Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
30 juillet 2012 1 30 /07 /juillet /2012 03:49

Jane Austen Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among thelanded gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. Her realism and biting social commentary has gained her historical importance among scholars and critics.[1]SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard Austen lived her entire life as part of a close-knit family located on the lower fringes of the English landed gentry.[2]She was educated primarily by her father and older brothers as well as through her own reading. The steadfast support of her family was critical to her development as a professional writer.[3] Her artistic apprenticeship lasted from her teenage years into her thirties. Compaq Presario CQ57-314 Laptop Keyboard During this period, she experimented with various literary forms, including the epistolary novelwhich she tried then abandoned, and wrote and extensively revised three major novels and began a fourth.[B] From 1811 until 1816, with the release of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816), Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, both published posthumously in 1818, and began a third, which was eventually titled Sanditon, but died before completing it. HP Pavilion G7-1085NR Laptop Keyboard Austen's works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century realism.[4][C] Her plots, though fundamentally comic,[5] highlight the dependence of women on marriage to secure social standing and economic security.[6] Her work brought her little personal fame and only a few positive reviews during her lifetime,  HP Pavilion dv6000 Laptop Keyboard but the publication in 1869 of her nephew's A Memoir of Jane Austen introduced her to a wider public, and by the 1940s she had become widely accepted in academia as a great English writer. The second half of the 20th century saw a proliferation of Austen scholarship and the emergence of a Janeite fan culture. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard Biographical information concerning Jane Austen is "famously scarce", according to one biographer.[7] Only some personal and family letters remain (by one estimate only 160 out of Austen's 3,000 letters are extant),[8] and her sister Cassandra (to whom most of the letters were originally addressed) burned "the greater part" of the ones she kept and censored those she did not destroy.[9]  HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard Other letters were destroyed by the heirs of Admiral Francis Austen, Jane's brother.[10] Most of the biographical material produced for fifty years after Austen's death was written by her relatives and reflects the family's biases in favour of "good quiet Aunt Jane". Scholars have unearthed little information since. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard Austen's parents, George Austen (1731–1805), and his wife Cassandra (1739–1827), were members of substantial gentry families.[11]George was descended from a family of woollen manufacturers, which had risen through the professions to the lower ranks of the landed gentry.[12] Cassandra was a member of the prominent Leigh family; they married on 26 April 1764 at Walcot Church in Bath.[13]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard From 1765 until 1801, that is, for much of Jane's life, George Austen served as the rector of the Anglican parishes at Steventon, Hampshire,[14] and a nearby village. From 1773 until 1796, he supplemented this income by farming and by teaching three or four boys at a time who boarded at his home.[15]HP Mini 311-1035TU Laptop Keyboard Austen's immediate family was large: six brothers—James (1765–1819), George (1766–1838), Edward (1767–1852), Henry Thomas (1771–1850), Francis William (Frank) (1774–1865), Charles John (1779–1852)—and one sister, Cassandra Elizabeth (Steventon, Hampshire, 9 January 1773–1845), who, like Jane, died unmarried. Cassandra was Austen's closest friend and confidante throughout her life.[16] HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Laptop Keyboard Of her brothers, Austen felt closest to Henry, who became a banker and, after his bank failed, an Anglican clergyman. Henry was also his sister's literary agent. His large circle of friends and acquaintances in London included bankers, merchants, publishers, painters, and actors: he provided Austen with a view of social worlds not normally visible from a small parish in rural Hampshire.[17] Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard George was sent to live with a local family at a young age because, as Austen biographer Le Faye describes it, he was "mentally abnormal and subject to fits".[18] He may also have been deaf and mute.[18] Charles and Frank served in the navy, both rising to the rank of admiral. Edward was adopted by his fourth cousin, Thomas Knight, inheriting Knight's estate and taking his name in 1812.[19]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Early life and education Austen was born on 16 December 1775 at Steventon rectory and publicly christened on 5 April 1776.[21] After a few months at home, her mother placed Austen with Elizabeth Littlewood, a woman living nearby, who nursed and raised Austen for a year or eighteen months.[22] In 1783, according to family tradition, Jane and Cassandra were sent to Oxford to be educated by Mrs. HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard                           Ann Cawley and they moved with her to Southampton later in the year. Both girls caught typhus and Jane nearly died.[23] Austen was subsequently educated at home, until leaving for boarding school with her sister Cassandra early in 1785. The school curriculum probably included some French, spelling, needlework, dancing and music and, perhaps, drama. By December 1786, Jane and Cassandra had returned home because the Austens could not afford to send both of their daughters to school.[24]TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard Austen acquired the remainder of her education by reading books, guided by her father and her brothers James and Henry.[25]George Austen apparently gave his daughters unfettered access to his large and varied library, was tolerant of Austen's sometimes risqué experiments in writing, and provided both sisters with expensive paper and other materials for their writing and drawing.[26] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard According to Park Honan, a biographer of Austen, life in the Austen home was lived in "an open, amused, easy intellectual atmosphere" where the ideas of those with whom the Austens might disagree politically or socially were considered and discussed.[27] After returning from school in 1786, Austen "never again lived anywhere beyond the bounds of her immediate family environment".[28]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Private theatricals were also a part of Austen's education. From when she was seven until she was thirteen, the family and close friends staged a series of plays, including Richard Sheridan's The Rivals (1775) and David Garrick's Bon Ton. While the details are unknown, Austen would certainly have joined in these activities, as a spectator at first and as a participant when she was older.[29] Most of the plays were comedies, which suggests one way in which Austen's comedic and satirical gifts were cultivated.[30]SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard In 1788, her portrait may have been commissioned by her great uncle, Francis Austen.


Perhaps as early as 1787, Austen began to write poems, stories, and plays for her own and her family's amusement.[31] Austen later compiled "fair copies" of 29 of these early works into three bound notebooks, now referred to as the Juvenilia, containing pieces originally written between 1787 and 1793.[32] There is manuscript evidence that Austen continued to work on these pieces as late as the period 1809–11, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard and that her niece and nephew, Anna and James Edward Austen, made further additions as late as 1814.[33] Among these works are a satirical novel in letters titled Love and Freindship [sic], in which she mocked popular novels of sensibility,[34] and The History of England, a manuscript of 34 pages accompanied by 13 watercolour miniatures by her sister Cassandra. FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard Austen's History parodied popular historical writing, particularly Oliver Goldsmith's History of England (1764).[35] Austen wrote, for example: "Henry the 4th ascended the throne of England much to his own satisfaction in the year 1399, after having prevailed on his cousin & predecessor Richard the 2nd, to resign it to him, & to retire for the rest of his Life to Pomfret Castle, where he happened to be murdered."[36] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Austen's Juvenilia are often, according to scholar Richard Jenkyns, "boisterous" and "anarchic"; he compares them to the work of 18th-century novelist Laurence Sterne and the 20th century comedy group Monty Python.[37]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard


As Austen grew into adulthood, she continued to live at her parents' home, carrying out those activities normal for women of her age and social standing: she practised the fortepiano, assisted her sister and mother with supervising servants, and attended female relatives during childbirth and older relatives on their deathbeds.[38] HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard She sent short pieces of writing to her newborn nieces Fanny Catherine and Jane Anna Elizabeth.[39] Austen was particularly proud of her accomplishments as a seamstress.[40] She also attended church regularly, socialized frequently with friends and neighbours,[41] and read novels—often of her own composition—aloud with her family in the evenings. ACER Aspire 1640 Laptop Keyboard Socializing with the neighbours often meant dancing, either impromptu in someone's home after supper or at the balls held regularly at the assembly rooms in the town hall.[42] Her brother Henry later said that "Jane was fond of dancing, and excelled in it".[43] DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard In 1793, Austen began and then abandoned a short play, later entitled Sir Charles Grandison or the happy Man, a comedy in 6 acts, which she returned to and completed around 1800. This was a short parody of various school textbook abridgments of Austen's favourite contemporary novel, The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753),  TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard by Samuel Richardson.[44] Honan speculates that at some point not long after writing Love and Freindship [sic] in 1789, Austen decided to "write for profit, to make stories her central effort", that is, to become a professional writer.[45] Beginning in about 1793, she began to write longer, more sophisticated works.[45]SONY VAIO VGN-CR160F Laptop Keyboard   Between 1793 and 1795, Austen wrote Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel, usually described as her most ambitious and sophisticated early work.[46] It is unlike any of Austen's other works. Austen biographer Claire Tomalin describes the heroine of the novella as a sexual predator who uses her intelligence and charm to manipulate, betray, and abuse her victims, TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard whether lovers, friends or family. Tomalin writes: "Told in letters, it is as neatly plotted as a play, and as cynical in tone as any of the most outrageous of the Restoration dramatists who may have provided some of her inspiration....It stands alone in Austen's work as a study of an adult woman whose intelligence and force of character are greater than those of anyone she encounters."[47]TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1MC Laptop Keyboard

Early novels

After finishing Lady Susan, Austen attempted her first full-length novel—Elinor and Marianne. Her sister Cassandra later remembered that it was read to the family "before 1796" and was told through a series of letters. Without surviving original manuscripts, there is no way to know how much of the original draft survived in the novel published in 1811 as Sense and Sensibility.[48]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard When Austen was twenty, Tom Lefroy, a nephew of neighbours, visited Steventon from December 1795 to January 1796. He had just finished a university degree and was moving to London to train as a barrister. Lefroy and Austen would have been introduced at a ball or other neighbourhood social gathering, and it is clear from Austen's letters to Cassandra that they spent considerable time together: "LENOVO Ideapad U550 Laptop Keyboard I am almost afraid to tell you how my Irish friend and I behaved. Imagine to yourself everything most profligate and shocking in the way of dancing and sitting down together."[50] The Lefroy family intervened and sent him away at the end of January. Marriage was impractical, as both Lefroy and Austen must have known. Neither had any money, TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard and he was dependent on a great-uncle in Ireland to finance his education and establish his legal career. If Tom Lefroy later visited Hampshire, he was carefully kept away from the Austens, and Jane Austen never saw him again.[51]HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard Austen began work on a second novel, First Impressions, in 1796. She completed the initial draft in August 1797 when she was only 21 (it later became Pride and Prejudice); as with all of her novels, Austen read the work aloud to her family as she was working on it and it became an "established favourite".[52] At this time, her father made the first attempt to publish one of her novels. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard In November 1797, George Austen wrote to Thomas Cadell, an established publisher in London, to ask if he would consider publishing "a Manuscript Novel, comprised in three Vols. about the length of Miss Burney's Evelina" (First Impressions) at the author's financial risk. Cadell quickly returned Mr. Austen's letter, marked "Declined by Return of Post". SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Austen may not have known of her father's efforts.[53] Following the completion of First Impressions, Austen returned to Elinor and Marianne and from November 1797 until mid-1798, revised it heavily; she eliminated the epistolary format in favour of third-person narration and produced something close to Sense and Sensibility.[54] HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard During the middle of 1798, after finishing revisions of Elinor and Marianne, Austen began writing a third novel with the working title Susan—later Northanger Abbey—a satire on the popular Gothic novel.[55] Austen completed her work about a year later. In early 1803, Henry Austen offered Susan to Benjamin Crosby, a London publisher, SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard who paid £10 for the copyright. Crosby promised early publication and went so far as to advertise the book publicly as being "in the press", but did nothing more. The manuscript remained in Crosby's hands, unpublished, until Austen repurchased the copyright from him in 1816.[56]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Bath and Southampton

In December 1800, Mr Austen unexpectedly announced his decision to retire from the ministry, leave Steventon, and move the family to Bath. While retirement and travel were good for the elder Austens, Jane Austen was shocked to be told she was moving from the only home she had ever known.[57] An indication of Austen's state of mind is her lack of productivity as a writer during the time she lived at Bath. Lenovo 45N2141 Laptop Keyboard She was able to make some revisions to Susan, and she began and then abandoned a new novel, The Watsons, but there was nothing like the productivity of the years 1795–99.[58] Tomalin suggests this reflects a deep depression disabling her as a writer, but Honan disagrees, arguing Austen wrote or revised her manuscripts throughout her creative life, except for a few months after her father died.[59] ASUS NSK-U1001 Laptop Keyboard In December 1802, Austen received her only proposal of marriage. She and her sister visited Alethea and Catherine Bigg, old friends who lived near Basingstoke. Their younger brother, Harris Bigg-Wither, had recently finished his education at Oxford and was also at home. Bigg-Wither proposed and Austen accepted. As described by Caroline Austen, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Jane's niece, and Reginald Bigg-Wither, a descendant, Harris was not attractive—he was a large, plain-looking man who spoke little, stuttered when he did speak, was aggressive in conversation, and almost completely tactless. However, Austen had known him since both were young and the marriage offered many practical advantages to Austen and her family. Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard He was the heir to extensive family estates located in the area where the sisters had grown up. With these resources, Austen could provide her parents a comfortable old age, give Cassandra a permanent home and, perhaps, assist her brothers in their careers. By the next morning, Austen realised she had made a mistake and withdrew her acceptance.[60] TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard No contemporary letters or diaries describe how Austen felt about this proposal.[61] In 1814, Austen wrote a letter to her niece, Fanny Knight, who had asked for advice about a serious relationship, telling her that "having written so much on one side of the question, I shall now turn around & entreat you not to commit yourself farther, & not to think of accepting him unless you really do like him. Anything is to be preferred or endured rather than marrying without Affection".[62]  HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard In 1804, while living in Bath, Austen started but did not complete a new novel, The Watsons. The story centres on an invalid clergyman with little money and his four unmarried daughters. Sutherland describes the novel as "a study in the harsh economic realities of dependent women's lives".[63] Honan suggests, and Tomalin agrees, that Austen chose to stop work on the novel after her father died on 21 January 1805 and her personal circumstances resembled those of her characters too closely for her comfort.[64]HP CT1A Laptop Keyboard Mr Austen's final illness had struck suddenly, leaving him, as Austen reported to her brother Francis, "quite insensible of his own state", and he died quickly.[65] Jane, Cassandra, and their mother were left in a precarious financial situation. Edward, James, Henry, and Francis Austen pledged to make annual contributions to support their mother and sisters.[66]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EE Laptop Keyboard For the next four years, the family's living arrangements reflected their financial insecurity. They lived part of the time in rented quarters in Bath and then, beginning in 1806, in Southampton, where they shared a house with Frank Austen and his new wife. A large part of this time they spent visiting various branches of the family.[67]HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard On 5 April 1809, about three months before the family's move to Chawton, Austen wrote an angry letter to Richard Crosby, offering him a new manuscript of Susanif that was needed to secure immediate publication of the novel, and otherwise requesting the return of the original so she could find another publisher. Crosby replied he had not agreed to publish the book by any particular time,  DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard or at all, and that Austen could repurchase the manuscript for the £10 he had paid her and find another publisher. However, Austen did not have the resources to repurchase the book.[68] HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard


Around early 1809, Austen's brother Edward offered his mother and sisters a more settled life—the use of a large cottage inChawton village[69] that was part of Edward's nearby estate, Chawton House. Jane, Cassandra, and their mother moved into Chawton cottage on 7 July 1809.[70] In Chawton, life was quieter than it had been since the family's move to Bath in 1800. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The Austens did not socialise with the neighbouring gentry and entertained only when family visited. Austen's niece Anna described the Austen family's life in Chawton: "It was a very quiet life, according to our ideas, but they were great readers, and besides the housekeeping our aunts occupied themselves in working with the poor and in teaching some girl or boy to read or write."[71] HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard Austen wrote almost daily, but privately, and seems to have been relieved of some household responsibilities to give her more opportunity to write.[72] In this setting, she was able to be productive as a writer once more.[73]ASUS Z9100L Laptop Keyboard Published author During her time at Chawton, Jane Austen successfully published four novels, which were generally well-received. Through her brother Henry, the publisher Thomas Egerton agreed to publish Sense and Sensibility,[D] which appeared in October 1811. Reviews were favourable and the novel became fashionable among opinion-makers;[74] HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard the edition sold out by mid-1813.[E] Austen's earnings from Sense and Sensibility provided her with some financial and psychological independence.[75] Egerton then published Pride and Prejudice, a revision of First Impressions, in January 1813. He advertised the book widely and it was an immediate success, garnering three favourable reviews and selling well. ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard By October 1813, Egerton was able to begin selling a second edition.[76] Mansfield Park was published by Egerton in May 1814. While Mansfield Park was ignored by reviewers, it was a great success with the public. All copies were sold within six months, and Austen's earnings on this novel were larger than for any of her other novels.[77]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Austen learned that the Prince Regent admired her novels and kept a set at each of his residences.[F] In November 1815, the Prince Regent's librarian invited Austen to visit the Prince's London residence and hinted Austen should dedicate the forthcoming Emma to the Prince. Though Austen disliked the Prince, she could scarcely refuse the request.[78]HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard She later wrote Plan of a Novel, according to hints from various quarters (fr), a satiric outline of the "perfect novel" based on the librarian's many suggestions for a future Austen novel.[79]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In mid-1815, Austen moved her work from Egerton to John Murray, a better known London publisher,[G] who published Emma in December 1815 and a second edition of Mansfield Park in February 1816. Emma sold well but the new edition of Mansfield Park did not, and this failure offset most of the profits Austen earned on Emma. These were the last of Austen's novels to be published during her lifetime.[80]DELL TR334 Laptop Keyboard While Murray prepared Emma for publication, Austen began to write a new novel she titled The Elliots, later published as Persuasion. She completed her first draft in July 1816. In addition, shortly after the publication of Emma, Henry Austen repurchased the copyright for Susan from Crosby. Austen was forced to postpone publishing either of these completed novels by family financial troubles. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Henry Austen's bank failed in March 1816, depriving him of all of his assets, leaving him deeply in debt and losing Edward, James, and Frank Austen large sums. Henry and Frank could no longer afford the contributions they had made to support their mother and sisters.[81]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard

Illness and death

Early in 1816, Jane Austen began to feel unwell. She ignored her illness at first and continued to work and to participate in the usual round of family activities. By the middle of that year, her decline was unmistakable to Austen and to her family, and Austen's physical condition began a long, slow, and irregular deterioration culminating in her death the following year.[82] SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard The majority of Austen biographers rely on Dr. Vincent Cope's tentative 1964 retrospective diagnosis and list her cause of death as Addison's disease. However, her final illness has also been described as Hodgkin's lymphoma.[H] Recent work by Katherine White of Britain's Addison’s Disease Self Help Group suggests that Austen probably died of bovine tuberculosis,[83] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard a disease (now) commonly associated with drinking unpasteurized milk. One contributing factor or cause of her death, discovered by Linda Robinson Walker and described in the Winter 2010 issue of Persuasions on-line, might be Brill–Zinsser disease, a recurrent form of typhus, which she had as a child. Brill–Zinsser disease is to typhus as shingles is to chicken pox; when a victim of typhus endures stress, HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard malnutrition or another infection, typhus can recur as Brill–Zinsser disease.[84] Austen continued to work in spite of her illness. She became dissatisfied with the ending of The Elliotsand rewrote the final two chapters, finishing them on 6 August 1816.[I] In January 1817, Austen began work on a new novel she called The Brothers, later titled Sanditon upon its first publication in 1925, and completed twelve chapters before stopping work in mid-March 1817, TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard probably because her illness prevented her from continuing.[85] Austen made light of her condition to others, describing it as "Bile" andrheumatism, but as her disease progressed she experienced increasing difficulty walking or finding the energy for other activities. By mid-April, Austen was confined to her bed. In May, Jane and Cassandra's brother Henry escorted the two of them to Winchester for medical treatment. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817, at the age of 41. Henry, through his clerical connections, arranged for his sister to be buried in the north aisle of the nave of Winchester Cathedral. The epitaph composed by her brother James praises Austen's personal qualities, expresses hope for her salvation, mentions the "extraordinary endowments of her mind", but does not explicitly mention her achievements as a writer.[86]TOSHIBA KFRSBA064A Laptop Keyboard

Posthumous publication

After Austen's death, Cassandra and Henry Austen arranged with Murray for the publication of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey as a set in December 1817.[J] Henry Austen contributed a Biographical Note which for the first time identified his sister as the author of the novels. Tomalin describes it as "a loving and polished eulogy".[87] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Sales were good for a year—only 321 copies remained unsold at the end of 1818—and then declined. Murray disposed of the remaining copies in 1820, and Austen's novels remained out of print for twelve years.[88] In 1832, publisher Richard Bentley purchased the remaining copyrights to all of Austen's novels and, beginning in either December 1832 or January 1833, HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard published them in five illustrated volumes as part of his Standard Novels series. In October 1833, Bentley published the first collected edition of Austen's works. Since then, Austen's novels have been continuously in print.[89]DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard


Austen's works brought her little personal renown because they were published anonymously. Although her novels quickly became fashionable among opinion-makers, such as Princess Charlotte Augusta, daughter of the Prince Regent, they received only a few published reviews.[90] Most of the reviews were short and on balance favourable, although superficial and cautious.[91HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Laptop Keyboard ] They most often focused on the moral lessons of the novels.[92] Sir Walter Scott, a leading novelist of the day, contributed one of them, anonymously. Using the review as a platform from which to defend the then disreputable genre of the novel, he praised Austen's realism.[93] The other important early review of Austen's works was published by Richard Whately in 1821. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard He drew favourable comparisons between Austen and such acknowledged greats as Homer and Shakespeare, praising the dramatic qualities of her narrative. Whately and Scott set the tone for almost all subsequent 19th-century Austen criticism.[94] APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

19th century

Because Austen's novels failed to conform to Romantic and Victorian expectations that "powerful emotion [be] authenticated by an egregious display of sound and colour in the writing",[95] 19th-century critics and audiences generally preferred the works of Charles Dickens and George Eliot.[96] Though Austen's novels were republished in Britain beginning in the 1830s and remained steady sellers, they were not bestsellers.[97]TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard Austen had many admiring readers in the 19th century who considered themselves part of a literary elite: they viewed their appreciation of Austen's works as a mark of their cultural taste. Philosopher and literary critic George Henry Lewesexpressed this viewpoint in a series of enthusiastic articles published in the 1840s and 1850s.[99] ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard This theme continued later in the century with novelist Henry James, who referred to Austen several times with approval and on one occasion ranked her with Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Henry Fielding as among "the fine painters of life".[100]TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard The publication of James Edward Austen-Leigh's A Memoir of Jane Austen in 1869 introduced Austen to a wider public as "dear aunt Jane", the respectable maiden aunt. Publication of the Memoir spurred the reissue of Austen's novels—the first popular editions were released in 1883 and fancy illustrated editions and collectors' sets quickly followed.[101]SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Author and criticLeslie Stephen described the popular mania that started to develop for Austen in the 1880s as "Austenolatry".[102] Around the turn of the century, members of the literary elite reacted against the popularization of Austen. They referred to themselves as Janeites in order to distinguish themselves from the masses who did not properly understand her works.[103] HP Mini 210-2006sa Laptop Keyboard For example, James responded negatively to what he described as "a beguiled infatuation" with Austen, a rising tide of public interest that exceeded Austen's "intrinsic merit and interest".[104]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Laptop Keyboard During the last quarter of the 19th century, the first books of criticism on Austen were published. In fact, after the publication of the Memoir, more criticism was published on Austen in two years than had appeared in the previous fifty.[105]HP Pavilion dv6-2110sf Laptop Keyboard

20th century and beyond

Several important works paved the way for Austen's novels to become a focus of academic study. The first important milestone was a 1911 essay by Oxford Shakespearean scholar A. C. Bradley, which is "generally regarded as the starting-point for the serious academic approach to Jane Austen".[106] In it, he established the groupings of Austen's "early" and "late" novels, TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard which are still used by scholars today.[107] The second was R. W. Chapman's 1923 edition of Austen's collected works. Not only was it the first scholarly edition of Austen's works, it was also the first scholarly edition of any English novelist. The Chapman text has remained the basis for all subsequent published editions of Austen's works.[108] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard With the publication in 1939 of Mary Lascelles's Jane Austen and Her Art, the academic study of Austen took hold.[109] Lascelles's innovative work included an analysis of the books Jane Austen read and the effect of her reading on her work, an extended analysis of Austen's style, and her "narrative art". At the time, concern arose over the fact that academics were taking over Austen criticism and it was becoming increasingly esoteric—a debate that has continued to the beginning of the 21st century.[110]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard In a spurt of revisionist views in the 1940s, scholars approached Austen more sceptically and argued that she was a subversive writer. These revisionist views, together with F. R. Leavis's and Ian Watt's pronouncement that Austen was one of the great writers of English fiction, did much to cement Austen's reputation amongst academics.[111HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard ] They agreed that she "combined [Henry Fielding's and Samuel Richardson's] qualities of interiority and irony, realism and satire to form an author superior to both".[112] The period since World War II has seen more scholarship on Austen using a diversity of critical approaches, including feminist theory, and perhaps most controversially, postcolonial theory. DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard However, the continuing disconnection between the popular appreciation of Austen, particularly by modern Janeites, and the academic appreciation of Austen has widened considerably. Jane Austen was the favourite novelist of political philosopher Leo Strauss.[113]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Sequels, prequels, and adaptations of almost every sort have been based on the novels of Jane Austen, from soft-core pornography to fantasy.[114] Beginning in the middle of the 19th century, Austen family members published conclusions to her incomplete novels, and by 2000 there were over 100 printed adaptations.[115] Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard The first film adaptation was the 1940 MGM production of Pride and Prejudice starring Laurence Olivier and Greer Garson.[116] BBC television dramatisations, which were first produced in the 1970s, attempted to adhere meticulously to Austen's plots, characterisations, and settings.[117] HP G61-445SI Laptop Keyboard In 1995 a great wave of Austen adaptations began to appear, with Ang Lee's film of Sense and Sensibility, for which screenwriter and star Emma Thompson won an Academy Award, and the BBC's immensely popular TV mini-series Pride and Prejudice, starring Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth.[118]DELL 3C048 Laptop Keyboard Books and scripts that use the general storyline of Austen's novels but change or otherwise modernise the story also became popular at the end of the 20th century. For example, Clueless (1995), Amy Heckerling's updated version of Emma, which takes place in Beverly Hills, became a cultural phenomenon and spawned its own television series.[119]SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard In a 2002 vote to determine whom the UK public considers the greatest British people in history, Austen was ranked number 70 in the list of the "100 Greatest Britons".[120] In 2003, Austen's Pride and Prejudice came second in the BBC's The Big Read, a national poll to find the "Nation's best-loved book."[121]HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard In 2007, the article Rejecting Jane by British author David Lassman, which examined how Austen would fare in the modern day publishing industry,[122][123][124][125][126] achieved worldwide attention when Austen's work—submitted under a pseudonym == was rejected by numerous publishers.[127]HP Pavilion G60-118EM Laptop Keyboard Thomas Lefroy had an outstanding academic record at Trinity College, Dublin, from 1790 to 1793. In 1793, his great-uncle Benjamin Langlois sponsored Tom's legal studies at Lincoln's Inn, London. One year later, Lefroy served as Auditor of Trinity's College Historical Society, the still-active debating society of the college. Later still, he became a prominent member of the Irish bar (having been called to it in 1797) and published a series of Law Reports on the cases of the Irish Court of Chancery. ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard In 1796, Lefroy began a flirtation with English novelist Jane Austen, who was a friend of an older female relative. Jane Austen wrote two letters to her sister Cassandra mentioning "Tom Lefroy" but it does not seem to have been a serious relationship. While some have suggested that it may have been he whom Austen had in mind when she invented the character of Mr. Darcy in Pride and Prejudice, DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard this seems rather unlikely. While the courtship between Tom Lefroy and Jane Austen took place over the year or so that Pride and Prejudice was written, the comparisons between the then student Tom Lefroy and the accomplished Mr. Darcy are premature at best, especially in terms of success and connections. In his 2003 biography, Becoming Jane Austen, TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard Jon Spence suggests that Jane Austen actually used personalities as the models for Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth Bennett, but not in an expected way. Mr. Spence suggests that Jane Austen used herself as a model for Mr.  HP Pavilion tx2532la Laptop Keyboard Darcy and his measured demeanor while Tom Lefroy acted as the model for the more gregarious Elizabeth Bennett. So while the exact influence of Tom Lefroy on Pride and Prejudice continues to be debated, it does seem certain that his presence in Austen's life is in some way reflected in the novel. ACER AEZR1R00110 Laptop Keyboard In a letter dated Saturday (9 January 1796), Austen mentioned: You scold me so much in the nice long letter which I have this moment received from you, that I am almost afraid to tell you how my Irish friend and I behaved. Imagine to yourself everything most profligate and shocking in the way of dancing and sitting down together. I can expose myself however, only once more, because he leaves the country soon after next Friday, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard on which day we are to have a dance at Ashe after all. He is a very gentlemanlike, good-looking, pleasant young man, I assure you. But as to our having ever met, except at the three last balls, I cannot say much; for he is so excessively laughed at about me at Ashe, that he is ashamed of coming to Steventon, and ran away when we called on Mrs. Lefroy a few days ago. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard . .After I had written the above, we received a visit from Mr. Tom Lefroy and his cousin George. The latter is really very well-behaved now; and as for the other, he has but one fault, which time will, I trust, entirely remove — it is that his morning coat is a great deal too light. He is a very great admirer of Tom Jones, and therefore wears the same coloured clothes, I imagine, which he did when he was wounded.[1]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard   In a letter started on Thursday (14 January 1796), and finished the following morning, there was another mention of him. Friday. — At length the day is come on which I am to flirt my last with Tom Lefroy, and when you receive this it will be over. My tears flow as I write at the melancholy idea.[2]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard   Austen's surviving correspondence contains only one other mention of Tom Lefroy, in a November 1798 letter that Austen biographer Claire Tomalin believes demonstrates the author's "bleak remembrance, and persistent interest"[3] in Lefroy. In the letter to her sister, Austen writes that Tom's aunt Mrs. Lefroy had been to visit, but had not said anything about her nephew... TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard "...to me, and I was too proud to make any enquiries; but on my father's afterwards asking where he was, I learnt that he was gone back to London in his way to Ireland, where he is called to the Bar and means to practise."[4]HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Laptop Keyboard   Upon learning of Jane Austen’s death (18 July 1817), Thomas Langlois Lefroy traveled from Ireland to England to pay his respects to the British author.[5] In addition, at an auction of Cadell's papers (possibly in London), one Tom Lefroy bought a Cadell publisher's rejection letter—for Austen’s early version ofPride and Prejudice, titled First Impressions. Caroline Austen said in her letter to James Edward Austen-Leigh on 1 April 1869: ACER Aspire 5538 Laptop Keyboard   I enclose a copy of Mr. Austen’s letter to Cadell—I do not know which novel he would have sent—The letter does not do much credit to the tact or courtesy of our good Grandfather for Cadell was a great man in his day, and it is not surprising that he should have refused the favour so offered from an unknown—but the circumstance may be worth noting, especially as we have so few incidents to produce. At a sale of Cadell’s papers &c Tom Lefroy picked up the original letter—and Jemima copied it for me –DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard   It was rather unlikely that Caroline Austen would address the Chief Justice Lefroy as only ‘Tom Lefroy’ (she indeed addressed him as the still living ‘Chief Justice’ in the later part of the letter). However, if it is true that the original Tom Lefroy purchased the Cadell letter after Jane’s death, it is possible that he later handed it over to Thomas Edward Preston Lefroy (T.E.P. Lefroy; DELL Studio 1749 Laptop Keyboard husband of Jemima Lefroy who was the daughter of Anna Austen Lefroy and Benjamin Lefroy). T.E.P. Lefroy later would give Cadell’s letter to Caroline for reference. Cadell & Davies firm was closed down in 1836 after the death of Thomas Cadell Jr.. The sale of Cadell's papers took place in 1840, possibly in November.[6]HP Pavilion dv6-2010ep Laptop Keyboard In the latter years of Tom Lefroy's life, he was questioned about his relationship with Jane Austen by his nephew, and admitted to having loved Jane Austen, but stated that it was a "boyish love".[7] As is written in a letter sent from T.E.P. Lefroy to James Edward Austen Leigh in 1870, HP Pavilion dv6-2111sa Laptop Keyboard   My late venerable uncle ... said in so many words that he was in love with her, although he qualified his confession by saying it was a boyish love. As this occurred in a friendly & private conversation, I feel some doubt whether I ought to make it public.[8]HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop Keyboard A fictitious account of their relationship is at the center of the 2007 historical romance film Becoming Jane. In this film, Lefroy is played by James McAvoy. Lefroy contested Dublin University in an 1827 by-election, as a Tory, but finished third. DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard An idea of Lefroy's politics is given by the opening of an editorial in The Times (of London) on Friday 27 February 1829 when he was opposing the Bill to admit Irish Catholics to parliament (if they met a high property qualification).  HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard   Serjeant Lefroy and Mr Saurin have been… re-edifying their Orange disciples in Dublin with much curious but rather apocryphal twaddle, touching thecoronation oath, the Act of Settlement and so on. The learned Serjeant expresses his hostility to the proposed law by declaring that he is averse to the removal of ancient landmarks. Now, if the saintly Serjeant means that the letter of a law can constitute a political landmark, we can assure him he is in pitiable error.  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-114EM Laptop Keyboard   Lefroy may have been influenced by Huguenot family memories of persecution by French Catholics; this was the case with other opponents of Catholic emancipation such as William Saurin mentioned above. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard   Richard Lalor Sheil published a profile of Lefroy stating (amongst many hostile remarks on his combination of piety and moneymaking) that Lefroy was well known for his interest in the conversion of Jews to Protestantism, leading Daniel O'Connell to joke during a lawsuit over a collection of antique coins that Lefroy should be given the Hebrew coins as his fee while O'Connell received those with a Roman inscription. SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Laptop Keyboard Patrick Geoghegan's life of O'Connell, King Dan, states that O'Connell held Lefroy's legal abilities in contempt and regarded him as a prime example of a lawyer promoted above more meritorious Catholics (notably O'Connell himself) because of his Protestant religion and Tory politics. TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Laptop Keyboard   He was elected to the House of Commons for the Dublin University seat in 1830, as a Tory (the party later becoming known as Conservative). He became a member of the Privy Council of Ireland on 29 January 1835. In 1838, Thomas Langlois Lefroy received American politician Charles Sumner during Sumner's visit to Ireland.[9]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard Tom Lefroy continued to represent the University until he was appointed an Irish judge (with the title of a Baron of the Exchequer) in 1841. In 1848 he presided over the sedition trial of the Young Irelander John Mitchel. HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard   He was promoted to Chief Justice of the Court of Queen's Bench in Ireland in 1852. Despite some allegations in Parliament, that he was too old to do the job, Lefroy did not resign as Chief Justice until he was aged 90 and a Conservative government was in office to fill the vacancy. This was in July 1866. One apocryphal story (in the memoirs of the Home Rule MP JG Swift MacNeill) describes Lefroy's son as denying in Parliament that his father was too old to perform his duties, TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Laptop Keyboard but being himself so visibly old and feeble as to produce the opposite effect on parliamentary opinion. Another version of this story has the son defending his father's capacity although he himself had applied to be excused certain official duties on account of advanced age. The Hansard report of the debate can be found here. SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard   In a satirical pamphlet on the Trinity College Dublin election of 1865 Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu suggests that Lefroy was so old that he had "ridden on the mastodon to hunt the megatherium" and mocks the manner in which the Conservative lawyer-politicians Joseph Napier and James Whiteside allegedly insisted whenever the Conservatives were in power (and might appoint them to replace him) that Lefroy is too old to perform his duties, only to insist whenever a Whig government is in power that he is in perfect health. ASUS X82 Laptop Keyboard


Interest in astronomy

Tom Lefroy was also interested in astronomy. On 30 March 1846, he visited William Parsons, the 3rd Earl of Rosse in Parsonstown to try Parsons’ new telescope called Leviathan of Parsonstown. Tom later said to his wife (Letter 31 March 1846)[10]: TOSHIBA Satellite A505 Laptop Keyboard   Yesterday was indeed a most interesting day. Lord Rosse and his wife were as kind to me as possible. The wonders of his telescope are not to be told. He says—with as much ease as another man would say, “Come and I’ll show you a beautiful prospect”—“Come and I’ll show you a universe, one of a countless multitude of univ

erses, each larger than the whole universe hitherto known to astronomers.” HP Pavilion dv4-1104tu Laptop Keyboard The planet Jupiter, which through an ordinary glass is no larger than a good star, is seen twice as large as the moon appears to the naked eye. It was all true what Doherty [a Chief Justice, more than six feet high] said, HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard that he walked upright in the tube with an umbrella over his head before it was set. But the genius displayed in all the contrivances for wielding this mighty monster even surpasses the design and execution of it. The telescope weighs sixteen tons, and yet Lord Rosse raised it single-handed off its resting place, and two men with ease raised it to any height. ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard   Tom Lefroy was born of the Irish Lefroys, descendants of a Huguenot Lefroy who migrated to England in the 16th century,[11] hence the French sounding name (the family head being a Lord L'Offroy). In 1765, Tom’s father (Anthony Peter Lefroy) was secretly married to Ann Gardner in Limerick (Ireland). Five girls were born without Benjamin Langlois (Tom’s great uncle and his family's benefactor) knowing it (Radovici mentioned five, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard but Cranfield mentioned four; it is possible that one of Tom's elder sisters died in infancy). Thomas Langlois Lefroy was the sixth child, also the first son. The list of Tom’s siblings (including him) is as follows[12]: HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee Laptop Keyboard

Carrigglas Manor

Carrigglas Manor was a Gothic-style great house built for Lefroy and his family circa 1830 (Memoir of Chief Justice Lefroy). The family had lived in Carrigglas before 1837 (one of Tom's letter for Mary was dated 5 October 1834). James Gandon the famous architect of Dublin's Custom House designed and built a stable block and farmyard and walled garden for Lefroy. ACER TravelMate 6290 Laptop Keyboard In 1837, Lefroy renovated the Manor with the help of Daniel Robertson, Esq., a famous English architect. A hurricane on 6 January 1839 destroyed some parts of the house, and Lefroy had to rebuild it.[10] As of 2010, the plan to adapt the manor house to be part of a newly built hotel, and to turn the 660-acre (2.7 km2) park into a golf course and housing estate collapsed and work at Carrigglas was terminated before the hotel or any of the new houses were occupied.[15] SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard   The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by British Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling. The stories were first published in magazines in 1893–94. The original publications contain illustrations, some by Rudyard's father, John Lockwood Kipling. Kipling was born in India and spent the first six years of his childhood there. After about ten years in England, he went back to India and worked there for about six-and-half years. These stories were written when Kipling lived in Vermont.[1]ASUS F6 Laptop Keyboard   The tales in the book (and also those in The Second Jungle Book which followed in 1895, and which includes five further stories about Mowgli) are fables, using animals in an anthropomorphic manner to give moral lessons. The verses of The Law of the Jungle, for example, lay down rules for the safety of individuals, families and communities. HP Pavilion tx2500z Laptop Keyboard Kipling put in them nearly everything he knew or "heard or dreamed about the Indian jungle."[2] Other readers have interpreted the work as allegories of the politics and society of the time.[3] The best-known of them are the three stories revolving around the adventures of an abandoned "man cub" Mowgli who is raised by wolves in the Indian jungle. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Laptop Keyboard The most famous of the other stories are probably "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi", the story of a heroic mongoose, and "Toomai of the Elephants", the tale of a young elephant-handler. As with much of Kipling's work, each of the stories is preceded by a piece of verse, and succeeded by another. HP pavilion DV7-1005eo Laptop Keyboard The Jungle Book, because of its moral tone, came to be used as a motivational book by the Cub Scouts, a junior element of theScouting movement. This use of the book's universe was approved by Kipling after a direct petition of Robert Baden-Powell, DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard founder of the Scouting movement, who had originally asked for the author's permission for the use of the Memory Game from Kimin his scheme to develop the morale and fitness of working-class youths in cities. Akela, the head wolf in The Jungle Book, has become a senior figure in the movement, the name being traditionally adopted by the leader of each Cub Scout pack. TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S9722 Laptop Keyboard   As the head of state, the Sovereign remains the "fount of honour",[1] but the system for identifying and recognising candidates to honour has changed considerably over time. Various orders of knighthood have been created (see below) as well as awards for military service, bravery, merit, and achievement which take the form of decorations or medals. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Most medals are not graded. Each one recognises specific service and as such there are normally set criteria which must be met. These criteria may include a period of time and will often delimit a particular geographic HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard


New Year and Birthday Honours

A complete list of approximately 1350 names is published twice a year, at New Year and on the date of the Sovereign's (official) birthday. Since their decisions are inevitably subjective, the twice-yearly honours lists often provoke criticism from those who feel strongly about particular cases.[3][4] Candidates are identified by public or private bodies, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard by government departments or are nominated by members of the public. Depending on their roles, those people selected by committee are submitted either to the Prime Minister, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, or Secretary of State for Defence for their approval before being sent to the Sovereign for final approval. Certain honours are awarded solely at the Sovereign's discretion, such as the Order of the Garter,[5] TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard the Order of the Thistle, the Royal Victorian Order,[6] the Order of Merit[7] and the Royal Family Order. The awards are then presented by the Sovereign or her designated representative. The Prince of Wales and the Princess Royal have deputised for the Queen at investiture ceremonies at Buckingham Palace. SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Laptop KeyboardThese orders, relating to the British Raj or the British Indian Empire, are also dormant. The senior order, the Order of the Star of India, was divided into three grades, Knight Grand Commander, Knight Commander and Companion, of which the first and highest was conferred upon the Princes and Chiefs of Indian states and upon important British civil servants working in India. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Women were not eligible to receive the award. The junior order, the Order of the Indian Empire, was divided into the same ranks and also excluded women. The third order, the Order of the Crown of India, was used exclusively to honour women. Its members, all sharing a single grade, consisted of the wives and close female relatives of Indian Princes or Chiefs; lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard the Viceroy or Governor-General; the Governors of Bombay, Madras and Bengal; the Principal Secretary of State for India; and the Commander-in-Chief in India. Upon Indian independence in 1947, appointments to all these orders ceased. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5127 Laptop Keyboard H.H. Maharaja Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur of Alwar, who was a KCSI and the last surviving member of the Order of the Star of India, died in February 2009, aged 97. The sole surviving member of the Order of the Indian Empire, H.H. Maharaja Meghrajji III of Dhrangadhra-Halvad, a KCIE died in August 2010, aged 87. GATEWAY M250 Laptop Keyboard Queen Elizabeth II was appointed to the Order of the Crown of India (then as Princess Elizabeth) and is the last surviving former member of that order. The Queen remains also the Sovereign of the Indian orders as they have never been abolished. HP Mini 110-3100sg Laptop Keyboard   The Order of Burma was created in May 1940 by King George VI of the United Kingdom to recognise subjects of the British colony of Burma (now Myanmar). This order had one class which entitled the member to the postnominal letters OB but no title. It was originally intended to reward long and faithful service by military and police. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard In 1945 the Royal Warrant was altered to allow for membership for acts of gallantry as well as meritorious service. The Order was one of the rarest awarded with only 33 appointments by the time appointments were discontinued in 1948 when Burma declared independence. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard   The Royal Guelphic Order, also known as the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, was an honour founded by George IV in 1815. It contains three classes and the awards are made in two divisions (civil and military). In the United Kingdom it was used only briefly, until the death of William IV in 1837 that resulted in the ending of the personal union with the Kingdom of Hanover due to succession to the throne of Hanover following the Salic Law, unlike in the United Kingdom where women could inheirit the throne. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1CN Laptop Keyboard The order continued for some time as a national order of Hanover until the defeat and forced dissolution of the kingdom by Prussia in 1866. Since then the order is a house order to be awarded by the House of Hanover. The order's current head is Ernst August Prinz von Hanover, head of the house of Hanover. HP Pavilion DV7-2110tx Laptop Keyboard

Hereditary peerage

There are five ranks of hereditary peerage: Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. Until the mid 20th century, peerages were usually hereditary (bar legal peerages - see below) and, until the end of the 20th century, English, British and UK peerages (except, until very recent times, those for the time being held by women) carried the right to a seat in the House of Lords. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Hereditary peerages are now normally only given to members of the Royal Family. The most recent were the grants to the Queen's youngest son, the Earl of Wessex, on his marriage in 1999, and to the Queen's grandson Prince William who was made the Duke of Cambridge on the morning before his marriage to Catherine Middletonon April 29, 2011. No hereditary peerages were granted to commoners after the Labour Party came to power in 1964,  HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard until Margaret Thatcher tentatively reintroduced them by two grants to men with no sons in 1983, respectively the Speaker of the House of Commons George Thomas and the former Deputy Prime MinisterWilliam Whitelaw. Both these titles died with their holders. She followed this with an Earldom in 1984 for the former Prime Minister Harold Macmillan not long before his death, reviving a traditional honour for former Prime Ministers.  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-114EM Laptop Keyboard Macmillan's grandson succeeded him on his death in 1986. No hereditary peerages have been created since, and Thatcher's own title is a life peerage (see further explanation below). The concession of a baronetcy (i.e. hereditary knighthood), was granted to Margaret Thatcher's husband Denis following her resignation (explained below, see Baronetcy). HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article