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Jewish immigration to Palestine during the 19th century was promoted by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century following the publication of "Der Judenstaat".[33] His Zionist movement sought to encourage Jewish migration, or immigration, to Palestine. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard 

Its proponents regard its aim as self-determination for the Jewish people.[34] The percentage of world Jewry living in the former Palestinian Mandate has steadily grown from 25,000 since the movement came into existence. Today about 40% of the world's Jews live in Israel, more than in any other country.[35] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

The Israeli Law of Return, passed in 1950, gives those born Jews (having a Jewish mother or grandmother), those with Jewish ancestry (having a Jewish father or grandfather) and converts to Judaism (Orthodox, Reform, or Conservative denominations—not secular—though Reform and Conservative conversions must take place outside the state, similar to civil marriages) the right to immigrate to Israel. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

A 1970 amendment, extended immigration rights to "a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew". Over a million Jews from the former Soviet Union have immigrated to Israel since the 1990s, and large numbers of Ethiopian Jews were airlifted to the country in Operation Moses. In the year 1991, Israel helped 14,000 Ethiopian immigrants arrive in operation Solomon. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard

There were 35,638 African migrants living in Israel in 2011.[36] Nearly 60,000 non-Jewish African migrants have entered Israel in recent years.[37] Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that "This phenomenon is very grave and threatens the social fabric of society, our national security and our national identity."[38] HP 550 Laptop Keyboard


In the early 1990s, Japan relaxed its relatively tight immigration laws to allow special entry permits for foreigners ofJapanese ancestry in South America to make up for a labor shortage.[39] According to Japanese immigration centre,[40] the number of foreign residents in Japan has steadily increased, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard

and the number of foreign residents (including permanent residents, but excluding illegal immigrants and short-term visitors such as foreign nationals staying less than 90 days in Japan[41]) was more than 2.2 million in 2008.[40] The biggest groups are Koreans (both south and north), SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard

Chinese (including People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau nationalities), and Brazilians. Most of the Brazilians in Japan have Japanese ancestry due to the huge Japanese immigration to Brazil in the first decades of the 20th century. Immediately after World War II, most Koreans in Japan were formerly conscripted as forced labour during the war.[42] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

Among the immigrants, Japan accepts a steady flow of 15,000 new Japanese citizens by naturalization (帰化 kika?) per year.[43]Indeed, the concept of ethnic groups by the Japanese statistics is different from that used in North American or some Western European statistics. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard

For example, the United Kingdom Census asks about its citizens' "ethnic or racial background".[44] The Japanese Statistics Bureau does not ask this question. Since the Japanese census asks about nationality rather than ethnicity, naturalized Japanese citizens and Japanese nationals with multi-ethnic backgrounds are considered simply to be Japanese in the population of Japan.[40] HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard

According to the Japanese Association for Refugees, the number of refugees who applied to live in Japan has rapidly increased since 2006,[45] and there were more than a thousand applications in 2008.[45] Japan's refugee policy has been criticized because the number of refugees accepted into Japan is small compared to countries such as Sweden and the United States.[46]  DELL Inspiron 500m Laptop Keyboard 

 For example, according to the UNHCR, in 1999 Japan accepted 16 refugees for resettlement, while the United States took in 85,010, and New Zealand (which is smaller[clarification needed] than Japan) accepted 1,140. Between 1981, when Japan ratified the U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, and 2002, Japan recognized only 305 persons as refugees.[47][48] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

According to Eurostat, 47.3 million people lived in the EU in 2010, who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).[49][50] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard

Some EU member states are currently receiving large-scale immigration: for instance Spain, where the economy has created more than the whole of all the new jobs in the EU over the past five years.[51] The EU, in 2005, had an overall net gain from international migration of +1.8 million people. This accounts for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth in 2005.[52]In 2004, total 140,033 people immigrated to France. HP Mini 110-1006tu Laptop Keyboard

Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe.[53] In 2005, immigration fell slightly to 135,890.[54] British emigration towards Southern Europe is of special relevance. Citizens from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain. ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard

They mainly come from countries like the UK and Germany, but the British case is of special interest due to its magnitude. The British authorities estimate that the British population in Spain at 700,000.[55] Mid- and long term EU demographics indicate a shortage of skilled laborers on a scale that would endanger economic growth and the stability of numerous industries.  ACER TravelMate 242LC Laptop Keyboard

For this reason the European Union launched an initiative called the EU Blue Card, In 2009. The EU Blue Card is initially a temporary residence and work permit. However it will offer holders the opportunity to apply for a permanent resident permit after working on a EU Blue Card for two to five years uninterrupted, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

depending on individual member state regulations. In the years ahead, EU member states will gradually accept applications for EU Blue Card. Crucial in the application process is a job contract with an EU-based organization. To facilitate this requirement the European Commission launched the EU Blue Card Database in January 2010.[56] DELL UW739 Keyboard

Italy now has an estimated 4 million to 4.5 million immigrants — about 8 percent of the population. Since the expansion of the European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European nations, particularly Central Europe, and increasingly Asia, DELL V-0604BIAS1-US Keyboard

replacing North Africa as the major immigration area. Some 997,000 Romanians are officially registered as living in Italy, replacing Albanians (590,000) and Moroccans (455,000) as the largest ethnic minority group, but independent estimates put the actual number of Romanians at double that figure or perhaps even more. DELL V020902AS1 Keyboard

Other immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe are Ukrainians (260,000), Polish (120,000), Moldovans (190 000) Macedonians (100,000), Serbs (75,000), Bulgarians (124,000), Bosnians (40,000), Russians (45,600), Croatians (25,000), Slovakians (9,000), Hungarians (8,600). DELL V080925BS Keyboard

As of 2009, the foreign born population origin of Italy was subdivided as follows: Europe (53.5%), Africa (22.3%), Asia (15.8%), the Americas (8.1%) and Oceania (0.06%). The distribution of foreign born population is largely uneven in Italy: 80 % of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country (the most economically developed areas), DELL V081325AS1 Keyboard

while only 20 % live in the southern half of the peninsula. In 2008, net immigration to Italy was 438,000.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden.[citation needed] The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behavior.[citation needed] DELL V100830AS1 Keyboard

As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity, there are no exact numbers on the total number of people of immigrant background in Sweden. As of 2010, DELL V104025ES1 Keyboard

1.33 million people or 14.3% of the inhabitants in Sweden were foreign-born. Sweden has been transformed from a nation of emigration ending after World War I to a nation of immigration from World War II onwards. In 2009, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 102,280 people emigrating to Sweden. DELL V109002CS1 Keyboard

In 2010, 32000 people applied for asylum to Sweden, a 25% increase from 2009, the highest amount in Swedish history.[66] In 2009, Sweden had the fourth largest number of asylum applications in the EU and the largest number per capita after Cyprus andMalta.[67] [68] DELL V110546AS1 Keyboard

Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland and the five largest foreign born populations in Sweden come from Finland, Yugoslavia, Iraq, Poland and Iran.[69] DELL V119525BS1 Keyboard

In 2007, net immigration to the UK was 237,000, a rise of 46,000 on 2006.[71] In 2004 the number of people who became Britishcitizens rose to a record 140,795—a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen dramatically since 2000. DELL XG900 Keyboard

In the 2001 Census, citizens from the Republic of Ireland were the largest foreign born group and have been for the last 200 years. This figure does not include those from Northern Ireland located since it is part of the United Kingdom. Those of Irish ancestry number roughly 6 million from first, second and third generation. DELL XHKKF Keyboard

The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Asia (40%) and Africa (32%), the largest three groups being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia.[72] Listed by DELL Laptop Model.

In 2011, an estimated 589,000 migrants arrived to live in the UK for at least a year, most of the migrants were people from Asia(particularly the Indian subcontinent) and Africa,[73] while 338,000 people emigrated from the UK for a year or more.[73] DELL Alienware M11x Keyboard

Following Poland's entry into the EU in May 2004 it was estimated that by the start of 2007, 375,000 Poles had registered to work in the UK, although the total Polish population in the UK was believed to be 500,000. Many Poles work in seasonal occupations and a large number are likely to move back and forth over time. DELL Alienware M17xR2 Keyboard

Many migrants left after the world economic crisis of 2008 and the 30% devaluation of sterling that followed. In 2011, citizens of the new EU member states made up 13% of the immigrants entering the country.[73] As of March 2011 the UK Immigration Minister was Damian Green. DELL Inspiron 1420 Keyboard

Large numbers of Central American migrants who have crossed Guatemala's border into Mexico are deported every year.[74] Over 200,000 undocumented Central American migrants were deported in 2005 alone.[75] In a 2010 news story, USA Today reported, "... DELL Inspiron 1435 Keyboard

Mexico's Arizona-style law requires local police to check IDs. And Mexican police freely engage in racial profiling and routinely harass Central American migrants, say immigration activists."[76] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

After the United States returned to a more closed border, immigration has been more difficult than ever for Mexican residents hoping to migrate. Mexico is the leading country of migrants to the United States. A Mexican Repatriation program was founded by the United States to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico. DELL Inspiron 14R Keyboard

However, the program was not found successful and many immigrants were deported against their will. Last year alone, 400,000 Mexican immigrants were repatriated. In 2010 alone, there was a total of 139,120 legal immigrants who migrated to the United States. DELL Inspiron 14V Keyboard

This put Mexico as the top country for emigration[77] According to recent studies, the amount of immigrants migrating from Mexico should continue to increase tremendously each year.[78] DELL Inspiron 1501 Keyboard

Canada's immigration is driven by economic policy and family reunification, and is aiming for between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2012.[79] In 2001, 250,640 people immigrated to Canada. Newcomers settle mostly in the major urban areas of Toronto and Vancouver. DELL Inspiron 1520 Keyboard

Since the 1990s, the majority of Canada's immigrants have come from Asia.[80] The leading emigrating countries to Canada are China, Philippines and India.[81] In 2010, a record 280,636 people immigrated to Canada.[82] Accusing a person of racism in Canada is usually considered a serious slur.[83] DELL Inspiron 1521 Keyboard

 All political parties are now cautious about criticizing of the high level of immigration, because, as noted by the Globe and Mail, "in the early 1990s, the old Reform Party was branded 'racist' for suggesting that immigration levels be lowered from 250,000 to 150,000."[84] DELL Inspiron 1525 Keyboard

Historians estimate that fewer than 1 million immigrants – perhaps as few as 400,000 – crossed the Atlantic during the 17th and 18th centuries.[85] Relatively few 18th-century immigrants came from England: only 80,000 between 1700 and 1775, compared to 350,000 during the 17th century.[86] DELL Inspiron 1526 Keyboard

n addition, between the 17th and 19th centuries, an estimated 645,000 Africans were brought to what is now the United States.[87] In the early years of the United States, immigration was fewer than 8,000 people a year.[88] After 1820, immigration gradually increased. DELL Inspiron 1540 Keyboard

From 1850 to 1930, the foreign born population of the United States increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million. The highest percentage of foreign born people in the United States was found in this period, with the peak in 1890 at 14.7%. During this time, the lower costs of Atlantic Ocean travel in time and fare made it more advantageous for immigrants to move to the U.S. than in years prior. DELL Inspiron 1545 Keyboard

From 1880 to 1924, over 25 million Europeans migrated to the United States.[85] Following this time period, immigration fell because in 1924 Congress passed theImmigration Act of 1924, which favored immigrant source countries that already had many immigrants in the U.S. by 1890.[89] DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard

Immigration patterns of the 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression, and in the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than immigrated to it.[90] Immigration continued to fall throughout the 1940s and 1950s, but it increased again afterwards.[91] DELL Inspiron 1747 Keyboard

The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (the Hart-Cellar Act) removed quotas on large segments of the immigration flow and legal immigration to the U.S. surged. In 2006, the number of immigrants totaled record 37.5 million.[92DELL Inspiron 1750 Keyboard

]After 2000, immigration to the United States numbered approximately 1,000,000 per year. Despite tougher border security after 9/11, nearly 8 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005 – more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history.[93] Almost half entered illegally.[94] DELL Inspiron 2500 Keyboard

 In 2006, 1.27 million immigrants were granted legal residence.Mexico has been the leading source of new U.S. residents for over two decades; and since 1998, China, India and thePhilippines have been in the top four sending countries every year.[95] The U.S. has often been called the "melting pot" (derived from Carl N. Degler, DELL Inspiron 500m Keyboard

a historian, author of Out of Our Past), a name derived from United States' rich tradition of immigrants coming to the US looking for something better and having their cultures melded and incorporated into the fabric of the country. DELL Inspiron 510m KeyboardAppointed by President Clinton, the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, led by Barbara Jordan, called for reducing legal immigration to about 550,000 a year.[96] Since September 11, 2001, the politics of immigration has become an extremely hot issue. It was a central topic of the 2008 election cycle.[97] DELL Inspiron 6000 Keyboard

The number of foreign nationals who became legal permanent residents (LPRs) of the U.S. in 2009 as a result of family reunification (66 percent) outpaced those who became LPRs on the basis of employment skills (13 percent) and humanitarian reasons (17 percent).[98] DELL Inspiron 6000D Keyboard

Since World War II, more refugees have found homes in the U.S. than any other nation and more than two million refugees have arrived in the U.S. since 1980. Of the top ten countries accepting resettled refugees in 2006, the United States accepted more than twice as much as the next nine countries combined.[99] DELL Inspiron 600m Keyboard

One econometrics report in 2010 by analyst Kusum Mundra suggested that immigration positively affected bilateral trade when the U.S. had a networked community of immigrants, but that the trade benefit was weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into American culture.[100] DELL Inspiron 630M Keyboard

The overall level of immigration to Australia has grown substantially during the last decade. Net overseas migration increased from 30,000 in 1993[102] to 118,000 in 2003-04.[103] The largest components of immigration are the skilled migration and family re-union programs. DELL Inspiron 6400 Keyboard

Themandatory detention of unauthorised arrivals by boat has generated great levels of controversy. During the 2004-05, total 123,424 people immigrated to Australia. Of them, 17,736 were from Africa, 54,804 from Asia, 21,131 from Oceania, 18,220 from United Kingdom, 1,506 from South America, and 2,369 from the rest of Europe.[80] DELL Inspiron 640m Keyboard

131,000 people migrated to Australia in 2005-06[104] and migration target for 2012–13 is 190,000.[105][106]

The Cato Institute finds little or no effect of immigration on income of native born.[107] DELL Inspiron 8000 Keyboard

 The Brookings Institution finds a 2.3% depression of wages from immigration from 1980 to 2007.[108] The Center for Immigration Studies finds a 3.7% depression wages from immigration from 1980 to 2000.[109] DELL Inspiron 8100 Keyboard

According to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, "In Europe, 28% of foreigners between the ages of 25 and 49 are unable to find work, with unemployment rates as high as 35% for Turks and Pakistanis and 60% for recent immigrant groups such as Somalis."[110] DELL Inspiron 8500 Keyboard

Toronto’s unemployment rate was 6.7% in November 2010, including 19.7% among recent immigrants.[111]

Irish Republican Brotherhood

The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic republic" in Ireland during the second half of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century.[1] Its counterpart in the United States of America was organized by John O'Mahony and became known as the Fenian Brotherhood (later Clan na Gael). DELL Inspiron 8600 Keyboard

The members of both wings of the movement are often referred to as "Fenians". The IRB played an important role in the history of Ireland, as the chief advocate of republicanism during the campaign for Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom, successor to movements such as the United Irishmen of the 1790s and the Young Irelanders of the 1840s. DELL Inspiron 9100 Keyboard

As part of the New Departure, in the 1870s and 1880s, IRB members attempted to democratise the Home Rule League.[2] and its successor, the Irish Parliamentary Party, as well as taking part in the Land War.[3] The IRB staged the Easter Rising in 1916, which led to the establishment of the first Dáil Éireann in 1919. DELL Inspiron 9200 Keyboard

The suppression of the Dáil Éireann precipitated the Irish War of Independence and the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921, ultimately leading to partial Irish independence. DELL Inspiron 9300 Keyboard

In 1798 the United Irishmen, which had initially been an open political organisation, but which was later suppressed by the British establishment in Ireland and so became a secret revolutionary organisation, rose in rebellion, DELL Inspiron 9400 Keyboard

seeking an end to British rule in Ireland and the establishment of an Irish Republic. The rebellion was suppressed, but the principles of the United Irishmen were to have a powerful influence on the course of Irish history. DELL Inspiron E1405 Keyboard

Following the collapse of the rebellion, the British Prime Minister William Pitt introduced a bill to abolish the Irish parliament and manufactured a Union between Ireland and Britain. Opposition from the Protestant oligarchy that controlled the parliament was countered by the widespread and open use of bribery. DELL Inspiron E1505 Keyboard

The Act of Union was passed, and became law on 1 January 1801. The Catholics, who had been excluded from the Irish parliament, were promised emancipation under the Union. This promise was never kept, and caused a protracted and bitter struggle for civil liberties. DELL Inspiron E1705 Keyboard

It was not until 1829 that the British government reluctantly conceded Catholic emancipation. Though leading to general emancipation, this process simultaneously disenfranchised the small tenants, known as ‘forty shilling freeholders’, who were mainly Catholics.[4] DELL Inspiron M4110 Keyboard

Daniel O’Connell, who had led the emancipation campaign, then attempted the same methods in his campaign, to have the Act of Union with Britain repealed. Despite the use of petitions and public meetings which attracted vast popular support, the government thought the Union was more important than Irish public opinion. DELL Inspiron M411R Keyboard

During the early 1840s, the younger members of the repeal movement became impatient with O’Connell’s over-cautious policies, and began to question his intentions. Later they were what came to be known as the Young Ireland movement. In 1842 three of the Young Ireland leaders, Thomas Davis, Charles Gavan Duffy and John Blake Dillon, launched the Nation newspaper. DELL Inspiron M5030 Keyboard

In the paper they set out to create a spirit of pride and an identity based on nationality rather than on social status or religion. Following the collapse of the Repeal Association and with the arrival of famine, the Young Irelanders broke away completely from O’Connell in 1846.[5] DELL Inspiron MINI 10 Keyboard

The blight that destroyed the potato harvest between 1845 and 1849 was an unprecedented human tragedy. An entire social class of small farmers and labourers were to be virtually wiped out by hunger, disease and emigration. The laissez –faire economic thinking of the government ensured that help was slow, hesitant and insufficient. Between 1845 and 1851 the population fell by almost two million. DELL Inspiron MINI 1010 Keyboard

That the people starved while livestock and grain continued to be exported, quite often under military escort, left a legacy of bitterness and resentment among the survivors. DELL Inspiron MINI 1011 Keyboard

The waves of emigration because of the famine and in the years following, also ensured that such feelings were not confined to Ireland, but spread to England, the United States, Australia, and every country where Irish emigrants gathered.[6] DELL Inspiron MINI 10V Keyboard

Shocked by the scenes of starvation and greatly influenced by the revolutions then sweeping Europe, the Young Irelanders moved from agitation to armed rebellion in 1848. The attempted rebellion failed after a small skirmish in Ballingary, Co Tipperary, DELL Inspiron N4010 Keyboard

coupled with a few minor incidents else where. The reasons for the failure were obvious, the people were totally despondent after three years of famine, having been prompted to rise early resulted in an inadequacy of military preparations, which caused disunity among the leaders. DELL Inspiron N4020 Keyboard

The government quickly rounded up many of the instigators, those who could, fled across the seas, and their followers dispersed. A last flicker of revolt in 1849, led by among others James Fintan Lalor, was equally unsuccessful.[7] DELL Inspiron N4030 Keyboard

John Mitchel, the most committed advocate of revolution, had been arrested early in 1848 and transported to Australia on the purposefully created charge of Treason-felony. DELL Inspiron N4110 Keyboard

He was to be joined by other leaders, such as William Smith O'Brien and Thomas Francis Meagher who had both been arrested after Ballingary. John Blake Dillon escaped to France, as did three of the younger members, James Stephens, John O'Mahony and Michael Doheny. DELL Inspiron N4050 Keyboard

After the collapse of the 1848 rebellion James Stephens and John O'Mahony went to Europe to avoid arrest. In Paris they supported themselves through teaching and translation work and planned the next stage of "the fight to overthrow British rule in Ireland."[8] DELL Inspiron N5030 Keyboard

Stephens in Paris, set himself three tasks, during his seven years of exile. They were, to keep alive, pursue knowledge, and master the technique of conspiracy. At this time Paris particularly, was interwoven with a network of secret political societies. DELL Latitude 131L Keyboard

They became members of one the most powerful of these societies and acquired the secrets of some of the ablest and "most profound masters of revolutionary science" which the 19th century had produced, as to the means of inviting and combining people for the purposes of successful revolution.[9] DELL Inspiron n7110 Keyboard

In 1853, O'Mahony went to America and founded the Emmet Monument Association.[10][11] In early 1856, Stephens began making his way back to Ireland, stopping first in London.[12] On arriving in Dublin, Stephens began what he described as his three thousand mile walk through Ireland, meeting some of those who had taken part in the 1848/49 revolutionary movements, DELL Latitude C500 Keyboard

including Philip Gray, Thomas Clarke Luby and Peter Langan.[13] In the autumn of 1857, a messenger, Owen Considine arrived from New York with a message for Stephens from members[14] of the Emmet Monument Association, calling on him to get up an organisation in Ireland. DELL Latitude C510 Keyboard

Considine also carried a private letter from O’Mahony to Stephens which was a warning as to the condition of the organisation in New York, which was overseen by Luby and Stephens at the time. Both had believed that there was a strong organisation behind the letter, only later to find it was a number of loosely linked groups.[15DELL Latitude C600 Keyboard

On 23 December Stephens dispatched Joseph Denieffe to America with his reply which was disguised as a business letter, and dated and addressed from Paris. In his reply Stephens outlined his conditions and his requirements from the organisation in America.[16] DELL Latitude C610 Keyboard

Stephens demanded uncontrolled power and £100 a month for the first three months.[17] Denieffe returned on 17 March 1858 with the acceptance of Stephens terms and £80. Denieffe also reported that there was no actual organised body of sympathisers in New York but merely a loose knot of associates. DELL Latitude C800 Keyboard

This disturbed Stephens but he went ahead regardless and that evening, St. Patrick's Day, the Irish Republican Brotherhood commenced.[18][19] DELL Latitude C810 Keyboard

The original oath, with its clauses of secrecy was drawn up by Luby under Stephens' direction in Stephens' room in Donnelly’s which was situated behind Lombard Street. Luby then swore Stephens in and he did likewise. DELL Latitude D400 Keyboard

Those present in Langan's, lathe-maker and timber merchant, 16 Lombard Street for that first meeting apart from Stephens and Luby were Peter Langan, Charles Kickham, Joseph Denieffe[20] and Garrett O'Shaughnessy.[21][22] Later it would include members of the Phoenix National and Literary Society, which was formed in 1856 by Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa in Skibbereen.[23] DELL Latitude D410 Keyboard

Dublin Castle was the government administration in Ireland and was appointed by the British cabinet and was accountable only to the cabinet, not to the House of Commons and not to the Irish people or their political representatives. DELL Latitude D420 Keyboard

Irish MPs could speak at Westminster in protest about the actions of the administration, but its privileges were unchallengeable as Irish representation in the House of Commons was only one sixth of the total and far too small.[24] DELL Latitude D430 Keyboard

Fenianism therefore, according to O'Mahony is symbolized by two principles: Firstly, that Ireland had a natural right to independence, and secondly, that that right could be won only by an armed revolution.[25] Because of their belief in republicanism, that is, DELL Latitude d500 Keyboard

the “common people are the rightful rulers of their own destiny,” the founding members saw themselves as “furious democrats in theory” and declared their movement to be “wholly and unequivocally democratic.”[26] Being a democrat and egalitarian in the mid 19th century was tantamount to being a revolutionary, and was something to be feared by political establishments.[27] DELL Latitude D505 Keyboard

It was Stephens “firm resolution to establish a democratic republic in Ireland; that is, a republic for the weal of the toiler,”[28] and that this would require a complete social revolution before the people could possibly become republicans.[1] In propagating republican principles, DELL Latitude D510 Keyboard

they felt, the organisation would create this virtual democracy within the country, which would form the basis of an independence movement.[29] DELL Latitude d520 Keyboard

The Fenians soon established themselves in Australia, South America, Canada and, above all, in the United States, as well as in the large cities of England, such as London, Manchester, Liverpool, and Glasgow, in Scotland. DELL Latitude d530 Keyboard

This oath was significantly revised by Stephens in Paris in the summer of 1859. He asked Luby to draw up a new text, omitting the secrecy clause. The omitting of the secrecy clause was outlined in a letter from Stephen's to John O'Mahony

 on 6 April 1859 and the reasons for it.[31] DELL Latitude D531 Keyboard

 ‘Henceforth,’ wrote Luby to O’Leary "we denied that we were technically a secret body. We called ourselves a military organization; with, so to speak, a legionary oath like all soldiers."[32]

The revised oath ran: DELL Latitude D600 Keyboard

I, A.B, in the presence of Almighty God, do solemnly swear allegiance to the Irish Republic, now virtually established; and that I will do my very utmost, at every risk, while life lasts, to defend its independence and integrity; and, finally, that I will yield implicit obedience in all things, not contrary to the laws of God [or ‘the laws of morality’], to the commands of my superior officers. So help me God. Amen’.[33] DELL Latitude D610 Keyboard

In yet a later version it read:

In the presence of God, I, ..., do solemnly swear that I will do my utmost to establish the independence of Ireland, and that I will bear true allegiance to the Supreme Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the Government of the Irish Republic and implicitly obey the constitution of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and all my superior officers and that I will preserve inviolable the secrets of the organisation.[34] DELL Latitude D620 Keyboard

The movement was denounced by the British establishment, the press, the Catholic Church and Irish political elite, as had been all Irish separatist and Republicanism movements.[36] DELL Latitude D630 Keyboard

The Tories, disturbed by the increase in republican propaganda, particularly in America, launched a propaganda campaign in the Irish press to discredit the American Fenians. They presented them as enemies of Catholicism quoting negative comments by some American Catholic bishops. DELL Latitude D631 Keyboard

As in Irish-America, likewise Ireland and England, the Catholic hierarchy felt the growth of nationalist politics among Irishmen was essentially dangerous. Therefore during the 1860s and succeeding decades, the upper or middle classes who controlled the Irish press were very apprehensive in the growth of democratic politics in Ireland, which represented to them a threat of anarchy and revolution.[37] DELL Latitude D800 Keyboard

It was feared that if Britain was given any reason to renew coercion, Catholic interests in both Ireland and England would be undermined. In addition, the small class of Irish Catholic merchants, lawyers and gentry who had prospered under the Union felt anxious for the same reasons. DELL Latitude D830 Keyboard

By 1864, the Tories had coined the phrase ‘Fenianism’ to describe all that was considered potentially bothersome among Irishmen on both sides of the Atlantic.[37] DELL Latitude D820 Keyboard

Fenianism as a term was then used by the British political establishment to depict any form of mobilisation among the lower classes and, sometimes, those who expressed any Irish nationalist sentiments. They warned people about this threat to turn decent civilised society on its head such as that posed by trade unionism to the existing social order in England.[38] DELL Latitude E4300 Keyboard

The same term was taken up by members of the Irish Catholic hierarchy, who also began denouncing "Fenianism" in the name of the Catholic religion.[37] DELL Latitude E5410 Keyboard

One Irish Bishop, David Moriarty of Kerry, declared that "when we look down into the fathomless depth of this infamy of the heads of the Fenian conspiracy, we must acknowledge that eternity is not long enough, nor hell hot enough to punish such miscreants."[39][40] DELL Latitude E5400 Keyboard

Irish People

In mid 1863 Stephens informed his colleagues he wished to start a newspaper, with financial aid from O’Mahony and the Fenian Brotherhood in America. The offices were established at 12 Parliament Street, almost at the gates of Dublin Castle.[41] The first edition of the Irish People appeared on 28 November 1863.[42] DELL Latitude E5500 Keyboard

The staff of the paper along with Kickham were Luby and Denis Dowling Mulcahy as the editorial staff. O’Donovan Rossa and James O’Connor were in charge of the business office, with John Haltigan being the printer. John O'Leary was brought from London to take charge in the role of Editor.[43] DELL Latitude E5510 Keyboard

Shortly after the establishment of the paper, Stephens departed on an American tour, and to attend to organisational matters.[44]

On 15 July 1865 American[clarification needed] made plans for a rising in Ireland were discovered when the emissary lost them at Kingstown railway station. DELL Latitude E6400 Keyboard

They found their way to Dublin Castle and to Superintendent Daniel Ryan head of G Division. Ryan had an informer within the offices of the Irish People named Pierce Nagle, he supplied Ryan with an “action this year” message on its way to the IRB unit in Tipperary. With this information, DELL Latitude E6410 Keyboard

Ryan raided the offices of the Irish People on Thursday 15 September, followed by the arrests of O’Leary, Luby and O’Donovan Rossa. The last edition of the paper is dated 16 September 1865.[45] DELL Latitude E6500 Keyboard

By the start of the 20th century, the IRB was a stagnating organisation, concerned more with Dublin municipal politics than the establishment of a republic according to F. S. L. Lyons.[50] DELL Latitude E6510 Keyboard

A younger generation of Ulster republicans aimed to change this, and in 1905 Denis McCullough and Bulmer Hobson founded the Dungannon Clubs. Inspired by the Volunteers of 1782, the purpose of these clubs was to discourage enlistment into the British Army, and encourage enlistment into the IRB, DELL Precision M2400 Keyboard

with the overall goal of complete independence from Britain in the form of an Irish Republic.[51] They were joined by Sean MacDermott, and in 1908 he and Hobson relocated to Dublin, where they teamed up with veteran Fenian Tom Clarke. DELL Precision M40 Keyboard

Clarke had been released from Portland Prison in October 1898 after serving fifteen and a half years, and had recently returned to Ireland after living in the United States.[52] Sent by John Devoy and the Clan na Gael to reorganise the IRB, Clarke set about to do just that.[53] DELL Precision M4400 Keyboard

 In 1909 the young Michael Collins was introduced to the brotherhood by Sam Maguire. By 1914 the Supreme Council was largely purged of its older, tired leadership, and was dominated by enthusiastic men such as Hobson, McCullough, Patrick McCartan, John MacBride, Sean MacDermott, and Tom Clarke.[54] The latter two were to be the primary instigators of the Easter Rising in 1916. DELL Precision M4500 Keyboard

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