours, heavily armed police entered Sophiatown to force residents out of their homes and load their belongings onto government trucks. Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery

The residents were taken to a large tract of land, thirteen miles (19 km) from the city centre, known as Meadowlands (that the government had purchased in 1953). Meadowlands became part of a new planned black city called Soweto. The Sophiatown slum was destroyed by bulldozers, and a new white suburb named Triomf (Triumph) was built in its place. Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery

This pattern of forced removal and destruction was to repeat itself over the next few years, and was not limited to people of African descent. Forced removals from areas like Cato Manor (Mkhumbane) in Durban, and District Six in Cape Town, where 55,000 coloured and Indian people were forced to move to new townships on the Cape Flats, were carried out under the Group Areas Act of 1950. Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery

Ultimately, nearly 600,000 coloured, Indian and Chinese people were moved in terms of the Group Areas Act. Some 40,000 white people were also forced to move when land was transferred from "white South Africa" into the black homelands.

The National Party passed a string of legislation which became known as petty apartheid
Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

The first of these was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 55 of 1949, prohibiting marriage between white people and people of other races. The Immorality Amendment Act 21 of 1950 (as amended in 1957 by Act 23) forbade "unlawful racial intercourse" and "any immoral or indecent act" between a white person and an African, Indian or coloured person. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

Blacks were not allowed to run businesses or professional practices in those areas designated as "white South Africa" unless they had a permit. They were required to move to the black "homelands" and set up businesses and practices there. Transport and civil facilities were segregated. Black buses stopped at black bus stops and white buses at white ones. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

Trains, hospitals and ambulances were segregated.[58] Because of the smaller numbers of white patients and the fact that white doctors preferred to work in white hospitals, conditions in white hospitals were much better than those in often overcrowded and under staffed black hospitals.[59]

 Blacks were excluded from living or working in white areas, unless they had a pass—nicknamed the dompas ("dumb pass" in Afrikaans). Only blacks with "Section 10" rights (those who had migrated to the cities before World War II) were excluded from this provision. A pass was issued only to a black person with approved work. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

Spouses and children had to be left behind in black homelands. A pass was issued for one magisterial district (usually one town) confining the holder to that area only. Being without a valid pass made a person subject to arrest and trial for being an illegal migrant. This was often followed by deportation to the person's homeland and prosecution of the employer (for employing an illegal migrant). Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

Police vans patrolled the white areas to round up illegal blacks found there without passes. Black people were not allowed to employ white people in white South Africa.[citation needed]

Although trade unions for black and coloured (mixed race) workers had existed since the early 20th century, it was not until the 1980s reforms that a mass black trade union movement developed. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

The trade unions which existed under apartheid were racially segregated, with 54 unions being white-only, 38 for Indian and coloured and 19 for African people. The Industrial Conciliation Act (1956) legislated against the creation of multi-racial trade unions and attempted to split existing multi-racial trade unions into separate branches or organisations along racial lines.[60] Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

In the 1970s the state spent ten times more per child on the education of white children than on black children within the Bantu Education system (the education system practised in black schools within white South Africa). Higher education was provided in separate universities and colleges after 1959. Eight black universities were created in the homelands. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

 Fort Hare University in the Ciskei (now Eastern Cape) was to register only Xhosa-speaking students. Sotho, Tswana, Pedi and Vendaspeakers were placed at the newly founded University College of the North at Turfloop, while the University College of Zululandwas launched to serve Zulu scholars. Coloureds and Indians were to have their own establishments in the Cape and Natalrespectively.[ Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

In addition, each black homeland controlled its own separate education, health and police system. Blacks were not allowed to buy hard liquor. They were able only to buy state-produced poor quality beer (although this was relaxed later). Public beaches were racially segregated. Public swimming pools, some pedestrian bridges, drive-in cinema parking spaces, graveyards, parks, and public toilets were segregated.Sony PCG-31211T Battery

Cinemas and theatres in white areas were not allowed to admit blacks. There were practically no cinemas in black areas. Most restaurants and hotels in white areas were not allowed to admit blacks except as staff. Black Africans were prohibited from attending white churches under the Churches Native Laws Amendment Act of 1957. Sony PCG-31311T Battery

This was, however, never rigidly enforced, and churches were one of the few places races could mix without the interference of the law. Blacks earning 360 rand a year, 30 rand a month, or more had to pay taxes while the white threshold was more than twice as high, at 750 rand a year, 62.5 rand per month. On the other hand, the taxation rate for whites was considerably higher than that for blacks.[ Sony PCG-51111T Battery

Blacks could never acquire land in white areas. In the homelands, much of the land belonged to a 'tribe', where the local chieftain would decide how the land had to be used. This resulted in white people owning almost all the industrial and agricultural lands and much of the prized residential land. Most blacks were stripped of their South African citizenship when the "homelands" became "independent".Sony PCG-81111T Battery

Thus, they were no longer able to apply for South African passports. Eligibility requirements for a passport had been difficult for blacks to meet, the government contending that a passport was a privilege, not a right. As such, the government did not grant many passports to blacks. Apartheid pervaded South African culture, as well as the law, and was entrenched by most of the mainstream media. Sony PCG-81311T Battery

The population was classified into four groups: Black, White, Indian, and Coloured. (These terms are capitalised to denote their legal definitions in South African law). The Coloured group included people regarded as being of mixed descent, including people of Bantu, Khoisan, European and Malay ancestry. Sony VPCF138FC Battery

Many were descended from people brought to South Africa from other parts of the world, such as India, Madagascar, China and the Philippines, as slaves and indentured workers.[61]

The Apartheid bureaucracy devised complex (and often arbitrary) criteria at the time that the Population Registration Act was implemented to determine who was Coloured. Sony VPCF219FC Battery

Minor officials would administer tests to determine if someone should be categorised either Coloured or Black, or if another person should be categorised either Coloured or White. Different members of the same family found themselves in different race groups. Further tests determined membership of the various sub-racial groups of the Coloureds. Sony VPCS135EC Battery

Many of those who formerly belonged to this racial group are opposed to the continuing use of the term "coloured" in the post-apartheid era, though the term no longer signifies any legal meaning. The expressions 'so-called Coloured' (Afrikaanssogenaamde Kleurlinge) and 'brown people' (bruinmense) acquired a wide usage in the 1980s. Sony VPCS136EC Battery

Discriminated against by apartheid, Coloureds were as a matter of state policy forced to live in separate townships—in some cases leaving homes their families had occupied for generations—and received an inferior education, though better than that provided to Black South Africans. Sony VPCS138EC Battery

They played an important role in the anti-apartheid movement: for example the African Political Organization established in 1902 had an exclusively coloured membership.

Voting rights were denied to Coloureds in the same way that they were denied to blacks from 1950 to 1983. Sony VPCS139GC Battery

However, in 1977 the NP caucus approved proposals to bring Coloureds and Indians into central government. In 1982, final constitutional proposals produced a referendum among white voters, and the Tricameral Parliament was approved. The Constitution was reformed the following year to allow the Coloured and Asian minorities participation in separate Houses in a Tricameral Parliament, Sony VPCYA15EC Battery

and Botha became the first Executive State President. The idea was that the Coloured minority could be granted voting rights, but the Black majority were to become citizens of independent homelands. These separate arrangements continued until the abolition of apartheid. The Tricameral reforms led to the formation of the (anti-apartheid) UDF as a vehicle to try to prevent the co-option of Coloureds and Indians into an alliance with white South Africans. Sony VPCYA16EC Battery

The subsequent battles between the UDF and the NP government from 1983 to 1989 were to become the most intense period of struggle between left-wing and right-wing South Africans.

Colonialism and apartheid had a major impact on women since they suffered both racial and gender discrimination. Oppression against African women was different from discrimination against men. Sony VPCYA25EC Battery

They had very few or no legal rights, no access to education and no right to own property.[62] Jobs were often hard to find but many African women worked as agricultural or domestic workers though wages were extremely low, if existent.[63] Children suffered from diseases caused by malnutrition and sanitary problems, and mortality rates were therefore high. Sony VPCYA26EC Battery

The controlled movement of African workers within the country through the Natives Urban Areas Act of 1923 and the pass-laws, separated family members from one another as men usually worked in urban centres, while women were forced to stay in rural areas. Marriage law and births[64] were also controlled by the government and the pro-apartheid Dutch Reformed Church, which tried to restrict African birth rates. Sony VPCYB15JC Battery

By the 1930s, Association football mirrored the balkanised society of South Africa, football was divided into numerous institutions based on race: the (White) South African Football Association, the South African Indian Football Association (SAIFA), the South African African Football Association (SAAFA) and its rival the South African Bantu Football Association, Sony VPCYA17GH/R Battery

and lastly, the South African Coloured Football Association (SACFA). Lack of funds to provide proper equipment would be noticeable in regards to black amateur football matches, this revealed the unequal lives Africans were subject to, in contrast to Whites who were obviously much better off financially.[65] Sony VPCCW2S8E/W Battery

Apartheid's social engineering made it more difficult to compete across racial lines, thus in an effort to centralise finances the federations merged in 1951, creating the South African Soccer Federation (SASF), which brought Black, Indian and Coloured national associations into one body that opposed apartheid. Sony VPCCW2Z1E/B Battery

This was generally opposed more and more by the growing apartheid government and with urban segregation being reinforced with ongoing racist policies, it was harder to play football along these racial lines. In 1956, the Pretoria regime, the administrative capital of South Africa, passed the first apartheid sports policy, by doing so, it emphasised the White-led government’s opposition to inter-racialism. Sony VPCY11S1E Battery

While football was plagued by racism, it also played a role in protesting apartheid and its policies. With the international bans from FIFA and other major sporting events, South Africa would be in the spotlight internationally. In a 1977 survey, white South Africans ranked the lack of international sport as one of the three most damaging consequences of apartheid.[66] Sony VPCY11S1E/S Battery

 By the mid-fifties, Black South Africans would also use media to challenge the "racialisation" of sports in South Africa; anti-apartheid forces had begun to pinpoint sport as the 'weakness' of white national morale. Black journalists on the Johannesburg Drum magazine were the first to give the issue public exposure, with an intrepid special issue in 1955 that asked, Sony VPCW1 Battery

"Why shouldn't our blacks be allowed in the SA team?"[66] As time progressed, international standing with South Africa would continue to be strained. In the 1980s, as the oppressive system was slowly collapsing the ANC and National Party started negotiations on the end of apartheid. Football associations also discussed the formation of a single, non-racial controlling body. Sony VPCW1E8R/BU Battery

This unity process accelerated in the late 1980s and led to the creation, in December 1991, of an incorporated South African Football Association. On 3 July 1992, FIFA finally welcomed South Africa back into international football.

Sport has long been an important part of life in South Africa, Sony VPCY11AGJ Battery

and the boycotting of games by international teams had a profound effect on the white population, perhaps more so than the trade embargoes did. After the re-acceptance of South Africa's sports teams by the international community, Sport played a major unifying role between the country's races. Sony VPCY11AHJ Battery

Nelson Mandela's open support of the previously white-dominated rugby fraternity when South Africa hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup went a long way to repairing broken race relations.

Defining its East Asian population, a minority in South Africa who do not appear to belong to any of the four designated groups, was a constant dilemma for the apartheid government. Sony VPCY11AVJ Battery

For political reasons immigrants from Japan, Taiwan and South Korea and their descendents, with which South Africa maintained diplomatic and economic relations.[67] were classified as honorary white and was thus allotted the privilege of that status. Sony VPCY11M1E Battery

Indian South Africans during apartheid were classified many ranges of categories from "Asian" to "Black" to "Coloured" and even the mono-ethnic category of "Indian", but never as White and has been "non-White" throughout South Africa's history. The group faced a severe amount of discrimination during the apartheid regime and were subject numerous racialist policies. Sony VPCY11S1E Battery

Chinese South Africans who were descendants of migrant workers who came to work in the gold mines around Johannesburg in the late 19th century, were initially either classified as "Coloured" or "Other Asian" and hence "non-white" and were subject to numerous forms of discrimination and restrictions, Sony VPCY11V9E Battery

but benefited from often being mistaken for Japanese which at the time were classified as honorary white so sometimes they were able to fool Whites into being allowed to use many White luxuries such as White buses and restaurants. It was not until 1984, when South African Chinese, increased to about 10,000, were finally obtained the same official rights as the Japanese in South Africa, Sony VPCY11V9E/S Battery

that is, to be treated as whites in terms of the Group Areas Act although they still faced discrimination and didn't receive all the benefits/rights of their newly obtained honorary white status such as that they could not vote or be conscribed.[ Sony VPCY219FJ/S Battery

When it came to Indonesians, which was the largest sect of immigrants adapted to the society of South Africa and formed their own ethnic group/community which came to be known as the Cape Malays during the apartheid regime, they were classified as part of the Coloured racial group and therefore considered "not-white" and were treated as such.[68] Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery

This was the same for South Africans of Malaysian and Filipino descent who were also classified as part of the Coloured race and thus considered "not-white".

The National Party government implemented, alongside apartheid, a programme of social conservatism. Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery

Pornography,[70] gambling[71] and other such "vices" were banned. Cinemas, shops selling alcohol and most other businesses were forbidden from operating on Sundays.[72] Abortion,[73] homosexuality[74] and sex educationwere also restricted; abortion was legal only in cases of rape or if the mother's life was threatened.[73] Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery

Television was not introduced until 1976 because the government viewed English programming as a threat to the Afrikaans language.[75] Television was also run on apartheid lines – TV1 broadcast in Afrikaans and English (geared to a white audience), TV2 in Zulu and Xhosa and TV3 in Sotho, Tswana and Pedi (both geared to a black audience), and TV4 mostly showed programmes for an urban-black audience. Sony VPCY21AVJ Battery

The system of apartheid sparked significant internal resistance.[7] The government responded to a series of popular uprisings and protests with police brutality, which in turn increased local support for the armed resistance struggle.[76] Internal resistance to the apartheid system in South Africa came from several sectors of society and saw the creation of organisations dedicated variously to peaceful protests, passive resistance and armed insurrection. Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery

In 1949 the youth wing of the African National Congress (ANC) took control of the organisation and started advocating a radical black nationalist programme. The new young leaders proposed that white authority could only be overthrown through mass campaigns. In 1950 that philosophy saw the launch of the Programme of Action, a series of strikes, Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery

boycotts and civil disobedience actions that led to occasionally violent clashes with the authorities.

In 1959 a group of disenchanted ANC members formed the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), which organised a demonstration against pass books on 21 March 1960. One of those protests was held in the township of Sharpeville, where 69 people were killed by police in the Sharpeville massacre. Sony VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

In the wake of the Sharpeville incident the government declared a state of emergency. More than 18,000 people were arrested, including leaders of the ANC and PAC, and both organisations were banned. The resistance went underground, with some leaders in exile abroad and others engaged in campaigns of domestic sabotage and terrorism. Sony VPCCW1E8R/WU Battery

In May 1961, before the declaration of South Africa as a Republic, an assembly representing the banned ANC called for negotiations between the members of the different ethnic groupings, threatening demonstrations and strikes during the inauguration of the Republic if their calls were ignored. Sony VPCCW1S1E Battery

When the government overlooked them, the strikers (among the main organisers was a 42-year-old, Thembu-origin Nelson Mandela) carried out their threats. The government countered swiftly by giving police the authority to arrest people for up to twelve days and detaining many strike leaders amid numerous cases of police brutality.[77] Defeated, the protesters called off their strike.Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

The ANC then chose to launch an armed struggle through a newly formed military wing,Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), which would perform acts of sabotage on tactical state structures. Its first sabotage plans were carried out on 16 December 1961, the anniversary of the Battle of Blood River.

In the 1970s the Black Consciousness Movement was created by tertiary students influenced by the American Black Power movement. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

BC endorsed black pride and African customs and did much to alter the feelings of inadequacy instilled among black people by the apartheid system. The leader of the movement, Steve Biko, was taken into custody on 18 August 1977 and was beaten to death in detention.

In 1976 secondary students in Soweto took to the streets in the Soweto uprising to protest against forced tuition in Afrikaans. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

On 16 June, police opened fire on students in what was meant to be a peaceful protest. According to official reports 23 people were killed, but the number of people who died is usually given as 176 , with estimates of up to 700. In the following years several student organisations were formed with the goal of protesting against apartheid, Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

and these organisations were central to urban school boycotts in 1980 and 1983 as well as rural boycotts in 1985 and 1986.

In parallel to student protests, labour unions started protest action in 1973 and 1974. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

After 1976 unions and workers are considered to have played an important role in the struggle against apartheid, filling the gap left by the banning of political parties. In 1979 black trade unions were legalised and could engage in collective bargaining, although strikes were still illegal. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

At roughly the same time churches and church groups also emerged as pivotal points of resistance. Church leaders were not immune to prosecution, and certain faith-based organisations were banned, but the clergy generally had more freedom to criticise the government than militant groups did. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

Although the majority of whites supported apartheid, some 20% did not. Parliamentary opposition was galvanised by Helen Suzman, Colin Eglin and Harry Schwarzwho formed the Progressive Federal Party. Extra-parliamentary resistance was largely centred in the South African Communist Party and women's organisation theBlack Sash. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

Women were also notable in their involvement in trade union organisations and banned political parties.South Africa's policies were subject to international scrutiny in 1960, when Macmillan criticised them during his celebrated Wind of Change speech in Cape Town. Weeks later, tensions came to a head in the Sharpeville Massacre, resulting in more international condemnation. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

Soon afterwards Verwoerd announced a referendum on whether the country should become a republic. Verwoerd lowered the voting age for whites to eighteen and included whites in South West Africa on the voter's roll. The referendum on 5 October that year asked whites, "Are you in favour of a Republic for the Union?", and 52% voted "Yes".[81] Sony PCG-71213M Battery

As a consequence of this change of status, South Africa needed to reapply for continued membership of theCommonwealth, with which it had privileged trade links. Even though India became a republic within the Commonwealth in 1950, it became clear that African and Asian member states would oppose South Africa due to its apartheid policies. Sony PCG-71311M Battery

As a result, South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth on 31 May 1961, the day that the Republic came into existence.

"We stand here today to salute the United Nations Organisation and its Member States, both singly and collectively, for joining forces with the masses of our people in a common struggle that has brought about our emancipation and pushed back the frontiers of racism." Sony PCG-71312M Battery

At the first UN gathering in 1946, South Africa was placed on the agenda. The primary subject in question was the handling of South African Indians, a great cause of divergence between South Africa and India. In 1952, apartheid was again discussed in the aftermath of the Defiance Campaign, Sony PCG-71212M Battery

and the UN set up a task team to keep watch on the progress of apartheid and the racial state of affairs in South Africa. Although South Africa's racial policies were a cause for concern, most countries in the UN concurred that this was a domestic affair, which fell outside the UN's jurisdiction.[83] Sony VAIO PCG-5J4M Battery

In April 1960, the UN's conservative stance on apartheid changed following the Sharpeville massacre, and the Security Council for the first time agreed on concerted action against the apartheid regime, demanding an end to racial separation and discrimination. From 1960 the ANC began a campaign of armed struggle of which there would later be a charge of 193 acts of terrorism from 1961 to 1963, mainly bombings and murders of civilians. Sony VAIO PCG-5K1M Battery

Instead, the South African government then began further suppression, banning the ANC and PAC. In 1961, UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld stopped over in South Africa and subsequently stated that he had been unable to reach agreement with Prime Minister Verwoerd.

On 6 November 1962, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 1761, condemning South African apartheid policies. Sony VAIO PCG-5K2M Battery

In 1966, the UN held the first of many colloquiums on apartheid. The General Assembly announced 21 March as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in memory of the Sharpeville massacre.[84] In 1971, the General Assembly formally denounced the institution of homelands, and a motion was passed in 1974 to expel South Africa from the UN, Sony VAIO PCG-5J5M Battery

but this was vetoed by France, Britain and the United States of America, all key trade associates of South Africa.[85]

On 7 August 1963 the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 181, calling for a voluntary arms embargo against South Africa. In the same year a Special Committee Against Apartheid was established to encourage and oversee plans of action against the regime. Sony VAIO PCG-5L2M Battery

From 1964 the US and Britain discontinued their arms trade with South Africa. The Security Council also condemned the Soweto massacre in Resolution 392. In 1977, the voluntary UN arms embargo became mandatory with the passing of Resolution 418.

Economic sanctions against South Africa were also frequently debated as an effective way of putting pressure on the apartheid government. Sony VAIO PCG-6S4M Battery

In 1962, the UN General Assembly requested that its members sever political, fiscal and transportation ties with South Africa. In 1968, it proposed ending all cultural, educational and sporting connections as well. Economic sanctions, however, were not made mandatory, because of opposition from South Africa's main trading partners. Sony VAIO PCG-6W1M Battery

In 1973, the UN adopted the Apartheid Convention which defines apartheid and even qualifies it as a crime against humanity which might lead to international criminal prosecution of the individuals responsible for perpetrating it.[86]

In 1978 and 1983 the UN condemned South Africa at the World Conference Against Racism. Sony VAIO PCG-6W2M Battery

After much debate, by the late 1980s the United States, the United Kingdom, and 23 other nations had passed laws placing various trade sanctions on South Africa.[87] A disinvestment from South Africa movement in many countries was similarly widespread, with individual cities and provinces around the world implementing various laws and local regulations forbidding registered corporations under their jurisdiction from doing business with South African firms, factories, or banks. Sony VAIO PCG-7Z1M Battery

Pope John Paul II was an outspoken opponent of apartheid in South Africa. In 1985, while visiting the Netherlands, he gave an impassioned speech condemning apartheid at the International Court of Justice, proclaiming that "no system of apartheid or separate development will ever be acceptable as a model for the relations between peoples or races."[89] Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2M Battery

In September 1988, Pope John Paul II made a pilgrimage to ten countries bordering South Africa, while demonstratively avoiding South Africa itself. During his visit to Zimbabwe, John Paul II called for economic sanctions against South Africa's government.

The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was created in 1963. Sony VAIO PCG-8Y3M Battery

Its primary objectives were to eradicate colonialism and improve social, political and economic situations in Africa. It censured apartheid and demanded sanctions against South Africa. African states agreed to aid the liberation movements in their fight against apartheid.[91] In 1969, fourteen nations from Central and East Africa gathered in Lusaka, Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1M Battery

Zambia, and formulated the 'Lusaka Manifesto', which was signed on 13 April by all of the countries in attendance except Malawi.[92] This manifesto was later taken on by both the OAU and the United Nations.[91]

The Lusaka Manifesto summarised the political situations of self-governing African countries, Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2M Battery

condemning racism and inequity, and calling for black majority rule in all African nations.[93] It did not rebuff South Africa entirely, though, adopting an appeasing manner towards the apartheid government, and even recognising its autonomy. Although African leaders supported the emancipation of black South Africans, they preferred this to be attained through peaceful means.[94] Sony VAIO PCG-8Z3M Battery

South Africa's negative response to the Lusaka Manifesto and rejection of a change to her policies brought about another OAU announcement in October 1971. The Mogadishu Declaration declared that South Africa's rebuffing of negotiations meant that her black people could only be freed through military means, and that no African state should converse with the apartheid government. Sony VAIO PCG-7112M Battery

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article