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Jacques Cousteau Jacques-Yves Cousteau (French: [ʒak iv kusto]; commonly known in English as Jacques Cousteau; 11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997)[1] was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the Aqua-Lung, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française. He was also known as "le Commandant Cousteau" or "Captain Cousteau". HP QT6D Laptop Keyboard Cousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac, Gironde, France to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau. He had one brother, Pierre-Antoine. Cousteau completed his preparatory studies at the prestigious Collège Stanislas in Paris. In 1930, he entered the École Navale and graduated as a gunnery officer. After an automobile accident cut short his career in naval aviation, Cousteau indulged his interest in the sea. SONY 148701322 Laptop Keyboard In Toulon, where he was serving on the Condorcet, Cousteau carried out his first underwater experiments, thanks to his friend Philippe Tailliez who in 1936 lent him some Fernez underwatergoggles, predecessors of modern swimming goggles.[2] Cousteau also belonged to the information service of the French Navy, and was sent on missions to Shanghai and Japan (1935–1938) and in the USSR (1939).[citation needed]SONY VAIO VGN-CS16G/Q Laptop Keyboard On 12 July 1937 he married Simone Melchior, with whom he had two sons, Jean-Michel (born 1938) and Philippe (1940–1979). His sons took part in the adventures of the Calypso. In 1991, one year after his wife Simone's death from cancer, he married Francine Triplet. They already had a daughter Diane Cousteau (born 1980) and a son Pierre-Yves Cousteau (born 1982), born during Cousteau's marriage to his first wife. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard

Early 1940s: Innovation of modern underwater diving

The years of World War II were decisive for the history of diving. After the armistice of 1940, the family of Simone and Jacques-Yves Cousteau took refuge inMegève, where he became a friend of the Ichac family who also lived there. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Marcel Ichac shared the same desire to reveal to the general public unknown and inaccessible places —Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard for Cousteau the underwater world and for Ichac the high mountains. The two neighbors took the first ex-aequoprize of the Congress of Documentary Film in 1943, for the first French underwater film: Par dix-huit mètres de fond (18 meters deep), made without breathing apparatus the previous year in the Embiez islands (Var) with Philippe Tailliez and Frédéric Dumas, using a depth-pressure-proof camera case developed by mechanical engineer Léon Vèche (engineer of Arts and Métiers and the Naval College). SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E Laptop Keyboard  SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard In 1943, they made the film Épaves (Shipwrecks), in which they used two of the very first Aqua-Lung prototypes. These prototypes were made in Boulogne-Billancourt by the Air Liquide company, following instructions from Cousteau and Émile Gagnan.[3][4] When making Épaves, Cousteau could not find the necessary blank reels of movie film, but had to buy hundreds of small still camera film reels the same width, intended for a make of child's camera, and cemented them together to make long reels.[5][6]HP Pavilion ze5375us Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard Having kept bonds with the English speakers (he spent part of his childhood in the United States and usually spoke English) and with French soldiers in North Africa (under Admiral Lemonnier), Jacques-Yves Cousteau (whose villa "Baobab" at Sanary (Var) was opposite Admiral Darlan's villa "Reine"), helped the French Navy to join again with the Allies; HP Mini 311-1035TU Laptop Keyboard he assembled a commando operation against the Italian espionage services in France, and received several military decorations for his deeds. At that time, he kept his distance from his brother Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, a "pen anti-semite" who wrote the collaborationist newspaper Je suis partout (I am everywhere) and who received the death sentence in 1946. However this was later commuted to a life sentence, and Pierre-Antoine was released in 1954. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard During the 1940s, Cousteau is credited with improving the aqua-lung design which gave birth to the open-circuit scuba technology used today. According to his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure (1953), Cousteau started diving with Fernez goggles in 1936, and in 1939 used the self contained underwater breathing apparatus invented in 1926 by Commander Yves le Prieur.[7]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Cousteau was not satisfied with the length of time he could spend underwater with the Le Prieur apparatus so he improved it to extend underwater duration by adding a demand regulator, invented in 1942 by Émile Gagnan.[8] In 1943 Cousteau tried out the first prototype aqua-lung which finally made extended underwater exploration possible. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

Late 1940s: GERS and Élie Monnier

In 1946, Cousteau and Tailliez showed the film "Épaves" to Admiral Lemonnier, and the admiral gave them the responsibility of setting up the Groupement de Recherches Sous-marines (GRS) (Underwater Research Group) of the French Navy in Toulon. A little later it became the GERS (Groupe d'Études et de Recherches Sous-Marines, = Underwater Studies and Research Group), then the COMISMER ("COMmandement des Interventions Sous la MER", =ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard "Undersea Interventions Command"), and finally more recently the CEPHISMER. In 1947, Chief Petty Officer Maurice Fargues became the first diver to die using an aqualung while attempting a new depth record with the GERS near Toulon.[9]HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1948, between missions of mine clearance, underwater exploration and technological and physiological tests, Cousteau undertook a first campaign in the Mediterranean on board the sloop Élie Monnier,[10] with Philippe Tailliez, Frédéric Dumas, Jean Alinat and the scenario writer Marcel Ichac. The small team also undertook the exploration of the Roman wreck of Mahdia (Tunisia). TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard It was the first underwater archaeology operation using autonomous diving, opening the way for scientific underwater archaeology. Cousteau and Marcel Ichac brought back from there the Carnets diving film (presented and preceded with the Cannes Film Festival 1951). HP G62-a60EV Laptop Keyboard Cousteau and the Élie Monnier then took part in the rescue of Professor Jacques Piccard's bathyscaphe, the FNRS-2, during the 1949 expedition to Dakar. Thanks to this rescue, the French Navy was able to reuse the sphere of the bathyscaphe to construct the FNRS-3. SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard The adventures of this period are told in the two books The Silent World (1953, by Cousteau and Dumas) and Plongées sans câble (1954, by Philippe Tailliez).  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E Laptop Keyboard

1950–1970s

In 1949, Cousteau left the French Navy. In 1950, he founded the French Oceanographic Campaigns (FOC), and leased a ship called Calypso from Thomas Loel Guinness for a symbolic one franc a year. Cousteau refitted the Calypso as a mobile laboratory for field research and as his principal vessel for diving and filming. He also carried out underwater archaeological excavations in the Mediterranean, in particular at Grand-Congloué (1952).  HP G61-321NR Laptop Keyboard With the publication of his first book in 1953, The Silent World, he correctly predicted the existence of the echolocation abilities of porpoises. He reported that his research vessel, the Élie Monier, was heading to the Straits of Gibraltar and noticed a group of porpoises following them. Cousteau changed course a few degrees off the optimal course to the center of the strait, SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard and the porpoises followed for a few minutes, then diverged toward mid-channel again. It was evident that they knew where the optimal course lay, even if the humans did not. Cousteau concluded that the cetaceans had something like sonar, which was a relatively new feature on submarines. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard Cousteau won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1956 for The Silent World co-produced with Louis Malle. With the assistance of Jean Mollard, he made a "diving saucer" SP-350, an experimental underwater vehicle which could reach a depth of 350 meters. The successful experiment was quickly repeated in 1965 with two vehicles which reached 500 meters. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard In 1957, he was elected as director of the Oceanographical Museum of Monaco. He directed Précontinent, about the experiments of diving in saturation (long-duration immersion, houses under the sea), and was admitted to the United States National Academy of Sciences. HP AEAT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard In October 1960, a large amount of radioactive waste was going to be discarded in the Mediterranean Sea by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA). The CEA argued that the dumps were experimental in nature, and that French oceanographers such as Vsevelod Romanovsky had recommended it. Romanovsky and other French scientists, TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5132 Laptop Keyboard including Louis Fage and Jacques Cousteau, repudiated the claim, saying that Romanovsky had in mind a much smaller amount. The CEA claimed that there was little circulation (and hence little need for concern) at the dump site between Nice and Corsica, but French public opinion sided with the oceanographers rather than with the CEA atomic energy scientists. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard The CEA chief, Francis Perrin, decided to postpone the dump.[11] Cousteau organized a publicity campaign which in less than two weeks gained wide popular support. The train carrying the waste was stopped by women and children sitting on the railway tracks, and it was sent back to its origin.  HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard A meeting with American television companies (ABC, Métromédia, NBC) created the series The Underwater Odyssey of Commander Cousteau, with the character of the commander in the red bonnet inherited from standard diving dress) intended to give the films a "personalized adventure" style. Compaq Presario CQ56-105TU Laptop Keyboard In 1970, he wrote the book The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea with Philippe, his son. In this book, Costeau described the oceanic whitetip shark as "the most dangerous of all sharks".TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard In 1973, along with his two sons and Frederick Hyman, he created the Cousteau Society for the Protection of Ocean Life, Frederick Hyman being its first President; it now has more than 300,000 members. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-307EA Laptop Keyboard Three years after the volcano's last eruption, on 19 December 1973, the Cousteau team was filming on Deception Island, Antarctica when Michel Laval, Calypso's second in command, was struck and killed by a propeller of the helicopter that was ferrying between Calypso and the island.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1976, Cousteau uncovered the wreck of HMHS Britannic. He also found the wreck of La Therese in Crete island In 1977, together with Peter Scott, he received the UN International Environment prize. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard On 28 June 1979, while the Calypso was on an expedition to Portugal, his second son, Philippe, his preferred and designated successor and with whom he had co-produced all his films since 1969, died in a PBY Catalina flying boat crash in the Tagus river near Lisbon. Cousteau was deeply affected. He called his then eldest son, the architect Jean-Michel Cousteau, to his side. This collaboration lasted 14 years. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard

1980–1990s

In 1980, Cousteau traveled to Canada to make two films on the Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, Cries from the Deep and St. Lawrence: Stairway to the Sea.[12] In 1985, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Ronald Reagan. HP G72-b15SA Laptop Keyboard On 24 November 1988, he was elected to the French Academy, chair 17, succeeding Jean Delay. His official reception under the Cupola took place on 22 June 1989, the response to his speech of reception being given by Bertrand Poirot-Delpech. After his death, he was replaced under the Cupola by Érik Orsenna on 28 May 1998. Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard In June 1990, the composer Jean Michel Jarre paid homage to the commander by entitling his new album Waiting for Cousteau. He also composed the music for Cousteau's documentary "Palawan, the last refuge". On 2 December 1990, his wife Simone Cousteau died of cancer. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard In June 1991, in Paris, Jacques-Yves Cousteau remarried, to Francine Triplet, with whom he had (before this marriage) two children, Diane and Pierre-Yves. Francine Cousteau currently continues her husband's work as the head of the Cousteau Foundation and Cousteau Society. From that point, the relations between Jacques-Yves and his elder son worsened. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In November 1991, Cousteau gave an interview to the UNESCO courier, in which he stated that he was in favour of human population control and population decrease. The full article text can be found online.[13]SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard In 1992, he was invited to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the United Nations' International Conference on Environment and Development, and then he became a regular consultant for the UN and the World Bank. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard In 1996, he sued his son who wished to open a holiday centre named "Cousteau" in the Fiji Islands. On 11 January 1996, Calypso was rammed and sunk in Singapore Harbour by a barge. The Calypso was refloated and towed home to France. Jacques-Yves Cousteau died on 25 June 1997 in Paris, aged 87. Despite persistent rumors, encouraged by some Islamic publications and websites, Cousteau did not convert to Islam, and when he died he was buried in a Roman Catholic Christian funeral.[14] He was buried in the family vault at Saint-André-de-Cubzac in France. An homage was paid to him by the city by the inauguration of a "rue du Commandant Cousteau", a street which runs out to his native house, where a commemorative plaque was affixed. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard

Legacy

Cousteau's legacy includes more than 120 television documentaries, more than 50 books, and an environmental protection foundation with 300,000 members.[17]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Cousteau liked to call himself an "oceanographic technician." He was, in reality, a sophisticated showman, teacher, and lover of nature. His work permitted many people to explore the resources of the oceans.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard His work also created a new kind of scientific communication, criticised at the time by some academics. The so-called "divulgationism", a simple way of sharing scientific concepts, was soon employed in other disciplines and became one of the most important characteristics of modern television broadcasting. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Cousteau died on 25 June 1997. The Cousteau Society and its French counterpart, l'Équipe Cousteau, both of which Jacques-Yves Cousteau founded, are still active today. The Society is currently attempting to turn the original Calypso into a museum and it is raising funds to build a successor vessel, the Calypso II. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard In his last years, after marrying again, Cousteau became involved in a legal battle with his son Jean-Michel over Jean-Michel licensing the Cousteau name for a South Pacific resort, resulting in Jean-Michel Cousteau being ordered by the court not to encourage confusion between his for-profit business and his father's non-profit endeavours. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard In 2007, the International Watch Company introduced the IWC Aquatimer Chronograph "Cousteau Divers" Special Edition. The timepiece incorporated a sliver of wood from the interior of Cousteau's Calypso research vessel. Having developed the diver's watch, IWC offered support to The Cousteau Society. The proceeds from the timepieces' sales were partially donated to the non-profit organization involved into conservation of marine life and preservation of tropical coral reefs.[18]ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard The Silent World (subtitle: A story of undersea discovery and adventure, by the first men to swim at record depths with the freedom of fish) is a 1953 book co-authored by Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Frédéric Dumas and edited by James Dugan.[1]Although a French national, Cousteau wrote the book in English.[2] SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU  Keyboard Cousteau and Émile Gagnan designed, built and tested the first "aqua-lung" in the summer of 1943 off the southern coast of France. In the opening chapters Cousteau recounts the earliest days of scuba diving with his diving companions Frédéric Dumas and Philippe Tailliez. The aqualung allowed for the first time untethered free-floating extended deep water diving and ushered in the modern era of scuba diving. Later chapters include excursions diving ship wrecks.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard It was the basis of the Academy Award-winning documentary The Silent World (1956). It has been very successful; as of the book's 50th anniversary it has been translated into some 22 languages and sold over 5 million copies[3] and is still in print, notably as a 2004 hardcover edition published by the National Geographic Society.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite A305  Keyboard The book contains 48 pages of black-and-white photos by various photographers, and 16 pages of color made available by National Geographic Magazine. The hand-held work in Ektachrome "is the first ever made in significant depths, using artificial light and scientific color correction."[2]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard

Sonar

Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels. Two types of technology share the name "sonar": Compaq Presario CQ57 Series  Keyboard passive sonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels; active sonar is emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes. Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. Acoustic location in air was used before the introduction of radar. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M  Keyboard Sonar may also be used in air for robot navigation, and SODAR (an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations. The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to generate and receive the sound. The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems vary from very low (infrasonic) to extremely high (ultrasonic). The study of underwater sound is known as underwater acoustics or hydroacoustics. HP 599572-001  Keyboard History Although some animals (dolphins and bats) have used sound for communication and object detection for millions of years, use by humans in the water is initially recorded by Leonardo Da Vinci in 1490: a tube inserted into the water was said to be used to detect vessels by placing an ear to the tube.[1]SONY VAIO VGN-FW160D  Keyboard In the 19th century an underwater bell was used as an ancillary to lighthouses to provide warning of hazards. The use of sound to 'echo locate' underwater in the same way as bats use sound for aerial navigation seems to have been prompted by the Titanic disaster of 1912. The world's first patent for an underwater echo ranging device was filed at the British Patent Office by English meteorologist Lewis Richardson a month after the sinking of the Titanic,[2] and a German physicist Alexander Behm obtained a patent for an echo sounder in 1913. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M  Keyboard The Canadian engineer Reginald Fessenden, while working for the Submarine Signal Company in Boston, built an experimental system beginning in 1912, a system later tested in Boston Harbor, and finally in 1914 from the U.S. Revenue (now Coast Guard) Cutter Miami on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland Canada.[2][3]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard In that test, Fessenden demonstrated depth sounding, underwater communications (Morse Code) and echo ranging (detecting an iceberg at two miles (3 km) range).[4][5] The so-called Fessenden oscillator, at ca. 500 Hz frequency, was unable to determine the bearing of the berg due to the 3 metre wavelength and the small dimension of the transducer's radiating face (less than 1 metre in diameter). The ten Montreal-built British H class submarines launched in 1915 were equipped with aFessenden oscillator.[6] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series  Keyboard During World War I the need to detect submarines prompted more research into the use of sound. The British made early use of underwater hydrophones, while the French physicist Paul Langevin, working with a Russian immigrant electrical engineer, Constantin Chilowski, worked on the development of active sound devices for detecting submarines in 1915 using quartz. Compaq Presario CQ62-112TU  Keyboard Although piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers later superseded the electrostatic transducers they used, this work influenced future designs. Lightweight sound-sensitive plastic film and fibre optics have been used for hydrophones (acousto-electric transducers for in-water use), while Terfenol-D and PMN (lead magnesium niobate) have been developed for projectors.  SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01  Keyboard In 1916, under the British Board of Invention and Research, Canadian physicist Robert William Boyle took on the active sound detection project with A B Wood, producing a prototype for testing in mid 1917. This work, for the Anti-Submarine Division of the British Naval Staff, was undertaken in utmost secrecy, and used quartz piezoelectric crystals to produce the world's first practical underwater active sound detection apparatus. To maintain secrecy no mention of sound experimentation or quartz was made - TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305  Keyboard the word used to describe the early work ('supersonics') was changed to 'ASD'ics, and the quartz material to 'ASD'ivite: hence the British acronym ASDIC. In 1939, in response to a question from the Oxford English Dictionary, the Admiralty made up the story that it stood for 'Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee', and this is still widely believed, though no committee bearing this name has been found in the Admiralty archives.[7]HP Envy 15  Keyboard By 1918, both France and Britain had built prototype active systems. The British tested their ASDIC on HMS Antrim in 1920, and started production in 1922. The 6th Destroyer Flotilla had ASDIC-equipped vessels in 1923. An anti-submarine school, HMS Osprey, and a training flotilla of four vessels were established onPortland in 1924. The US Sonar QB set arrived in 1931. COMPAQ 367777-001  Keyboard By the outbreak of World War II, the Royal Navy had five sets for different surface ship classes, and others for submarines, incorporated into a complete anti-submarine attack system. The effectiveness of early ASDIC was hamstrung by the use of the depth charge as an anti-submarine weapon. This required an attacking vessel to pass over a submerged contact before dropping charges over the stern, Thinkpad T420 Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NR32S/S Keyboard resulting in a loss of ASDIC contact in the moments leading up to attack. The hunter was effectively firing blind, during which time a submarine commander could take evasive action. This situation was remedied by using several ships cooperating and by the adoption of "ahead throwing weapons", HP Pavilion DV6-1020ei Keyboard such as Hedgehog and later Squid, which projected warheads at a target ahead of the attacker and thus still in ASDIC contact. Developments during the war resulted in British ASDIC sets which used several different shapes of beam, continuously covering blind spots. Later, acoustic torpedoes were used.  HP G62-b25ER Keyboard At the start of World War II, British ASDIC technology was transferred for free to the United States. Research on ASDIC and underwater sound was expanded in the UK and in the US. Many new types of military sound detection were developed. These included sonobuoys, first developed by the British in 1944 under the codenameHigh Tea, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard dipping/dunking sonar and mine detection sonar. This work formed the basis for post war developments related to countering the nuclear submarine. Work on sonar had also been carried out in the Axis countries, notably in Germany, ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Keyboard which included countermeasures. At the end of World War II this German work was assimilated by Britain and the US. Sonars have continued to be developed by many countries, including Russia, for both military and civil uses. In recent years the major military development has been the increasing interest in low frequency active systems. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard The detection, classification and localisation performance of a sonar depends on the environment and the receiving equipment, as well as the transmitting equipment in an active sonar or the target radiated noise in a passive sonar. DELL Latitude D620 Keyboard

Sound propagation

Sonar operation is affected by variations in sound speed, particularly in the vertical plane. Sound travels more slowly in fresh water than in sea water, though the difference is small. The speed is determined by the water's bulk modulus and mass density. The bulk modulus is affected by temperature, dissolved impurities (usually salinity), and pressure. The density effect is small. The speed of sound (in feet per second) is approximately: DELL Latitude D830  Keyboard 4388 + (11.25 × temperature (in °F)) + (0.0182 × depth (in feet)) + salinity (in parts-per-thousand ). This empirically derived approximation equation is reasonably accurate for normal temperatures, concentrations of salinity and the range of most ocean depths. TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard Ocean temperature varies with depth, but at between 30 and 100 meters there is often a marked change, called the thermocline, dividing the warmer surface water from the cold, still waters that make up the rest of the ocean. This can frustrate sonar, because a sound originating on one side of the thermocline tends to be bent, or refracted, through the thermocline. HP 597635-001  Keyboard The thermocline may be present in shallower coastal waters. However, wave action will often mix the water column and eliminate the thermocline. Water pressure also affects sound propagation: higher pressure increases the sound speed, which causes the sound waves to refract away from the area of higher sound speed. The mathematical model of refraction is called Snell's law. TOSHIBA Satellite A300  Keyboard If the sound source is deep and the conditions are right, propagation may occur in the 'deep sound channel'. This provides extremely low propagation loss to a receiver in the channel. This is because of sound trapping in the channel with no losses at the boundaries. Similar propagation can occur in the 'surface duct' under suitable conditions. However in this case there are reflection losses at the surface. DELL OPYTVX  Keyboard In shallow water propagation is generally by repeated reflection at the surface and bottom, where considerable losses can occur. Sound propagation is affected by absorption in the water itself as well as at the surface and bottom. This absorption depends upon frequency, with several different mechanisms in sea water. Long-range sonar uses low frequencies to minimise absorption effects. DELL Studio 1457  Keyboard The sea contains many sources of noise that interfere with the desired target echo or signature. The main noise sources are waves and shipping. The motion of the receiver through the water can also cause speed-dependent low frequency noise. HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx  Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S  Keyboard When active sonar is used, scattering occurs from small objects in the sea as well as from the bottom and surface. This can be a major source of interference. This acoustic scattering is analogous to the scattering of the light from a car's headlights in fog: a high-intensity pencil beam will penetrate the fog to some extent, but broader-beam headlights emit much light in unwanted directions, HP 441426-001  Keyboard much of which is scattered back to the observer, overwhelming that reflected from the target ("white-out"). For analogous reasons active sonar needs to transmit in a narrow beam to minimise scattering. SONY VAIO VGN-N11M  Keyboard The sound reflection characteristics of the target of an active sonar, such as a submarine, are known as its target strength. A complication is that echoes are also obtained from other objects in the sea such as whales, wakes, schools of fish and rocks. HP 441316-001  Keyboard Passive sonar detects the target's radiated noise characteristics. The radiated spectrum comprises a continuous spectrum of noise with peaks at certain frequencies which can be used for classification. ASUS X53S  Keyboard

Countermeasures

Active sonar uses a sound transmitter and a receiver. When the two are in the same place it is monostatic operation. When the transmitter and receiver are separated it is bistatic operation. When more transmitters (or more receivers) are used, again spatially separated, it is multistatic operation. Most sonars are used monostatically with the same array often being used for transmission and reception. Active sonobuoy fields may be operated multistatically. HP Pavilion dv6-3130tx Keyboard Active sonar creates a pulse of sound, often called a "ping", and then listens for reflections(echo) of the pulse. This pulse of sound is generally created electronically using a sonar projector consisting of a signal generator, power amplifier and electro-acoustic transducer/array. A beamformer is usually employed to concentrate the acoustic power into a beam, SONY 147977821  Keyboard which may be swept to cover the required search angles. Generally, the electro-acoustic transducers are of the Tonpilztype and their design may be optimised to achieve maximum efficiency over the widest bandwidth, in order to optimise performance of the overall system. Occasionally, the acoustic pulse may be created by other means, e.g. (1) chemically using explosives, or (2) airguns or (3) plasma sound sources. HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard To measure the distance to an object, the time from transmission of a pulse to reception is measured and converted into a range by knowing the speed of sound. To measure the bearing, several hydrophones are used, and the set measures the relative arrival time to each, or with an array of hydrophones, HP Probook 4520S Keyboard by measuring the relative amplitude in beams formed through a process called beamforming. Use of an array reduces the spatial response so that to provide wide cover multibeamsystems are used. The target signal (if present) together with noise is then passed through various forms of signal processing, which for simple sonars may be just energy measurement. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FS690 Keyboard It is then presented to some form of decision device that calls the output either the required signal or noise. This decision device may be an operator with headphones or a display, or in more sophisticated sonars this function may be carried out by software. Further processes may be carried out to classify the target and localise it, as well as measuring its velocity. HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard HP Pavilion dv6000 Keyboard The pulse may be at constant frequency or a chirp of changing frequency (to allow pulse compression on reception). Simple sonars generally use the former with a filter wide enough to cover possible Doppler changes due to target movement, while more complex ones generally include the latter technique SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Keyboard . Since digital processing became available pulse compression has usually been implemented using digital correlation techniques. Military sonars often have multiple beams to provide all-round cover while simple ones only cover a narrow arc, although the beam may be rotated, relatively slowly, by mechanical scanning. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Keyboard Particularly when single frequency transmissions are used, the Doppler effect can be used to measure the radial speed of a target. The difference in frequency between the transmitted and received signal is measured and converted into a velocity. Since Doppler shifts can be introduced by either receiver or target motion, allowance has to be made for the radial speed of the searching platform.  TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-S5241 Keyboard One useful small sonar is similar in appearance to a waterproof flashlight. The head is pointed into the water, a button is pressed, and the device displays the distance to the target. Another variant is a "fishfinder" that shows a small display with shoals of fish. Some civilian sonars (which are not designed for stealth) approach active military sonars in capability, with quite exotic three-dimensional displays of the area near the boat. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Keyboard When active sonar is used to measure the distance from the transducer to the bottom, it is known as echo sounding. Similar methods may be used looking upward for wave measurement. Active sonar is also used to measure distance through water between two sonar transducers or a combination of a hydrophone (underwater acoustic microphone) and projector (underwater acoustic speaker). SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Keyboard A transducer is a device that can transmit and receive acoustic signals ("pings"). When a hydrophone/transducer receives a specific interrogation signal it responds by transmitting a specific reply signal. To measure distance, one transducer/projector transmits an interrogation signal and measures the time between this transmission and the receipt of the other transducer/hydrophone reply. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard The time difference, scaled by the speed of sound through water and divided by two, is the distance between the two platforms. This technique, when used with multiple transducers/hydrophones/projectors, can calculate the relative positions of static and moving objects in water. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Keyboard In combat situations, an active pulse can be detected by an opponent and will reveal a submarine's position. A very directional, but low-efficiency, type of sonar (used by fisheries, military, and for port security) makes use of a complex nonlinear feature of water known as non-linear sonar, the virtual transducer being known as a parametric array. DELL Latitude C510 Keyboard A sonar target is small relative to the sphere, centred around the emitter, on which it is located. Therefore, the power of the reflected signal is very low, several orders of magnitude less than the original signal. Even if the reflected signal was of the same power, the following example (using hypothetical values) shows the problem: Suppose a sonar system is capable of emitting a 10,000 W/m² signal at 1 m, HP G72-b01SA  Keyboard and detecting a 0.001 W/m² signal. At 100 m the signal will be 1 W/m² (due to the inverse-square law). If the entire signal is reflected from a 10 m² target, it will be at 0.001 W/m² when it reaches the emitter, i.e. just detectable. However, the original signal will remain above 0.001 W/m² until 300 m. HP G61 Keyboard Any 10 m² target between 100 and 300 m using a similar or better system would be able to detect the pulse but would not be detected by the emitter. The detectors must be very sensitive to pick up the echoes. Since the original signal is much more powerful, it can be detected many times further than twice the range of the sonar (as in the example). TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002M  Keyboard In active sonar there are two performance limitations, due to noise and reverberation. In general one or other of these will dominate so that the two effects can be initially considered separately. DELL Inspiron N4050  Keyboard Passive sonar has a wide variety of techniques for identifying the source of a detected sound. For example, U.S. vessels usually operate 60 Hz alternating current power systems. If transformers or generators are mounted without proper vibration insulation from the hull or become flooded, HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa  Keyboard the 60 Hz sound from the windings can be emitted from the submarine or ship. This can help to identify its nationality, as most European submarines have 50 Hz power systems. Intermittent sound sources (such as a wrench being dropped) may also be detectable to passive sonar. Until fairly recently,[when?] an experienced, trained operator identified signals, but now computers may do this.  DELL Vostro PP37L  Keyboard Passive sonar systems may have large sonic databases, but the sonar operator usually finally classifies the signals manually. A computer system frequently uses these databases to identify classes of ships, actions (i.e. the speed of a ship, or the type of weapon released), and even particular ships. Publications for classification of sounds are provided by and continually updated by the US Office of Naval Intelligence. HP G61-110SA  Keyboard Passive sonar on vehicles is usually severely limited because of noise generated by the vehicle. For this reason, many submarines operate nuclear reactors that can be cooled without pumps, using silent convection, or fuel cells or batteries, which can also run silently. Vehicles' propellers are also designed and precisely machined to emit minimal noise. High-speed propellers often create tiny bubbles in the water, and this cavitation has a distinct sound. SONY NSK-S8101  Keyboard The sonar hydrophones may be towed behind the ship or submarine in order to reduce the effect of noise generated by the watercraft itself. Towed units also combat the thermocline, as the unit may be towed above or below the thermocline.  HP G61  Keyboard The display of most passive sonars used to be a two-dimensional waterfall display. The horizontal direction of the display is bearing. The vertical is frequency, or sometimes time. Another display technique is to color-code frequency-time information for bearing. More recent displays are generated by the computers, and mimic radar-type plan position indicator displays. DELL Alienware M11x  Keyboard

Warfare

Modern naval warfare makes extensive use of both passive and active sonar from water-borne vessels, aircraft and fixed installations. The relative usefulness of active versus passive sonar depends on the radiated noise characteristics of the target, generally a submarine. Although in World War II active sonar was used by surface craft—submarines avoided emitting pings which revealed their presence and position—with the advent of modern signal-processing passive sonar became preferred for initial detection. TOSHIBA NB200-10J  Keyboard Submarines were then designed for quieter operation, and active sonar is now more used. In 1987 a division of Japanese companyToshiba reportedly sold machinery to the Soviet Union that allowed it to mill submarine propeller blades so that they became radically quieter, creating a huge security issue with their newer generation of submarines. HP 519265-001  Keyboard Active sonar gives the exact bearing to a target, and sometimes the range. Active sonar works the same way as radar: a signal is emitted. The sound wave then travels in many directions from the emitting object. When it hits an object, the sound wave is then reflected in many other directions. Some of the energy will travel back to the emitting source HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard . The echo will enable the sonar system or technician to calculate, with many factors such as the frequency, the energy of the received signal, the depth, the water temperature, the position of the reflecting object, etc. Active sonar is used when the platform commander determines that it is more important to determine the position of a possible threat submarine than it is to conceal his own position. ASUS F82Q  Keyboard With surface ships it might be assumed that the threat is already tracking the ship with satellite data. Any vessel around the emitting sonar will detect the emission. Having heard the signal, it is easy to identify the sonar equipment used (usually with its frequency) and its position (with the sound wave's energy).  HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard Active sonar is similar to radar in that, while it allows detection of targets at a certain range, it also enables the emitter to be detected at a far greater range, which is undesirable.  IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201  Keyboard Since active sonar reveals the presence and position of the operator, and does not allow exact classification of targets, it is used by fast (planes, helicopters) and by noisy platforms (most surface ships) but rarely by submarines. ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard When active sonar is used by surface ships or submarines, it is typically activated very briefly at intermittent periods to minimise the risk of detection. Consequently active sonar is normally considered a backup to passive sonar. In aircraft, active sonar is used in the form of disposable sonobuoys that are dropped in the aircraft's patrol area or in the vicinity of possible enemy sonar contacts. HP 576835-001  Keyboard Passive sonar has several advantages. Most importantly, it is silent. If the target radiated noise level is high enough, it can have a greater range than active sonar, and allows the target to be identified. Since any motorized object makes some noise, it may in principle be detected, depending on the level of noise emitted and the ambient noise level in the area, as well as the technology used. To simplify,  ACER Aspire 5742  Keyboard passive sonar "sees" around the ship using it. On a submarine, nose-mounted passive sonar detects in directions of about 270°, centered on the ship's alignment, the hull-mounted array of about 160° on each side, ACER Aspire 5930  Keyboard and the towed array of a full 360°. The invisible areas are due to the ship's own interference. Once a signal is detected in a certain direction (which means that something makes sound in that direction, this is called broadband detection) it is possible to zoom in and analyze the signal received (narrowband analysis). TOSHIBA Satellite L355  Keyboard This is generally done using a Fourier transform to show the different frequencies making up the sound. Since every engine makes a specific sound, it is straightforward to identify the object. Databases of unique engine sounds are part of what is known as acoustic intelligence or ACINT. HP 576835-001  Keyboard Another use of passive sonar is to determine the target's trajectory. This process is called Target Motion Analysis (TMA), and the resultant "solution" is the target's range, course, and speed. TMA is done by marking from which direction the sound comes at different times, and comparing the motion with that of the operator's own ship. Changes in relative motion are analyzed using standard geometrical techniques along with some assumptions about limiting cases. HP Envy 15  Keyboard Passive sonar is stealthy and very useful. However, it requires high-tech electronic components and is costly. It is generally deployed on expensive ships in the form of arrays to enhance detection. Surface ships use it to good effect; it is even better used by submarines, and it is also used by airplanes and helicopters, mostly to a "surprise effect", TOSHIBA P205-S7469  Keyboard since submarines can hide under thermal layers. If a submarine's commander believes he is alone, he may bring his boat closer to the surface and be easier to detect, or go deeper and faster, and thus make more sound. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901  Keyboard Examples of sonar applications in military use are given below. Many of the civil uses given in the following section may also be applicable to naval use. Until recently, ship sonars were usually with hull mounted arrays, either amidships or at the bow. It was soon found after their initial use that a means of reducing flow noise was required. The first were made of canvas on a framework, then steel ones were used. Now domes are usually made of reinforced plastic or pressurised rubber. Such sonars are primarily active in operation. An example of a conventional hull mounted sonar is the SQS-56. HP Mini 110-3135dx  Keyboard Because of the problems of ship noise, towed sonars are also used. These also have the advantage of being able to be placed deeper in the water. However, there are limitations on their use in shallow water. These are called towed arrays (linear) or variable depth sonars (VDS) with 2/3D arrays. A problem is that the winches required to deploy/recover these are large and expensive. VDS sets are primarily active in operation while towed arrays are passive. TOSHIBA Satellite L300  Keyboard Fishing is an important industry that is seeing growing demand, but world catch tonnage is falling as a result of serious resource problems. The industry faces a future of continuing worldwide consolidation until a point of sustainability can be reached. However, the consolidation of the fishing fleets are driving increased demands for sophisticated fish finding electronics such as sensors, sounders and sonars. SONY VAIO PCG-792L  Keyboard Historically, fishermen have used many different techniques to find and harvest fish. However, acoustic technology has been one of the most important driving forces behind the development of the modern commercial fisheries. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard Sound waves travel differently through fish than through water because a fish's air-filled swim bladder has a different density than seawater. This density difference allows the detection of schools of fish by using reflected sound. Acoustic technology is especially well suited for underwater applications since sound travels farther and faster underwater than in air. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch  Keyboard Today, commercial fishing vessels rely almost completely on acoustic sonar and sounders to detect fish. Fishermen also use active sonar and echo sounder technology to determine water depth, bottom contour, and bottom composition. HP Pavilion G7-1150US  Keyboard Companies such as eSonar, Raymarine UK, Marport Canada, Wesmar, Furuno, Krupp, and Simrad make a variety of sonar and acoustic instruments for the deep sea commercial fishing industry. For example, net sensors take various underwater measurements and transmit the information back to a receiver on board a vessel. ACER Aspire 5810T  Keyboard Each sensor is equipped with one or more acoustic transducers depending on its specific functio

n. Data is transmitted from the sensors using wireless acoustic telemetry and is received by a hull mounted hydrophone. The analog signals are decoded and converted by a digital acoustic receiver into data which is transmitted to a bridge computer for graphical display on a high resolution monitor. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-112EM  Keyboard

Echo sounding

An echo-sounder sends an acoustic pulse directly downwards to the seabed and records the returned echo. The sound pulse is generated by a transducer that emits an acoustic pulse and then “listens” for the return signal. The time for the signal to return is recorded and converted to a depth measurement by calculating the speed of sound in water. HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard As the speed of sound in water is around 1,500 metres per second, the time interval, measured in milliseconds, between the pulse being transmitted and the echo being received, allows bottom depth and targets to be measured. The value of underwater acoustics to the fishing industry has led to the development of other acoustic instruments that operate in a similar fashion to echo-sounders but, because their function is slightly different from the initial model of the echo-sounder, have been given different terms. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M  Keyboard The net sounder is an echo sounder with a transducer mounted on the headline of the net rather than on the bottom of the vessel. Nevertheless, to accommodate the distance from the transducer to the display unit, which is much greater than in a normal echo-sounder, several refinements have to be made. Two main types are available.  HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa  Keyboard The first is the cable type in which the signals are sent along a cable. In this case there has to be the provision of a cable drum on which to haul, shoot and stow the cable during the different phases of the operation. The second type is the cable less net-sounder – such as Marport’s Trawl Explorer - in which the signals are sent acoustically between the net and hull mounted receiver/hydrophone on the vessel. In this case no cable drum is required but sophisticated electronics are needed at the transducer and receiver. DELL Inspiron 6400  Keyboard The display on a net sounder shows the distance of the net from the bottom (or the surface), rather than the depth of water as with the echo-sounder's hull-mounted transducer. Fixed to the headline of the net, the footrope can usually be seen which gives an indication of the net performance. Any fish passing into the net can also be seen, TOSHIBA PK13CW10100  Keyboard allowing fine adjustments to be made to catch the most fish possible. In other fisheries, where the amount of fish in the net is important, catch sensor transducers are mounted at various positions on the cod-end of the net. As the cod-end fills up these catch sensor transducers are triggered one by one and this information is transmitted acoustically to display monitors on the bridge of the vessel. The skipper can then decide when to haul the net. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160  Keyboard Modern versions of the net sounder, using multiple element transducers, function more like a sonar than an echo sounder and show slices of the area in front of the net and not merely the vertical view that the initial net sounders used. The sonar is an echo-sounder with a directional capability that can show fish or other objects around the vessel.good .SONY VAIO VGN-NR21J/S  Keyboard Through 1954, the Jury of the Festival de Cannes awarded a "Grand Prix of the International Film Festival", with a new design each year from a contemporary artist. At the end of 1954, the Festival's Board of Directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the City of Cannes.[4] The original design by the jeweller Lucienne Lazon had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, and the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien. HP 576835-001  Keyboard In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for Marty, and it remained the highest award until 1964, whencopyright issues with the Palme led the Festival to return to the Grand Prix. In 1975 the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded every year to the director of the Best Feature Film of the Official Competition, and presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede. HP Envy 15  Keyboard Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm, gradually transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned the Palme and its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. The current design from 1997 is by Caroline Scheufele at Chopard. A single piece of cut crystal forms a cushion for the 24-carat gold palm, which is hand cast into a wax mould and presented in a case of blue Morocco leather.[5]TOSHIBA MP-09K53US6698  Keyboard Emir Nemanja Kusturica (Serbian Cyrillic: Емир Немања Кустурица, Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [ěmiːr nɛ̌maɲa kǔsturitsa]); born 24 November 1954 in Sarajevo) is a Serbian[1] filmmaker, actor and musician. He has been recognized for several internationally acclaimed feature films, as well as his projects in town-building.  HP 576835-001  Keyboard He is a two-time winner of the Palme d'Or at Cannes (for When Father Was Away on Business and Underground), as well as being aCommander of the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.[2][3]HP Envy 15  Keyboard Since the mid-2000s, Kusturica's primary residence is Drvengrad, a town that was built for his film Life Is a Miracle, in the Mokra Gora region of Serbia. He had portions of the historic village reconstructed for his film Life Is a Miracle. Kusturica is president of the Ski Association of Serbia SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX  Keyboard Born to Murat Kusturica, a journalist employed at the Sarajevo's Secretariate of Information, and Senka Numankadić, a court secretary,[4] Emir grew up as the only child of a secular family in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, then a constituent republic within Yugoslavia.[5]  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151  Keyboard Emir was something of a delinquent while growing up in Sarajevo, according to his own account.[1] Through his father's friendship with the well-known director Hajrudin "Šiba" Krvavac, 17-year-old Emir got a small part in Krvavac's 1972Walter Defends Sarajevo, a partisan film funded by the Yugoslav state. GATEWAY MT6700  Keyboard After graduating from the Film Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (FAMU) in 1978, Kusturica began directing made-for-TV television shorts in Yugoslavia. He made his feature film debut in 1981 with Do You Remember Dolly Bell?, which won the prestigious Silver Lion for Best First Work at that year's Venice Film Festival. From 1981 to 1988, he was a lecturer at the Academy of Performing Arts in Sarajevo (Akademija Scenskih Umjetnosti) and art director of Open Stage Obala (Otvorena scena Obala). TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182  Keyboard His second feature film, When Father Was Away on Business (1985), earned a Palme d'Or at Cannes and five Yugoslav movie awards, as well as a nomination for an American Academy Award for Best Foreign Film. Kusturica wrote the screenplays for both Do You Remember Dolly Bell? and When Father Was Away on Business in collaboration with Abdulah Sidran. In 1989, Kusturica earned more accolades for Time of the Gypsies, a film about Romani culture and the exploitation of their youth. DELL Vostro 3700  Keyboard In 2001, Kusturica directed Super 8 Stories, a documentary road and concert movie about The No Smoking Orchestra, of which he is a band member. He was appointedPresident of the Jury of the 2005 Cannes Film Festival. His film, Maradona, a documentary on Argentine soccer star Diego Maradona, was released in Italy in May 2007. It premiered in France during the Cannes Film Festival in 2008.  HP Mini 110-1115SA  Keyboard His film Promise Me This premiered at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival.[7] During 2007, Kusturica prepared a punk opera, Times of the Gypsies. The premiere took place in June 2007, at the Opéra Bastille in Paris. The next month, Kusturica directed the music video to Manu Chao's single "Rainin In Paradize", from the latter's forthcoming album.  HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL  Keyboard On 8 September 2007, Kusturica was appointed a UNICEF National Ambassador for Serbia, alongside Ana Ivanović, Jelena Janković and Aleksandar Đorđević. Since January 2008, Kusturica annually organizes a private Küstendorf Film Festival. Its first installment was held at Drvengrad, a village built for his filmLife Is a Miracle, from 14 to 21 January 2008.[8]TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T  Keyboard His next film, Cool Water, is a comedy set against the background of a Middle East conflict. Filming started in November 2010 in Germany. It is the first time Emir Kusturica directed a film which he did not write. SONY VAIO VGN-AR170P  Keyboard At the 64th Cannes Film Festival, held 11–22 May 2011, Kusturica presided over the jury of the Un Certain Regard section of the festival's official selection. On 14 May, in Cannes, he was invested with the insignia of Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, the highest decoration in France.[9]TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T  Keyboard From 1986 until 1988, Kusturica played bass guitar in Zabranjeno Pušenje, a rock band from Sarajevo (SR Bosnia and Herzegovina). Although Kusturica played a minor musical role in the band, he returned to the group following the Black Cat, White Cat film and the band's name changed to Emir Kusturica & The No Smoking Orchestra. In 1999, the No Smoking Orchestra recorded a new album, Unza Unza Time, produced by the Universal record company, as well as a music video, directed by Emir Kusturica. The band has been touring internationally since 1999. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214  Keyboard The musician and composer Goran Bregović has created music for three of Kusturica's films: Time of the GypsiesArizona Dream, which featured Iggy Pop; and Underground. HP 576835-001  Keyboard Emir Nemanja Kusturica (Serbian Cyrillic: Емир Немања Кустурица, Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [ěmiːr nɛ̌maɲa kǔsturitsa]); born 24 November 1954 in Sarajevo) is a Serbian[1Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER  Keyboard filmmaker, actor and musician. He has been recognized for several internationally acclaimed feature films, as well as his projects in town-building. He is a two-time winner of the Palme d'Or at Cannes (for When Father Was Away on Business and Underground), as well as being aCommander of the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.[2][3] FUJITSU Lifebook S6240  Keyboard Since the mid-2000s, Kusturica's primary residence is Drvengrad, a town that was built for his film Life Is a Miracle, in the Mokra Gora region of Serbia. He had portions of the historic village reconstructed for his film Life Is a Miracle. Kusturica is president of the Ski Association of Serbia TOSHIBA Mini NB 505 Series  Keyboard Born to Murat Kusturica, a journalist employed at the Sarajevo's Secretariate of Information, and Senka Numankadić, a court secretary,[4] Emir grew up as the only child of a secular family in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, then a constituent republic within Yugoslavia.[5] HP 636376-001  Keyboard Emir was something of a delinquent while growing up in Sarajevo, according to his own account.[1] Through his father's friendship with the well-known director Hajrudin "Šiba" Krvavac, 17-year-old Emir got a small part in Krvavac's 1972Walter Defends Sarajevo, a partisan film funded by the Yugoslav state.  HP Mini 110-3118cl  Keyboard After graduating from the Film Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (FAMU) in 1978, Kusturica began directing made-for-TV television shorts in Yugoslavia. He made his feature film debut in 1981 with Do You Remember Dolly Bell?, which won the prestigious Silver Lion for Best First Work at that year's Venice Film Festival.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300  Keyboard From 1981 to 1988, he was a lecturer at the Academy of Performing Arts in Sarajevo (Akademija Scenskih Umjetnosti) and art director of Open Stage Obala (Otvorena scena Obala).  HP pavilion DV7-1000  Keyboard His second feature film, When Father Was Away on Business (1985), earned a Palme d'Or at Cannes and five Yugoslav movie awards, as well as a nomination for an American Academy Award for Best Foreign Film. Kusturica wrote the screenplays for both Do You Remember Dolly Bell HP 550  Keyboard ? and When Father Was Away on Business in collaboration with Abdulah Sidran. In 1989, Kusturica earned more accolades for Time of the Gypsies, a film about Romani culture and the exploitation of their HP 550 Keyboard In 2001, Kusturica directed Super 8 Stories, a documentary road and concert movie about The No Smoking Orchestra, of which he is a band member. He was appointedPresident of the Jury of the 2005 Cannes Film Festival. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Keyboard His film, Maradona, a documentary on Argentine soccer star Diego Maradona, was released in Italy in May 2007. It premiered in France during the Cannes Film Festival in 2008. HP Pavilion G60-230 Keyboard His film Promise Me This premiered at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival.[7] During 2007, Kusturica prepared a punk opera, Times of the Gypsies. The premiere took place in June 2007, at the Opéra Bastille in Paris. The next month, Kusturica directed the music video to Manu Chao's single "Rainin In Paradize", from the latter's forthcoming album. ASUS X53S Keyboard On 8 September 2007, Kusturica was appointed a UNICEF National Ambassador for Serbia, alongside Ana Ivanović, Jelena Janković and Aleksandar Đorđević. Since January 2008, Kusturica annually organizes a private Küstendorf Film Festival. Its first installment was held at Drvengrad, a village built for his filmLife Is a Miracle, from 14 to 21 January 2008.[8]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Keyboard His next film, Cool Water, is a comedy set against the background of a Middle East conflict. Filming started in November 2010 in Germany. It is the first time Emir Kusturica directed a film which he did not write. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Keyboard At the 64th Cannes Film Festival, held 11–22 May 2011, Kusturica presided over the jury of the Un Certain Regard section of the festival's official selection. On 14 May, in Cannes, he was invested with the insignia of Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, the highest decoration in France.[9]HP AEAT8TPU319 Keyboard Kusturica's autobiography, Smrt je neprovjerena glasina (Death is an Unverified Rumour), was published in October 2010 in Belgrade by Novosti AD. The launch took place on 26 October during Belgrade Book Fair and was attended by Nele Karajlić, Dušan Kovačević, Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić, Vojislav Koštunica.[10][11][12] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Keyboard Released only in Serbia, Montenegro, and Republika Srpska, the book was initially printed in 20,000 copies that were quickly sold. Second printing in 32,000 copies was out in November and it too sold within weeks. On 8 December, the third printing in 40,000 copies was out[13] and promoted a day later at Belgrade's Dom Sindikata.[14] In February 2011, fourth printing with further 10,000 copies was out and soon the sale of 100,000th copy was announced.[15]HP G42-386TX  Keyboard Translations were published in Italy on 30 March 2011 under the title Dove sono in questa storia ("Where am I in this Story"),[16] in France on 6 April 2011 as Où suis-je dans cette histoire ?,[17] and in Germany in September 2011 as Der Tod ist ein unbestätigtes Gerücht.[18]HP Pavilion dv6-3117sl  Keyboard

Drvengrad and Kamengrad projects

Drvengrad (meaning Wooden Town) is a traditional village that Kusturica built for his film Life Is a Miracle. It is located in the Zlatibor District near the city of Užice, two hundred kilometers southwest of Serbia's capital, Belgrade. It is located near Mokra Gora and Višegrad, best known for Yugoslav Ivo Andrić's Nobel-winning novel, TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01  Keyboard The Bridge on the Drina.[19] Since 2008, the village hosts the annual Küstendorf Film and Music Festival,[20] which showcases films and music from all around the world. The festival is known for not having a red carpet as well as none of the popular Hollywood festival artifacts. SONY Vaio PCG-K35  Keyboard Kusturica started the construction project of Kamengrad (meaning Stone Town, also known as Andrićgrad), located in Višegrad, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina on 28 June 2011, which will be completed by 2014. [21] Kamengrad is located only several kilometers from Kusturica's first town Drvengrad, in Serbia. Kamengrad will be used as a filming location for the Emir's new film "Na Drini ćuprija", based on the book The Bridge on the Drina, by Nobel Prize for Literature laureate Ivo Andrić.  ACER Aspire 6930  Keyboard In October 2010 Kusturica withdrew from the jury of Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival after being publicly criticized and accused by Turkish director Semih Kaplanoğlu and Turkish minister of culture Ertuğrul Günay over his alleged remarks and opinions about the Bosnian War.[37] HP Mini 210-2006sa  Keyboard The criticism of Kusturica was started by an organization called the Turkish-Bosnian Cultural Federation as soon as Kusturica was announced as a jury member.[38]Turkish media reported that Kusturica repeatedly downplayed the number of killed people and the rape of Muslim women during the war.[37] It was not clear when Kusturica was supposed to have made those comments, but the daily Milliyet said Kusturica denied the allegations.[37]DELL Inspiron 1545 Keyboard Public sentiment in Turkey was whipped up against Kusturica to the point that a couple of days after Kusturica left Turkey, there were news reports about a mob of Turkish youths in Antalya physically assaulting Swiss actor Michael Neuenschwander (in town to promote his movie 180° – Wenn deine Welt plötzlich Kopf steht) because they mistook him for Kusturica due to apparent physical resemblance between the two.[39] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Keyboard Later, Neuenschwander's press agent said there was no physical assault and that Neuenschwander was verbally abused by a small group.[40]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7330 Keyboard DELL Latitude D600 Keyboard

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