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James Cook

Captain James Cook, FRS, RN (7 November 1728[NB 1] – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer who ultimately rose to the rank of captain in the Royal Navy. HP G62 Notebook PC Series Battery

Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. HP G62t-100 CTO Battery

Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. HP G62t Battery

This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This notice came at a crucial moment in both Cook's career and the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM BarkEndeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. HP G72-100 Battery

In three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not previously achieved. HP G72-101SA Battery

As he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. HP G72-102SA Battery

Cook was killed in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. HP G72-105SA Battery

However, his role in opening areas of the Pacific to colonisationand its subsequent effects on indigenous peoples have been the subject of both political and scholarly debate. HP G72-110EL Battery

Early life and family

Cook was born in the village of Marton in Yorkshire, now a suburb of Middlesbrough.[1] He was baptised in the local church of St. Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register. Cook was the second of eight children of James Cook, HP G72-110EV Battery

a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam near Kelso, and his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.[1][2][3] In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, HP G72-110SA Battery

paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years schooling, he began work for his father, who had by now been promoted to farm manager. For leisure, he would climb a nearby hill, Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude.[4] Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is likely to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934.[5]HP G72-110SD Battery

In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles (32 km) to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson.[1] Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window.[3]HP G72-110SO Battery

After 18 months, not proving suitable for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.[5] The Walkers were prominent local ship-owners and Quakers, and were in the coal trade. HP G72-110SW Battery

Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast. His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, HP G72-120EG Battery

and he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study ofalgebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship.[3]HP G72-120EP Battery

His three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brigFriendship.[6] HP G72-120EV Battery

In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, whenBritain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War. Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more quickly in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 7 June 1755.[7]HP G72-120EW Battery

Cook married Elizabeth Batts (1742–1835), the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn, Wapping[8] and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St. Margaret's Church in Barking, Essex. The couple had six children: James (1763–94), HP G72-120SD Battery

 Nathaniel (1764–81), Elizabeth (1767–71), Joseph (1768–68), George (1772–72) and Hugh (1776–93). When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London. He attended St Paul's Church, Shadwell, where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all his children either pre-deceased him or died without having children of their own.[9]HP G72-120SG Battery

Start of Royal Navy career

Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, sailing with the rank of master's mate. In October and November 1755 he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties.[7] His first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was briefly the master of theCruizer, a small cutter attached to the Eagle while on patrol.[7][10]HP G72-120SO Battery

In June 1757 Cook passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, Deptford, which qualified him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet.[11] He then joined the frigate HMS Solebay as master under Captain Robert Craig.[12]HP G72-130 Battery

During the Seven Years' War, he served in North America as master of Pembroke.[13] In 1758, he took part in the major amphibious assault that captured the Fortress of Louisbourg from the French, after which he participated in the siege ofQuebec City and then the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759. HP G72-130EG Battery

He showed a talent for surveying and cartography, and was responsible for mapping much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege, thus allowing General Wolfeto make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham.[6]HP G72-130EV Battery

Cook's aptitude for surveying was put to good use mapping the jagged coast of Newfoundland in the 1760s. He surveyed the northwest stretch in 1763 and 1764, the south coast between the Burin Peninsula and Cape Ray in 1765 and 1766, and the west coast in 1767. HP G72-130SF Battery

His five seasons in Newfoundland produced the first large-scale and accurate maps of the island's coasts; they also gave Cook his mastery of practical surveying, achieved under often adverse conditions, HP G72-140ED Battery

and brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society at a crucial moment both in his career and in the direction of British overseas discovery. Cook's map would be used into the 20th century—copies of it being referenced by those sailing Newfoundland's waters for 200 years.[14]HP G72-260US Battery

Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, it was at this time that Cook wrote that he intended to go not only:

"... farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go."[11]HP G72-a30SA Battery

In 1766, the Royal Society engaged Cook to travel to the Pacific Ocean to observe and record the transit of Venus across theSun. Cook, at the age of 39, was promoted to lieutenant and named as commander of the expedition.[15][16] HP G72-b01SA Battery

The expedition sailed from England in 1768, rounded Cape Horn and continued westward across the Pacific to arrive at Tahiti on 13 April 1769, where the observations of the Venus Transit were made. However, HP G72-b02SA Battery

the result of the observations was not as conclusive or accurate as had been hoped. Once the observations were completed, Cook opened the sealed orders which were additional instructions from the Admiralty for the second part of his voyage: HP G72-b10SA Battery

to search the south Pacific for signs of the postulated rich southern continent of Terra Australis.[17] Cook then sailed to New Zealand and mapped the complete coastline, making only some minor errors. He then voyaged west, reaching the south-eastern coast of Australia on 19 April 1770, and in doing so his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline.[NB 2]HP G72-b15SA Battery

On 23 April he made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island near Bawley Point, noting in his journal: "...and were so near the Shore as to distinguish several people upon the Sea beach they appear'd to be of a very dark or black Colour but whether this was the real colour of their skins or the C[l]othes they might have on I know not."[18] HP G72-b20SA Battery

On 29 April Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the continent at a place now known as theKurnell Peninsula, which he named Botany Bay after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander. It is here that James Cook made first contact with an Aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal.[19]HP G72 Battery

After his departure from Botany Bay he continued northwards, and a mishap occurred, on 11 June, when Endeavour ran aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef, and then "nursed into a river mouth on 18 June 1770.".[20]HP G72 Notebook PC Series Battery

 The ship was badly damaged and his voyage was delayed almost seven weeks while repairs were carried out on the beach (near the docks of modern Cooktown, at the mouth of the Endeavour River).[3] Once repairs were complete the voyage continued, HP G72t Battery

sailing throughTorres Strait and on 22 August he landed on Possession Island, where he claimed the entire coastline he had just explored as British territory. He returned to England via Batavia (modern Jakarta, Indonesia), where many in his crew succumbed to malaria, the Cape of Good Hope and the island of Saint Helena, arriving on 12 July 1771. HP Pavilion dv3-4000 Battery

INTERLUDE

Cook's journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the scientific community. Among the general public, however, the aristocratic botanist Joseph Banks was a bigger hero.[3HP Pavilion dv3-4010sg Battery

] Banks even attempted to take command of Cook's second voyage, but removed himself from the voyage before it began, and Johann Reinhold Forster and his son Georg Forster were taken on as scientists for the voyage. Cook's son George was born five days before he left for his second voyage.[21]HP Pavilion dv3-4020sp Battery

in August 1771, to the rank of commander.[22][23]Then, in 1772, he was commissioned by the Royal Society to search for the hypothetical Terra Australis. On his first voyage, Cook had demonstrated by circumnavigating New Zealand that it was not attached to a larger landmass to the south. HP Pavilion dv3-4029TX Battery

Although he charted almost the entire eastern coastline of Australia, showing it to be continental in size, the Terra Australis was believed to lie further south. Despite this evidence to the contrary, Alexander Dalrymple and others of the Royal Society still believed that this massive southern continent should exist.[24]HP Pavilion dv3-4031TX Battery

Cook commanded HMS Resolution on this voyage, while Tobias Furneaux commanded its companion ship, HMS Adventure. Cook's expedition circumnavigated the globe at a very high southern latitude, becoming one of the first to cross the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773. HP Pavilion dv3-4035tx Battery

He also surveyed, mapped and took possession for Britain of South Georgiaexplored by Anthony de la Roché in 1675, discovered and named Clerke Rocks and the South Sandwich Islands("Sandwich Land"). In the Antarctic fog, HP Pavilion dv3-4050ea Battery

Resolution and Adventure became separated. Furneaux made his way to New Zealand, where he lost some of his men during an encounter with Māori, and eventually sailed back to Britain, while Cook continued to explore the Antarctic, reaching 71°10'S on 31 January 1774.[11]HP Pavilion dv3-4057tx Battery

Cook almost encountered the mainland of Antarctica, but turned back north towards Tahiti to resupply his ship. He then resumed his southward course in a second fruitless attempt to find the supposed continent. On this leg of the voyage he brought with him a young Tahitian named Omai, HP Pavilion dv3-4059tx Battery

who proved to be somewhat less knowledgeable about the Pacific than Tupaia had been on the first voyage. On his return voyage, in 1774 he landed at the Friendly Islands, Easter Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu. His reports upon his return home put to rest the popular myth of Terra Australis.[25]HP Pavilion dv3-4100 Battery

Another accomplishment of the second voyage was the successful employment of the Larcum Kendall K1 chronometer, which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy. Cook's log was full of praise for the watch which he used to make charts of the southern Pacific Ocean that were so remarkably accurate that copies of them were still in use in the mid-20th century.[26]HP Pavilion dv3-4100sa Battery

Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, as an officer in the Greenwich Hospital. His acceptance was reluctant, insisting that he be allowed to quit the post if the opportunity for active duty presented itself.[27] HP Pavilion dv3-4102tx Battery

His fame now extended beyond the Admiralty and he was also made a Fellow of the Royal Society and awarded the Copley Gold Medal, painted by Nathaniel Dance-Holland, dined with James Boswell and described in the House of Lords as "the first navigator in Europe".[11] HP Pavilion dv3-4105tx Battery

But he could not be kept away from the sea. A third voyage was planned and Cook volunteered to find the Northwest Passage. Cook travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite way.[28]HP Pavilion dv3-4106tx Battery

THIRD VOYAGE (1776–79)

On his last voyage, Cook once again commanded HMS Resolution, while Captain Charles Clerke commanded HMS Discovery. Ostensibly, the voyage was planned to return Omai to Tahiti; this is what the general public believed, HP Pavilion dv3-4107tx Battery

as he had become a favourite curiosity in London. Principally the purpose of the voyage was an attempt to discover the famed Northwest Passage.[29] After returning Omai, Cook travelled north and in 1778 became the first European to visit the Hawaiian Islands. HP Pavilion dv3-4121tx Battery

In passing and after initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbour, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of Sandwich—the acting First Lord of the Admiralty.[30]HP Pavilion dv3-4123tx Battery

From the South Pacific, he went northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California. He made landfall at approximately 44°30′ north latitude, near Cape Foulweather on the Oregon coast, HP Pavilion dv3-4124tx Battery

which he named. Bad weather forced his ships south to about 43° north before they could begin their exploration of the coast northward.[31] He unknowingly sailed past the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and soon after entered Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island. HP Pavilion dv3-4200 Battery

He anchored near theFirst Nations village of Yuquot. Cook's two ships spent about a month in Nootka Sound, from 29 March to 26 April 1778, in what Cook called Ship Cove, now Resolution Cove,[32] at the south end of Bligh Island, HP Pavilion dv3-4207tx Battery

about 5 miles (8 km) east across Nootka Sound from Yuquot, a Nuu-chah-nulth village (whose chief Cook did not identify but may have been Maquinna). Relations between Cook's crew of the people of Yuquot were cordial if sometimes strained. HP Pavilion dv3-4208tx Battery

In trading, the people of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the usual trinkets that had worked for Cook's crew in Hawaii. Metal objects were much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin traded at first soon fell into disrepute. HP Pavilion dv5-1200 Battery

The most valuable items the British received in trade were sea otter pelts. Over the month-long stay the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the trade with the British vessels, instead of vice versa. Generally the natives visited the British vessels at Resolution Cove instead of the British visiting the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove.[33]HP Pavilion dv5-1200 Special Edition Battery

After leaving Nootka Sound, Cook explored and mapped the coast all the way to the Bering Strait, on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska. HP Pavilion dv5-1208TX SE Battery

It has been said that, in a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American northwest coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska and closed the gaps in Russian (from the West) and Spanish (from the South) exploratory probes of the Northern limits of the Pacific.[11]HP Pavilion dv5-1209TX SE Battery

The Bering Strait proved to be impassable, although he made several attempts to sail through it. He became increasingly frustrated on this voyage, and perhaps began to suffer from a stomach ailment; it has been speculated that this led to irrational behaviour towards his crew, such as forcing them to eat walrus meat, which they found inedible.[34]HP Pavilion dv5-1222TX Battery

Cook returned to Hawaii in 1779. After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay, on 'Hawaii Island', largest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Cook's arrival coincided with the Makahiki, HP Pavilion dv5-1232TX Battery

a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. Coincidentally the form of Cook's ship, HMS Resolution, or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artefacts that formed part of the season of worship.[3][34]HP Pavilion dv5-1233se Battery

 Similarly, Cook's clockwise route around the island of Hawaii before making landfall resembled the processions that took place in a clockwise direction around the island during the Lono festivals. It has been argued (most extensively by Marshall Sahlins) HP Pavilion dv5-1241la Battery

that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's (and to a limited extent, his crew's) initial deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono.[35] Though this view was first suggested by members of Cook's expedition, the idea that any Hawaiians understood Cook to be Lono, and the evidence presented in support of it was challenged in 1992.[34][36]HP Pavilion dv5-1247la Battery

DEATH

After a month's stay, Cook got under sail again to resume his exploration of the Northern Pacific. However, shortly after leaving Hawaii Island, the foremast of the Resolution broke and the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs. HP Pavilion dv5-1250us Battery

It has been hypothesised that the return to the islands by Cook's expedition was not just unexpected by the Hawaiians, but also unwelcome because the season of Lono had recently ended (presuming that they associated Cook with Lono and Makahiki). HP Pavilion dv5-1300 Battery

In any case, tensions rose and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians. On 14 February at Kealakekua Bay, some Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats. Normally, as thefts were quite common in Tahiti and the other islands, HP Pavilion dv5-2000 Battery

Cook would have taken hostages until the stolen articles were returned.[3] Indeed, he attempted to take hostage the King of Hawaiʻi, Kalaniʻōpuʻu. The Hawaiians prevented this, and Cook's men had to retreat to the beach. HP Pavilion dv5-2034la Battery

As Cook turned his back to help launch the boats, he was struck on the head by the villagers and then stabbed to death as he fell on his face in the surf.[37]Hawaiian tradition says that he was killed by a chief named Kalanimanokahoowaha or Kanaina.[38] The Hawaiians dragged his body away. Four of the Marines with Cook were also killed and two wounded in the confrontation. HP Pavilion dv5-2045la Battery

The esteem in which he was nevertheless held by the Hawaiians resulted in his body being retained by their chiefs and elders. Following the practice of the time, Cook's body underwent funerary rituals similar to those reserved for the chiefs and highest elders of the society. HP Pavilion dv5-2046la Battery

The body was disembowelled, baked to facilitate removal of the flesh, and the bones were carefully cleaned for preservation as religious icons in a fashion somewhat reminiscent of the treatment of European saints in the Middle Ages. HP Pavilion dv5-3000 Battery

Some of Cook's remains, disclosing some corroborating evidence to this effect, were eventually returned to the British for a formal burial at sea following an appeal by the crew.[40]HP Pavilion dv6-3000 Battery

Clerke took over the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait.[41] Following the death of Clerke, Resolution and Discovery returned home in October 1780 commanded by John Gore, a veteran of Cook's first voyage, and Captain James King.[42] Cook's account of his third and final voyage was completed upon their return by King. HP Pavilion dv6-3005sa Battery

David Samwell, who sailed with Cook on the Resolution, wrote of him:

He was a modest man, and rather bashful; of an agreeable lively conversation, sensible and intelligent. In temper he was somewhat hasty, but of a disposition the most friendly, benevolent and humane. His person was above six feet high: HP Pavilion dv6-3005TX Battery

and, though a good looking man, he was plain both in dress and appearance. His face was full of expression: his nose extremely well shaped: his eyes which were small and of a brown cast, were quick and piercing; his eyebrows prominent, which gave his. HP Pavilion dv6-3006TX Battery

NAVIGATION AND SCIENCE

Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to European knowledge of the area. Several islands such asSandwich Islands (Hawaii) were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement.[44]HP Pavilion dv6-3010sa Battery

To create accurate maps, latitude and longitude need to be known. Navigators had been able to work out latitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or quadrant. HP Pavilion dv6-3011TX Battery

 Longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth. The Earth turns a full 360 degrees relative to the sun each day. Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes.[45]HP Pavilion dv6-3015sa Battery

Cook gathered accurate longitude measurements during his first voyage due to his navigational skills, the help of astronomer Charles Green and by using the newly published Nautical Almanac tables, via the lunar distance method—measuring the angular distance from the moon to either the sun during daytime or one of eight bright stars during night-time to determine the time at the Royal Observatory, HP Pavilion dv6-3020sa Battery

Greenwich, and comparing that to his local time determined via the altitude of the sun, moon, or stars. On his second voyage Cook used the K1 chronometer made by Larcum Kendall, which was the shape of a large pocket watch, HP Pavilion dv6-3025sa Battery

5 inches (13 cm) in diameter. It was a copy of the H4 clock made by John Harrison, which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship Deptford's journey to Jamaica, 1761–62.[46]HP Pavilion dv6-3026tx Battery

Cook succeeded in circumnavigating the world on his first voyage without losing a single man to scurvy, an unusual accomplishment at the time. He tested several preventive measures but the most important was frequent replenishment of fresh food.[47] HP Pavilion dv6-3030sa Battery

It was for presenting a paper on this aspect of the voyage to the Royal Society that he was presented with the Copley Medal in 1776.[48][49]Ever the observer, Cook was the first European to have extensive contact with various people of the Pacific. HP Pavilion dv6-3030TX Battery

He correctly concluded there was a relationship among all the people in the Pacific, despite their being separated by thousands of miles of ocean (seeMalayo-Polynesian languages). Cook came up with the theory that Polynesians originated from Asia, which was later proved to be correct by scientist Bryan Sykes.[50] In New Zealand the coming of Cook is often used to signify the onset of colonisation.[3][5]HP Pavilion dv6-3031sa Battery

Cook was accompanied on his voyages by many scientists, whose observations and discoveries added to the importance of the voyages.Joseph Banks, a botanist, went on the first voyage along with fellow botanist Daniel Solander from Sweden. Between them they collected over 3,000 plant species.[51] Banks became one of the strongest promoters of the settlement of Australia by the British, based on his own personal observations.[52][53]HP Pavilion dv6-3032sa Battery

There were also several artists on the first voyage. Sydney Parkinson was involved in many of the drawings, completing 264 drawings before his death near the end of the voyage. They were of immense scientific value to British botanists.[3][54] Cook's second expedition included the artist William Hodges, who produced notable landscape paintings of Tahiti, Easter Island, and other locations. HP Pavilion dv6-3032TX Battery

A number of the junior officers who served under Cook went on to distinctive accomplishments of their own. William Bligh, Cook's sailing master, was given command of HMS Bounty in 1787 to sail to Tahiti and return with breadfruit. HP Pavilion dv6-3033sa Battery

Bligh is most known for themutiny of his crew which resulted in his being set adrift in 1789. He later became governor of New South Wales, where he was subject of another mutiny—the only successful armed takeover of an Australian colonial government.[55]HP Pavilion dv6-3035sa Battery

 George Vancouver, one of Cook'smidshipmen, later led a voyage of exploration to the Pacific Coast of North America from 1791 to 1794.[56] In honour of his former commander, Vancouver's new ship was also christened Discovery. George Dixon sailed under Cook on his third expedition, and later commanded an expedition of his own.[57]HP Pavilion dv6-3040sa Battery

His contributions to knowledge were internationally recognised during his lifetime. In 1779, while the American colonies were at war with Britain in their war for independence, Benjamin Franklin wrote to captains of American warships at sea, recommending that if they came into contact with Cook's vessel, they were to: HP Pavilion dv6-3042TX Battery

...not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness, . . . as common friends to mankind.[58]HP Pavilion dv6-3044sa Battery

Unknown to Franklin, Cook had met his death a month before this "passport" was written.

MEMORIALS

A US coin, the 1928 Hawaiian Sesquicentennial half dollar bears an image of Cook. Minted during the celebration marking the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage (10,008) has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive.[59] HP Pavilion dv6-3045sa Battery

The site where he was killed in Hawaii is marked by a white obelisk, built in 1874, and about 25 square feet (2.3 m²) of land around it is chained off. This land, though in Hawaii, has been given to the United Kingdom. Therefore, the site is officially a part of the UK.[60] A nearby town is named Captain Cook, Hawaii as well as several businesses. HP Pavilion dv6-3046sa Battery

The Apollo 15 command module Endeavour was named after Cook's ship, HMS Endeavour,[61] as is the space shuttle Endeavour.[62] Another shuttle, Discovery, is named after Cook's HMS Discovery.[63]HP Pavilion dv6-3047sa Battery

The first tertiary education institution in North Queensland, Australia was named after him, with James Cook Universityopening in Townsville in 1970.[64] In Australian rhyming slang the expression "Captain Cook" means "look".[65]HP Pavilion dv6-3048sa Battery

 Numerous institutions, landmarks and place names reflect the importance of Cook's contribution to knowledge of geography. These include the Cook Islands, the Cook Strait, Cook Inlet, and the Cook crater on the Moon.[66]HP Pavilion dv6-3048tx Battery

 Aoraki/Mount Cook, the highest summit in New Zealand, is named for him.[67] Another Mount Cook is on the border between the US state of Alaska and the Canadian Yukon Territory, and is designated Boundary Peak 182 as one of the official Boundary Peaks of the Hay–Herbert Treaty.[68]HP Pavilion dv6-3050eo Battery

One of the earliest monuments to Cook in the United Kingdom is located at The Vache, where it was erected in 1780 by Admiral Hugh Palliser, a contemporary of Cook and one time owner of the estate.[70] A huge obelisk was built in 1827 as a monument to Cook on Easby Moor overlooking his boyhood village of Great Ayton.[71] In 1978, on the 250th anniversary of Cook's birth, HP Pavilion dv6-3050sa Battery

at the site of his birthplace in Marton, the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum, which is located within Stewart Park, was opened. A granite vase just to the south of the museum marks the approximate spot where he was born.[72] Tributes also abound in post-industrial Middlesbrough, HP Pavilion dv6-3055sa Battery

and include a primary school,[73] shopping square[74] and the Bottle 'O Notes a public artwork by Claes Oldenburg erected in the town's Central Gardens in 1993. Also named after Cook is the James Cook University Hospital, a major teaching hospital opened in 2003.[75]HP Pavilion dv6-3056sa Battery

The Royal Research Ship RRS James Cook was built in 2006 to replace the RRS Charles Darwin in the UK's Royal Research Fleet[76] and Stepney Historical Trust has placed a plaque on Free Trade Wharf in the Highway, Shadwell to commemorate his life in the East End of London. HP Pavilion dv6-3057sa Battery

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, Bt, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB ( /ˈbeɪdən ˈpoʊ.əl/; 22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B.-P.B-P or Lord Baden-Powell, was a lieutenant-generalin the British Army, writer, founder and Chief Scout of the Scout Movement. HP Pavilion dv6-3060sa Battery

After having been educated at Charterhouse School, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell successfully defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. HP Pavilion dv6-3065ea Battery

Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were also read by boys. Based on those earlier books, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Sir Arthur Pearson, for youth readership. In 1907, he held the first Brownsea Island Scout camp, which is now seen as the beginning of Scouting. HP Pavilion dv6-3067ea Battery

After his marriage to Olave St Clair Soames, Baden-Powell, his sister Agnes Baden-Powell and notably his wife actively gave guidance to the Scouting Movement and the Girl Guides Movement. Baden-Powell lived his last years inNyeri, Kenya, where he died and was buried in 1941. HP Pavilion dv6-3068ea Battery

Baden-Powell was born as Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell, or more familiarly as Stephe Powell, at 6 Stanhope Street (now 11 Stanhope Terrace), Paddington in London, on 22 February 1857.[7] He was named for his godfather, Robert Stephenson, the railway and civil engineer;[8]HP Pavilion dv6-3070ea Battery

 his third name was his mother's maiden name. His father ReverendBaden Powell, a Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University, already had four teenage children from the second of his two previous marriages. On 10 March 1846 at St Luke's Church, HP Pavilion dv6-3077la Battery

Chelsea, Reverend Powell married Henrietta Grace Smyth (3 September 1824 – 13 October 1914), eldest daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth and 28 years his junior. Quickly they had Warington (early 1847), HP Pavilion dv6-3085ea Battery

George (late 1847), Augustus (1849) and Francis (1850). After three further children who died when very young, they had Stephe, Agnes (1858) and Baden (1860). The three youngest children and the often ill Augustus were close friends. HP Pavilion dv6-3088la Battery

Reverend Powell died when Stephe was three, and as tribute to his father and to set her own children apart from their half-siblings and cousins, the mother changed the family name to Baden-Powell. Subsequently, Stephe was raised by his mother, a strong woman who was determined that her children would succeed. Baden-Powell would say of her in 1933 "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."[7][9][10]HP Pavilion dv6-3089la Battery

After attending Rose Hill School, Tunbridge Wells, during which his favourite brother Augustus died, Stephe Baden-Powell was awarded a scholarship to Charterhouse, a prestigious public school. His first introduction to Scouting skills was through stalking and cooking game while avoiding teachers in the nearby woodsHP Pavilion dv6-3100 Battery

which were strictly out-of-bounds. He also played the piano and violin, was an ambidextrous artist, and enjoyed acting. Holidays were spent on yachting or canoeing expeditions with his brothers.[7]HP Pavilion dv6-3100sa Battery

Military career

In 1876, R.S.S. Baden-Powell, as he styled himself then, joined the 13th Hussars in India with the rank of lieutenant. He enhanced and honed his military scouting skills amidst the Zulu in the early 1880s in the Natal province of South Africa, HP Pavilion dv6-3110ea Battery

where his regiment had been posted, and where he was Mentioned in Despatches. During one of his travels, he came across a large string of wooden beads, worn by the Zulu king Dinizulu, which was later incorporated into the Wood Badge training programme he started after he founded the Scouting Movement. HP Pavilion dv6-3110sa Battery

Baden-Powell's skills impressed his superiors and he was brevetted Major as Military Secretary and senior Aide-de-campof the Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Malta, his uncle General Sir Henry Augustus Smyth.[7] He was posted in Malta for three years, HP Pavilion dv6-3111sa Battery

also working as intelligence officer for the Mediterranean for the Director of Military Intelligence.[7] He frequently travelled disguised as a butterfly collector, incorporating plans of military installations into his drawings of butterfly wings. HP Pavilion dv6-3112sa Battery

Baden-Powell returned to Africa in 1896, and served in the Second Matabele War, in the expedition to relieveBritish South Africa Company personnel under siege in Bulawayo.[12] This was a formative experience for him not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory in Matobo Hills, HP Pavilion dv6-3113sa Battery

but because many of his later Boy Scout ideas took hold here.[13] It was during this campaign that he first met and befriended the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, who introduced Baden-Powell to the American Old Westand woodcraft (i.e., scoutcraft), and here that he wore his signature Stetson campaign hat and neckerchief for the first time.[7]HP Pavilion dv6-3114sa Battery

Baden-Powell was accused of illegally executing a prisoner of war in 1896, the Matabele chief Uwini, who had been promised his life would be spared if he surrendered. Uwini was shot by firing squad under Baden-Powell's instructions. Baden-Powell was cleared by an inquiry, and later claimed he was "released without a stain on my character." HP Pavilion dv6-3115sa Battery

After Rhodesia, Baden-Powell served in the Fourth Ashanti War in Gold Coast. In 1897, at the age of 40, he was brevetted colonel (the youngest colonel in the British Army) and given command of the 5th Dragoon Guards in India.[14] HP Pavilion dv6-3115tx Battery

A few years later he wrote a small manual, entitled Aids to Scouting, a summary of lectures he had given on the subject of military scouting, to help train recruits. Using this and other methods he was able to train them to think independently, use their initiative, and survive in the wilderness. HP Pavilion dv6-3116sa Battery

Baden-Powell returned to South Africa prior to the Second Boer War and was engaged in further military actions against the Zulus. He organised the Legion of Frontiersmen to assist the regular army. While engaged in this, he was at Mafeking when it was surrounded by a Boer army, at times in excess of 8,000 men. HP Pavilion dv6-3116tx Battery

Baden-Powell became garrison commander during the subsequent Siege of Mafeking, which lasted 217 days. Although greatly outnumbered, the garrison held out until relieved, in part thanks to cunning deceptions devised by Baden-Powell. HP Pavilion dv6-3117sa Battery

Fake minefields were planted and his soldiers pretended to avoid non-existent barbed wire while moving between trenches.[15] Baden-Powell did most of the reconnaissance work himself.[16] HP Pavilion dv6-3118sa Battery

In one instance noting that the Boers had not removed the rail line, Baden-Powell loaded an armoured locomotive with sharpshooters and successfully sent it down the rails into the heart of the Boer encampment and back again in a strategic attempt to decapitate the Boer leadership. HP Pavilion dv6-3119sa Battery

Contrary views of Baden-Powell's actions during the siege argue that his success in resisting the Boers was secured at the expense of the lives of the native African soldiers and civilians, HP Pavilion dv6-3121sa Battery

including members of his own African garrison. Pakenham stated that Baden-Powell drastically reduced the rations to the native garrison.[17] However, in 2001, after subsequent research, Pakenham decidedly retreated from this position.[7][18]HP Pavilion dv6-3120sa Battery

During the siege, the Mafeking Cadet Corps of white boys below fighting age stood guard, carried messages, assisted in hospitals, and so on, freeing grown men to fight. Baden-Powell did not form the Cadet Corps himself, and there is no evidence that he took much notice of them during the Siege. HP Pavilion dv6-3122sa Battery

But he was sufficiently impressed with both their courage and the equanimity with which they performed their tasks to use them later as an object lesson in the first chapter of Scouting for Boys. The siege was lifted on 16 May 1900. Baden-Powell was promoted to Major-General, and became a national hero.[19]HP Pavilion dv6-3123sa Battery

 After organising the South African Constabulary, the national police force, he returned to England to take up a post as Inspector General of Cavalry in 1903. In 1907 he was appointed to command a division in the newly-formed Territorial Force.[20]HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Battery

In 1910 Lieutenant-General Baden-Powell decided to retire from the Army, reputedly on the advice of King Edward VII, who suggested that he could better serve his country by promoting Scouting.[21][22]HP Pavilion dv6-3127sa Battery

On the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Baden-Powell put himself at the disposal of the War Office. No command was given him, for, as Lord Kitchener said: "he could lay his hand on several competent divisional generals but could find no one who could carry on the invaluable work of the Boy Scouts."[23] HP Pavilion dv6-3130sa Battery

It was widely rumoured that Baden-Powell was engaged in spying, and intelligence officers took great care to spread the myth.[24]HP Pavilion dv6-3131sa Battery

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On his return from Africa in 1903, Baden-Powell found that his military training manual, Aids to Scouting, had become a best-seller, and was being used by teachers and youth organisations.[25] Following his involvement in the Boys' Brigade as Brigade Secretary and Officer in charge of its scouting section, HP Pavilion dv6-3141ea Battery

with encouragement from his friend, William Alexander Smith, Baden-Powell decided to re-write Aids to Scouting to suit a youth readership. In August 1907 he held a camp on Brownsea Island to test out his ideas. About twenty boys attended: eight from local Boys' Brigade companies, and about twelve public school boys, mostly sons of his friends. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo Battery

Baden-Powell was also influenced by Ernest Thompson Seton, who founded the Woodcraft Indians. Seton gave Baden-Powell a copy of his book The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians and they met in 1906.[26][27]HP Pavilion dv6-3298ea Battery

 The first book on the Scout Movement, Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys was published in six instalments in 1908, and has sold approximately 150 million copies as the fourth best-selling book of the 20th century.[28]HP Pavilion dv6-3180ea Battery

Boys and girls spontaneously formed Scout troops and the Scouting Movement had inadvertently started, first as a national, and soon an international phenomenon. The Scouting Movement was to grow up in friendly parallel relations with the Boys' Brigade. A rally for all Scouts was held at Crystal Palace in London in 1909, at which Baden-Powell discovered the first Girl Scouts. HP Pavilion dv6-3299ea Battery

The Girl Guide Movement was subsequently formalised in 1910 under the auspices of Baden-Powell's sister, Agnes Baden-Powell. Baden-Powell's friend Juliette Gordon Low was encouraged by him to bring the Movement to the United States, where she founded the Girl Scouts of the USA. HP Pavilion dv6-3300 Battery

In 1920, the 1st World Scout Jamboree took place in Olympia, and Baden-Powell was acclaimed Chief Scout of the World. Baden-Powell was created a Baronet in 1921 and Baron Baden-Powell, of Gilwell, in the County of Essex, on 17 September 1929,Gilwell Park being the International Scout Leader training centre.[29] After receiving this honour, Baden-Powell mostly styled himself "Baden-Powell of Gilwell".HP Pavilion dv6-3300sg Battery

In 1929, during the 3rd World Scout Jamboree, he received as a present a new 20-horsepower Rolls-Royce car (chassis number GVO-40, registration OU 2938) and an Eccles Caravan.[30] This combination well served the Baden-Powells in their further travels around Europe. HP Pavilion dv6-3350ef Battery

The caravan was nicknamed Eccles and is now on display at Gilwell Park. The car, nicknamed Jam Roll, was sold after his death by Olave Baden-Powell in 1945. Jam Roll and Eccles were reunited at Gilwell for the 21st World Scout Jamboree in 2007. HP Pavilion dv6-3350sf Battery

 Recently it has been purchased on behalf of Scouting and is owned by a charity, B-P Jam Roll Ltd. Funds are being raised to repay the loan that was used to purchase the car.[30][31] Baden-Powell also had a positive impact on improvements in youth education.[32] HP Pavilion dv6-3351ef Battery

Under his dedicated command the world Scouting movement grew. By 1922 there were more than a million Scouts in 32 countries; by 1939 the number of Scouts was in excess of 3.3 million.[33]HP Pavilion dv6-3351sf Battery

At the 5th World Scout Jamboree in 1937, Baden-Powell gave his farewell to Scouting, and retired from public Scouting life. 22 February, the joint birthday of Robert and

Olave Baden-Powell, continues to be marked as Founder's Day by Scouts and Thinking Day by Guides to remember and celebrate the work of the Chief Scout and Chief Guide of the World. HP Pavilion dv6-3355ef Battery

In his final letter to the Scouts, Baden-Powell wrote:

...I have had a most happy life and I want each one of you to have a happy life too. I believe that God put us in this jolly world to be happy and enjoy life. Happiness does not come from being rich, nor merely being successful in your career, HP Pavilion dv6-3355sf Battery

nor by self-indulgence. One step towards happiness is to make yourself healthy and strong while you are a boy, so that you can be useful and so you can enjoy life when you are a man. Nature study will show you how full of beautiful and wonderful things God has made the world for you to enjoy. HP Pavilion dv6-3362ef Battery

Be contented with what you have got and make the best of it. Look on the bright side of things instead of the gloomy one. But the real way to get happiness is by giving out happiness to other people. Try and leave this world a little better than you found it and when your turn comes to die, HP Pavilion dv6-3362sf Battery

you can die happy in feeling that at any rate you have not wasted your time but have done your best. 'Be Prepared' in this way, to live happy and to die happy — stick to your Scout Promise always — even after you have ceased to be a boy — and God help you to do it.[34]HP Pavilion dv6-6000 Battery

Personal life

In January 1912, Baden-Powell was en route to New York on a Scouting World Tour, on the ocean liner Arcadian, when he met Olave St Clair Soames.[35][36] She was 23, while he was 55; they shared the same birthday, 22 February. HP Pavilion dv6-6000eg Battery

They became engaged in September of the same year, causing a media sensation due to Baden-Powell's fame. To avoid press intrusion, they married in secret on 31 October 1912, at St Peter's Church in Parkstone.[37HP Pavilion dv6-6001ea Battery

] The Scouts of England each donated a penny to buy Baden-Powell a wedding gift, a car (note that this is not the Rolls-Royce they were presented with in 1929). There is a monument to their marriage inside St Mary's Church, Brownsea Island. HP Pavilion dv6-6001eg Battery

Baden-Powell and Olave lived in Pax Hill near Bentley, Hampshire from about 1919 until 1939.[38] The Bentley house was a gift of her father.[39] Directly after he had married, Baden-Powell began to suffer persistent headaches, which were considered by his doctor to be of psychosomatic origin and treated with dream analysis.[7] The headaches disappeared upon his moving into a makeshift bedroom set up on his balcony. HP Pavilion dv6-6001sg Battery

In addition, when Olave's sister Auriol Davidson née Soames died in 1919, Olave and Robert took her three nieces, Christian (1912–1975), Clare (1913–1980), and Yvonne, (1918–1995?), into their family and brought them up as their own children.[40]HP Pavilion dv6-6002eg Battery

In 1939, Baden-Powell and Olave moved to a cottage he had commissioned in Nyeri, Kenya, nearMount Kenya, where he had previously been to recuperate. The small one-room house, which he namedPaxtu, was located on the grounds of the Outspan Hotel, owned by Eric Sherbrooke Walker, HP Pavilion dv6-6002sg Battery

Baden-Powell's first private secretary and one of the first Scout inspectors.[7] Walker also owned theTreetops Hotel, approx 17 km out in the Aberdare Mountains, often visited by Baden-Powell and people of the Happy Valley set. The Paxtu cottage is integrated into the Outspan Hotel buildings and serves as a small Scouting museum. HP Pavilion dv6-6003eg Battery

Baden-Powell died on 8 January 1941 and is buried in Nyeri, in St. Peter's Cemetery[41] His gravestone bears a circle with a dot in the centre "ʘ", which is the trail sign for "Going home", or "I have gone home":[42] When his wife Olave died, her ashes were sent to Kenya and interred beside her husband. Kenya has declared Baden-Powell's grave a national monument.[43]HP Pavilion dv6-6004sa Battery

PERSONAL BELIEFS

Tim Jeal, who wrote the biography Baden-Powell, argued that Baden-Powell's distrust of Communism led to his implicit support, through naïveté, of fascism. In 1939 Baden-Powell noted in his diary: "Lay up all day. Read Mein Kampf. HP Pavilion dv6-6005ea Battery

A wonderful book, with good ideas on education, health, propaganda, organisation etc. – and ideals which Hitler does not practise himself."[7]:550 Baden-Powell admired Benito Mussolini early in the Italian fascist leader's career. HP Pavilion dv6-6005eg Battery

Some very early Scouting "Thanks" badges had a swastika symbol on them.[44] According to biographer Michael Rosenthal, Baden-Powell used the swastika because he was a Nazi sympathiser. Jeal, however, argues that Baden-Powell was ignorant of the symbol's growing association with Nazism and that he used the symbol for its centuries-old meaning of "good luck" in India. HP Pavilion dv6-6005sg Battery

Also, Baden-Powell was named by the Nazis in "The Black Book of people to be arrested during the conquest of Great Britain. Scouting was regarded as a dangerous spy organisation by the Nazis.[45] Finally, when Nazi use of the swastika became well-known, the Scouts stopped using it. HP Pavilion dv6-6006ea Battery

ARTIST AND WRITER

Baden-Powell made paintings and drawings almost every day of his life. Most have a humorous or informative character.[7] He published books and other texts during his years of military service both to finance his life and to educate his men.[7]HP Pavilion dv6-6007sg Battery

Baden-Powell was regarded as an excellent storyteller. During his whole life he told "ripping yarns" to audiences.[7] After having published Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell kept on writing more handbooks and educative materials for all Scouts, HP Pavilion dv6-6007TX Battery

as well as directives for Scout Leaders. In his later years, he also wrote about the Scout movement and his ideas for its future. He spent the last decade of his life in Africa, and many of his later books had African themes. Currently, many pages of his field diary, complete with drawings, are on display at the National Scouting Museum in Irving, Texas. HP Pavilion dv6-6008eg Battery

SEXUALITY

Early discussion of Baden-Powell's sexuality focused on his relationship with his close friend Kenneth McLaren.[46]:217–218[47]:48 Tim Jeal's later biography discusses the relationship and finds that there is no conclusive evidence that this friendship was physical.[7]:82 HP Pavilion dv6-6011tu Battery

Jeal then examines Baden-Powell's views on women, his appreciation of the male form, his military relationships, and his marriage, concluding that Baden-Powell might have been a repressed homosexual.[7]:103 Jeal's conclusion is shared by some biographers and disputed by others, but is not yet examined in any detail by other scholars.[48]:6HP Pavilion dv6-6013tu Battery

Scouting

Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society. HP Pavilion dv6-6024tx Battery

Scouting began in 1907 when Robert Baden-Powell, Lieutenant General in the British Army, held the first Scouting encampmenton Brownsea Island in England. Baden-Powell wrote the principles of Scouting in Scouting for Boys (London, 1908), based on his earlier military books, HP Pavilion dv6-6025tx Battery

with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham (Chief of Scouts in British Africa),Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, and his publisher Pearson. During the first half of the 20th century, HP Pavilion dv6-6027tx Battery

the movement grew to encompass three major age groups each for boys (Cub Scout,Boy Scout, Rover Scout) and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls (Brownie Guide, Girl Guide and Girl Scout, Ranger Guide). HP Pavilion dv6-6042sf Battery

The movement employs the Scout method, a program of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, and sports. Another widely recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, HP Pavilion dv6-6051xx Battery

by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, withneckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as merit badges and other patches. HP Pavilion dv6-6054ef Battery

In 2011, Scouting and Guiding together had over 41 million members worldwide. The two largest umbrella organizations are theWorld Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), for boys-only and co-educational organizations, HP Pavilion dv6-6054sf Battery

and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), primarily for girls-only organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting world wide, and member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. HP Pavilion dv6-6063sf Battery

As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India and Africa in the 1880s and 1890s. Since his youth, he had been fond of woodcraft and military scouting, and—as part of their training—showed his men how to survive in the wilderness. He noticed that it helped the soldiers to develop independence rather than just blindly follow officers' orders.[1]HP Pavilion dv6-6087eg Battery

In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) as Chief of Staff to Gen.Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War, and it was here that he first met and began a lifelong friendship withFrederick Russell Burnham, the American born Chief of Scouts for the British.[2][3] HP Pavilion dv6-6090sf Battery

This would become a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his later Boy Scout ideas took hold here.[4] HP Pavilion dv6-6090us Battery

During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham began teaching Baden-Powell woodcraft, inspiring him and giving him the plan for both the program and the code of honor of Scouting for Boys.[5][6]HP Pavilion dv6-6091nr Battery

Practiced by frontiersmen of the American Old West and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was generally unknown to theBritish, but well known to the American scout Burnham.[2] These skills eventually formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, HP Pavilion dv7-4000eh Battery

the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were changing markedly and the British Army needed to adapt; so during their joint scouting missions, Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training programme in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, fieldcraft, and self-reliance.[7]HP Pavilion dv7-4000sb Battery

 It was also during this time in the Matobo Hills that Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, and it was here that Baden-Powell acquired his Kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he later used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses.[8][9][10]HP Pavilion dv7-4000 Battery

Three years later, in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafeking by a much larger Boer army (the Siege of Mafeking).[11] The Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, HP Pavilion dv7-4001tx Battery

which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defense of the town (1899–1900), and were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.[12][13][14] HP Pavilion dv7-4002TX Battery

Each member received a badge that illustrated a combined compass point and spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis that Scouting later adopted as its international symbol.[15]HP Pavilion dv7-4003tx Battery

In the United Kingdom, the public followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking through newspapers, and when the siege was broken, he had become a national hero. This rise to fame fueled the sales of a small instruction book he had written about military scouting, Aids to Scouting.[16]HP Pavilion dv7-4003xx Battery

On his return to England, he noticed that boys showed considerable interest in the book, which was used by teachers and youth organizations.[17] He was suggested by several to rewrite this book for boys, especially during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, HP Pavilion dv7-4004ez Battery

a large youth movement drilled with military precision. Baden-Powell thought this would not be attractive and suggested that it could grow much larger when scouting would be used.[18] He studied other schemes, parts of which he used for Scouting. HP Pavilion dv7-4004TX Battery

In July 1906, Ernest Thompson Seton sent Baden-Powell a copy of his book The Birchbark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians. Seton, a British-born Canadian living in the United States, met Baden-Powell in October 1906, and they shared ideas about youth training programs.[19][20] HP Pavilion dv7-4005so Battery

In 1907 Baden-Powell wrote a draft called Boy Patrols. In the same year, to test his ideas, he gathered 21 boys of mixed social backgrounds (from boy's schools in the London area and a section of boys from the Poole, Parkstone, HP Pavilion dv7-4005sw Battery

Hamworthy,Bournemouth, and Winton Boys' Brigade units) and held a week-long camp in August on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England.[21] His organizational method, now known as the Patrol System and a key part of Scouting training, allowed the boys to organize themselves into small groups with an elected patrol leader.[22]HP Pavilion dv7-4006so Battery

In the autumn of 1907, Baden-Powell went on an extensive speaking tour arranged by his publisher, Arthur Pearson, to promote his forthcoming book, Scouting for Boys. He had not simply rewritten his Aids to Scouting, but left out the military aspects and transferred the techniques (mainly survival) to non-military heroes: HP Pavilion dv7-4007eo Battery

backwoodsmen, explorers (and later on, sailors and airmen).[1]He also added innovative educational principles (the Scout method) by which he extended the attractive game to a personal mental education.[20]HP Pavilion dv7-4010ev Battery

Scouting for Boys first appeared in England in January 1908 as six fortnightly installments, and was published in England later in 1908 in book form. The book is now the fourth-bestselling title of all time,[23] and is now commonly considered the first version of the Boy Scout Handbook.[24]HP Pavilion dv7-4010sd Battery

At the time, Baden-Powell intended that the scheme would be used by established organizations, in particular the Boys' Brigade, from the founder William A. Smith.[25] However, because of the popularity of his person and the adventurous outdoor game he wrote about, HP Pavilion dv7-4010sg Battery

boys spontaneously formed Scout patrols and flooded Baden-Powell with requests for assistance. He encouraged them, and the Scouting movement developed momentum. As the movement grew, Sea Scout, Air Scout, andHP Pavilion dv7-4010so Battery

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