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11 avril 2012 3 11 /04 /avril /2012 03:10

Influence on writing

London wrote from a socialist viewpoint, which is evident in his novel The Iron Heel. Neither a theorist nor an intellectual socialist, London's socialism grew out of his life experience. HP Pavilion dv7-4007eo Battery

 

In his late (1913) book The Cruise of the Snark, London writes, without empathy[further explanation needed], about appeals to him for membership of the Snark's crew from office workers and other "toilers" who longed for escape from the cities, and of being cheated by workmen. HP Pavilion dv7-4010ev Battery

In an unflattering portrait of London's ranch days, Kevin Starr[who?] (1973) refers to this period as "post-socialist" and says "... by 1911 ... London was more bored by the class struggle than he cared to admit.[citation needed]" Starr maintains[neutrality is disputed]London's socialismHP Pavilion dv7-4010sd Battery

always had a streak of elitism in it, and a good deal of pose. He liked to play working class intellectual when it suited his purpose. Invited to a prominent Piedmont house, he featured a flannel shirt, but, as someone there remarked, HP Pavilion dv7-4010sg Battery

London's badge of solidarity with the working class "looked as if it had been specially laundered for the occasion." [Mark Twain said] "It would serve this man London right to have the working class get control of things. He would have to call out the militia to collect his royalties.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv7-4010so Battery

RACIAL VIEWS

London shared common Californian concerns about Asian immigration and "the yellow peril", which he used as the title of a 1904 essay.[50] This theme was also the subject of a story he wrote in 1910 called "The Unparalleled Invasion".HP Pavilion dv7-4010sv Battery

Presented as a historical essay narrating events between 1976 and 1987, the story describes a China with an ever-increasing population taking over and colonizing its neighbors, with the intention of taking over the entire Earth. The western nations respond with biological warfare and bombard China with dozens of the most infectious diseases.[51] HP Pavilion dv7-4010sw Battery

 

Many of London's short stories are notable for their empathetic portrayal of Mexican ("The Mexican"), Asian ("The Chinago"), and Hawaiian ("Koolau the Leper") characters. London's war correspondence from the Russo-Japanese War, as well as his unfinished novelCherry, show he admired much about Japanese customs and capabilities.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv7-4010tx Battery

 

In London's 1902 novel Daughter of the Snows, the character Frona Welse has a speech about Teutonic virtues in contrast to the characteristics of other "races". The scholar Andrew Furer, in a long essay exploring the complexity of London's views, says there is no doubt that Frona Welse is acting as a mouthpiece for London in this passage.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv7-4011eg Battery

 

London's 1904 essay, "The Yellow Peril",[50] criticizes Asians. He admits, "[I]t must be taken into consideration that the above postulate is itself a product of Western race-egotism, urged by our belief in our own righteousness and fostered by a faith in ourselves which may be as erroneous as are most fond race fancies." HP Pavilion dv7-4011el Battery

 

In "Koolau the Leper", London describes Koolau, who is a Hawaiian leper—and thus a very different sort of "superman" than Martin Eden—and who fights off an entire cavalry troop to elude capture, as "indomitable spiritually—a ... magnificent rebel". This character is based on Hawaiian leper Kaluaikoolau who revolt and resisted captured from forces of theProvisional Government of Hawaii in the Kalalau Valley in 1893. HP Pavilion dv7-4011so Battery

 

An amateur boxer and avid boxing fan, London reported on the 1910 Johnson-Jeffries fight, in which the black boxer Jack Johnson vanquished Jim Jeffries, the "Great White Hope". In 1908, according to Furer, London praised Johnson highly, contrasting the black boxer's coolness and intellectual style, with the apelike appearance and fighting style of his white opponent, Tommy Burns: "what . . . HP Pavilion dv7-4012eg Battery

 [won] on Saturday was bigness, coolness, quickness, cleverness, and vast physical superiority... Because a white man wishes a white man to win, this should not prevent him from giving absolute credit to the best man, even when that best man was black. All hail to Johnson." Johnson was "superb. He was impregnable . . . as inaccessible as Mont Blanc."[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv7-4012TX Battery

 

Those who defend London against charges of racism cite the letter he wrote to theJapanese-American Commercial Weekly in 1913: HP Pavilion dv7-4013eg Battery

 

In reply to yours of August 16, 1913. First of all, I should say by stopping the stupid newspaper from always fomenting race prejudice. This of course, being impossible, I would say, next, by educating the people of Japan so that they will be too intelligently tolerant to respond to any call to race prejudice. HP Pavilion dv7-4013el Battery

And, finally, by realizing, in industry and government, of socialism—which last word is merely a word that stands for the actual application of in the affairs of men of the theory of the Brotherhood of Man. HP Pavilion dv7-4013so Battery

 

In the meantime the nations and races are only unruly boys who have not yet grown to the stature of men. So we must expect them to do unruly and boisterous things at times. And, just as boys grow up, so the races of mankind will grow up and laugh when they look back upon their childish quarrels.[52] HP Pavilion dv7-4013tx Battery

 

In Yukon in 1996, after the City of Whitehorse renamed two streets to honor London andRobert W. Service, protests over London's racialist views forced the city to change the name of "Jack London Boulevard" back to "Two-mile Hill".[53] HP Pavilion dv7-4014eo Battery

 

London's "strength of utterance" is at its height in his stories, and they are painstakingly well-constructed.[citation needed] "To Build a Fire" is the best known of all his stories. Set in the harsh Klondike, it recounts the haphazard trek of a new arrival who has ignored an old-timer's warning about the risks of traveling alone. HP Pavilion dv7-4015ew Battery

Falling through the ice into a creek in seventy-five-below weather, the unnamed man is keenly aware that survival depends on his untested skills at quickly building a fire to dry his clothes and warm his extremities. After publishing a tame version of this story—with a sunny outcome—in The Youth's Companion in 1902, HP Pavilion dv7-4015ez Battery

London offered a second, more severe take on the man's predicament in The Century Magazine in 1908. Reading both provides an illustration of London's growth and maturation as a writer. As Labor (1994) observes: "To compare the two versions is itself an instructive lesson in what distinguished a great work of literary art from a good children's story."[A] HP Pavilion dv7-4015sa Battery

 

Other stories from the Klondike period include: "All Gold Canyon", about a battle between a gold prospector and a claim jumper; "The Law of Life", about an aging American Indian man abandoned by his tribe and left to die; "Love of Life", about a trek by a prospector across the Canadian tundra; HP Pavilion dv7-4015sg Battery

"To the Man on Trail," which tells the story of a prospector fleeing the Mounted Police in a sled race, and raises the question of the contrast between written law and morality; and "An Odyssey of the North," which raises questions of conditional morality, and paints a sympathetic portrait of a man of mixed White and Aleutancestry. HP Pavilion dv7-4015sl Battery

 

London was a boxing fan and an avid amateur boxer. "A Piece of Steak" is a tale about a match between older and younger boxers. It contrasts the differing experiences of youth and age but also raises the social question of the treatment of aging workers. "The Mexican" combines boxing with a social theme, as a young Mexican endures an unfair fight and ethnic prejudice in order to earn money with which to aid the revolution. HP Pavilion dv7-4015ss Battery

 

Numerous stories of London would today be classified as science fiction. "The Unparalleled Invasion" describes germ warfare against China; "Goliah" revolves around an irresistible energy weapon; "The Shadow and the Flash" is a tale about two brothers who take different routes to achieving invisibility; "A Relic of the Pliocene" is a tall tale about an encounter of a modern-day man with a mammoth. HP Pavilion dv7-4016eg Battery

"The Red One" is a late story from a period when London was intrigued by the theories of the psychiatrist and writer Jung. It tells of an island tribe held in thrall by an extraterrestrial object. His dystopian novel, The Iron Heel, meets the contemporary definition of soft science fiction. HP Pavilion dv7-4017ez Battery

 

Some nineteen original collections of short stories were published during London's brief life or shortly after his death. There have been numerous posthumous anthologies drawn from this pool of nineteen books. Many of these collections have been themed around the locales of the Klondike and the Pacific. A collection of Jack London's San Francisco Stories was published in October 2010 by Sydney Samizdat Press.[55] HP Pavilion dv7-4019sz Battery

 

NOVELS

London's most famous novels are The Call of the WildWhite FangThe Sea-WolfThe Iron Heel, and Martin Eden.[56]

In a letter dated Dec 27, 1901, London's Macmillan publisher George Platt Brett, Sr. said "he believed Jack's fiction represented 'the very best kind of work' done in America."[57] HP Pavilion dv7-4020ec Battery

 

Critic Maxwell Geismar called The Call of the Wild "a beautiful prose poem"; editor Franklin Walker said that it "belongs on a shelf with Walden and Huckleberry Finn"; and novelistE.L. Doctorow called it "a mordant parable ... his masterpiece."[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv7-4020em Battery

 

The historian Dale L. Walker[54] commented:

Jack London was an uncomfortable novelist, that form too long for his natural impatience and the quickness of his mind. His novels, even the best of them, are hugely flawed. HP Pavilion dv7-4020eo Battery

 

Critics have said his novels are episodic and resemble a linked series of short stories. Walker writes:

The Star Rover, that magnificent experiment, is actually a series of short stories connected by a unifying device ... Smoke Bellew is a series of stories bound together in a novel-like form by their reappearing protagonist, Kit Bellew; and John Barleycorn ... is a synoptic series of short episodes.[54] HP Pavilion dv7-4020sa Battery

 

Ambrose Bierce said of The Sea-Wolf that "the great thing—and it is among the greatest of things—is that tremendous creation, Wolf Larsen ... the hewing out and setting up of such a figure is enough for a man to do in one lifetime." However, he noted, "The love element, with its absurd suppressions, and impossible proprieties, is awful."[58] HP Pavilion dv7-4021tx Battery

 

The Iron Heel is interesting as an example of a dystopian novel that anticipates and influenced George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four.[59] London's socialist politics are explicitly on display here. HP Pavilion dv7-4022tx Battery

 

APOCRYPHA

The biographer Stasz notes that the passage "has many marks of London's style" but the only line that could be safely attributed to London was the first.[60] The words Shepard quoted were from a story in the San Francisco Bulletin, December 2, 1916 by journalist Ernest J. HP Pavilion dv7-4023so Battery

Hopkins, who visited the ranch just weeks before London's death. Stasz notes "Even more so than today journalists' quotes were unreliable or even sheer inventions" and says no direct source in London's writings has been found. HP Pavilion dv7-4024so Battery

In the short story "By The Turtles of Tasman", a character, defending her ne'er-do-well grasshopperish father to her antlike uncle, says: "... my father has been a king. He has lived .... Have you lived merely to live? Are you afraid to die? I'd rather sing one wild song and burst my heart with it, than live a thousand years watching my digestion and being afraid of the wet. When you are dust, my father will be ashes." HP Pavilion dv7-4024tx Battery

 

The Scab

Main article: Strikebreaker

A short diatribe on "The Scab" is often quoted within the U.S. labor movement and frequently attributed to London. It opens: HP Pavilion dv7-4025eo Battery

 

After God had finished the rattlesnake, the toad, and the vampire, he had some awful substance left with which he made a scab. A scab is a two-legged animal with a corkscrew soul, a water brain, a combination backbone of jelly and glue. Where others have hearts, he carries a tumor of rotten principles. When a scab comes down the street, men turn their backs and Angels weep in Heaven, and the Devil shuts the gates of hell to keep him out...."[61] HP Pavilion dv7-4025ew Battery

 

This passage figured in a 1974 Supreme Court case, in which Justice Thurgood Marshallquoted the passage in full and referred to it as "a well-known piece of trade union literature, generally attributed to author Jack London." A union newsletter had published a "list of scabs," which was granted to be factual and therefore not libelous, but then went on to quote the passage as the "definition of a scab." HP Pavilion dv7-4025ss Battery

The case turned on the question of whether the "definition" was defamatory. The court ruled that "Jack London's... 'definition of a scab' is merely rhetorical hyperbole, a lusty and imaginative expression of the contempt felt by union members towards those who refuse to join," and as such was not libelous and was protected under the First Amendment.[61] HP Pavilion dv7-4025tx Battery

 

The passage does not appear in the extensive collection of Jack London's writings at Sonoma State University's website. He once gave a speech entitled "The Scab" which he published in his book The War of the Classes, which opens[62] HP Pavilion dv7-4026eo Battery

 

In a competitive society, where men struggle with one another for food and shelter, what is more natural than that generosity, when it diminishes the food and shelter of men other than he who is generous, should be held an accursed thing? Wise old saws to the contrary, HP Pavilion dv7-4026tx Battery

he who takes from a man's purse takes from his existence. To strike at a man's food and shelter is to strike at his life; and in a society organized on a tooth-and-nail basis, such an act, performed though it may be under the guise of generosity, is none the less menacing and terrible. HP Pavilion dv7-4027so Battery

 

In 1913 and 1914, a number of newspapers printed a passage virtually identical to the first three sentences of the "scab" diatribe, except that the type of individual being vilified varies: God uses the awful substance to make, not a "scab," but a "knocker," or a "stool pigeon," or a "scandal monger." HP Pavilion dv7-4027tx Battery

A 1913 Fort Worth newspaper columnist quotes the "Rule Review" as saying "After God had finished making the rattlesnake, the toad and the vampire, He had some awful substance left, with which he made the knocker."[63] A Macon, Georgia paper published three full sentences of the definition of a "knocker."[64] HP Pavilion dv7-4028eo Battery

 

A 1914 Duluth newspaper article, reporting on a trial, has the defense using this passage as a definition of a "stool pigeon."[65] HP Pavilion dv7-4028tx Battery

 

In 1914 the New Age Magazine, quoted a paragraph from The Eastern Star, another Masonic publication. This passage, too, is virtually identical to the first three sentences of the "Scab" diatribe, except that it defines the "scandal monger."[66] HP Pavilion dv7-4029tx Battery

 

Might is Right

Anton LaVey's Church of Satan claims that "Ragnar Redbeard", pseudonymous author of the 1896 book Might is Right, was London. No London biographers mention any such possibility. Rodger Jacobs published an essay ridiculing this theory, arguing that in 1896 London was unfamiliar with philosophers heavily cited by "Redbeard", such as Nietzsche, and had not even begun to develop his mature literary style.[67] HP Pavilion dv7-4030ed Battery

 

William Sidney Porter was born on September 11, 1862, in Greensboro, North Carolina. His middle name at birth was Sidney; he changed the spelling to Sydney in 1898. His parents were Dr. Algernon Sidney Porter (1825–1888), a physician, and Mary Jane Virginia Swaim Porter (1833–1865). HP Pavilion dv7-4030ek Battery

They were married April 20, 1858. When William was three, his mother died from tuberculosis, and he and his father moved into the home of his maternal grandmother. As a child, Porter was always reading, everything from classics todime novels; his favorite works were Lane's translation of One Thousand and One Nights, and Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy.[2] HP Pavilion dv7-4030em Battery

 

Porter graduated from his aunt Evelina Maria Porter's elementary school in 1876. He then enrolled at the Lindsey Street High School. His aunt continued to tutor him until he was fifteen. In 1879, he started working in his uncle's drugstore and in 1881, at the age of nineteen, he was licensed as a pharmacist. At the drugstore, he also showed off his natural artistic talents by sketching the townsfolk. HP Pavilion dv7-4030er Battery

 

Porter traveled with Dr. James K. Hall to Texas in March 1882, hoping that a change of air would help alleviate a persistent cough he had developed. He took up residence on the sheep ranch of Richard Hall, James' son, in La Salle County and helped out as a shepherd, ranch hand, cook and baby-sitter. HP Pavilion dv7-4030ew Battery

While on the ranch, he learned bits ofSpanish and German from the mix of immigrant ranch hands. He also spent time reading classic literature. Porter's health did improve and he traveled with Richard to Austin in 1884, HP Pavilion dv7-4031eo Battery

where he decided to remain and was welcomed into the home of the Harrells, who were friends of Richard's. Porter took a number of different jobs over the next several years, first as pharmacist then as a draftsman, bank teller and journalist. He also began writing as a sideline. HP Pavilion dv7-4030ss Battery

 

Porter led an active social life in Austin, including membership in singing and drama groups. Porter was a good singer and musician. He played both the guitar and mandolin. He became a member of the "Hill City Quartet," a group of young men who sang at gatherings and serenaded young women of the town. HP Pavilion dv7-4031sd Battery

Porter met and began courting Athol Estes, then seventeen years old and from a wealthy family. Her mother objected to the match because Athol was ill, suffering from tuberculosis. On July 1, 1887, Porter eloped with Athol to the home of Reverend R. K. Smoot, where they were married. HP Pavilion dv7-4031tx Battery

The couple continued to participate in musical and theater groups, and Athol encouraged her husband to pursue his writing. Athol gave birth to a son in 1888, who died hours after birth, and then a daughter, Margaret Worth Porter, in September 1889. HP Pavilion dv7-4032eo Battery

Porter's friend Richard Hall became Texas Land Commissioner and offered Porter a job. Porter started as a draftsman at the Texas General Land Office (GLO) in 1887 at a salary of $100 a month, drawing maps from surveys and field notes. The salary was enough to support his family, but he continued his contributions to magazines and newspapers. HP Pavilion dv7-4033tx Battery

 

In the GLO building, he began developing characters and plots for such stories as "Georgia's Ruling" (1900), and "Buried Treasure" (1908). The castle-like building he worked in was even woven into some of his tales such as "Bexar Scrip No. 2692" (1894). HP Pavilion dv7-4034tx Battery

 

His job at the GLO was a political appointment by Hall. Hall ran for governor in the election of 1890 but lost. Porter resigned in early 1891 when the new governor was sworn in. HP Pavilion dv7-4035es Battery

 

The same year, Porter began working at the First National Bank of Austin as a teller and bookkeeper at the same salary he had made at the GLO. The bank was operated informally and Porter was apparently careless in keeping his books and may have embezzled funds. In 1894, he was accused by the bank of embezzlement and lost his job but was not indicted. HP Pavilion dv7-4035sa Battery

 

He then worked full time on his humorous weekly called The Rolling Stone, which he started while working at the bank. The Rolling Stone featured satire on life, people and politics and included Porter's short stories and sketches. HP Pavilion dv7-4035tx Battery

Although eventually reaching a top circulation of 1500, The Rolling Stone failed in April 1895 since the paper never provided an adequate income. However, his writing and drawings had caught the attention of the editor at the Houston PostHP Pavilion dv7-4035so Battery

 

Porter and his family moved to Houston in 1895, where he started writing for the Post. His salary was only $25 a month, but it rose steadily as his popularity increased. Porter gathered ideas for his column by loitering in hotel lobbies and observing and talking to people there. This was a technique he used throughout his writing career. HP Pavilion dv7-4036tx Battery

 

Unfortunately for him, while he was in Houston, the First National Bank of Austin was audited by federal auditors and they found the embezzlement shortages that had led to his firing. A federal indictment followed and he was arrested on charges of embezzlement. HP Pavilion dv7-4038ca Battery

 

FLIGHT AND RETURN

Porter's father-in-law posted bail to keep Porter out of jail, but the day before Porter was due to stand trial on July 7, 1896, he fled, first to New Orleans and later to Honduras. While holed up in a Trujillo hotel for several months, he wrote Cabbages and Kings, in which he coined the term "banana republic" to describe the country, subsequently used to describe almost any small, HP Pavilion dv7-4038tx Battery

unstable tropical nation in Latin America.[3] Porter had sent Athol and Margaret back to Austin to live with Athol's parents. Unfortunately, Athol became too ill to meet Porter in Honduras as Porter had planned. When he learned that his wife was dying, Porter returned to Austin in February 1897 and surrendered to the court, pending anappeal. Once again, Porter's father-in-law posted bail so Porter could stay with Athol and Margaret. HP Pavilion dv7-4039tx Battery

Athol Estes Porter died on July 25, 1897, from tuberculosis (then known as consumption). Porter, having little to say in his own defense, was found guilty of embezzlement in February 1898, sentenced to five years jail, and imprisoned on March 25, 1898, as federal prisoner 30664 at the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio. HP Pavilion dv7-4040ed Battery

While in prison, Porter, as a licensed pharmacist, worked in the prison hospital as the night druggist. Porter was given his own room in the hospital wing, and there is no record that he actually spent time in the cell block of the prison. He had fourteen stories published under various pseudonymswhile he was in prison, but was becoming best known as "O. Henry", HP Pavilion dv7-4040ek Battery

a pseudonym that first appeared over the story "Whistling Dick's Christmas Stocking" in the December 1899 issue of McClure's Magazine. A friend of his in New Orleans would forward his stories to publishers, so they had no idea the writer was imprisoned. HP Pavilion dv7-4040sa Battery

Porter was released on July 24, 1901, for good behavior after serving three years. Porter reunited with his daughter Margaret, now age 11, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where Athol's parents had moved after Porter's conviction. Margaret was never told that her father had been in prison—just that he had been away on business. HP Pavilion dv7-4040sb Battery

Porter's most prolific writing period started in 1902, when he moved to New York City to be near his publishers. While there, he wrote 381 short stories. He wrote a story a week for over a year for the New York World Sunday MagazineHP Pavilion dv7-4040sp Battery

His wit, characterization, and plot twists were adored by his readers, but often panned by critics. Porter married again in 1907, to childhood sweetheart Sarah (Sallie) Lindsey Coleman, whom he met again after revisiting his native state of North Carolina. HP Pavilion dv7-4040sf Battery

Porter was a heavy drinker, and his health deteriorated markedly in 1908, which affected his writing. In 1909, Sarah left him, and he died on June 5, 1910, of cirrhosis of the liver, complications of diabetes, and an enlarged heart. After funeral services in New York City, he was buried in the Riverside Cemetery in Asheville, North Carolina. His daughter, Margaret Worth Porter, who died in 1927, was buried next to her father. HP Pavilion dv7-4040ss Battery

O. Henry's stories frequently have surprise endings. In his day, he was called the American answer to Guy de Maupassant. Both authors wrote plot twist endings, but O. Henry stories were much more playful. His stories are also known for witty narration. HP Pavilion dv7-4040tx Battery

Most of O. Henry's stories are set in his own time, the early 20th century. Many take place in New York City and deal for the most part with ordinary people: clerks, policemen, waitresses, etc. HP Pavilion dv7-4045ea Battery

O. Henry's work is wide-ranging, and his characters can be found roaming the cattle-lands of Texas, exploring the art of the con-man, or investigating the tensions of class and wealth in turn-of-the-century New York. O. Henry had an inimitable hand for isolating some element of society and describing it with an incredible economy and grace of language. HP Pavilion dv7-4045eb Battery

Some of his best and least-known work is contained in Cabbages and Kings, a series of stories each of which explores some individual aspect of life in a paralytically sleepy Central American town, while advancing some aspect of the larger plot and relating back one to another. HP Pavilion dv7-4045er Battery

Cabbages and Kings was his first collection of stories, followed by The Four Million. The second collection opens with a reference to Ward McAllister's "assertion that there were only 'Four Hundred' people in New York City who were really worth noticing. But a wiser man has arisen—the census taker—and his larger estimate of human interest has been preferred in marking out the field of these little stories of the 'Four Million.'" To O. Henry, everyone in New York counted. HP Pavilion dv7-4047ea Battery

He had an obvious affection for the city, which he called "Bagdad-on-the-Subway,"[4] and many of his stories are set there—while others are set in small towns or in other cities. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ea Battery

The O. Henry Award is a prestigious annual prize named after Porter and given to outstanding short stories. Several schools around the country bear Porter's pseudonym. HP Pavilion dv7-4050eb Battery

In 1952, a film featuring five stories, called O. Henry's Full House, was made. The episode garnering the most critical acclaim[citation needed] was "The Cop and the Anthem" starring Charles Laughton and Marilyn Monroe. The other stories are "The Clarion Call", "The Last Leaf", "The Ransom of Red Chief" (starring Fred Allen and Oscar Levant), and "The Gift of the Magi".HP Pavilion dv7-4050ec Battery

The O. Henry House and O. Henry Hall, both in Austin, Texas, are named for him. O. Henry Hall, now owned by the University of Texas, previously served as the federal courthouse in which O. Henry was convicted of embezzlement.HP Pavilion dv7-4050ed Battery

Porter has elementary schools named for him in Greensboro, North Carolina (William Sydney Porter Elementary[7]) and Garland, Texas (O. Henry Elementary), as well as a middle school in Austin, Texas (O. Henry Middle School[8]). The O. Henry Hotel in Greensboro is also named for Porter. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ei Battery

Demographics

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 1,089 people, 455 households, and 322 families residing in the town. The population density was 417.6 people per square mile (161.1/km²). There were 516 housing units at an average density of 197.9 per square mile (76.3/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.71% White, 0.09% Native American, 0.09% fromother races, and 1.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.18% of the population. HP Pavilion dv7-4050em Battery

There were 455 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.2% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.88. HP Pavilion dv7-4050eo Battery

In the town the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 87.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.8 males. HP Pavilion dv7-4050er Battery

The median income for a household in the town was $29,107, and the median income for a family was $33,688. Males had a median income of $32,065 versus $22,143 for females. The per capita income for the town was $14,375. About 19.4% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.9% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev Battery

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