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2 août 2011 2 02 /08 /août /2011 04:06

Japan( Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku) is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, People's Republic of China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/T Battery

The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Japan is sometimes referred to as the "Land of the Rising Sun".

Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands.The four largest islands are Honsh?, Hokkaid?, Ky?sh? and Shikoku, together accounting for ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI Battery

Japan has the world's tenth-largest population, with over 127 million people. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de factocapital city of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX Battery

Archaeological research indicates that people lived in Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other nations followed by long periods of isolation has characterized Japan's history. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI Battery

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries victory in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II, which brought to an end in 1945 by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/T Battery

Since adopting its revised constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with anemperor and an elected parliament called the Diet.

A major economic power,[2] Japan has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP[13] and by purchasing power parity. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI Battery

It is also the world's fourth largest exporter and fourth largest importer. Although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military force in self-defense and peacekeeping roles. After Singapore, Japan has the lowest homicide (including attempted homicide) rate in the world.Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX Battery

According to bothUN and WHO estimates, Japan has the longest life expectancy of any country in the world. According to the UN, it has the third lowest infant mortalityrate.

Etymology

The English word Japan is an exonym. The Japanese names for Japan are Nippon (?????) About this sound listen (help·info) and Nihon (????) About this sound listen(help·info); both names are written using the kanji ??Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/BI Battery

. The Japanese name Nippon is used for most official purposes, including on Japanese yen, postage stamps, and for many international sporting events. Nihon is a more casual term and is used in contemporary speech. Japanese people refer to themselves as Nihonjin (????) and to their language as Nihongo (????). Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/T Battery

Both Nippon and Nihon mean "sun-origin" and are often translated as Land of the Rising Sun. This nomenclature comes from Japanese missions to Imperial China and refers to Japan's eastward position relative to China. Before Nihon came into official use, Japan was known as Wa (??) or Wakoku (???).Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI Battery

The English word for Japan came to the West via early trade routes. The early Mandarin or possibly Wu Chinese (??) word for Japan was recorded byMarco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters ?? 'Japan' is Zeppen[z??p?n]. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX Battery

The old Malay word for Japan, Jepang, was borrowed from a Chinese language, and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Malacca in the 16th century. It is thought the Portuguese traders were the first to bring the word to Europe. It was first recorded in English in a 1565 letter, spelled Giapan.Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BI Battery

A Paleolithic culture around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of Japan. This was followed from around 14,000 BC (the start of the J?mon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gathererculture, who include ancestors of both the contemporary Ainu people and Yamato people, characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture.Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BIC Battery

Decorated clay vessels from this period are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world. Around 300 BC, the Yayoi people began to enter the Japanese islands, intermingling with the J?mon. The Yayoi period, starting around 500 BC, saw the introduction of practices likewet-rice farming, a new style of pottery, and metallurgy, introduced from China and Korea.Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T Battery

The Japanese first appear in written history in the Chinese Book of Han. According to the Records of Three Kingdoms, the most powerful kingdom on the archipelago during the 3rd century was called Yamataikoku. Buddhism was first introduced to Japan from Baekje, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China.Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX Battery

Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710).

The Nara period (710–784) of the 8th century marked the emergence of a strong Japanese state, centered on an imperial court in Heij?-ky? (modern Nara). Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI Battery

The Nara period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literature as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired art and architecture. The smallpox epidemic of 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population.Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/T Battery

In 784, Emperor Kammu moved the capital from Nara to Nagaoka-ky? before relocating it to Heian-ky? (modern Kyoto) in 794.

This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged, noted for its art, poetry andprose. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI Battery

Lady Murasaki's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem Kimigayo were written during this time. 

Buddhism began to spread during the Heian era through chiefly two major sect, Tendai by Saich?, and Shingon by K?kai. Pure Land Buddhism greatly becomes popular in the latter half of the 11th century.Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM Battery

Feudal era

Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan, sung in the epic Tale of Heike, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo was appointed shogun and established a base of power in Kamakura. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/BI Battery

After his death, theH?j? clan came to power as regents for the shoguns. The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class.The Kamakura shogunate repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281, but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/T Battery

Go-Daigo was himself defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336.

Ashikaga Takauji establishes the shogunate in Muromachi, Kyoto. It is a start of Muromachi Period (1336–1573). The Ashikaga shogunate receives glory in the age of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, and the culture based on Zen Buddhism (art of Miyabi) has prospered.Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI Battery

It evolves to Higashiyama Culture, and has prospered until the 16th century. On the other hand, the succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyo), and a civil war (the ?nin War) began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States").Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX Battery

During the 16th century, traders and Jesuit missionaries from Portugal reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. Oda Nobunaga conquered many other daimyo using European technology and firearms;Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/BI Battery

after he was assassinated in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in 1590. Hideyoshi invaded Korea twice, but following defeats by Korean and Ming Chinese forces and Hideyoshi's death, Japanese troops were withdrawn in 1598.[33] This age is called Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573–1603).Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/T Battery

Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi's son and used his position to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, he defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Ieyasu was appointed shogun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo).Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/WI Battery

The Tokugawa shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyo;[35]and in 1639, the isolationistsakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868).Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX Battery

The study of Western sciences, known as rangaku, continued through contact with the Dutch enclave at Dejima in Nagasaki. The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese.

Modern era

On March 31, 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa.Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/B Battery

Subsequent similar treaties with Western countries in the Bakumatsu period brought economic and political crises. The resignation of the shogun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized statenominally unified under the Emperor (the Meiji Restoration).Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/G Battery

Adopting Western political, judicial and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. The Meiji Restoration transformed the Empire of Japan into an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/L Battery

After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea, and the southern half of Sakhalin.[39] Japan's population grew from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million in 1935.Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/P Battery

The early 20th century saw a brief period of "Taish? democracy" overshadowed by increasing expansionism and militarization. World War I enabled Japan, on the side of the victorious Allies, to widen its influence and territorial holdings. Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/W Battery

It continued its expansionist policy by occupying Manchuria in 1931; as a result of international condemnation of this occupation, Japan resigned from the League of Nations two years later. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany, and the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers.Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX Battery

In 1941, Japan negotiated the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact.The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). In 1940, the Empire then invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan.Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/B Battery

On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor and declared war, bringing the US into World War II.[44][45]After the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender on August 15.Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/G Battery

The war cost Japan and the rest of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere millions of lives and left much of the nation's industry and infrastructure destroyed. The Allies (led by the US) repatriated millions of ethnic Japanese from colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and restoring the independence of its conquered territories.Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L Battery

The Allies also convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East on May 3, 1946 to prosecute some Japanese leaders for war crimes. However, the bacteriological research units and members of the imperial family involved in the war were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by the Supreme Allied Commander despite calls for trials for both groups.Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/P Battery

In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952 and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. Japan later achieved rapid growth to become the second-largest economy in the world. Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/W Battery

This ended in the mid-1990s when Japan suffered a major recession. In the beginning of the 21st century, positive growth has signaled a gradual economic recovery.On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered the strongest earthquake in its recorded history; this triggered the Fukushima I nuclear accidents, one of the worst disasters in the history of nuclear power.Sony VAIO VPCEB190X Battery

Politics

Japan is a constitutional monarchy where the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people". Sony VAIO VPCEB19FX Battery

Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister of Japan and other elected members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people.[52] Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan; Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan, stands as next in line to the throne.Sony VAIO VPCEB19GX Battery

Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives with 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and a House of Councillors of 242 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX Battery

There is universal suffragefor adults over 20 years of age,[2] with a secret ballot for all elected offices.[52] In 2009, the social liberal Democratic Party of Japan took power after 54 years of the liberal conservative Liberal Democratic Party's rule.Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX/B Battery

The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government and is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the Diet from among its members. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State. Naoto Kanwas designated by the Diet to replace Yukio Hatoyama as the Prime Minister of Japan on June 2, 2010.Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX Battery

Although the Prime Minister is formally appointed by the Emperor, the Constitution of Japan explicitly requires the Emperor to appoint whoever is designated by the Diet. Emperor Akihito formally appointed Kan as the country's 94th Prime Minister on June 8.Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX/BI Battery

Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. However, since the late 19th century the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX Battery

For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on a draft of the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch; with post–World War II modifications, the code remains in effect.[57] Statutory law originates in Japan's legislature and has the rubber stamp of the Emperor. Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX/BI Battery

The Constitution requires that the Emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet, without specifically giving him the power to oppose legislation. Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.[58] The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes.Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX Battery

Foreign relations and military

Japan is a member of the G8, APEC, and "ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. Japan signed a security pact with Australia in March 2007 and with India in October 2008. It is the world's third largest donor of official development assistance after the United States and France, donating US$9.48 billion in 2009.Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX/BI Battery

Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States; the US-Japan security alliance acts as the cornerstone of the nation's foreign policy. A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan has served as a non-permanent Security Council member for a total of 19 years, most recently for 2009 and 2010.Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX Battery

It is one of the G4 nations seeking permanent membership in the Security Council.

Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors: with Russia over the South Kuril Islands, with South Korea over the Liancourt Rocks, with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands, and with China over the EEZ around Okinotorishima.Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX/BI Battery

Japan also faces an ongoing dispute with North Korea over the latter'sabduction of Japanese citizens and its nuclear weapons and missile program (see also Six-party talks).

Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world. Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX Battery

Japan contributed non-combatant troops to the Iraq War but subsequently withdrew its forces. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force is a regular participant in RIMPAC maritime exercises.

Japan's military is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes.Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX/BI Battery

Japan's military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations; Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX Battery

the deployment of troops to Iraqmarked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II.[68] Nippon Keidanren has called on the government to lift the ban on arms exports so that Japan can join multinational projects such as the Joint Strike Fighter.Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX/BI Battery

Administrative divisions

Japan consists of forty-seven prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor, legislature and administrative bureaucracy. Each prefecture is further divided into cities, towns and villages. The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging many of the cities, towns and villages with each other. Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX Battery

This process will reduce the number of sub-prefecture administrative regions and is expected to cut administrative costs.

Geography

Japan has a total of 6,852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. The country, including all of the islands it controls, lies between latitudes 24° and 46°N, and longitudes 122° and 146°E.Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX/BI Battery

The main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaid?, Honsh?, Shikoku and Ky?sh?. The Ry?ky? Islands, includingOkinawa, are a chain to the south of Ky?sh?. Together they are often known as the Japanese Archipelago. About 73 percent of Japan is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use.Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX Battery

As a result, the habitable zones, mainly located in coastal areas, have extremely high population densities. Japan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.

The islands of Japan are located in a volcanic zone on the Pacific Ring of Fire. Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX/BI Battery

They are primarily the result of large oceanic movements occurring over hundreds of millions of years from the mid-Silurian to the Pleistocene as a result of the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the continental Amurian Plate andOkinawa Plate to the south, and subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Okhotsk Plate to the north. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX Battery'

Japan was originally attached to the eastern coast of the Eurasian continent. The subducting plates pulled Japan eastward, opening the Sea of Japan around 15 million years ago. Japan has 108 active volcanoes. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century.Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/B Battery

The 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed over 140,000 people. More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 T?hoku earthquake, a 9.0-magnitude quake which hit Japan on March 11, 2011, and triggered a large tsunami.Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/G Battery

Climate

The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south. Japan's geographical features divide it into six principal climatic zones: Hokkaid?, Sea of Japan, Central Highland, Seto Inland Sea, Pacific Ocean, and Ry?ky? Islands. The northernmost zone, Hokkaido, has a temperate climate with long, cold winters and cool summers.Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/L Battery

Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter. In the Sea of Japan zone on Honsh?'s west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn wind.Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/P Battery

The Central Highland has a typical inland climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter, and between day and night; precipitation is light. The mountains of the Ch?goku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/W Battery

The Pacific coast experiences cold winters with little snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season.Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX Battery

The average winter temperature in Japan is 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) and the average summer temperature is 25.2 °C (77.4 °F).The highest temperature ever measured in Japan—40.9 °C (105.6 °F)—was recorded on August 16, 2007.The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north until reaching Hokkaid? in late July. Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/B Battery

In most of Honsh?, the rainy season begins before the middle of June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.

Biodiversity

Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands.Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX/W Battery

They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ry?ky? andBonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands.Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX Battery

Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife, including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, and the Japanese giant salamander. A large network of National Parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna as well as thirty-sevenRamsar wetland sites.Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/BI Battery

Environment

In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/WI Battery

Responding to rising concern about the problem, the government introduced several environmental protection laws in 1970. The oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy due to Japan's lack of natural resources. Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX Battery

Current environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, watereutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation.Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX/BI Battery

Japan is one of the world's leaders in the development of new environment-friendly technologies, and is ranked 20th best in the world in the 2010 Environmental Performance Index. As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, and host of the 1997 conference which created it, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change.Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX Battery

Economy

Some of the structural features for Japan's economic growth developed in the Edo period, such as the network of transport routes, by road and water, and the futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers.Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/B Battery

During the Meiji period from 1868, Japan expanded economically with the embrace of the market economy. Many of today's enterprises were founded at the time, and Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia. The period of overall real economic growth from the 1960s to the 1980s has been called the Japanese post-war economic miracle:Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/L Battery

it averaged 7.5 percent in the 1960s and 1970s, and 3.2 percent in the 1980s and early 1990s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s during what the Japanese call the Lost Decade, largely because of the after-effects of the Japanese asset price bubble and domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/P Battery

Government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and were further hampered by the global slowdown in 2000.[2] The economy showed strong signs of recovery after 2005; GDP growth for that year was 2.8 percent, surpassing the growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/W Battery

As of 2010, Japan is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of both nominal GDP and purchasing power parity. As of January 2011, Japan's public debt was more than 200 percent of its annual gross domestic product, the largest of any nation in the world. Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX Battery

The service sectoraccounts for three quarters of the gross domestic product. Japan has a large industrial capacity, and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronics, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods. Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX/B Battery

Agricultural businesses in Japan cultivate 13 percent of Japan's land, and Japan accounts for nearly 15 percent of the global fish catch, second only to China.As of 2010, Japan's labor force consisted of some 65.9 million workers. Japan has a low unemployment rate of around four percent. Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX Battery

Almost one in six Japanese, or 20 million people, lived in poverty in 2007. Housing in Japan is characterized by limited land supply in urban areas.

Japan's exports amounted to US$4,210 per capita in 2005. Japan's main export markets are China (18.88 percent), the United States (16.42 percent), South Korea (8.13 percent), Taiwan (6.27 percent) and Hong Kong (5.49 percent) as of 2009. Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX/BI Battery

Its main exports are transportation equipment, motor vehicles, electronics, electrical machinery and chemicals.Japan's main import markets as of 2009 are China (22.2 percent), the US (10.96 percent), Australia (6.29 percent), Saudi Arabia (5.29 percent), United Arab Emirates (4.12 percent), South Korea (3.98 percent) and Indonesia (3.95 percent).Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX Battery

Its main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries. By market share measures, domestic markets are the least open of any OECD country. Junichiro Koizumi's administration began some pro-competition reforms, and foreign investment in Japan has soared.Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX/BI Battery

Japan ranks 12th of 178 countries in the 2008 Ease of Doing Business Index and has one of the smallest tax revenues of the developed world. The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are relatively common in the Japanese work environment.Sony VAIO VPCEB20 Battery

Japanese companies are known for management methods like "The Toyota Way", and shareholder activism is rare. Some of the largest enterprises in Japan include Toyota, Nintendo, NTT DoCoMo, Canon, Honda, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Sony, Panasonic,Toshiba, Sharp, Nippon Steel, Nippon Oil, and Seven & I Holdings Co.Sony VAIO VPCEC20 Battery

It has some of the world's largest banks, and the Tokyo Stock Exchange (known for its Nikkei 225 and Topix indices) stands as the second largest in the world by market capitalization. Japan is home to 326 companies from the Forbes Global 2000 or 16.3 percent (as of 2006).Sony VAIO VPCEE20 Battery

Science and technology

Japan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly technology, machinery and biomedical research. Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billionresearch and development budget, the third largest in the world.Sony VAIO VPCEF20 Battery

Japan is a world leader in fundamental scientific research, having produced fifteen Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine, three Fields medalists, and one Gauss Prize laureate. Some of Japan's more prominent technological contributions are in the fields of electronics, Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery

automobiles, machinery, earthquake engineering, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals,semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots.Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is Japan's space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008.Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery

Japan's plans in space exploration include: launching a space probe to Venus, Akatsuki; developing the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter to be launched in 2013; and building a moon base by 2030. On September 14, 2007, it launched lunar explorer "SELENE" (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) on an H-IIA (Model H2A2022) carrier rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery

SELENE is also known as Kaguya, after the lunar princess of The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter. Kaguya is the largest lunar mission since the Apollo program. Its purpose is to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution. It entered a lunar orbit on October 4, flying at an altitude of about 100 km (62 mi).Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

The probe's mission was ended when it was deliberately crashed by JAXA into the Moon on 11 June 2009.

Infrastructure

As of 2008, 46.4 percent of energy in Japan is produced from petroleum, 21.4 percent from coal, 16.7 percent from natural gas, 9.7 percent from nuclear power, and 2.9 percent from hydro power. Nuclear power produces 22.5 percent of Japan's electricity.Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery

Given its heavy dependence on imported energy, Japan has aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency.

Japan's road spending has been extensive. Its 1.2 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation.Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery

A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and is operated by toll-collecting enterprises. New and used cars are inexpensive; car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. However, at just 50 percent of all distance traveled, car usage is the lowest of all G8 countries.Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven JR enterprises,Kintetsu Corporation, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities and Japanese trains are known for their punctuality.Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

Proposals for a new Maglev route between Tokyo and Osaka are at an advanced stage. There are 173 airports in Japan; the largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's second-busiest airport. The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport, Kansai International Airport and Ch?bu Centrair International Airport.Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

Nagoya Port is the country's largest and busiest port, accounting for 10 percent of Japan's trade value.

Demographics

Japan's population is estimated at around 127.3 million.Japanese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous, composed of 98.5% ethnic Japanese,with small populations of foreign workers.Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery

Zainichi Koreans, Zainichi Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese Brazilians, and Japanese Peruvians are among the small minority groups in Japan. In 2003, there were about

136,000 Western expatriates.The most dominant native ethnic group is the Yamato people;Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

primary minority groups include the indigenous Ainu and Ryukyuan peoples, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin.

Japan has the longest life expectancy rate in the world. The Japanese population is rapidly aging as a result of a post–World War II baby boom followed by a decrease in birth rates.Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery

In 2009, about 22.7 percent of the population was over 65, by 2050 almost 40 percent of the population will be aged 65 and over, as projected in December 2006. The changes in demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline in workforce population and increase in the cost of social security benefits like the public pension plan. A growing number of younger Japanese are preferring not to marry or have families.Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery

Japan's population is expected to drop to 95 million by 2050, demographers and government planners are currently in a heated debate over how to cope with this problem. Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population.Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

Japan has a steady flow of about 15,000 immigrants per year. According to the UNHCR, in 2007 Japan accepted just 41 refugees for resettlement, while the US took in 50,000.

Japan suffers from a high suicide rate. In 2009, the number of suicides exceeded 30,000 for the twelfth straight year. Suicide is the leading cause of death for people under 30.Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery

Religion

Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Buddhism or Shinto, including a large number of followers of a syncretismof both religions. However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers.Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery

Other studies have suggested that only 30 percent of the population identify themselves as belonging to a religion. Nevertheless the level of participation remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs.Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

Fewer than one percent of Japanese are Christian. In addition, since the mid-19th century numerous new religious movements have emerged in Japan.

Languages

More than 99 percent of the population speaks Japanese as their first language.Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

It is an agglutinative language distinguished by a system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary indicating the relative status of speaker and listener. Japanese writing useskanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on simplified Chinese characters),Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

as well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals. Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages, also part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in Okinawa; however, few children learn these languages.The Ainu language, which is unrelated to Japanese or any other known language, is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaido.Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery

Most public and private schools require students to take courses in both Japanese and English.

Education

Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. Since 1947, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and middle school, which together last for nine years (from age 6 to age 15).Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school, and, according to the MEXT, as of 2005 about 75.9 percent of high school graduates attend a university, junior college, trade school, or other higher education institution. The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University.Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery

The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as sixth best in the world.

Health

In Japan, health care is provided by national and local governments. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/B Battery

Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/D Battery

Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance. Patients are free to select the physicians or facilities of their choice.

Culture

Japanese culture has evolved greatly from its origins. Contemporary culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/G Battery

Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/P Battery

Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. Sixteen sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Art

The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture.Sony VAIO VPC-P111KX/W Battery

Largely of wood, traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space. Japanese sculpture, largely of wood, andJapanese painting are among the oldest of the Japanese arts, with early figurative paintings dating back to at least 300 BC. Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/B Battery

The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas. The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism, Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/D Battery

had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. Famous ukiyo-e artists include Hokusai and Hiroshige. The fusion of traditional woodblock printing and Western art led to the creation of manga, a comic book format that is now popular within and outside Japan.Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/G Battery

Manga-influenced animation for television and film is called anime. Japanese-made video game consoles have been popular since the 1980s.

Music

Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries.Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/P Battery

The accompanied recitative of theNoh drama dates from the 14th century and the popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, from the sixteenth. Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century, now forms an integral part of Japanese culture. The imperial court ensemble Gagaku has influenced the work of some modern Western composers.Sony VAIO VPC-P112KX/W Battery

Notable classical composers from Japan include Toru Takemitsu and Rentaro Taki. Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop, or Japanese popular music.[186] Karaoke is the most widely practiced cultural activity in Japan.Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/B Battery

A 1993 survey by the Cultural Affairs Agency found that more Japanese had sung karaoke that year than had participated in traditional pursuits such as flower arranging (ikebana) or tea ceremonies.

Literature

The earliest works of Japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man'y?sh? poetry anthology, all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters.Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/B Battery

In the early Heian period, the system of phonograms known as kana (Hiragana and Katakana) was developed. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest Japanese narrative. An account of Heian court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Sh?nagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the world's first novel.Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/D Battery

During the Edo period, the ch?nin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works ofSaikaku, for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Bash? revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinsh? with his haikai (haiku) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi.Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/D Battery

The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as Japanese literature integrated Western influences.Natsume S?seki and Mori ?gai were the first "modern" novelists of Japan, followed by Ry?nosuke Akutagawa, Jun'ichir? Tanizaki, Yasunari Kawabata, Yukio Mishima and, more recently, Haruki Murakami. Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/G Battery

Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors—Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburo Oe (1994).

Cuisine

The primary staple is Japanese rice. In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats that had previously not been widely used in Japan were introduced. Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/G Battery

Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The Michelin Guide has awarded Japanese cities more Michelin stars than the rest of the world combined.

Sports

Traditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport. Japanese martial arts such as judo, karate and kendo are also widely practiced and enjoyed by spectators in the country.Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/P Battery

After the Meiji Restoration, many Western sports were introduced in Japan and began to spread through the education system.Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964. Japan has hosted the Winter Olympics twice: Nagano in 1998 and Sapporo in 1972.Sony VAIO VPC-P113KX/P Battery

The Japanese professional baseball league was established in 1936.Today baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has also gained a wide following.Sony VAIO VPCP113KX/W Battery

Japan was a venue of theIntercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004 and co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times. Also, Japan recently won the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011.Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/B Battery

Golf is also popular in Japan, as are forms of auto racing like the Super GT series and Formula Nippon.

The history of Japan encompasses the history of the islands of Japan and the Japanese people, spanning the ancient history of the region to the modern history ofJapan as a nation state.Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/D Battery

The first known written reference to Japan is in the brief information given in Twenty-Four Histories, a collection of Chinese historical texts, in the 1st century AD. However, there is evidence that suggests people were living on the islands of Japan since the upper Paleolithic period.Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/G Battery

Following the lastice-age, around 12,000 BC, the rich ecosystem of the Japanese Archipelago fostered human development. The earliest-known pottery belongs to the J?mon period.

he Japanese Paleolithic age covers a lengthy period starting after 50,000 BC, when the earliest stone tool implements would have been found, and ending sometime around 12,000 BC, at the end of the last ice age. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/P Battery

Artifacts claimed to be older than ca. 38,000 BC are not generally accepted, and most historians therefore believe that the Japanese Paleolithic started after 38,000 BC.

The Japanese archipelago would become disconnected from the mainland continent after the last ice age, around 11,000 BC. Sony VAIO VPC-P114KX/W Battery

After a hoax by an amateur researcher, Shinichi Fujimura, had been exposed, the Lower and Middle Paleolithic evidence reported by Fujimura and his associates has been rejected after thorough reinvestigation.

As a result of the fallout over the hoax, now only some Upper Paleolithic evidence (not associated with Fujimura) can possibly be considered as having been well established.Sony VAIO VPCP115JC Battery

The J?mon period lasted from about 14,000 until 300 BC. The first signs of civilization and stable living patterns appeared around 14,000 BC with the J?mon culture, characterized by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer lifestyle of wood stilt house and pit dwellings and a rudimentary form ofagriculture.Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/B Battery

Weaving was still unknown at the time and clothes were often made of furs. The J?mon people started to make clay vessels, decorated with patterns made by impressing the wet clay with braided or unbraided cord and sticks. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/D Battery

Based on radio-carbon dating, some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world can be found in Japan along with daggers, jade, combs made of shells, and various other household items dated to the 11th millennium BC. Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/G Battery

Alternatively, the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Timeline of Art History notes "Carbon-14 testing of the earliest known shards has yielded a production date of about 10,500 BC, but because this date falls outside the known chronology of pottery development elsewhere in the world, such an early date is not generally accepted.Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/P Battery

Calibrated radiocarbon measures of carbonized material from pottery artifacts: Fukui Cave 12500 +/? 350 BP and 12500 +/? 500 BP (Kamaki & Serizawa 1967), Kamikuroiwa rock shelter 12, 165 +/-350 years BP in Shikoku .[7] although the specific dating is disputed.Sony VAIO VPCP115JC/W Battery

Clay figures known as dog? were also excavated. The household items suggest trade routes existed with places as far away as Okinawa.DNAanalysis suggests that the Ainu, an indigenous people that live in Hokkaid? and the northern part of Honsh?, are descended from the J?mon and thus represent descendants of the first inhabitants of Japan.Sony VAIO VPCP115KG Battery

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