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14 août 2011 7 14 /08 /août /2011 14:23

James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United States(1809–1817) and is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” and the author of the United States Bill of Rights.Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCC Battery

His collaboration with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay produced the Federalist Papers (1788), which became the most influential explanation and defense of the Constitution after its publication. Madison's most distinctive belief as a political theorist was the principle of divided power. Sony VAIO VGN-CS50B/W Battery

Madison believed that "parchment barriers" were not sufficient to protect the rights of citizens. Power must be divided, both between federal and state governments (federalism), and within the federal government (checks and balances) to protect individual rights from the tyranny of the majority.Sony VAIO VGN-CS51B/W Battery

Madison in 1789 became a leader in the new House of Representatives, drafting many basic laws. In one of his most famous roles, he drafted the first ten amendments to the Constitution and thus is known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights". Madison worked closely with the President George Washington to organize the new federal government.Sony VAIO VGN-CS52JB/W Battery

Breaking with Hamilton and what became the Federalist party in 1791, Madison and Thomas Jefferson organized what they called the Republican Party (later called by historians the Democratic-Republican Party)[3] in opposition to key policies of the Federalists, especially the national bank and the Jay Treaty. Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/P Battery

He co-authored, along with Thomas Jefferson, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 to protest the Alien and Sedition Acts.

As Jefferson’s Secretary of State (1801–1809), Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the nation’s size.Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/Q Battery

As president, after the failure of diplomatic protests and an embargo, he led the nation into the War of 1812, in response to British encroachments on American rights. The war started badly but ended well, allowing Americans to celebrate a second war for independence.Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/R Battery

Madison was persuaded by his observations of the war to support a stronger national government and he called for a national bank of the sort he had long opposed.

Early life

James Madison was born at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia on March 16, 1751, (March 5, 1751, Old Style, Julian calendar).Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/P Battery

He grew up as the oldest of twelve children, of whom nine survived. His father, James Madison, Sr., (1723–1801) was a tobacco planter who grew up on an estate in Orange County, Virginia, which he inherited on reaching maturity. He later acquired still more property and, with 5,000 acres (20 km2), became the largest landowner and leading citizen of Orange County.Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/Q Battery

His mother, Nelly Conway Madison (1731–1829), was born at Port Conway, Virginia, the daughter of a prominent planter and tobacco merchant. Madison's parents married in 1743. Both parents had a significant influence over their most famous oldest son.Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/R Battery

Madison had three brothers and three sisters who lived to maturity (by whom he had more than 30 nieces and nephews).


From ages 11 to 16, A young "Jemmy" Madison studied under Donald Robertson, an instructor at the Innes plantation in King and Queen County, Virginia.Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/P Battery

Robertson was a Scottish teacher who flourished in the southern states. From Robertson, Madison learned mathematics, geography, and modern and ancient languages. He became especially proficient in Latin. Madison said that he owed his bent for learning "largely to that man (Robertson)."Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/Q Battery

At age 16, he began a two-year course of study under the Reverend Thomas Martin, who tutored Madison at Montpelier in preparation for college. Unlike most college-bound Virginians of his day, Madison did not choose the College of William and Mary because the lowland climate of Williamsburg might have strained his delicate health.Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/R Battery

Instead, in 1769 he enrolled at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University).

Through diligence and long hours of study that may have damaged his health,[4] Madison graduated in 1771. His studies there included Latin, Greek, science, geography, mathematics, rhetoric, andphilosophy. Sony VAIO VGN-CS71B/W Battery

Great emphasis also was placed on speech and debate. After graduation, Madison remained at Princeton to study Hebrew and political philosophy under university president John Witherspoon before returning to Montpelier in the spring of 1772. Afterwards, he knew Hebrew quite well. Sony VAIO VGN-CS72JB/W Battery

Madison studied law, but out of his interest in public policy, not with the intent of practicing law as a profession. 

Marriage and family

James Madison married Dolley Payne Todd, a widow, on September 15, 1794, in what is now Jefferson County, West Virginia.Sony VAIO VGN-CS90HS Battery

Madison adopted Todd's one surviving son, John Payne Todd, after the marriage. Dolley Payne had been born May 20, 1768, at the New Garden Quaker settlement in North Carolina, where her parents, John Payne and Mary Coles Payne, lived briefly. Dolley's sister (Lucy Payne) had married George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of President Washington.Sony VAIO VGN-CS90NS Battery

As a member of Congress, Madison had doubtless met the widow Todd at social functions in Philadelphia, then the nation's capital. In May 1794, he took formal notice of her by asking their mutual friend Aaron Burr to arrange a meeting. The encounter apparently went smoothly for a brisk courtship followed, and by August she had accepted his proposal of marriage. Sony VAIO VGN-CS90S Battery

For marrying Madison, a non-Quaker, she was expelled from the Society of Friends.

Early political career

As a young man, Madison witnessed the persecution of Baptist preachers arrested for preaching without a license from the established Anglican Church. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91HS Battery

He worked with the preacher Elijah Craig on constitutional guarantees for religious liberty in Virginia.[6] Working on such cases helped form his ideas about religious freedom. Madison served in the Virginia state legislature (1776–79) and became known as a protégé of Thomas Jefferson. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91NS Battery

He attained prominence in Virginia politics, helping to draft the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. It disestablished the Church of England and disclaimed any power of state compulsion in religious matters. He excluded Patrick Henry's plan to compel citizens to pay for a congregation of their own choice.Sony VAIO VGN-CS91S Battery

Madison's cousin, the Right Reverend James Madison (1749–1812), became president of the College of William & Mary in 1777. Working closely with Madison and Jefferson, Bishop Madison helped lead the College through the difficult changes involving separation from both Great Britain and the Church of England. Sony VAIO VGN-CS92DS Battery

He also led college and state actions that resulted in the formation of the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia after the Revolution.

James Madison persuaded Virginia to give up its claims to northwestern territories—consisting of most of modern-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin,Sony VAIO VGN-CS92JS Battery

and part of Minnesota—to theContinental Congress, which created the Northwest Territory in 1783. These land claims overlapped partially with other claims by Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and possibly others. All of these states ceded their westernmost lands, with the understanding that new states could be formed from the land, as they were. Sony VAIO VGN-CS92XS Battery

As a delegate to the Continental Congress (1780–83), Madison was considered a legislative workhorse and a master of parliamentary coalition building.[7] He was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates for a second time from 1784 to 1786.Sony VAIO VGN-FW11E Battery

Father of the Constitution

The Constitution is significant not only as a founding charter of the United States, and as a bulwark of freedom, but also in that the underlying assumptions are different from what preceded it. In the case of the Magna Carta the barons went to the king and demanded that he grant them rights. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11L Battery

In the Constitution, the assumption is that the people already have those rights. Madison and the other Founders referred to them as natural rights, in that they are inherent and universal to all men and not granted or conceded by the state or any other power.Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery

“We the People” would found the government and specify exactly what powers it would have, not the other way around. This was upside down from what had been the norm in world history.

Prior to the Constitution, the 13 states were bound together by the Articles of Confederation, which was essentially a military alliance between them used to fight the Revolutionary War. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S Battery

It didn’t work particularly well, and after the war was over, it worked even less well. Congress had no power to tax, and as a result was not paying the debts left over from the Revolution. Madison and other leaders, such as Washington and Benjamin Franklin, were very concerned about this. They feared a break-up of the union and national bankruptcy.Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery

As Madison wrote, “a crisis had arrived which was to decide whether the American experiment was to be a blessing to the world, or to blast for ever the hopes which the republican cause had inspired.” Largely at Madison’s instigation, a national convention was called in 1787. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H Battery

Madison was the only delegate to arrive with a comprehensive plan as to how to solve the problems of the Articles. His plan became known as the Virginia Plan. The Virginia Plan immediately became the focus of all debate, and is the basis of the U.S. Constitution today.Sony VAIO VGN-FW140AE Battery

The key element of the Constitution is divided power. Having just fought an eight-and-a-half-year war (the Revolutionary War) to get rid of too much concentrated power (a king), the Framers had no interest in recreating that, even with an elected government. So, they divided power. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140D Battery

They divided power between the federal government and the state governments. And, they divided power within the federal government, forming three branches.

The powers of Congress (in other words, federal powers) are enumerated (i.e., listed) in Article I, Section 8. All other powers are state powers or individual citizen powers. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E Battery

This is reiterated in the Bill of Rights (the 10th Amendment).

As Madison wrote, “The federal and state governments are in fact but different agents and trustees for the people, instituted with different powers, and designated for different purposes.”Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E/H Battery

Madison expressed the overall challenge the Framers faced in this way, “In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: You must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself.”Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E/W Battery

Madison was the best-prepared delegate to come to the Constitutional Convention. In preparation for creating the Virginia Plan, he poured over crates of books that Jefferson sent him from France on every form of government ever tried. Historian Douglas Adair called Madison’s work “probably the most fruitful piece of scholarly research ever carried out by an American.”Sony VAIO VGN-FW140FE Battery

Madison was a leader in initiating the Constitutional Convention, and he was the leading figure in it. Madison spoke over 200 times, and his fellow delegates rated him highly. For example, William Pierce wrote that “…every Person seems to acknowledge his greatness.Sony VAIO VGN-FW140N Battery

In the management of every great question he evidently took the lead in the Convention … he always comes forward as the best informed Man of any point in debate.” Historian Clinton Rossiter regarded Madison’s performance as “a combination of learning, experience, purpose, and imagination that not even Adams or Jefferson could have equaled.”Sony VAIO VGN-FW140N/W Battery

Federalist Papers

The Constitution as it came out of the convention in Philadelphia was just a proposal. It would have no effect until ratified by “We the People.” It was not ratified by the state legislatures. It was ratified by special conventions called in each state to decide that sole question – do we want to adopt this document, or don’t we?Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E Battery

Madison was a leader in the ratification effort. He, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay wrote the Federalist Papers, which were a series of 85 newspaper articles which were published throughout the 13 states to explain how the proposed Constitution would work. Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E/W Battery

They were also published in book form and became a virtual debater’s handbook for the supporters of the Constitution in the ratifying conventions.

Historian Clinton Rossiter called the Federalist Papers “the most important work in political science that ever has been written, or is likely ever to be written, in the United States.”Sony VAIO VGN-FW160AE Battery

The ratification effort was not easy. Having just gotten rid to too much concentrated, centralized power, the states were leery of creating a powerful central government. Patrick Henry, who opposed the Constitution, feared that it would trample on the independence of the states and the rights of citizens. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160D Battery

In the Virginia ratifying convention, Madison, who was a terrible public speaker, had to go up against Henry, who was the finest orator in the country.

Virginia was one of the largest and most populous states. If Virginia didn’t ratify the Constitution, it would not succeed. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E Battery

Even though Henry was by far the more powerful and dramatic speaker, Madison won the debate with facts. Madison pointed out that it was a limited government that would be created, and that the powers delegated ‘to the federal government are few and defined.”Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E/H Battery

Madison was given the honor of being called the “Father of the Constitution” by his peers in his own lifetime. However, he was modest, and he protested the title as being "a credit to which I have no claim... The Constitution was not, like the fabled Goddess of Wisdom, the offspring of a single brain. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160F/E Battery

It ought to be regarded as the work of many heads and many hands".[23]

He wrote Hamilton at the New York ratifying convention, stating his opinion that "ratification was in toto and 'for ever'". The Virginia convention had considered conditional ratification worse than a rejection.Sony VAIO VGN-FW170J/H Battery

Author of Bill of Rights

Initially Madison "adamantly maintained ... that a specific bill of rights remained unnecessary because the Constitution itself was a bill of rights."[25] Madison had three main objections to a specific bill of rights:Sony VAIO VGN-FW180AE Battery

  1. It was unnecessary, since it purported to protect against powers that the federal government had not been granted;
  2. It was dangerous, since enumeration of some rights might be taken to imply the absence of other rights; and
  3. At the state level, bills of rights had proven to be useless paper barriers against government powers.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180D Battery

However, the anti-Federalists demanded a bill of rights in exchange for their support for ratification. Madison initially opposed the idea for the reasons stated above, but won the day for the Constitution by promising to add a bill of rights, and he came to be the author of it.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E Battery

A vengeful Patrick Henry used his power to keep the Virginia legislature from appointing Madison as one of the state’s senators. Henry even gerrymandered Madison’s home district, filling it with anti-federalists, in an attempt to prevent Madison from becoming a Congressman. Madison managed to win anyway, and became an important leader in Congress.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E/H Battery

People submitted more than 200 amendment proposals from across the new nation. Some urged Madison to forget about creating a bill of rights now that the country was up and running, but he kept his promise. He synthesized the proposals into a list of 12 proposed amendments and even “hounded his colleagues relentlessly” to accept the proposed amendments.Sony VAIO VGN-FW180FU Battery

Madison felt strongly that federal powers were limited by enumerating (making a list of) them (Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution). Anything not on the list was not a federal power. So then, by creating a bill of rights, the same would apply. Anything not on the list would be excluded.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190EBH Battery

However, he also felt, as other Founders did, that Americans have countless natural rights – too many to put on a list. For example, the right to travel freely throughout the country, the right to have children, the right to sign a contract, the right to own land, etc. (none of which are listed in the Bill of Rights).Sony VAIO VGN-FW190ECH Battery

How then to respond to the public clamor for a bill of rights? There would not be enough paper to list them all.

Madison solved this dilemma with the 9th Amendment, which says that just because the Bill of Rights didn’t list them all does not mean that other rights of the people don’t exist.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190EDH Battery

By 1791, the last ten of Madison’s proposed amendments were ratified and became the Bill of Rights. Contrary to his wishes, the Bill of Rights was not integrated into the main body of the Constitution, and it did not apply to the states until the passages of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments restricted the powers of the states. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NAH Battery

The Second Amendment originally proposed by Madison (but not then ratified: see United States Bill of Rights) was later ratified in 1992 as the Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution. The remaining proposal was intended to accommodate future increase in the members of the House of Representatives.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NBH Battery

Opposition to Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton was a loose constructionist who said the Constitution was designed to enable a government to operate, using implied powers. Madison and Jefferson were strict constructionists who wanted the text of the document to be construed to give the federal government less power.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NCH Battery

To Madison, the Constitution was written as a social compact in which “We the People” granted specific, limited powers to the federal government, as enumerated (i.e., listed) in Article I, Section 8. All other powers are reserved to the states or the people themselves.Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NDH Battery

Hamiltonians argued that the “general welfare” clause in the preamble was a general grant of power to the federal government for axrion to benefit the general welfare of the country. The Madisonians countered that it would be an absurdity to have bothered to write up a specific list of federal powers if the preamble was to be considered a general grant power. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NEH Battery

Also, the preamble’s words were taken from the Articles of Confederation, and no one had ever interpreted that to have been a general grant of power.

The Hamiltonians focused on the “necessary and proper” clause. Sony VAIO VGN-FW198U/H Battery

For example, since Article I, Section 8 grants the federal government the power to tax, and a national bank would make it easier to collect taxes, then by the “necessary and proper” clause, a national bank was constitutional. The Madisonians said no--“necessary and proper,” was not “convenient and proper.” Sony VAIO VGN-FW260J/B Battery

It may be more convenient to collect taxes with a national bank, but it is not necessary.

Both sides were inconsistent in the debates. Hamilton was consistently in favor of enlarging federal powers, and was more than willing to interpret the Constitution loosely to achieve this end.Sony VAIO VGN-FW280J/H Battery

Madison, had actually argued for additional federal powers in the Constitutional Convention, but was willing to live with the Constitution as adopted and ratified. He considered the Constitution to be a social compact between the people and their government, and that fidelity to that agreement was critical to preventing abuse by officeholders.Sony VAIO VGN-FW290JRB Battery

Ron Chernow finds Hamilton more consistent than Madison; Gary Rosen, find the opposite.

Some historians feel that the chief characteristic of Madison's time in Congress was his work to limit the power of the federal government. Sony VAIO VGN-FW290JTB Battery

Wood (2006a) argued that Madison never wanted a national government that took an active role. He was horrified to discover that Hamilton and Washington were creating "a real modern European type of government with a bureaucracy, a standing army, and a powerful independent executive".Sony VAIO VGN-FW290JTH Battery

Chernow argues that "for Madison, Hamilton was becoming the official voice of wealthy aristocrats who were grabbing the reins of federal power. Madison felt betrayed by Hamilton but it was Madison who had deviated from their former reading of the Constitution."Sony VAIO VGN-FW290JTW Battery

Specifically, while Madison wrote in the Federalist number 44 that "No axiom is more clearly established in law or in reason than wherever the end is required, the means are authorized; wherever a general power to do a thing is given, every particular power for doing it is included", he opposed Hamilton's attempts to use article 1, section 8 of the Constitution in this way.Sony VAIO VGN-FW355J/H Battery

Debates on foreign policy

When Britain and France went to war in 1793 the U.S. was caught in the middle. The 1778 treaty of alliance with France was still in effect, yet most of the new country's trade was with Britain. War with Britain seemed imminent in 1794, as the British seized hundreds of American ships that were trading with French colonies.Sony VAIO VGN-FW373J/B Battery

Madison believed that Britain was weak and America was strong, and that a trade war with Britain, although risking a real war by the British government, probably would succeed, and would allow Americans to assert their independence fully. Great Britain, he charged, "has bound us in commercial manacles, and very nearly defeated the object of our independence."Sony VAIO VGN-FW30B Battery

As Varg explains, Madison discounted the much more powerful British army and navy for "her interests can be wounded almost mortally, while ours are invulnerable." The British West Indies, Madison maintained, could not live without American foodstuffs, but Americans could easily do without British manufactures. Sony VAIO VGN-FW50B Battery

This faith led him to the conclusion "that it is in our power, in a very short time, to supply all the tonnage necessary for our own commerce". However, George Washington avoided a trade war and instead secured friendly trade relations with Britain through the Jay Treaty of 1794.Sony VAIO VGN-FW51B/W Battery

Madison threw his energies into fighting the Treaty--his mobilization of grass roots support helped form the First Party System. He failed in both Senate and House, and the Jay Treaty led to ten years of prosperous trade with Britain (and anger on the part of France leading to the Quasi-War)Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF Battery

All across the land voters divided for and against the Treaty and other key issues, and thus became either Federalists or Jeffersonian Republicans.

First Party System

Hamilton built a nationwide network of Treasury supporters that became the Federalist Party and promoted a strong central government with a national bank. Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

To oppose the Federalists, Madison and Jefferson organized the Republican Party. Madison led the unsuccessful attempt to block Hamilton's proposed Bank of the United States, arguing the new Constitution did not explicitly allow the federal government to form a bank. Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF Battery

As early as May 26, 1792, Hamilton complained, "Mr. Madison cooperating with Mr. Jefferson is at the head of a faction decidedly hostile to me and my administration." On May 5, 1792, Madison told Washington, "with respect to the spirit of party that was taking place ...I was sensible of its existence". Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery

Adams years

In 1798 under President John Adams the U.S. and France unofficially went to war--the Quasi War, that involved naval warships and commercial vessels battling in the Caribbean. The Federalists created a standing army and passed laws against French refugees engaged in American politics and against Republican editors. Sony VAIO VGN-FW52JB Battery

Congressman Madison and Vice President Jefferson were outraged. Madison secretly drafted a resolution for Virginia declaring the Alien and Sedition Acts to be unconstitutional and noted that "states, in contesting obnoxious laws, should 'interpose for arresting the progress of the evil.'"Sony VAIO VGN-FW54FB Battery

This, according to Chernow, "was a breathtaking evolution for a man who had pleaded at the Constitutional Convention that the federal government should possess a veto over state laws."

Some historians argue that Madison changed radically from a nationally oriented ally of Hamilton in 1787–88 to a states'-rights–oriented opponent of a strong national government by 1795 and then back to his original view while president. Sony VAIO VGN-FW70DB Battery

Madison started the first transition by opposing Hamilton;, Madison opposed legislation that to his mind was clearly unconstitutional, such as Hamilton's proposed National Bank. He also opposed the federal assumption of state debts and the Jay Treaty, which many (including Washington), considered to be poorly negotiated.Sony VAIO VGN-FW71DB/W Battery

Madison succeeded in blocking a proposal for high tariffs.

Most historians say that Madison abandoned strict constructionism in 1815, saying that it was not the text of the Constitution that mattered but the expressed will of the people. Sony VAIO VGN-FW72JGB Battery

Despite attacks by "Quids" or "Old Republicans" such as John Randolph of Roanoke who still held to strict constructionism, Madison now favored a national bank, a standing professional army and a federal program of internal improvements as advocated by Henry Clay.Sony VAIO VGN-FW73JGB Battery

Chernow feels that Madison's politics remained closely aligned with Jefferson's until the experience of a weak national government during the War of 1812 caused Madison to appreciate the need for a strong central government to aid national defense. He then began to support a national bank, a stronger navy, and a standing army. Sony VAIO VGN-FW74FB Battery

However, other historians, such as Gary Rosen, Lance Banning andGordon S. Wood, see Madison's views as being remarkably consistent over a political career spanning half a century. Hamilton was consistently in favor of more federal power. Madison was consistently in favor of keeping faith with the Constitution.Sony VAIO VGN-FW81HS Battery

United States Secretary of State 1801–1809

The main challenge which faced the Jefferson Administration was navigating between the two great empires of Britain and France, which were almost constantly at war. The first great triumph was the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, made possible when Napoleon realized he could not defend that vast territory, and it was to France's advantage that Britain not seize it.Sony VAIO VGN-FW81NS Battery

Some historians, such as Ron Chernow, are quick to accuse Madison and President Jefferson of ignoring their "strict construction" view of the Constitution to take advantage of the opportunity. Jefferson would have preferred to have a constitutional amendment authorizing the purchase (in line with his strict-constructionist philosophy).Sony VAIO VGN-FW81S Battery

However, Madison pointed out that it wasn't necessary, even under a strict interpretation of the Constitution. Countries acquire territory in one of two ways: by conquest or by treaty. The Louisiana Purchase is a treaty (in other words, a contract between nations). Sony VAIO VGN-FW82DS Battery

Presidents are specifically authorized by the Constitution to negotiate treaties (Article II, Section 2), which is what Jefferson did. Recognizing the Louisiana Purchase as the land bargain of the century, the Senate quickly ratified the treaty. The House, with equal alacrity, passed enabling legislation. Sony VAIO VGN-FW82JS Battery

Each branch of government performed its role as specified in the Constitution.

In the wars raging in Europe Madison tried to maintain neutrality between Britain and France, but at the same time insisted on the legal rights of the U.S. as a neutral under international law.Sony VAIO VGN-FW82XS Battery

Neither London nor Paris showed much respect, however. Madison and Jefferson decided on an embargo to punish Britain and France, forbidding Americans to trade with any foreign nation. The embargo failed as foreign policy, and instead caused massive hardships up and down the seaboard, which depended on foreign trade. Sony VAIO VGN-FW83DS Battery

The Federalist made a comeback in the Northeast by attacking the Embargo, which was allowed to expire just as Jefferson was leaving office.

At the start of his term as Secretary of State he was a party to the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison, Sony VAIO VGN-FW83JS Battery

in which the doctrine of judicial review was asserted by the high Court, much to the annoyance of the Jefersonians who did not want an independent, powerful judiciary.

The party's Congressional Caucus chose presidential candidates, and Madison was selected in the election of 1808, easily defeating Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.Sony VAIO VGN-FW83XS Battery

Bank of the United States

The twenty-year charter of the first Bank of the United States was scheduled to expire in 1811, the second year of Madison's administration. Madison failed in blocking the Bank in 1791, and waited for its charter to expire. Sony VAIO VGN-FW90HS Battery

Secretary of the Treasury Gallatin said the bank was a necessity; when he had to finance the War of 1812 he discovered how difficult it was to finance the war without the Bank. Congress passed a bill chartering a second national bank in 1814, which Madison vetoed, because of the particulars of the legislation, rather than constitutional grounds.Sony VAIO VGN-FW90NS Battery

The next year, in his annual address, Madison stated that a national bank might “deserve consideration.” Congress passed such legislation, which Madison signed. His strict-constructionist views were still firmly intact, but he acquiesced on the bank issue because it had “undergone ample discussions in its passage through the several branches of the Government. Sony VAIO VGN-FW90S Battery

It had been carried into execution throughout a period of twenty years with annual legislative recognition…and with the entire acquiescence of all the local authorities, as well as of the nation at large; to all of which may be added, a decreasing prospect of any change in the public opinion adverse to the constitutionality of such an institution.”Sony VAIO VGN-FW91NS Battery

Madison’s primary concern was that the Constitution would achieve the veneration he felt it deserved, and that the original understanding of its meaning by the ratifying conventions would be preserved. The Hamiltonians’ loose interpretation of the Constitution’s “general welfare clause” and “necessary and proper clause” had been the biggest threat to this.  Sony VAIO VGN-FW91S Battery

However, time had passed, the Democratic-Republicans had occupied the White House for four terms (Jefferson for two, and Madison for two), and Alexander Hamilton was dead. Hamilton’s political party, the Federalist Party, was on its way out of existence.Sony VAIO VGN-FW92DS Battery

Madison felt he could safely sign the bank bill (creating the Second Bank of the United States) without causing a fundamental change in constitutional meaning.

War of 1812

British insults continued. Britain used her navy to prevent American ships from trading with France (with which Britain was at war).Sony VAIO VGN-FW92JS Battery

The United States, which was a neutral nation, considered this act to be against international law. Britain also armed Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory and encouraged them to attack settlers, even though Britain had ceded this territory to the United States by treaties in 1783 and 1794. Sony VAIO VGN-FW93DS Battery

Most insulting though was the impressment of seamen as the Royal Navy boarded American ships on the high seas. The United States looked upon this as no less an affront to American sovereignty than if the British had invaded American soil.

American diplomatic protests to Britain were ignored, and the embargo backfired, hurting the Americans more than the British. Sony VAIO VGN-FW93JS Battery

The insult to national honor was intolerable and Americans called for a "second war of independence" to restore honor and stature to the new nation. An angry public elected a “war hawk” Congress, led by such luminaries as Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war,Sony VAIO VGN-FW93XS Battery

which passed along sectional and party lines, with intense opposition from the Federalists and the Northeast.

A panel of scholars in 2006 ranked Madison’s failure to avoid war as the sixth worst presidential mistake ever made.Sony VAIO VGN-FW94FS Battery

Hurriedly Madison called on Congress to put the country “into an armor and an attitude demanded by the crisis,” specifically recommending enlarging the army, preparing the militia, finishing the military academy, stockpiling munitions, and expanding the navy.Sony VAIO VGN-FW94GS Battery

Congress voted to enlarge the army with five-year enlistments, which could not be obtained and refusedd to enlarge the navy. Madison had not made any serious war plans or built up the army. The senior command at the War Department and in the field proved incompetent or cowardly--Sony VAIO VGN-FW94HS Battery

the general at Detroit to a smaller British force without firing a shot. Gallatin at the Treasury discovered the war was almost impossible to fund since the national bank h

ad been closed and major financiers in the Northeast refused to help. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery

Madison believed the U.S. could easily seize Canada and thus cut off food supplies to the West Indies, making for a good bargaining ship at the peace talks. But the invasion efforts all failed. Madison had assumed the militia would rally to the flag and invade Canada, but the governors in the Northeast failed to cooperate and their militias either sat out the war or refused to leave the state.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery

Britain did not want war as it was heavily engaged in the Napoleonic Wars, most of the British Army was engaged in the Peninsular War (in Spain), and the Royal Navy was compelled to blockade most of the coast of Europe.Britain had only 6000 regulars in Canada, supplemented by local Canadian militia.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery

The war began badly for the Americans, as the British repulsed invasions of Canada and blockaded the coast (while trading extensively with disloyal elements in the Northeast). Economic hardship was severe, but entrepreneurs built factories that soon became the basis of the industrial revolution in America. Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/L Battery

The British raided Washington in 1814, as Madison headed a dispirited militia. Dolley Madison rescued White House valuables and documents in the nick of time, as the British burned the White House, the Capitol and other public buildings.

The British armed American Indians in the West, most notably followers of Tecumseh. Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/S Battery

However the British lost control of Lake Erie at the naval Battle of Lake Erie in 1813, and were forced to retreat. General William Henry Harrison caught up with them at the Battle of the Thames, destroyed the British and Indian armies, killed Tecumseh, and permanently destroyed Indian power in the Great Lakes region.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/W Battery

Meanwhile General Andrew Jackson destroyed the Indian power in the Southeast. The Indians were the big losers in the war.

Madison faced formidable obstacles — a divided cabinet, a factious party, a recalcitrant Congress, obstructionist governors, and incompetent generals, together with militia who refused to fight outside their states.Sony VAIO VGN-NS115N/S Battery

Most serious was lack of unified popular support. There were serious threats of disunion from New Britain, which engaged in massive smuggling to Canada and refused to provide financial support or soldiers. However, by 1813, the main Indian threats in the South and West had been destroyed by Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison, respectively.Sony VAIO VGN-NS11J/S Battery

Despite being a young nation without much of a military, going up against one of the superpowers of the day, the United States did better than might be expected. There were impressive naval successes by American frigates and other vessels, such as the USS Constitution, USS United States, USS Chesapeake, USS Hornet, USS Wasp, and USS Essex.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/L Battery

In a famous three-hour battle with the HMS Java, the USS Constitution earned her nickname, “Old Ironsides.”

Having considered the bill ... I am constrained by the insuperable difficulty I feel in reconciling this bill with the Constitution of the United States.... The legislative powers vested in Congress are specified ... in the ... Constitution, and it does not appear that the power proposed to be exercised by the bill is among the enumerated powers.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/S Battery

Later life

During the final six years of his life, amid a sea of personal [financial] troubles that were threatening to engulf him...At times mental agitation issued in physical collapse. For the better part of a year in 1831 and 1832 he was bedridden, if not silenced...Literally sick with anxiety, he began to despair of his ability to make himself understood by his fellow citizens.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/W Battery

During the final six years of his life, amid a sea of personal [financial] troubles that were threatening to engulf him...At times mental agitation issued in physical collapse. For the better part of a year in 1831 and 1832 he was bedridden, if not silenced...Literally sick with anxiety, he began to despair of his ability to make himself understood by his fellow citizens.Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/L Battery

In 1826, after the death of Jefferson, Madison followed Jefferson as the second Rector ("President") of the University of Virginia. It would be his last occupation. He retained the position as college chancellor for ten years, until his death in 1836.Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/S Battery

In 1829, at the age of 78, Madison was chosen as a representative to the constitutional convention in Richmond for the revising of the Virginia state constitution; this was to be Madison's last appearance as a legislator and constitutional drafter. The issue of greatest importance at this convention wasapportionment. Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/W Battery

The western districts of Virginia complained that they were underrepresented because the state constitution apportioned voting districts by county, not population. Westerners' growing numbers thus did not yield growing representation. Western reformers also wanted to extend suffrage to all white men, in place of the historic property requirement.Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/L Battery

Madison tried to effect a compromise, but to no avail. Eventually, suffrage rights were extended to renters as well as landowners, but the eastern planters refused to adopt population apportionment. Madison was disappointed at the failure of Virginians to resolve the issue more equitably. Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/S Battery

"The Convention of 1829, we might say, pushed Madison steadily to the brink of self-delusion, if not despair. The dilemma of slavery undid him."

Although his health had now almost failed, he managed to produce several memoranda on political subjects, Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/W Battery

including an essay against the appointment ofchaplains for Congress and the armed forces, because this produced religious exclusion, but not political harmony.

Madison lived on until 1836, increasingly ignored by the new leaders of the American polity. He died at Montpelier on June 28, the last of the Founding Fathers to die.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/L Battery

He is buried in the Madison Family Cemetery at Montpelier.

The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles or essays promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. Seventy-seven of the essays were published serially in The Independent Journal and The New York Packet between October 1787 and August 1788. Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/P Battery

A compilation of these and eight others, called The Federalist; or, The New Constitution, was published in two volumes in 1788 by J. and A. McLean. The series' correct title is The Federalist; the title The Federalist Papers did not emerge until the twentieth century.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/S Battery

The authors of The Federalist wanted both to influence the vote in favor of ratification and to shape future interpretations of the Constitution.

However, the authors of the Federalist papers also had a greater plan in mind. According to Federalist 1:Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/W Battery

It has been frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice,Sony VAIO VGN-NS240E/L Battery

or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force.

According to historian Richard B. Morris, they are an "incomparable exposition of the Constitution, a classic in political science unsurpassed in both breadth and depth by the product of any later American writer."Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/L Battery

At the time of publication, the authorship of the articles was a closely guarded secret, though astute observers guessed that Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay were the likely authors. Following Hamilton's death in 1804, a list that he drew up became public;Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/S Battery

it claimed fully two-thirds of the essays for Hamilton, including some that seemed more likely the work of Madison (Nos. 49-58, 62, and 63). The scholarly detective work of Douglass Adair in 1944 postulated the following assignments of authorship, corroborated in 1964 by a computer analysis of the text:Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/L Battery

  • Alexander Hamilton (51 articles: nos. 1, 6–9, 11–13, 15–17, 21–36, 59–61, and 65–85)
  • James Madison (26 articles: nos. 10, 14, 37–58 and 62–63)
  • John Jay (5 articles: 2–5 and 64).
  • Nos. 18–20 were the result of a collaboration between Madison and Hamilton.Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/W Battery

The authors used the pseudonym "Publius", in honor of Roman consul Publius Valerius Publicola.  While some historians credit Jefferson's influence, it is Madison who often now receives greater foundational credit as the father of the Constitution despite his repeated rejection of the honor during his lifetime.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/L Battery

Madison became a leading member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia (1789–1797), Secretary of State (1801–1809), and ultimately the fourth President of the United States. Hamilton, who had been a leading advocate of national constitutional reform throughout the 1780s and represented New York at the Constitutional Convention, Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/P Battery

in 1789 became the first Secretary of the Treasury, a post he held until his resignation in 1795. John Jay, who had been secretary for foreign affairs under the Articles of Confederation from 1784 through their expiration in 1789, became the first Chief Justice of the United Statesin 1789,Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/W Battery

stepping down in 1795 to accept election as governor of New York, a post he held for two terms, retiring in 1801.

There are many highlights among the essays of The Federalist. Federalist No. 10, in which Madison discusses the means of preventing rule by majority faction and advocates a large, commercial republic, Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/L Battery

is generally regarded as the most important of the 85 articles from a philosophical perspective; it is complemented by Federalist No. 14, in which Madison takes the measure of the United States, declares it appropriate for an extended republic, and concludes with a memorable defense of the constitutional and political creativity of the Federal Convention.Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/P Battery

In Federalist No. 84, Hamilton makes the case that there is no need to amend the Constitution by adding a Bill of Rights, insisting that the various provisions in the proposed Constitution protecting liberty amount to a bill of rights.Federalist No. 78, also written by Hamilton, Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/W Battery

lays the groundwork for the doctrine of judicial review by federal courts of federal legislation or executive acts. Federalist No. 70 presents Hamilton's case for a one-man chief executive. In Federalist No. 39, Madison presents the clearest exposition of what has come to be called "Federalism".Sony VAIO VGN-NS70B/W Battery

In Federalist No. 51, Madison distills arguments for checks and balances in a memorable essay often quoted for its justification of government as "the greatest of all reflections on human nature."

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