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25 juillet 2012 3 25 /07 /juillet /2012 04:35


James Connolly

James Connolly (Irish: Séamas Ó Conghaile,[1] 5 June 1868 – 12 May 1916) was an Irish republican and socialistleader. He was born in the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, Scotland, to Irish immigrant parents and spoke with a Scottish accent throughout his life.[2] TOSHIBA KFRSBA064A Laptop Keyboard

 He left school for working life at the age of 11, but became one of the leading Marxist theorists of his day. He also took a role in Scottish and American politics. He was executed by aBritish firing squad because of his leadership role in the Easter Rising of 1916. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard

Connolly was born in an Irish slum in Edinburgh[note 1] in 1868.[5] His parents had emigrated to Scotland fromMonaghan and settled in the Cowgate, an Irish ghetto where thousands of Irish settled.[6] HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard

He was born in St Patrick's Roman Catholic parish, which was known as "Little Ireland".[7] His father and grandfathers were labourers.[5] He had an education up to the age of about ten in the local Catholic primary school.[8] He then left and worked in labouring jobs. Because of the economic difficulties he was having,[9] like his eldest brother John, he joined the British Army.[10] DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

He enlisted in the Army at age 14,[11] falsifying his age and giving his name as Reid, as his brother John had done.[12] He served in Ireland with the Army[11] for nearly seven years. It was a very turbulent period in rural Ireland.[13] He would later become involved in the land issue. HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Laptop Keyboard

It was an influential period in his life. He saw first hand how unjust the system was[citation needed], and the British Army was there to enforce this[citation needed]. He developed a deep hatred for the British Army that lasted his entire life.[14] When he heard the regiment was being transferred to India, he deserted the army.[15] TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard

Connolly had another reason for not wanting to go to India: a young woman by the name of Lillie Reynolds.[16]Lillie moved to Scotland with James after he left the Army and they married in April 1890.[17] They settled in Edinburgh. There, Connolly began to get involved in the Socialist Movement,[18] but with a young family to support, he needed a way to provide for them.  APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard 

He briefly established a cobbler's shop in 1895, but this failed after a few months[19] as his shoe-mending skills were insufficient.[20] He was also strongly active with the socialist movement at the time, and he prioritized this over his own work TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard. 

Socialist involvement

He became secretary of the Scottish Socialist Federation. At the time his brother John was secretary; after John spoke at a rally in favour of the eight-hour day, ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard

however, he was fired from his job with the Edinburgh Corporation, so while he looked for work, James took over as secretary. During this time, Connolly became involved with the Independent Labour Party which Keir Hardie had formed in 1893. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard

Sometime during this period, he took up the study of, and advocated the use of, the neutral international language, Esperanto.[21]

By 1892 he was involved in the Scottish Socialist Federation, acting as its secretary from 1895. Two months after the birth of his third daughter, word came to Connolly that the Dublin Socialist Club was looking for a full-time secretary, a job that offered a salary of a pound a week.[22] Connolly and his family moved to Dublin,[23] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

where he took up the position. At his instigation, the club quickly evolved into the Irish Socialist Republican Party (ISRP).[24] The ISRP is regarded by many Irish historians as a party of pivotal importance in the early history of Irish socialism and republicanism. While active as a socialist in Great Britain, HP Mini 210-2006sa Laptop Keyboard

Connolly was the founding editor of The Socialist newspaper and was among the founders of the Socialist Labour Party which split from the Social Democratic Federation in 1903. While in America he was a member of the Socialist Labor Party of America (1906), the Socialist Party of America (1909) and theIndustrial Workers of the World, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Laptop Keyboard

and founded the Irish Socialist Federation in New York, 1907. He famously had a chapter of his 1910 book "Labour in Irish History" entitled "A chapter of horrors: Daniel O’Connell and the working class." critical of the achiever of Catholic Emancipation 60 years earlier.[25] HP Pavilion dv6-2110sf Laptop Keyboard

On his return to Ireland he was right hand man to James Larkin in the Irish Transport and General Workers Union. He stood twice for the Wood Quay ward of Dublin Corporation but was unsuccessful. His name, and those of his family, appears in the 1911 Census of Ireland - his occupation is listed as "National Organiser Socialist Party".[26] TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard

In 1913, in response to the Lockout, he, along with an ex-British officer, Jack White, founded the Irish Citizen Army (ICA), an armed and well-trained body of labour men whose aim was to defend workers and strikers, particularly from the frequent brutality of the Dublin Metropolitan Police. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

Though they only numbered about 250 at most, their goal soon became the establishment of an independent and socialist Irish nation. He founded the Irish Labour Partyas the political wing of the Irish Trade Union Congress in 1912 and was a member of its National Executive. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

Around this time he met Winifred Carney in Belfast, who became his secretary and would later accompany him during the Easter Rising. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard

Connolly stood aloof from the leadership of the Irish Volunteers. He considered them too bourgeois and unconcerned with Ireland's economic independence. In 1916, thinking they were merely posturing and unwilling to take decisive action against Britain, DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard

he attempted to goad them into action by threatening to send the ICA against the British Empire alone, if necessary. This alarmed the members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, who had already infiltrated the Volunteers and had plans for an insurrection that very year. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In order to talk Connolly out of any such rash action, the IRB leaders, including Tom Clarke and Patrick Pearse, met with Connolly to see if an agreement could be reached. During the meeting, the IRB and the ICA agreed to act together at Easter of that year. Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard

When the Easter Rising occurred on 24 April 1916, Connolly was Commandant of the Dublin Brigade. As the Dublin Brigade had the most substantial role in the rising, he was de facto commander-in-chief. Following the surrender, he said to other prisoners: HP G61-445SI Laptop Keyboard

"Don't worry. Those of us that signed the proclamation will be shot. But the rest of you will be set free." Connolly was not actually held in gaol, but in a room (now called the "Connolly Room") at the State Apartments inDublin Castle, which had been converted to a first-aid station for troops recovering from the war.[27] DELL 3C048 Laptop Keyboard

He was taken to Royal Hospital Kilmainham, across the road from the gaol and then taken to the gaol to be executed. Visited by his wife, and asking about public opinion, he commented, "They will all forget that I am an Irishman."[28] He confessed his sins, said to be his first religious act since marriage. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard

He was so badly injured from the fighting (a doctor had already said he had no more than a day or two to live, but the execution order was still given) that he was unable to stand before the firing squad. His absolution and last rites were administered by a Capuchin, TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard

Father Aloysius. Asked to pray for the soldiers about to shoot him, he said: "I will say a prayer for all men who do their duty according to their lights.[citation needed]" ACER AEZR1R00110 Laptop Keyboard

Instead of being marched to the same spot where the others had been executed, at the far end of the execution yard, he was tied to a chair and then shot. The executions were not well received, even throughout Britain, and drew unwanted attention from the United States,  HP Pavilion tx2532la Laptop Keyboard 

which the British Government was trying to lure into the war in Europe. Herbert Asquith, the Prime Minister, ordered that no more executions were to take place; an exception being that of Roger Casement as he had not yet been tried. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard

Connolly was sentenced to death by firing squad for his part in the rising. On 12 May 1916 he was transported by military ambulance to Kilmainham Gaol, carried to a prison courtyard on a stretcher, tied to a chair and shot. His body (along with those of the other rebels) was put in a mass grave without a coffin. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard

The executions of the rebels deeply angered the majority of the Irish population, most of whom had shown no support during the rebellion. It was Connolly's execution, however, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard

that caused the most controversy. Historians have pointed to the manner of execution of Connolly and similar rebels, along with their actions, as being factors that caused public awareness of their desires and goals and gathered support for the movements that they had died fighting for. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard


His legacy in Ireland is mainly due to his contribution to the republican cause and his Marxism has been largely overlooked by mainstream histories (although his legacy as a socialist has been claimed by a variety of left-wing and left-republican groups). Despite claims to the contrary, however, TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard

Connolly's writings show him to be first and foremost a Marxist thinker.[citation needed]In several of his works he rails against the bourgeois nationalism of those who claimed to be Irish patriots. Connolly was among the few European members of the Second International who opposed, outright, World War I. HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Laptop Keyboard

This put him at odds with most of the socialist leaders of Europe. He was influenced by and heavily involved with the radical Industrial Workers of the World labour union. ACER Aspire 5538 Laptop Keyboard

In Scotland, Connolly's thinking was hugely influential for socialists such as John Maclean, who would similarly combine his leftist thinking with nationalist ideas when he formed his Scottish Workers Republican Party.[29] DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard

There is a statue of James Connolly in Dublin, outside Liberty Hall, the offices of the SIPTU trade union. Another statue of Connolly stands in Union Park, Chicago near the offices of the Chicago branch of the IWW and UE. There is a bust of Connolly in Troy NY, in the park behind the statue of Uncle Sam. DELL Studio 1749 Laptop Keyboard

In a 1972 interview on the Dick Cavett Show, John Lennon stated that James Connolly was an inspiration for his song, Woman Is the Nigger of the World. Lennon quoted Connolly's 'the female is the slave of the slave' in explaining the feminist inspiration for the song.[30] HP Pavilion dv6-2010ep Laptop Keyboard

Connolly Station, one of the two main railway stations in Dublin, and Connolly Hospital, Blanchardstown, are named in his honour. HP Pavilion dv6-2111sa Laptop Keyboard

In a 2002, BBC television production, 100 Greatest Britons where the British public were asked to register their vote, Connolly was voted in 64th place. HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop Keyboard

It was a terrible shock to me, I'd been with him that evening and I promised to come to him this afternoon. I felt sure there would be no more executions. Your father was much easier than he had been. I was sure that he would get his first real night's rest. The ambulance that brought you home came for me. DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard

I was astonished. I had felt so sure that I would not be needed. For the first time since the Rising, I had locked the doors. And some time after two I was knocked up. The ambulance brought me to your father. Such a wonderful man - such a concentration of mind. ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard

They carried him from his bed in an ambulance stretcher down to a waiting ambulance and drove him to Kilmainham Jail. They carried him from the ambulance to the jail yard and put him in a chair. He was very brave and cool. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard

I said to him, "Will you pray for the men who are about to shoot you" and he said: "I will say a prayer for all brave men who do their duty." His prayer was "Forgive them for they know not what they do" and then they shot him.HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee Laptop Keyboard

Early in the morning the son of Superintendent Dunne (DMP) a subdeacon, called to me and said that Father Murphy, the military chaplain, had sent him to ask if I could call to the Castle during the afternoon. James Connolly, who was a prisoner and a patient there, ACER TravelMate 6290 Laptop Keyboard

had expressed a wish to see me. I called, and saw Father Murphy. He told me that he had arranged for the necessary permissions. With Captain Stanley, RAMC, I went to the ward. At the door the sentry challenged Captain Stanley and informed him he had orders to allow no one to see the prisoner without special instructions.  SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard 

Captain Stanley was obliged to return for his permit. The sentry asked me if I were Father Aloysius and, on my replying in the affirmative said: 'You can go in.' However, as the nurses were engaged with Connolly, I delayed outside until they had finished and Captain Stanley had returned. ASUS F6 Laptop Keyboard

I entered with Captain Stanley, but I remarked that two soldiers with rifles and bayonets were on guard and showed no intention of leaving. I point out this to Captain Stanley, but he said it was necessary that they should remain; that he had no power to remove them. Then I said: HP Pavilion tx2500z Laptop Keyboard

'If that is so I cannot do my work as a priest. I have never before, to my knowledge spoken to James Connolly. I cannot say if he may not be hard of hearing. Confession is an important and sacred duty that demands privacy and I cannot go on with it in the presence of these men.' TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Laptop Keyboard

I had given my word that I would not utilise the opportunity for carrying political information or as a cover for political designs, and if my word was not sufficient or reliable they had better get some other priest. But I felt quite confident I would have my way. HP pavilion DV7-1005eo Laptop Keyboard

In the morning I gave Holy Communion to James Connolly. Later in the day I went with Father Augustine to Headquarters, Infirmary Road and met General (Sir John) Maxwell.... TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S9722 Laptop Keyboard

When I reached Kilmainham Gaol I was informed that Thomas MacDonagh also wished for my ministrations. I was taken to the prisoners' cells and spent some hours between the two. "You will be glad to know that I gave Holy Communion to James Connolly this morning," I said to Pearse when I met him. "Thank God," he replied, "it is the one thing I was anxious about." DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard


As of 2006, the International Organization for Migration has estimated the number of foreign migrants worldwide to be more than 200 million.[2] Europe hosted the largest number of immigrants, with 70 million people in 2005.[2] North America, with over 45 million immigrants, is second, followed by Asia, which hosts nearly 25 million. Most of today's migrant workers come from Asia.[3][dead link] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

In 2005, the United Nations reported that there were nearly 191 million international migrants worldwide, about 3 percent of the world population.[4] This represented a rise of 26 million since 1990. Sixty percent of these immigrants were now in developed countries, SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard

an increase on 1990. Those in less developed countries stagnated, mainly because of a fall in refugees.[5] Contrast that to the average rate of globalization (the proportion of cross-border trade in all trade), which exceeds 20 percent. The numbers of people living outside their country of birth is expected to rise in the future.[6]  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Midwestern United States, some parts of Europe, some small areas of Southwest Asia, and a few spots in the East Indies have the highest percentages of immigrant population recorded by the UN Census 2005. The reliability of immigrant censuses is low due to the concealed character of undocumented labor COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard

A 2012 survey by Gallup found roughly 640 million adults would like to migrate to another country permanently if they had the chance.[7] Nearly one-quarter (23%) of these respondents, which translates to more than 150 million adults worldwide, named the United States as their desired future residence, TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard

while an additional 7% of respondents, representing an estimated 45 million, chose the United Kingdom. The other top desired destination countries (those where an estimated 25 million or more adults would like to go) were Canada, France, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Germany and Spain. SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Laptop Keyboard

See also article on remigration (by Gürkan Çelik) in Turkish Review: Turkey Pulls, The Netherlands Pushes? An increasing number of Turks, the Netherlands’ largest ethnic minority, are beginning to return to Turkey, taking with them the education and skills they have acquired abroad, TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1CN Laptop Keyboard

as the Netherlands faces challenges from economic difficulties, social tension and increasingly powerful far-right parties. At the same time Turkey’s political, social and economic conditions have been improving, making returning home all the more appealing for Turks at large (pp. 94–99). HP Pavilion DV7-2110tx Laptop Keyboard

General theories behind immigration

One theory of immigration distinguishes between Push and Pull.[8] Push factors refer primarily the motive for emigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration (usually labor migration), differentials in wage rates are usual. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one’s native country, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

he or she may choose to migrate as long as the costs are not too high. Particularly in the 19th century, economic expansion of the U.S. increased immigrant flow, and in effect, nearly 20% of the population was foreign born versus today’s values of 10%, making up a significant amount of the labor force.  HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard

Poor individuals from less developed countries can have far higher standards of living in developed countries than in their originating countries. The cost of emigration, which includes both the explicit costs, the ticket price, and the implicit cost, lost work time and loss of community ties, GATEWAY M250 Laptop Keyboard

also play a major role in the pull of emigrants away from their native country. As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century,  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-114EM Laptop Keyboard

but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days.[9] When the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher.[9] Escape from poverty (personal or for relatives staying behind) is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. This kind of migration may be illegal immigration in the destination country (emigration is also illegal in some countries, such as North Korea, Myanmar, and Cuba). SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Laptop Keyboard

Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries, and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations and the diplomatic serviceexpect, by definition, to work 'overseas'. TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Laptop Keyboard

They are often referred to as 'expatriates', and their conditions of employment are typically equal to or better than those applying in the host country (for similar work). Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

For some migrants, education is the primary pull factor (although most international students are not classified as immigrants). Retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate is a new type of international migration. HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard

Examples include immigration of retired British citizens to Spain or Italy and of retired Canadian citizens to the U.S. (mainly to the U.S. states of Florida and Texas). TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Laptop Keyboard

Non-economic push factors include persecution (religious and otherwise), frequent abuse, bullying, oppression,ethnic cleansing and even genocide, and risks to civilians during war. Political motives traditionally motivate refugee flows—to escape dictatorship for instance. SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard

Some migration is for personal reasons, based on a relationship (e.g. to be with family or a partner), such as infamily reunification or transnational marriage (especially in the instance of a gender imbalance). In a few cases, an individual may wish to immigrate to a new country in a form of transferred patriotism. ASUS X82 Laptop Keyboard

Evasion of criminal justice (e.g. avoiding arrest) is a personal motivation. This type of emigration and immigration is not normally legal, if a crime is internationally recognized, although criminals may disguise their identities or find other loopholes to evade detection. TOSHIBA Satellite A505 Laptop Keyboard

There have been cases, for example, of those who might be guilty of war crimes disguising themselves as victims of war or conflict and then pursuing asylum in a different country. HP Pavilion dv4-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

Barriers to immigration come not only in legal form; natural and social barriers to immigration can also be very powerful. Immigrants when leaving their country also leave everything familiar: their family, friends, support network, and culture. They also need to liquidate their assets often at a large loss,[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard

 and incur the expense of moving. When they arrive in a new country this is often with many uncertainties including finding work, where to live, new laws, new cultural norms, language or accent issues, possible racism and other exclusionary behavior towards them and their family. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

These barriers act to limit international migration (scenarios where populations move en masse to other continents, creating huge population surges, and their associated strain on infrastructure and services, ignore these inherent limits on migration.) HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

The politics of immigration have become increasingly associated with other issues, such as national security,terrorism, and in western Europe especially, with the presence of Islam as a new major religion. Those with security concerns cite the 2005 civil unrest in France that point to the Jyllands-Posten SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard

Muhammad cartoons controversy as an example of the value conflicts arising from immigration of Muslims in Western Europe. Because of all these associations, immigration has become an emotional political issue in many European nations.[citation needed] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

Studies have suggested that some special interest groups lobby for less immigration for their own group and more immigration for other groups since they see effects of immigration, such as increased labor competition, as detrimental when affecting their own group but beneficial when affecting other groups. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

A 2010 European study suggested that "that employers are more likely to be pro-immigration than employees, provided that immigrants are thought to compete with employees who are already in the country. Or else, when immigrants are thought to compete with employers rather than employees, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

employers are more likely to be anti-immigration than employees."[11] A 2011 study examining the voting of US representatives on migration policy suggests that "that representatives from more skilled labor abundant districts are more likely to support an open immigration policy towards the unskilled, whereas the opposite is true for representatives from more unskilled labor abundant districts."[12] ACER Aspire 7535 Laptop Keyboard

Another contributing factor may be lobbying by earlier immigrants. The Chairman for the US Irish Lobby for Immigration Reform which lobby for more permissive rules for immigrants, as well as special arrangements just for Irish, has stated that "the Irish Lobby will push for any special arrangement it can get — 'as will every other ethnic group in the country.'"[13][14]  HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Laptop Keyboard

Region-specific factors for immigration

As a principle, citizens of one member nation of the European Union are allowed to work in other member nations with little to no restriction on movement.[15] This is aided by the EURES network which brings together the European Commission and the public employment services of the countries belonging to the European Economic Area and Switzerland. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard

For non-EU-citizen permanent residents in the EU, movement between EU-member states is considerably more difficult. After 155 new waves of accession to the European Union, earlier members have often introduced measures to restrict participation in "their" labour markets by citizens of the new EU-member states. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard

For instance, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain each restricted their labor market for up to seven years both in the 2004 and 2007 round of accession.[16] lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard

Due to the European Union's—in principle—single internal labour market policy, countries such as Italy and the Republic of Ireland that have seen relatively low levels of labour immigration until recently HP Mini 110-3100sg Laptop Keyboard

 (and which have often sent a significant portion of their population overseas in the past) are now seeing an influx of immigrants from EU countries with lower per capita annual earning rates, triggering nationwide immigration debates.[17][18] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5127 Laptop Keyboard

 Spain, meanwhile, is seeing growing illegal immigration from Africa. As Spain is the closest EU member nation to Africa—Spain even has two autonomous cities (Ceuta andMelilla) on the African continent, as well as an autonomous community (the Canary Islands) west of North Africa, DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard

in the Atlantic—it is physically easiest for African emigrants to reach. This has led to debate both within Spain and between Spain and other EU members. Spain has asked for border control assistance from other EU states; the latter have responded that Spain has brought the wave of African illegal migrants on itself by granting amnesty to hundreds of thousands of undocumented foreigners.[19] HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard

The United Kingdom, France and Germany have seen major immigration since the end of World War II and have been debating the issue for decades. Foreign workers were brought in to those countries to help rebuild after the war, and many stayed. Political debates about immigration typically focus on statistics, ACER Aspire 7336 Laptop Keyboard

the immigration law and policy, and the implementation of existing restrictions.[20][21] In some European countries the debate in the 1990s was focused on asylum seekers, but restrictive policies within the European Union, as well as a reduction in armed conflict in Europe and neighboring regions, have sharply reduced asylum seekers.[22] HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard

Some states, such as Japan, have opted for technological changes to increase profitability (for example, greater automation), and designed immigration laws specifically to prevent immigrants from coming to, and remaining within, the country. Globalization, as well as low birth rates and an aging work force, FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard

has forced Japan to reconsider its immigration policy.[23] Japan's colonial past has also created considerable number of non-Japanese in Japan. Japan keeps tight control on immigration and in 2009, despite generous overseas aid for refugees, granted political asylum to just 30 people.[24] Japanese Minister Taro Asodescribed Japan as unique in being "one nation, one civilisation, one language, one culture and one race".[25] HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard

In the United States political debate on immigration has flared repeatedly since the US became independent.[citation needed] Some on the far-left of the political spectrum attribute anti-immigration rhetoric to an all-"white", under-educated and parochial minority of the population, ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard

ill-educated about the relative advantages of immigration for the US economy and society.[26] While those on the far-right think that immigration threatens national identity, as well as cheapening labor and increasing dependence on welfare.[26] SONY 147859712 Laptop Keyboard

Treatment of migrants in host countries, both by governments, employers, and original population, is a topic of continual debate and criticism, as many cases of abuse and violation of rights are being reported frequently. Some countries have developed a particularly notorious reputation regarding treatment of migrants. HP 383495-001 Laptop Keyboard

The United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, has been ratified but by 20 states, all of which are heavy exporters of cheap labor. With the sole exception of Serbia, none of the signatories are western countries,  ACER Aspire 2003WLMi Laptop Keyboard

but all are from Asia, South America, and North Africa. Arab states of the Persian Gulf, which are known for receiving millions of migrant workers, have not signed the treaty as well. Although freedom of movement is often recognized as a civil right[who?], the freedom only applies to movement within national borders: HP G61 Laptop Keyboard

it may be guaranteed by the constitutionor by human rights legislation. Additionally, this freedom is often limited to citizens and excludes others. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard

No sovereign state currently allows full freedom of movement across its borders[citation needed], except Uruguay[citation needed], and international human rights treaties do not confer a general right to enter another state[citation needed]. Proponents of immigration maintain that, according to Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Laptop Keyboard

everyone has the right to leave or enter a country, along with movement within it (internal migration), although article 13 actually restricts freedom of movement to "within the borders of each state." Additionally, the UDHR does not mention entry into other countries when it states that "everyone has the right to leave any country, HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard

including his own, and to return to his country."[28] Some argue that the freedom of movement both within and between countries is a basic human right, and that the restrictive immigration policies, typical of nation-states, violate this human right of freed

om of movement.[29] SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

Such arguments are common among anti-state ideologies like anarchism and libertarianism. As philosopher and "Open Borders" activist Jacob Appel has written, "Treating human beings differently, simply because they were born on the opposite side of a national boundary, TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard

is hard to justify under any mainstream philosophical, religious or ethical theory."[30] However, Article 14 does provide that "everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution."[31] HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard

Where immigration is permitted, it is typically selective. Family reunification accounts for approximately two-thirds of legal immigration to the US every year.[32] Ethnic selection, such as the White Australia policy, has generally disappeared, but priority is usually given to the educated, skilled, and wealthy. HP Pavilion dv3-2360ee Laptop Keyboard

Less privileged individuals, including the mass of poor people in low-income countries, cannot avail themselves of the legal and protected immigration opportunities offered by wealthy states. This inequality has also been criticized as conflicting with the principle of equal opportunities, HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard

which apply (at least in theory) within democratic nation-states. The fact that the door is closed for the unskilled, while at the same time many developed countries have a huge demand for unskilled labor, is a major factor in illegal immigration. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard

The contradictory nature of this policy—which specifically disadvantages the unskilled immigrants while exploiting their labor—has also been criticized on ethical grounds. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard

Immigration policies which selectively grant freedom of movement to targeted individuals are intended to produce a net economic gain for the host country. They can also mean net loss for a poor donor country through the loss of the educated minority—the brain drain. ASUS F80C Laptop Keyboard

This can exacerbate the global inequality instandards of living that provided the motivation for the individual to migrate in the first place. One example of competition for skilled labour is active recruitment of health workers from the Third World by First World countries.  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

Jewish immigration to Palestine during the 19th century was promoted by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century following the publication of "Der Judenstaat".[33] His Zionist movement sought to encourage Jewish migration, or immigration, to Palestine. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard

Its proponents regard its aim as self-determination for the Jewish people.[34] The percentage of world Jewry living in the former Palestinian Mandate has steadily grown from 25,000 since the movement came into existence. Today about 40% of the world's Jews live in Israel, more than in any other country.[35] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

The Israeli Law of Return, passed in 1950, gives those born Jews (having a Jewish mother or grandmother), those with Jewish ancestry (having a Jewish father or grandfather) and converts to Judaism (Orthodox, Reform, or Conservative denominations—not secular—though Reform and Conservative conversions must take place outside the state, similar to civil marriages) the right to immigrate to Israel. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

A 1970 amendment, extended immigration rights to "a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew". Over a million Jews from the former Soviet Union have immigrated to Israel since the 1990s, and large numbers of Ethiopian Jews were airlifted to the country in Operation Moses. In the year 1991, Israel helped 14,000 Ethiopian immigrants arrive in operation Solomon. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard

There were 35,638 African migrants living in Israel in 2011.[36] Nearly 60,000 non-Jewish African migrants have entered Israel in recent years.[37] Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that "This phenomenon is very grave and threatens the social fabric of society, our national security and our national identity."[38] HP 550 Laptop Keyboard


In the early 1990s, Japan relaxed its relatively tight immigration laws to allow special entry permits for foreigners ofJapanese ancestry in South America to make up for a labor shortage.[39] According to Japanese immigration centre,[40] the number of foreign residents in Japan has steadily increased, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

and the number of foreign residents (including permanent residents, but excluding illegal immigrants and short-term visitors such as foreign nationals staying less than 90 days in Japan[41]) was more than 2.2 million in 2008.[40] The biggest groups are Koreans (both south and north), SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard

Chinese (including People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau nationalities), and Brazilians. Most of the Brazilians in Japan have Japanese ancestry due to the huge Japanese immigration to Brazil in the first decades of the 20th century. Immediately after World War II, most Koreans in Japan were formerly conscripted as forced labour during the war.[42] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

Among the immigrants, Japan accepts a steady flow of 15,000 new Japanese citizens by naturalization (帰化 kika?) per year.[43]Indeed, the concept of ethnic groups by the Japanese statistics is different from that used in North American or some Western European statistics. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard

For example, the United Kingdom Census asks about its citizens' "ethnic or racial background".[44] The Japanese Statistics Bureau does not ask this question. Since the Japanese census asks about nationality rather than ethnicity, naturalized Japanese citizens and Japanese nationals with multi-ethnic backgrounds are considered simply to be Japanese in the population of Japan.[40] HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard

According to the Japanese Association for Refugees, the number of refugees who applied to live in Japan has rapidly increased since 2006,[45] and there were more than a thousand applications in 2008.[45] Japan's refugee policy has been criticized because the number of refugees accepted into Japan is small compared to countries such as Sweden and the United States.[46]  DELL Inspiron 500m Laptop Keyboard

 For example, according to the UNHCR, in 1999 Japan accepted 16 refugees for resettlement, while the United States took in 85,010, and New Zealand (which is smaller[clarification needed] than Japan) accepted 1,140. Between 1981, when Japan ratified the U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, and 2002, Japan recognized only 305 persons as refugees.[47][48] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

According to Eurostat, 47.3 million people lived in the EU in 2010, who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).[49][50] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard

Some EU member states are currently receiving large-scale immigration: for instance Spain, where the economy has created more than the whole of all the new jobs in the EU over the past five years.[51] The EU, in 2005, had an overall net gain from international migration of +1.8 million people. This accounts for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth in 2005.[52]In 2004, total 140,033 people immigrated to France. HP Mini 110-1006tu Laptop Keyboard

Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe.[53] In 2005, immigration fell slightly to 135,890.[54] British emigration towards Southern Europe is of special relevance. Citizens from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain. ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard

They mainly come from countries like the UK and Germany, but the British case is of special interest due to its magnitude. The British authorities estimate that the British population in Spain at 700,000.[55] Mid- and long term EU demographics indicate a shortage of skilled laborers on a scale that would endanger economic growth and the stability of numerous industries.  ACER TravelMate 242LC Laptop Keyboard

For this reason the European Union launched an initiative called the EU Blue Card, In 2009. The EU Blue Card is initially a temporary residence and work permit. However it will offer holders the opportunity to apply for a permanent resident permit after working on a EU Blue Card for two to five years uninterrupted, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

depending on individual member state regulations. In the years ahead, EU member states will gradually accept applications for EU Blue Card. Crucial in the application process is a job contract with an EU-based organization. To facilitate this requirement the European Commission launched the EU Blue Card Database in January 2010.[56] DELL UW739 Keyboard

Italy now has an estimated 4 million to 4.5 million immigrants — about 8 percent of the population. Since the expansion of the European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European nations, particularly Central Europe, and increasingly Asia, DELL V-0604BIAS1-US Keyboard

replacing North Africa as the major immigration area. Some 997,000 Romanians are officially registered as living in Italy, replacing Albanians (590,000) and Moroccans (455,000) as the largest ethnic minority group, but independent estimates put the actual number of Romanians at double that figure or perhaps even more. DELL V020902AS1 Keyboard

Other immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe are Ukrainians (260,000), Polish (120,000), Moldovans (190 000) Macedonians (100,000), Serbs (75,000), Bulgarians (124,000), Bosnians (40,000), Russians (45,600), Croatians (25,000), Slovakians (9,000), Hungarians (8,600). DELL V080925BS Keyboard

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