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15 juin 2012 5 15 /06 /juin /2012 04:04

James VI and I

James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of Englandand Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of England and Scotland were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. HP Pavilion dv5z-1200 CTO Keyboard

He became King of Scotland at the age of thirteen months, succeeding his mother Mary, Queen of Scots, who had been compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Keyboard

In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue.[1] He continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known as the Jacobean era after him, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58. After the Union of the Crowns, HP Pavilion DV6-1000 cto Keyboard

he based himself in England (the largest of the three realms) from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, andstyled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland".[2] In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonization of the Americas began. HP Pavilion DV6-1000eg Keyboard

At 57 years and 246 days, his reign in Scotland was longer than any of his predecessors. He achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with theEnglish Parliament. Under James, HP Pavilion DV6-1000et Keyboard

the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such asWilliam Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture.[3]James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie (1597), HP Pavilion DV6-1001tx Keyboard

True Law of Free Monarchies(1598), and Basilikon Doron (1599). He sponsored the translation of the Bible that was named after him: the Authorised King James Version.[4] Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character ever since.[5] Since the latter half of the twentieth century, however, historians have revised James's reputation and have treated him as a serious and thoughtful monarch.[6] HP Pavilion DV6-1001xx Keyboard

James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Keyboard

for both she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage,[7] Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.[8] HP Pavilion DV6-1003tx Keyboard

James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle. HP Pavilion DV6-1004tx Keyboard

His godparents were Charles IX of France (represented by John, Count of Brienne), Elizabeth I of England(represented by the Earl of Bedford), and Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (represented by ambassador Philibert du Croc).[9] Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, HP Pavilion DV6-1005ea Keyboard

whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was then the custom.[10] The English guests were offended by the subsequent entertainment, which was devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez and depicted them as satyrs with tails.[11] HP Pavilion DV6-1005ez Keyboard

James's father, Darnley, was murdered on 10 February 1567 during an unexplained explosion at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh, perhaps in revenge for Rizzio's death. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Albany and Earl of Ross. Mary was already unpopular, HP Pavilion DV6-1005tx Keyboard

and her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.[12] In June 1567, Protestant rebels arrested Mary and imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle; she never saw her son again. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent.[13] HP Pavilion DV6-1006tx Keyboard


The care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved, nursed, and upbrought"[14] in the security ofStirling Castle.[15] James was crowned King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567.[16] HP Pavilion DV6-1007tx Keyboard

The sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland. ThePrivy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, HP Pavilion DV6-1008tx Keyboard

Adam Erskine (lay abbot of Cambuskenneth), and David Erskine (lay abbot of Dryburgh) as James's preceptorsor tutors.[17] As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but also instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning.[18]HP Pavilion DV6-1009el Keyboard

Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.[19] HP Pavilion DV6-1009tx Keyboard

In 1568 Mary escaped from her imprisonment at Loch Leven Castle, leading to several years of sporadic violence. The Earl of Moray defeated Mary's troops at theBattle of Langside, forcing her to flee to England, where she was subsequently imprisoned by Elizabeth. HP Pavilion DV6-1010ea Keyboard

On 23 January 1570, Moray was assassinated by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh.[20] The next regent was James's paternal grandfather, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, who a year later was carried fatally wounded into Stirling Castle after a raid by Mary's supporters.[21] His successor, the Earl of Mar, after banqueting at the estate of James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, "took a vehement sickness", HP Pavilion DV6-1010ed Keyboard

and died soon afterwards on 28 October 1572 at Stirling. Morton, who now took Mar's office, proved in many ways the most effective of James's regents,[22] but he made enemies by his rapacity.[23] He fell from favour when the Frenchman Esmé Stewart, Sieur d'Aubigny, HP Pavilion DV6-1010ef Keyboard

first cousin of James's father Lord Darnley, and future Earl of Lennox, arrived in Scotland and quickly established himself as the first of James's powerful male favourites.[24]Morton was executed on 2 June 1581, belatedly charged with complicity in Lord Darnley's murder.[25] On 8 August, James made Lennox the only duke in Scotland.[26]Then fifteen years old, the king was to remain under the influence of Lennox for about one more year.[27] HP Pavilion DV6-1010et Keyboard

Although a Protestant convert, Lennox was distrusted by Scottish Calvinists, who noticed the physical displays of affection between favourite and king and alleged that Lennox "went about to draw the King to carnal lust".[23] In August 1582, in what became known as the Ruthven Raid, HP Pavilion DV6-1010tx Keyboard

the Protestant earls of Gowrie and Angus lured James into Ruthven Castle, imprisoned him,[28] and forced Lennox to leave Scotland. After James was liberated in June 1583, he assumed increasing control of his kingdom. He pushed through the Black Acts to assert royal authority over the Kirk, HP Pavilion DV6-1011tx Keyboard

and denounced the writings of his former tutor Buchanan.[29] Between 1584 and 1603, he established effective royal government and relative peace among the lords, ably assisted by John Maitland of Thirlestane, who led the government until 1592.[30] An eight-man commission, HP Pavilion DV6-1012el Keyboard

known as the Octavians, brought some control over the ruinous state of James's finances in 1596, but it drew opposition from vested interests. It was disbanded within a year after a riot in Edinburgh, stoked by anti-Catholicism, led the court to withdraw to Linlithgow temporarily.[31] HP Pavilion DV6-1012tx Keyboard

One last Scottish attempt against the king's person occurred in August 1600, when James was apparently assaulted by Alexander Ruthven, the Earl of Gowrie's younger brother, at Gowrie House, the seat of the Ruthvens.[32] Since Ruthven was run through by James's page John Ramsay and the Earl of Gowrie was himself killed in the ensuing fracas, HP Pavilion DV6-1013ea Keyboard

there were few surviving witnesses. Given his history with the Ruthvens, and that he owed them a great deal of money, James's account of the circumstances was not universally believed.[33] HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Keyboard

In 1586, James signed the Treaty of Berwick with England. That and the execution of his mother in 1587, which he denounced as a "preposterous and strange procedure", helped clear the way for his succession south of the border.[34] Queen Elizabeth was unmarried and childless, HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Keyboard

and James was her most likely successor. Securing the English succession became a cornerstone of his policy.[35]During the Spanish Armada crisis of 1588, he assured Elizabeth of his support as "your natural son and compatriot of your country".[36] HP Pavilion DV6-1014tx Keyboard


Throughout his youth, James was praised for his chastity, since he showed little interest in women; after the loss of Lennox, he continued to prefer male company.[37] A suitable marriage, however, was necessary to reinforce his monarchy, and the choice fell on the fourteen-year-old Anne of Denmark, HP Pavilion DV6-1016el Keyboard

younger daughter of the Protestant Frederick II. Shortly after a proxy marriage in Copenhagen in August 1589, Anne sailed for Scotland but was forced by storms to the coast of Norway. On hearing the crossing had been abandoned, James, in what Willson calls "the one romantic episode of his life",[38]HP Pavilion DV6-1016ez Keyboard

sailed from Leithwith a three-hundred-strong retinue to fetch Anne personally.[39] The couple were married formally at the Bishop's Palace in Oslo on 23 November and, after stays at Elsinore and Copenhagen and a meeting with Tycho Brahe, returned to Scotland on 1 May 1590. HP Pavilion DV6-1018el Keyboard

By all accounts, James was at first infatuated with Anne, and in the early years of their marriage seems always to have showed her patience and affection.[40] The royal couple produced three surviving children: Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, who died of typhoid fever in 1612, aged 18; Elizabeth, later Queen of Bohemia; and Charles, the future King. Anne died before her husband in March 1619. HP Pavilion DV6-1020ec Keyboard

James's visit to Denmark, a country familiar with witch hunts, may have encouraged an interest in the study of witchcraft,[41]which he considered a branch of theology.[42] After his return to Scotland, he attended the North Berwick witch trials, HP Pavilion DV6-1020ed Keyboard

the first major persecution of witches in Scotland under the Witchcraft Act 1563. Several people, most notably Agnes Sampson, were convicted of using witchcraft to send storms against James's ship. James became obsessed with the threat posed by witches and, inspired by his personal involvement, HP Pavilion DV6-1020ef Keyboard

in 1597 wrote the Daemonologie, a tract which opposed the practice of witchcraft and which provided background material for Shakespeare's Tragedy of Macbeth.[43] James personally supervised the torture of women accused of being witches.[44]HP Pavilion DV6-1020ei Keyboard

After 1599, his views became more sceptical.[45] In a later letter written in England to his son Prince Henry, James congratulates the Prince on "the discovery of yon little counterfeit wench. I pray God ye may be my heir in such discoveries ... most miracles now-a-days prove but illusions, and ye may see by this how wary judges should be in trusting accusations."[46] HP Pavilion DV6-1020ej Keyboard

Steve Redgrave

Sir Steven Geoffrey Redgrave CBE (born on 23 March 1962, in Marlow, Buckinghamshire) is a retired British rower who won gold medals at five consecutive Olympic Games from 1984 to 2000 as well as a bronze medal at the 1988 Summer Games. He has also won three Commonwealth Games gold medals and nine World Rowing Championships gold medals. HP Pavilion DV6-1020ek Keyboard

He has carried the British flag at the opening of the Olympic Games on two occasions. In 2011 he received the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement AwardHP Pavilion DV6-1020eq Keyboard

Redgrave is one of only four Olympians to have won a gold medal at five consecutive Olympic Games. This achievement led to him being hailed as Britain's greatest Olympian.[1][2][3] HP Pavilion DV6-1020el Keyboard

He married Ann Callaway (now Lady Redgrave) in 1988; an accomplished rower in her own right, Ann represented Great Britain in the women's eight at the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984 and was Chief Medical Officer to the GB rowing team from 1992 - 2001. HP Pavilion DV6-1020es Keyboard

Redgrave was educated at Great Marlow School, a state secondary comprehensive school in Marlow in Buckinghamshire.

Redgrave has three children. His elder daughter Natalie took up rowing in 2009 [4] and started competing for Oxford University Women’s Boat Club in 2010,[4] and competed in the 2011 women's boat race, which Oxford won.[5] He has another daughter, Sophie, and a son, Zak. HP Pavilion DV6-1020et Keyboard

Redgrave stands 1.95 metres (6 ft 5 inches) tall. In his prime, he weighed more than 100 kilograms (16 st; 220 lb). His primary strength was in sweep oared rowing, where he has the distinction of being one of the few oarsmen to have won Olympic Gold rowing both bowside and strokeside (starboard and port). HP Pavilion DV6-1021el Keyboard

He also enjoyed success in indoor rowing, winning the World Championship for Indoor Rowing in 1991.[6] He was also a successful single sculler winning the Wingfield Scullsfive times between 1985 and 1989, but not quite a world champion class single sculler. HP Pavilion DV6-1022el Keyboard

Rowed for Marlow Rowing Club From 1991 onwards, Redgrave, and the crews in which he rowed, became renowned for their consistent dominance. They set themselves apart from many other internationally successful crews by winning almost every time they raced. HP Pavilion DV6-1023ef Keyboard

Indeed, the very occasional lapses in this winning run, such as the Lucerne regatta in 2000, were regarded with surprise by both the rowing community and the press. HP Pavilion DV6-1023em Keyboard

For much of his career, Redgrave battled against severe illnesses. In 1992, he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis(although he had continued to train for a considerable time prior to diagnosis). In September 1997, Diabetes mellitus type 1 was added to his list of ailments. Through careful management, however, he was able to continue training right up to the Sydney Olympics.[7] HP Pavilion DV6-1025ef Keyboard

In addition to his Olympic medals, Redgrave won 9 gold medals, 2 silvers, and a bronze at the Rowing World Championships. His 14 total Olympic and World Championship gold medals is unsurpassed by any other rower in history, although later equalled by his long-time rowing partner Matthew Pinsent. HP Pavilion DV6-1025ei Keyboard

Redgrave was an outstanding competitor at Henley Royal Regatta over twenty years. He won the Silver Goblets & Nickalls' Challenge Cup for coxless pairs seven times (twice with Andy Holmes, once with Simon Berrisford and four times withMatthew Pinsent), HP Pavilion DV6-1025em Keyboard

the Stewards' Challenge Cup for coxless fours five times, the Diamond Challenge Sculls twice, theDouble Sculls Challenge Cup once (with Eric Sims) and the Queen Mother Challenge Cup for quadruple sculls once.

In 1989/1990 he was a member of the British bobsleigh team, as well as national champion. HP Pavilion DV6-1025ez Keyboard

Immediately after the winning 1996 Olympic Gold Medal in an interview Redgrave stated if anyone found him close to a rowing boat again they could shoot him.[8]

In 2000, Redgrave won his fifth consecutive Olympic Gold Medal, retired from the sport, and became the BBC Sports Personality of the Year. In August 2000, the month prior to winning gold in Sydney, he took part in a 3-part BBCdocumentary entitled Gold Fever. HP Pavilion DV6-1027ef Keyboard

This followed Redgrave and his crewmates in the coxless four in the years leading up to the Olympics, including video diaries recording the highs and lows in the quest for his fifth consecutive team gold.

He was made an MBE in 1987, a CBE in 1997, and he became a Knight Bachelor in 2001.[1] HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr Keyboard

In 2002, his achievement of winning gold medals at five consecutive Olympic games was voted the greatest sporting moment in Channel 4's 100 Greatest Sporting Moments. HP Pavilion DV6-1028tx Keyboard


SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, Senātus Populusque Rōmānus ("The Senate and People of Rome", seetranslation), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern day comune (municipality) of Rome. HP Pavilion DV6-1030ca Keyboard

It appears on coins, at the end of documents made public by inscription in stone or metal, in dedications of monuments and public works, and was emblazoned on the standards of the Roman legions.

The phrase appears many hundreds of times in Roman political, HP Pavilion DV6-1030eb Keyboard

legal and historical literature, including the speeches of Mārcus Tullius Cīcerō (Tully) and the Ab urbe condita libri ("Books from the Founding of the City") of Titus Livius(Livy). Since the meaning and the words never vary, except for the spelling and inflection of populus in literature,[citation needed] Latin dictionaries classify it as a formula. HP Pavilion DV6-1030ec Keyboard

In Latin, Senātus is a nominative singular noun meaning "Senate". Populusque is compounded from the nominative nounPopulus, "the People", and -que, an enclitic particle meaning "and" which connects the two nominative nouns. The last word, Rōmānus ("Roman") is an adjective modifying Populus: the "Roman People".HP Pavilion DV6-1030ed Keyboard

Thus, the sentence is translated as the more literal "The Senate and the Roman People", or alternatively as "The Senate and the People of Rome".HP Pavilion DV6-1030ef Keyboard

The phrase's date of origin is not known, but its meaning places it generally after the founding of the Roman Republic. The two legal entities mentioned, Senātus and the Populus Rōmānus, are sovereign when combined. However, where populus is sovereign alone, Senātus is not. Under the Roman Monarchy neither entity was sovereign. The phrase, therefore, can be dated to no earlier than the foundation of the Republic. HP Pavilion DV6-1030em Keyboard

This signature continued in use under the Roman Empire. The emperors were considered the representatives of the people even though the senātūs consulta, or decrees of the Senate, were made at the pleasure of the emperor. HP Pavilion DV6-1030eo Keyboard

Populus Rōmānus in Roman literature is a phrase meaning the government of the People. When the Romans named governments of other countries they used populus in the singular or plural, such as populī Prīscōrum Latīnōrum, "the governments of the Old Latins". HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Keyboard

Rōmānus is the established adjective used to distinguish the Romans, as in cīvis Rōmānus, "Roman citizen". The locative, Rōmae, "at Rome", was never used for that purpose. HP Pavilion DV6-1030eq Keyboard

The Roman people appear very often in law and history in such phrases as dignitāsmaiestāsauctoritāslībertās populī Rōmānī, the "dignity, majesty, authority, freedom of the Roman people". They were a populus līber, "a free people". There was an exercitus, imperium, iudicia, honorēs, HP Pavilion DV6-1038ca Keyboard

consulēs, voluntās of this same populus: "the army, rule, judgments, offices, consuls and will of the Roman people". They appear in early Latin as Popolus and Poplus, so the habit of thinking of themselves as free and sovereign was quite ingrained. HP Pavilion DV6-1039el Keyboard

The Romans believed that all authority came from the people. It could be said that similar language seen in more modern political and social revolutions directly comes from this usage. People in this sense meant the whole government. The latter, however, was essentially divided into the aristocratic Senate, HP Pavilion DV6-1040eb Keyboard

whose will was executed by theconsuls and praetors, and the comitia centuriāta, "committee of the centuries", whose will came to be safeguarded by the Tribunes. HP Pavilion DV6-1040ei Keyboard

During the regime of Benito Mussolini, SPQR was emblazoned on a number of public buildings and manhole covers in an attempt to promote his dictatorship as a "New Roman Empire".HP Pavilion DV6-1040ed Keyboard

Use of SPQR has been revived in modern times, throughout Europe and beyond.[clarification needed] In Rome today sewage and water supply accesses contain the label "SPQR" in recognition of the innovation in sewage and water supply realized during the Roman times. HP Pavilion DV6-1040ej Keyboard


Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads that began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire. Today Rome is circled, at a distance of about 10 km (6 mi), by the ring-road (the Grande Raccordo Anulare or GRA). HP Pavilion DV6-1040ek Keyboard

Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is a principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main train station, Termini, is one of the biggest train stations in Europe and the most heavily used in Italy, with around 400 thousand travellers passing through every day. The second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina, is currently being redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus.[108] HP Pavilion DV6-1040el Keyboard

Rome is served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo da Vinci International Airport is Italy's chief airport and is commonly known as "Fiumicino Airport", as it is located within the nearby Comune of Fiumicino, south-west of Rome. The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. HP Pavilion DV6-1040ev Keyboard

It is commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino, south-east of Rome. A third airport, the Roma-Urbe Airport, is a small, low-traffic airport located about 6 km north of the city centre, which handles most helicopter and private flights. HP Pavilion DV6-1040ez Keyboard

The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road. These problems are not helped by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other cities of similar size. HP Pavilion DV6-1042el Keyboard

In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10,000 inhabitants, far below other major European cities.[109]Chronic congestion caused by cars during the 1970s and 1980s led to restrictions being placed on vehicle access to the inner city-centre during the hours of daylight. HP Pavilion DV6-1044el Keyboard

Areas where these restriction apply are known as Limited Traffic Zones (Zona a Traffico Limitato (ZTL) in Italian). More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere and San Lorenzo has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts, and there are also plans to create another night-time ZTL in Testaccio. HP Pavilion DV6-1045ee Keyboard

A 2-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the 1930s. The line had been planned to quickly connect the main train station with the newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the 1942 World Fair was supposed to be held. HP Pavilion DV6-1045ei Keyboard

The event never took place because of war. The area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR (Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition) in the 1950s to serve as a modern business district. The line was finally opened in 1955, and it is now part of the B Line. HP Pavilion DV6-1045eo Keyboard

The A line opened in 1980 from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages (1999–2000) to Battistini. In the 1990s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable (although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line) as it is relatively short. As of 2005, its total length is 38 km (24 mi). HP Pavilion DV6-1045ez Keyboard

The two existing lines, A and B, intersect at Roma Termini station. A new branch of the B line (B1) is under construction with an estimated cost of €500 million. It is scheduled to open in 2012. B1 will connect to line B at Piazza Bologna and will have four stations over a distance of 3.9 km (2 mi). HP Pavilion DV6-1046el Keyboard

A third line, line C, is under construction with an estimated cost of €3 billion and will have 30 stations over a distance of 25.5 km (16 mi). It will partly replace the existing Rail Road line, Termini-Pantano. It will feature full automated, driverless trains.[110] HP Pavilion DV6-1050ef Keyboard

The first section is due to open in 2011 and the final sections in 2015, but archaeological findings often delay underground construction work. A fourth line, D line, is also planned. It will have 22 stations over a distance of 20 km (12 mi). The first section is projected to open in 2015 and the final sections before 2035. ACER Aspire 5235 keyboard Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus, tram and urban train network (FR lines). The bus and tram network is run by Trambus S.p.A. under the auspices of Atac S.p.A. (which originally stood for the Municipal Bus and Tramways Company, Azienda Tramvie e Autobus del Comune in Italian). ACER Aspire 5710 keyboardThe bus network has in excess of 350 bus lines and over 8 thousand bus stops, whereas the more-limited tram system has 39 km of track and 192 stops.[111] There is also onetrolleybus line, opened in 2005, and additional trolleybus lines are planned.[112] ACER Aspire 7520 keyboard

International entities, organisations and involvement

Rome is unique in having a sovereign state located entirely within its city limits, the Vatican City. The Vatican is a enclave of Rome and a sovereign possession of the Holy See, the supreme government of the Roman Catholic Church. Rome hosts foreign embassies to both Italy and the Holy See, although frequently the same ambassador is accredited to both. ACER Aspire 5930 keyboard Another body, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), took refuge in Rome in 1834, due to the conquest of Malta byNapoleon in 1798. It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not claim any territory in Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute over its actual sovereign status. ACER Aspire 5235 keyboard Rome is also the seat of international agencies of the United Nations, such as the World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). DELL Inspiron 6400 keyboard Rome has traditionally been involved in the process of European political integration. In 1957, the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (predecessor to the European Union), and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European Constitution in July 2004. DELL Inspiron 8500 keyboardDELL Latitude D830 keyboardLanguage

Although associated today only with Latin ancient Rome was in fact multilingual. In highest antiquity Sabine tribes shared the area of what is today Rome with Latin tribes. The Sabine language was one of the Italic group of ancient Italian languages, along with Etruscan, Toshiba Satellite P300 keyboardwhich would have been the main language of the kings of ancient Rome who ruled till their overthrow in 509 BC and the founding of the Republic. Urganilla,or Plautia Urgulanilla, wife of Emperor Claudius, is thought to have been a speaker of Etruscan many centuries after this date, Toshiba Satellite A300 keyboardaccording to Suetonius' entry on Claudius. However Latin, in various evolving forms, was the main language of classical Rome, but as the city had immigrants, slaves, residents, ambassadors from many parts of the world it was also multilingual. Many educated Romans also spoke Greek, Toshiba Satellite L300 keyboardand there was a large Greek, Syriac and Jewish population in parts of Rome from well before the Empire. Latin, which evolved during the Middle Ages into Italian. The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, Toshiba Satellite A305 keyboardbut the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco. The ancient Romanesco, used during the Middle Ages, was a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan. Toshiba Satellite L355 keyboardttp://www.all-keyboard.com/toshiba-satellite-l355-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance, and, above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines, amongst them the two Medici Popes (Leo X and Clement VII) and their suite, Toshiba Satellite P500 keyboard

caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties. This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio (Civitavecchia, Latina), from the beginning of the 20th century, Toshiba Satellite L525 keyboard

thanks to the rising population of Rome and to better transportation systems. As a consequence, Romanesco abandoned its traditional forms to mutate into the dialect spoken within the city, which is more like standard Italian, although it remains distinct from the other Romanesco-influenced local dialects of Lazio. HP Pavilion G60-230 keyboard

Dialectal literature in the traditional form Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli, Trilussa, and Cesare Pascarella. Contemporary Romanesco is mainly represented by popular actors such as Aldo Fabrizi, Alberto Sordi, Nino Manfredi, Anna Magnani, Gigi Proietti, Enrico Montesano, and Carlo Verdone. HP Probook 4710S keyboard

Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much more extensive however. Through the process of Romanisation, the peoples of Gallia, theIberian Peninsula, Italy and Dacia developed languages which derive directly from Latin and were adopted in large areas of the world both through colonization and cultural influence. HP Pavilion DV9233EU keyboard

Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman Conquest, borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin Language. The Roman or Latin alphabet is the most widely used writing system in the world used by the greatest number of languages.[103] HP pavilion DV7-1000 keyboard

Rome has long hosted artistic communities, foreign resident communities and a large number of foreign religious students or pilgrims and so has always been a multilingual space. Today because of mass tourism many languages are used in servicing tourism, especially English which is widely known in tourist areas, and the city hosts large numbers of immigrants and so has many multilingual immigrant areas. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 keyboard


Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country. The city hosted the final games of the1934 and 1990 FIFA World Cup. The latter took place in the Olympic Stadium, which is also the home stadium for local Serie Aclubs A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 keyboard

whose rivalry has become a staple of Roman sports culture. Footballers who play for these teams and are also born in the city tend to become especially popular, as has been the case with players such as Francesco Totti and Daniele De Rossi (both for A.S. Roma). Atletico Roma is a minor team that plays in First Division; its home stadium is Stadio Flaminio. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 keyboard

Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics, with great success, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracalla as venues. For the Olympic Games many new structures were created, SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S keyboard

notably the new large Olympic Stadium (which was also enlarged and renewed to host qualification and the final match of the 1990 FIFA World Cup), the Villaggio Olimpico (Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district), etc. Rome made abid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics but it was withdrawn before the deadline for applicant files.[105][106] Compaq Presario C700 keyboard

Rugby union is gaining wider acceptance. The Stadio Flaminio is the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team, which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since 2000, albeit with less than satisfactory performances, as they have never won the championship. Rome is home to local rugby teams, such as Unione Rugby Capitolina, Rugby Roma, and S.S. Lazio. Compaq Presario V2000 keyboard

Every May, Rome hosts the ATP Masters Series tennis tournament on the clay courts of the Foro Italico. Cycling was popular in the post-World War II period, although its popularity has faded. Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia twice, in 1989 and 2000. Rome is also home to other sports teams, including basketball (Virtus Roma), volleyball (M. Roma Volley), handball or waterpolo. HP G62-b24EO Keyboard


Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages. People from all over the Christian world visit Vatican City, within the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy. The Pope was the most influential figure during the Middle Ages. HP G62-b24ER Keyboard

the city became a major pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages and the focus of struggles between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire starting with Charlemagne, who was crowned its first emperor in Rome in 800 by Pope Leo III. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages, HP G62-b24ET Keyboard

Rome kept its status as Papal capital and "holy city" for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon (1309–1377).[citation needed] Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting place of St. Peter. to this day, thousand of believers flock to the city to Rome. HP G62-b24SA Keyboard

One of the pilgrimage stopping point is Pilate's stairs where, according to the Christian tradition, the steps that led up to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem, HP G62-b24SL Keyboard

which Jesus Christ stood on during his Passion on his way to trial.[107] The stairs were, reputedly, brought to Rome by St. Helena in the 4th Century. For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honor the Passion of Jesus. HP G62-b24ST Keyboard

Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to a large number of sites, both within the Vatican City and in Italian territory in the city of Rome itself. Some of these are the catacombs of antiquity in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches, HP G62-b25ER Keyboard

most famously the Church of St. Louis of the French, or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit Church of Jesus. Traditionally there have been seven churches known as the Pilgrim churches, visited because an individual saint is venerated there, HP G62-b25ES Keyboard

or in the Middle Ages to obtain indulgences, or for national reasons since there are national churches in Rome for most Catholic countries. St Peter’s basilica is the main destination for pilgrimage, because of the presence of the pope and the burial of many past HP G62-b25SA Keyboard

including St Peter, recognised by Catholics as the first pope. St Peters and three other major churches, all within Italian territory and therefore outside Vatican City form what are called the four main basilicas, these are the Basilica of St John Lateran, HP G62-b25SC Keyboard

the Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls, where St Paul is believed buried, and Saint Mary Major. Three other minor basilicas, all within Rome, form the seven pilgrimage sites. HP G62-b25SG Keyboard


Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome became a major gastronomical centre during Ancient Rome. Ancient Roman Cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, HP G62-b25SO Keyboard

provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. In the beginning, the differences between social classes were not very great, but disparities developed with the empire's growth. Later, during the Renaissance, Rome became well known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time, HP G62-b21EO Keyboard

worked for the popes. An example of this could be Bartolomeo Scappi, who was a chef, working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in 1570 when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published. In the book he lists approximately 1000 recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, HP G62-b21ER Keyboard

giving the first known picture of a fork.[100] Today, the city is home to numerous formidable and traditional Italian dishes. A Jewish influence can be seen, as Jews have lived in Rome since the 1st century BCE. Vegetables, especially globe artichokes, are common.[101]Examples of these include "Saltimbocca alla Romana" – a veal cutlet, HP G62-b21SA Keyboard

Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; "Carciofi alla giudia" – artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; "Carciofi alla romana" – artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, HP G62-b21SL Keyboard

garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Spaghetti alla carbonara" – spaghetti with bacon, eggs and pecorino, and "Gnocchi di semolino alla romana" – semolinadumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few. HP G62-b22ER Keyboard


Rome hosts the Cinecittà Studios,[102] the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema, where a large number of today's biggest box office hits are filmed. The 99-acre (40 ha) studio complex is 5.6 miles (9.0 km) from the centre of Rome and is part of one of the biggest production communities in the world, second only to Hollywood, HP G62-b22SL Keyboard

with well over 5,000 professionals – from period costume makers to visual effects specialists. More than 3,000 productions have been made on its lot, from recent features like The Passion of the Christ, Gangs of New York, HBO's Rome, The Life Aquatic and Dino De Laurentiis’ Decameron, to such cinema classics as Ben-Hur, Cleopatra, and the films of Federico Fellini. HP G62-b22ST Keyboard

Founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini, the studios were bombed by the Western Allies during the Second World War. In the 1950s, Cinecittà was the filming location for several large American film productions, and subsequently became the studio most closely associated with Federico Fellini. HP G62-b23ER Keyboard

Today Cinecittà is the only studio in the world with pre-production, production, and full post-production facilities on one lot, allowing directors and producers to walk in with their script and "walk out" with a completed film. HP G62-b23ET Keyboard

A canoe (North American English) or Canadian canoe (British English) is a small narrow boat, typically human-powered, though it may also be powered by sails or small electric or gas motors. Canoes are usually pointed at both bow and stern and are normally open on top, but can be decked over (i.e. covered, similar to a kayak). HP G62-b23SA Keyboard

In its human-powered form, the canoe is propelled by the use of paddles, usually by two people. Paddlers face in the direction of travel, either seated on supports in the hull, or kneeling directly upon the hull. Paddling can be contrasted with rowing, HP G62-b23SL Keyboard

where the rowers usually face away from the direction of travel and use mounted oars (though a wide canoe can be fitted with oarlocks and rowed). Paddles may be single-bladed or double-bladed. HP G62-b23SO Keyboard

The oldest recovered canoe in the world is the Pesse canoe[1] found in the Netherlands.[2] According to radiocarbon dating analysis it was constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC.[2] This canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands. HP G62-b20EV Keyboard

Sailing canoes (see Canoe sailing) are propelled by means of a variety of sailing rigs. Common classes of modern sailing canoes include the 5 m² and the International 10 m² Sailing canoes. The latter is otherwise known as the International Canoe, HP G62-b20EW Keyboard

and is one of the fastest and oldest competitively sailed boat classes in the western world. The log canoe of the Chesapeake Bay is in the modern sense not a canoe at all, though it evolved through the enlargement of dugout canoes. HP G62-b20SA Keyboard

Wood-and-canvas canoes are made by fastening an external waterproofed canvas shell to a wooden hull formed with white cedar planks and ribs. These canoes evolved directly from birchbark construction. The transition occurred in the 19th century, first, when canoe builders in Ontario laid canvas instead of bark into a traditional building bed and, later, when builders in Maine adapted English boat-building inverted-forms technology. HP G62-b20SC Keyboard

In areas where birchbark either was scarce or where demand exceeded ready supply, other materials, such as canvas, had to be used as there had been success in patching birchbark canoes with canvas or cloth. Efforts were made in various locations to improve upon the bark design such as in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, where rib-and-plank construction was used by the Peterborough Canoe Company, HP G62-b20SG Keyboard

and in Maine, U.S.A., where similar construction was used by various companies. Maine was the location of the development of commercial wood-and-canvas canoes. The earliest commercial builder of wood-and-canvas canoes appears to be Evan H. Gerrish of Bangor, Maine. Gerrish, a hunting and fishing guide from Brownwille, Maine, who came to Bangor in 1875 ... started experiments with a wood-and-canvas building system. ... HP G62-b20SJ Keyboard

by 1878 Gerrish was regularly producing about 18 canoes a year at his shop at 18 Broad Street. By 1882 he had hired his first employee and was building about 25 canoes a year at the average price of $25 each. The reputation of the canvas canoe was spreading to the recreational market. HP G62-b20SO Keyboard

Gerrish already had customers far from Maine, and in 1884 he was producing over 50 canoes annually and had sent several canoes to an exhibit at the New Orleans Exposition. HP G62-b20SQ Keyboard

Soon other companies up river from Bangor were developing their own canvas canoes and improving the manufacturing process. B.N. Morris started the Veazie Boat and Canoe Company on the second floor of his home in Veazie in 1887. It soon became the B.N. Morris Canoe Company, and for a long time it was one of the largest and best known canoe companies in the world until a fire destroyed the factory in 1920. HP G62-b20SS Keyboard

Up river from Veazie, at Gilman Falls, E.M. White started producing canoes in 1888. In an interview in 1901 in the Old Town Enterprise, Mr. White told how he became interested in building canvas canoes. "I saw a man by the name of Evan Gerrish of Bangor riding in the Penobscot River in a canvas-covered canoe. HP G62-b20SV Keyboard

I quickly saw the advantages of that kind over my birchbark, which moreover leaked. I examined the canvas canoe closely, and in a short time was able to produce one which was so good someone wanted to buy it." White started building canoes at his Gilman Falls family home by boiling ribs in his mother's washtub and using a horse on a treadmill for power. HP G62-b20SW Keyboard

White's brother-in-law, E.L. Hinckley, became a working partner and provided the capital to open a large shop in nearby Old Town. The Carleton Boat and Canoe Company of Old Town built batteaux and bark canoes in the 1870s. HP G62-b21EC Keyboard

Carleton appears to be the only one of the batteaux and/or bark builders who switched to building canvas canoes and as such was the only one who brought any previous boat building experience to the industry. Carleton was later bought by the Old Town Canoe Company in the early 1920s.[5] HP G62-b18ER Keyboard

In the adjoining Canadian province of New Brunswick, from the late 19th century until being disbanded in 1979, the Chestnut Canoe Company, along with the Old Town Canoe Company in Maine, became the pre-eminent producers of wood-and-canvas canoes. HP G62-b18SA Keyboard

American President Teddy Roosevelt purchased Chestnut canoes for a South American expedition. Wood-and-canvas canoes have undergone a resurgence in recent years, spurred in part by the Wooden Canoe Heritage Association.[6]Builders abound, including Jerry Stelmok,[7] Rollin Thurlow,[8] Ken Solway,[9] Joe Seliga, and many others.[10] HP G62-b18ST Keyboard

§ Strip-built - These are the most popular among homebuilders. Some professional builders also offered both kits and finished boats. The canoes are constructed by gluing together 1/4" x 3/4" strips of wood over a building jig consisting of station molds that define the shape of the hull. HP G62-b19ER Keyboard

The strips may be square cut, or for a better fit, they are shaped with bead and cove router bits. Once the strips are glued together, the inside and outside are sanded fair, and a fiberglass and epoxy covering is applied to the canoe inside and out. The fiberglass covering is transparent, allowing the wood strips to be seen. The strips are usually cedar, though sometimes pine is also used. Walnut or other contrasting woods are sometimes used as accent strips.[11] HP G62-b19SL Keyboard

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§ Glued Plywood Lapstrake- These canoes are made by cutting planks to shape out of marine grade plywood. The planks are positioned on a building jig, and are glued together with epoxy at the laps along the length of the canoe. This yields a stiff hull that requires few ribs or bulkheads. The result is a traditional-looking canoe that won't leak even after long-term storage. HP G62-b19ST Keyboard

§ Stitch and glue - Sometimes also called "tortured plywood" construction. Here, panels are cut to pattern from plywood. The panels are brought together and temporarily fastened with wire or plastic ties. During this process, the plywood is forced into the shape of a canoe dictated by the shape of the panels. The seams are then reinforced with fiberglass tape and thickened epoxy.[12] HP G62-b20EB Keyboard

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Many canoes are symmetrical about the centerline, meaning their shape can be mirrored along the center. When trimmed level (rarely the case) they should handle the same whether paddling forward or backward. Many modern designs are asymmetrical, HP G62-b20EI Keyboard

usually having the widest beam slightly farther aft which improves efficiency and promotes more level fore and aft trim. A further improvement may be found in canoes with a straighter hull profile aft and rocker forward which improves tracking. HP G62-b20EP Keyboard

A traditionally shaped canoe, like the large cargo hauling Voyageur canoe, will have a tall rounded bow and stern. Although tall ends tend to catch the wind, they serve the purpose of shedding waves in rough whitewater or ocean travel. HP G62-b20ES Keyboard

Some canoes are made with squared sterns — "Y", "V", or "U" shaped — in order to permit the mounting of outboard motors. Very large freighter canoes can be powered with powerful motors, HP G62-b15SW Keyboard

but canoes that are 18 feet (5.49 m) or less in length would normally be propelled by motors of 3 horsepower (2.2 kW) or less. Side brackets can be mounted on canoes with pointed sterns to mount small outboard motors of about 112 to 2 horsepower (1.1 to 1.5 kW), which propel such canoes with surprising speed. HP G62-b16EA Keyboard

Cross section

The shape of the hull's cross section significantly influences the canoe's stability under differing conditions. Stability is the resistance to (further) tipping motion. HP G62-b16ER Keyboard

Flat-bottomed canoes generally have excellent initial stability, but their stability diminishes rapidly with increased heel. Their high initial stability causes them to have a more abrupt motion in waves from the side. Secondary stability is the resistance to further tipping motion once the boat already has heel. HP G62-b16SA Keyboard

For a given beam, a rounded-bottom canoe will have less initial stability than its flatter bottomed cousin. Round sections have lower surface area for a given volume and have less resistance through the water. They are most often associated with racing canoes. HP G62-b16SO Keyboard

In between the flat and rounded bottom are the more common shallow-arc and "V" bottom canoes which provide a compromise between performance and stability. The shallow-vee bottom, where the hull centerline forms a ridge like a shallow "V", will behave similar to a shallow-arc bottom but its volume to surface ratio is worse. HP G62-b16ST Keyboard

Similar is the tumblehome hull which has the top portion of the hull curving back in slightly.

Many modern canoes combine a variety of cross sections to suit the canoe's purpose. HP G62-b17EL Keyboard


Keels on canoes improve directional stability (the ability to 'track' in a straight line) but decrease the ability to turn quickly. Consequently, they are better suited for lake travel, especially when traveling on open water with crosswinds. Conversely, keels and "Vee"-bottoms are undesirable for whitewaterbecause often quick turns are required. Well-designed hulls may track straight without a keel, thus avoiding the additional drag and reducing the draft. HP G62-b17ER Keyboard

In aluminum canoes, small keels occur as manufacturing artifacts when the two halves of the hull are joined. In wood-and-canvas canoes, keels are rub-strips to protect the boat from rocks and as they are pulled up on shore. Plastic canoes feature keels to stiffen the hull and allow internal tubular framing to lie flush with the sole of the canoe. HP G62-b17SA Keyboard

Primitive replica canoes fabricated from animal pelt and other natural materials often utilize green branches and other flexible, organic material to retain a buoyant form while resisting risk of puncture or abrasion.Curvature of the hull profile that rises up at the bow and stern is called "rocker".HP G62-b17ST Keyboard

Increasing the rocker improves maneuverability at the expense of tracking (the hull's tendency to travel a straight line without the need for constant course correction). Specialized canoes for whitewater play have an extreme rocker and therefore allow quick turns and tricks. HP G62-b18EL Keyboard

Increased rocker also tends to increase the stability of a canoe; by lifting the ends of the craft out of the water, rocker puts more of the wider, center section of the boat into the water, contributing significantly to the overall stability of the craft. A 35 millimetres (1.4 in) rocker at each end suffices to make a substantial difference to how safe a novice will feel in a canoe. HP G62-b18EO Keyboard

War canoes have been extensively used in Africa to transport troops and supplies, and engage targets onshore. While documentation of canoe versus canoe battles in on the open ocean is rare, records from the 14th century mention various tribal peoples of West Africa using huge fighting canoes in inland waters, some up to 80 feet (24 m) and carrying over 100 men.[13] HP G62-b13SL Keyboard

Construction of the war canoe was typically from one massive tree trunk, with the silk cotton tree being particularly useful. The inside was dug out and carved using fire and hand tools. Braces and stays were used to prevent excessive expansion while the fire treatment was underway. HP G62-b13ST Keyboard

Fire also served to release sap as a preservative against insect pests. Some canoes had 7 to 8 feet (2.4 m) of width inside, accommodating benches for rowers, and facilities such as fireplaces and sleeping berths. HP G62-b14ER Keyboard

Warriors onboard were typically armed with shield, spear and bow. In the gunpowder era, small iron or brass cannon were sometimes mounted on the bow or stern, although the firepower delivered from these areas and weapons was relatively ineffective. Musketeers delivering fire to cover raiding missions generally had better luck. HP G62-b14SO Keyboard

The typical tactic was to maneuver close to shore, discharge weapons, then quickly pull out to open water to reload, before dashing in again to repeat the cycle. Troop and supply transport were the primary missions, but canoe versus canoe engagements in the lagoons, creeks and lakes of West Africa were also significant. HP G62-b14ST Keyboard

In North America, a "touring canoe" is a straight tracking boat good for wind blown lakes etc. A "tripping canoe" has a larger capacity for wilderness travel and is designed with more rocker for better maneuverability on whitewater rivers but requiring some skill on the part of the canoeist in open windy waters, HP G62-b15EL Keyboard

when lightly loaded. Touring canoes are often made of lighter materials and built for comfort and cargo space; whereas Tripping canoes (such as the Chestnut Prospector derivates, and the Old Town trippers), are typically made of heavier and tougher materials, and are of course usually a more traditional design. HP G62-b15ER Keyboard

A generic name for copies of the famed Chestnut model, a popular type of tripping canoe marked by a symmetrical hull and a relatively large amount of rocker; giving a nice balance for wilderness tripping, of the ability to carry large amounts of gear whilst being maneuverable enough for whitewater. HP G62-b15ET Keyboard

This makes it a superb large capacity wilderness boat, but requires skill on windy, broad waters when lightly loaded. Made in a variety of materials. For home construction, 4 mm plywood is commonly used, mainly marine ply, using the "stitch and glue" technique. Commercially built canoes are commonly built of fibreglass, HDPE, Kevlar, Carbon Fiber, and Royalex which is although relatively heavy, very durable. HP G62-b15EV Keyboard

Canoes have a reputation for instability, but this is not true if they are handled properly. For example, the occupants need to keep their center of gravity as low as possible. Canoes can navigate swift-moving water with careful scouting of rapids and good communication between the paddlers. HP G62-b15SA Keyboard

When two people occupy a canoe, they paddle on opposite sides. For example, the person in the bow (the bowman) might hold the paddle on the port side, with the left hand just above the blade and the right hand at the top end of the paddle. The left hand acts mostly as a pivot and the right arm supplies most of the power. HP G62-b15SL Keyboard

The sternman would paddle on the starboardside, with the right hand just above the blade and the left hand at the top. For travel straight ahead, they usually draw the paddle from bow to stern, in a straight line parallel to the gunwale. HP G62-b15SV Keyboard

Tandem steering

The paddling action of two paddlers will tend to turn the canoe toward the side opposite that on which the stern paddler is paddling. Thus, steering is very important, particularly because canoes have flat-bottomed hulls and are very responsive to turning actions. Steering techniques vary widely, even as to the basic question of which paddler should be responsible for steering. HP G62-b10ST Keyboard

Among experienced white water canoeists, the stern paddler is primarily responsible for steering the canoe, with the exception of two cases: The bow paddler will steer when avoiding rocks and other obstacles that the stern paddler cannot see. Also, in the case of back ferrying, the bow paddler is responsible for steering the canoe using small correctional strokes while back paddling with the stern paddler. HP G62-b10SV Keyboard

Among less-experienced canoeists, the canoe is typically steered from the bow. The advantage of steering in the bow is that the bow paddler can change sides more easily than the stern paddler. Steering in the bow is initially more intuitive than steering in the stern, HP G62-b10SW Keyboard

because to steer to starboard, the stern paddler must actually switch to port. On the other hand, the paddler who does not steer usually produces the most forward power or thrust, and the greater source of thrust should be placed in the bow for greater steering stability. HP G62-b11EK Keyboard

The Superior stroke is a less elegant stroke, often used by beginning paddlers before they learn the J-stroke, while sterning tandem canoes. It is more commonly referred to as the goon or rudder stroke. Unlike the J-stroke in which the side of the paddle pushing against the water during the stroke (the power face) is the side which is used to straighten the canoe, HP G62-b11ER Keyboard

this stroke uses the opposite face of the paddle to make the steering motion. It is somewhat like a stroke with a small pry at the end of it. This stroke uses larger muscle groups, is preferable in rough water and is the one used in white water. It is commonly thought to be less efficient than the J-stroke when paddling long distances across relatively calm water. HP G62-b11ET Keyboard

The C-stroke is used in both solo and tandem paddling. It is generally used to turn the canoe to the side opposite of the sterner. With only one paddler, doing a simple bow stroke will cause the canoe to turn rapidly away from the paddling side. To counteract this, HP G62-b11SA Keyboard

the paddler draws toward the boat, paddles forward as in a normal stroke, and pushes away as in a j-stroke. This is opposite to a sweep. It serves the same purpose as a J-stroke (counteracting the natural turn of the canoe away from the paddling side), HP G62-b12EK Keyboard

but provides more correction which is necessary when starting a solo canoe from a standstill or paddling in strong wind or current. When tandem paddling, the C-stroke is generally used in the stern only. To turn the boat to the side opposite of the sterner, the sterner moves the paddle in a "C" shape, HP G62-b12ER Keyboard

by paddling in an ark, whose apex points away from the boat. In tandem canoes, complementary strokes are selected by the bow and stern paddlers in order to quickly and sharply steer the canoe. It is important that the paddlers remain in unison, particularly in white water, in order to keep the boat stable and to maximize efficiency. HP G62-b12SA Keyboard

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