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26 avril 2012 4 26 /04 /avril /2012 03:17

Johannes Heesters

Johan Marius Nicolaas "Johannes" Heesters (5 December 1903 – 24 December 2011) was a Dutch actor, singer, and entertainer with a career dating back to 1921. Active almost exclusively in the German-speaking world from the mid-1930s, he was a controversial figure for his actions during the Second World War and his success in Nazi Germany.[2] Heesters was considered one of the oldest stage performers in history. HP Pavilion dv2-1004ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1005au Battery

Heesters was fluent in German from a very early age having lived for several years in the household of a German great uncle from Bavaria.[3] Heesters decided to become an actor and a singer at the age of sixteen and began vocal training. Heesters specialized in Viennese operetta very early in his career, and made his Viennese stage debut in 1934 inCarl Millöcker's Der Bettelstudent (The Beggar Student). HP Pavilion dv2-1005ei Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1006au Battery

Aged 31, Heesters permanently moved to Germany with his wife and daughters in 1935. During his time there, he performed for Adolf Hitler and visited the Dachau concentration camp which made him a controversial figure for many Dutch.[4] Joseph Goebbels placed Heesters on the Gottbegnadeten list as an artist considered crucial to Nazi culture.[5]HP Pavilion dv2-1006ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1008au Battery

Heesters is known to have funded the German war machine by donating money to the weapons industry.[6] While he became a very controversial figure in the late 1970s, Heesters always denied these accusations despite reliable evidence.[7]HP Pavilion dv2-1009ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1010ea Battery

Heesters befriended several high-ranking Nazi-officials and SS-officers.[8] Mr. "Jopie" also performed regularly for people such as Hitler and Goering,[9] with the former being known to have been an avid admirer of his acting skills.[10][11] HP Pavilion dv2-1010ed Battery

Throughout the war Heesters continued to perform for German soldiers in camps and barracks. He always denied having visited concentration camps, although he did have knowledge of their existence.[12]HP Pavilion dv2-1010eo Battery

According to German author Volker Kühn, Heesters did in fact perform for the SS in Dachau concentration camp. For this claim he uses as evidence the testimony of Dachau inmate Viktor Matejka who worked for the SS and told Kühn he pulled the curtain when Heesters performed in 1941.[13][14] According to German writer Jürgen Trimborn however, the interview with Matejka may not be reliable as it occurred some fifty years after the performance was said to have taken place.[15] HP Pavilion dv2-1010ep Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1010et Battery

In December 2009, Heesters lost his libelsuit against Kühn.[16] While acknowledging having visited the camp, Heesters denied having performed as entertainment for the SS troops. In its ruling, the German court did not find that Kühn's allegations were true, but rather that too much time had passed for an accurate determination of fact to be made.[17]HP Pavilion dv2-1010ez Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1010la Battery

Heesters' signature tune was Count Danilo Danilovitch's entrance song "Da geh' ich insMaxim" from Franz Lehár's Die Lustige Witwe (The Merry Widow). He met Hitler several times and was reportedly Hitler's favorite actor[18] in the role of Danilo.[19]HP Pavilion dv2-1011au Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1011ax Battery

After the warHeesters worked extensively for UFA until almost the end of the Second World War (his last wartime movie being Die Fledermaus, produced in 1945) and easily made the transition from the Nazi-controlled cultural scene to post-war Germany and Austria, HP Pavilion dv2-1012au Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1013ax Battery

appearing again in a number of films. These included Die Jungfrau auf dem Dachand the 1957 version of Viktor und Viktoria. Heesters stopped making movies around 1960 to concentrate on stage and television appearances and on producing records. HP Pavilion dv2-1014au Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1015ax Battery

In later years Heesters spoke fondly of Hitler as a person, but condemned his political stance.[20] In the 1990s, he and his wife toured Germany and Austria with Curth Flatow's play Ein gesegnetes Alter (A Blessed Age), which was also televised in 1996. On 5 December 2003, he celebrated his 100th birthday with a television special Eine Legende wird 100 (A legend turns 100) on the ARD television channel. HP Pavilion dv2-1015ee Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1016ax Battery

On his 100th birthday Heesters received the title "Kammersänger". In December 2004, aged 101, Heesters appeared in Stuttgart at the Komödie im Marquardt theatre in a show commissioned on the occasion of his 100th birthday, Heesters – eine musikalische Hommage. In 2005 aged 102 he was featured as a soloist in a major concert tour with theDeutsches Filmorchester Babelsberg under the direction of Scott Lawton. HP Pavilion dv2-1017ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1018ax Battery

On 5 December 2006 Heesters celebrated his 103rd birthday with a concert at the Wiener Konzerthaus. On 5 December 2007 he celebrated his 104th birthday with a concert at theAdmiralspalast, Berlin, and in February 2008 he performed in his home country for the first time in four decades amidst protests against his Nazi associations. HP Pavilion dv2-1019ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1020ax Battery

Heesters apologised for calling Adolf Hitler a "good chap" on the popular German TV showWetten, dass..? on Saturday, 13 December 2008, aged 105. He said that he had said something stupid and horrible and asked for forgiveness.[21] In addition, German media suggested that he had failed to understand the show's satirical nature.[22]HP Pavilion dv2-1020ef Battery

Heesters became less active in his last years and played smaller roles, as he began to lose his eyesight due to macular degeneration and could not perform on stage for long periods of times. Unable to read a teleprompter, he had to memorize his lines before a show. HP Pavilion dv2-1020el Battery

Heesters had two daughters by his first wife Louisa Ghijs, whom he married in 1930. After her death in 1985, he remarried in 1992; his second wife, Simone Rethel (born 1949), is a German actress, painter, and photographer. His younger daughter Nicole Heesters is a well-known actress in the German-speaking world, as is his granddaughter Saskia Fischer. HP Pavilion dv2-1020el Battery

In December 2010, the 107-year-old Heesters announced that he had quit smoking for his then 61-year-old wife: "She should have me as long as possible."[24]HP Pavilion dv2-1020er Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1020es Battery

  On 1 January 2008, he fell down some stairs in his holiday house in Tyrol and broke two ribs.[25]

On 29 November 2011, he suddenly fell ill, developing a fever, and was rushed into hospital.[26] He was operated on to fit a heart pacemaker and following a good recovery, was allowed home less than a week later, on 4 December, in time to spend his 108th birthday the next day with family. HP Pavilion dv2-1020et Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1020la Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1021ax Battery

He did not feel strong enough to make the planned stage appearance to sing in celebration of his birthday and also had missed the premiere of his latest film, Ten. Due to a relapse in his condition, on 17 December he was readmitted to hospital, where he subsequently suffered a stroke, dying on Christmas Eve 2011.[27] He is survived by two daughters, five grandchildren, eleven great-grandchildren and three great-great-grandchildren.[ HP Pavilion dv2-1022ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1023ax Battery

  "DOCTORS' PLOT" Main article: Doctors' plot

The "Doctors' plot" was a plot outlined by Stalin and Soviet officials in 1952 and 1953 whereby several doctors (over half of whom were Jewish) allegedly attempted to kill Soviet officials.[248] The prevailing opinion of many scholars outside the Soviet Union is that Stalin intended to use the resulting doctors' trial to launch a massive party purge.[249]HP Pavilion dv2-1024ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1025ax Battery

 The plot is also viewed by many historians as an antisemitic provocation.[248] It followed on the heels of the 1952 show trials of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee[250] and the secret execution of thirteen members on Stalin's orders in the Night of the Murdered Poets.[251]HP Pavilion dv2-1026ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1027ax Battery

 

Thereafter, in a December Politburo session, Stalin announced that "Every Jewish nationalist is the agent of the American intelligence service. Jewish nationalists think that their nation was saved by the United States (there you can become rich, bourgeois, etc.). They think they're indebted to the Americans. Among doctors, there are many Jewish nationalists."[252] HP Pavilion dv2-1028ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1029ax Battery

To mobilize the Soviet people for his campaign, Stalin ordered TASS andPravda to issue stories along with Stalin's alleged uncovering of a "Doctors Plot" to assassinate top Soviet leaders,[253][254] including Stalin, in order to set the stage for show trials.[255]HP Pavilion dv2-1030ax Battery

 

The next month, Pravda published stories with text regarding the purported "Jewishbourgeois-nationalist" plotters.[256] Nikita Khrushchev wrote that Stalin hinted him to incite anti-Semitism in the Ukraine, telling him that "the good workers at the factory should be given clubs so they can beat the hell out of those Jews."[257][258] Stalin also ordered falsely accused physicians to be tortured "to death".[259]HP Pavilion dv2-1030en Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1030ew Battery

 Regarding the origins of the plot, people who knew Stalin, such as Khrushchev, suggest that Stalin had long harbored negative sentiments toward Jews,[248][260][261] and anti-Semitic trends in the Kremlin's policies were further fueled by the exile of Leon Trotsky.[248][262] In 1946, Stalin allegedly said privately that "every Jew is a potential spy."[248][263] HP Pavilion dv2-1030us Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1031ax Battery

At the end of January 1953, Stalin's personal physician Miron Vovsi (cousin of Solomon Mikhoels, who was assassinated in 1948 at the orders of Stalin)[251] was arrested within the frame of the plot. Vovsi was released by Beria after Stalin's death in 1953, as was his son-in-law, the composer Mieczyslaw Weinberg. HP Pavilion dv2-1033ax Battery

 

Some historians have argued that Stalin was also planning to send millions of Jews to four large newly built labor camps in Western Russia[255][264] using a "Deportation Commission"[265][266][267] that would purportedly act to save Soviet Jews from an engraged Soviet population after the Doctors Plot trials.[265][268][269] Others argue that any charge of an alleged mass deportation lacks specific documentary evidence.[254]HP Pavilion dv2-1033cl Battery

Regardless of whether a plot to deport Jews was planned, in his "Secret Speech" in 1956, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev stated that the Doctors Plot was "fabricated ... set up by Stalin", that Stalin told the judge to beat confessions from the defendants[270] and had told Politburo members "You are blind like young kittens. What will happen without me? The country will perish because you do not know how to recognize enemies."[270]HP Pavilion dv2-1035ea Battery

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Death and aftermath

Stalin's health deteriorated towards the end of World War II. He suffered fromatherosclerosis from his heavy smoking. He suffered a mild stroke around the time of the Victory parade, and a severe heart attack in October 1945.[271]HP Pavilion dv2-1040eb Battery

On the early morning hours of 1 March 1953, after an all-night dinner and a movie[272]Stalin arrived at his Kuntsevo residence some 15 km west of Moscow centre with interior minister Lavrentiy Beria and future premiers Georgy Malenkov, Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev where he retired to his bedroom to sleep. At dawn, Stalin did not emerge from his room, having probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body. HP Pavilion dv2-1040ef Battery

Although his guards thought that it was odd for him not to rise at his usual time, they were under strict orders not to disturb him and left him alone the entire day. At around 10 p.m. he was discovered by Peter Lozgachev, the Deputy Commandant of Kuntsevo, HP Pavilion dv2-1040eo Battery

who entered his bedroom to check up on him and recalled a horrifying scene of Stalin lying on the floor of his room wearing pyjama bottoms and an undershirt with his clothes soaked in stale urine. A frightened Lozgachev asked Stalin what happened to him, but all he could get out of the Generalissimo was unintelligible responses that sounded like "Dzhh." HP Pavilion dv2-1040et Battery

Lozgachev frantically called a few party officials asking them to send good doctors.[273][274] Lavrentiy Beria was informed and arrived a few hours afterwards, and the doctors only arrived in the early morning of 2 March in which they changed his bedclothes and tended to him. HP Pavilion dv2-1043ca Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1044ca Battery

The bedridden Stalin died four days later, on 5 March 1953,[1] at the age of 74, and was embalmed on 9 March. Officially, the cause of death was listed as acerebral hemorrhage. His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until 31 October 1961, when his body was removed from the Mausoleum and buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis next to the Kremlin walls as part of the process of de-Stalinization. HP Pavilion dv2-1050en Battery

It has been suggested that Stalin was assassinated. The ex-Communist exile Avtorkhanovargued this point as early as 1975. The political memoirs of Vyacheslav Molotov, published in 1993, claimed that Beria had boasted to Molotov that he poisoned Stalin: "I took him out." HP Pavilion dv2-1070eg Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1080en Battery

 

Khrushchev wrote in his memoirs that Beria had, immediately after the stroke, gone about "spewing hatred against [Stalin] and mocking him", and then, when Stalin showed signs of consciousness, dropped to his knees and kissed his hand. When Stalin fell unconscious again, Beria immediately stood and spat.[275]HP Pavilion dv2-1090eo Battery

  LATER ANALYSIS OF DEATH

In 2003, a joint group of Russian and American historians announced their view that Stalin ingested warfarin, a powerful rat poison that inhibits coagulation of the blood and which predisposes the victim to hemorrhagic stroke (cerebral hemorrhage). Since it is flavorless, warfarin is a plausible weapon of murder. The facts surrounding Stalin's death will probably never be known with certainty.[276]HP Pavilion dv2-1100 series Battery

HP Pavilion dv2z Battery

HP Pavilion dv2z-1100 Battery

 

His demise arrived at a convenient time for Lavrenty Beria and others, who feared being swept away in yet another purge. It is believed that Stalin felt Beria's power was too great and threatened his own.[277]HP Pavilion dv2z-1100 CTO Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1100eg Battery

  REACTION BY SUCCESSORS

The harshness with which Soviet affairs were conducted during Stalin's rule was subsequently repudiated by his successors in the Communist Party leadership, most notably by Nikita Khrushchev's repudiation of Stalinism in February 1956. In his "Secret Speech", HP Pavilion dv2-1100eo Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1101au Battery

On the Personality Cult and its Consequences, delivered to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for his cult of personality, and his regime for "violation of Leninist norms of legality".HP Pavilion dv2-1101ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1102au Battery

  A 1974 Soviet work describes Stalin's leadership in the following manner:

J. V. Stalin had held, since 1922, the post of General Secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee. He had made important contributions to the implementation of the Party’s policy of socialist construction in the USSR, and he had won great popularity by his relentless fight against the anti-Leninist groups of the Trotskyites and Bukharinites. HP Pavilion dv2-1103au Battery

Since the early 1930s, however, all the successes achieved by the Soviet people in the building of socialism began to be arbitrarily attributed to Stalin. Already in a letter written back in 1922 Lenin warned the Party Central Committee: "Comrade Stalin," HP Pavilion dv2-1104au Battery

he wrote, "having become General Secretary, has concentrated boundless authority in his hands, and I am not sure whether he will always be able to exercise that authority with sufficient discretion." During the first few years after Lenin’s death Stalin reckoned with his critical remarks. HP Pavilion dv2-1105ee Battery

As time passed, however, he abused his position of General Secretary of the Party Central Committee more and more frequently, violating the principle of collective leadership and making independent decisions on important Party and state issues. HP Pavilion dv2-1110br Battery

Those personal shortcomings of which Lenin had warned manifested themselves with greater and greater insistence: his rudeness, capriciousness, intolerance of criticism, arbitrariness, excessive suspiciousness, etc. This led to unjustified restrictions of democracy, gross violations of socialist legality and repressions against prominent Party, government and military leaders and other people. HP Pavilion dv2-1110ef Battery

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VIEWS ON STALIN IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Results of a controversial poll taken in 2006 stated that over 35% of Russians would vote for Stalin if he were still alive.[280][281] Fewer than a third of all Russians regarded Stalin as a murderous tyrant;[9] however, a Russian court in 2009, ruling on a suit by Stalin's grandson, Yevgeny Dzhugashvili, against the newspaper, Novaya Gazeta, ruled that referring to Stalin as a "bloodthirsty cannibal" was not libel.[282] HP Pavilion dv2-1110es Battery

In a July 2007 poll 54% of the Russian youth agreed that Stalin did more good than bad while 46% (of them) disagreed that Stalin was a cruel tyrant. Half of the respondents, aged from 16 to 19, agreed Stalin was a wise leader.[10]HP Pavilion dv2-1110et Battery

 

In December 2008 Stalin was voted third in the nationwide television project Name of Russia (narrowly behind 13th century prince Alexander Nevsky and Pyotr Stolypin, one of Nicholas II's prime ministers). The Communist Party accused the Kremlin in rigging the poll in order to prevent him or Lenin being given first place.[283]HP Pavilion dv2-1110ez Battery

On 3 July 2009, Russia's delegates walked out of an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe session to demonstrate their objections to a resolution for a remembrance day for the victims of both Nazism and Stalinism.[284] Only eight out of 385 assembly members voted against the resolution.[284]HP Pavilion dv2-1110us Battery

In a Kremlin video blog posted on 29 October 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedevdenounced the efforts of people seeking to rehabilitate Stalin's image. He said the mass extermination during the Stalin era cannot be justified.[285]HP Pavilion dv2-1111ax Battery

Personal life ORIGIN OF NAME, NICKNAMES AND PSEUDONYMS

Stalin's original Georgian name is transliterated as "Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili" (Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი). The Russian transliteration of his name Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Джугашви́ли is in turn transliterated to English as "Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili". Like other Bolsheviks, HP Pavilion dv2-1112au Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1113ax Battery

he became commonly known by one of his revolutionary noms de guerre, of which "Stalin" was only the last. Prior nicknames included "Koba", "Soselo", "Ivanov" and many others.[286]HP Pavilion dv2-1115ea Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1115ee Battery

APPEARANCE

While photographs and portraits portray Stalin as physically massive and majestic (he had several painters shot who did not depict him "right"),[290] he was only five feet four inches tall (160 cm).[290] (President Harry S. Truman, who stood only five feet nine inches himself, described Stalin as "a little squirt".[291]) His mustached face was pock-marked from small-pox during childhood. HP Pavilion dv2-1116ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1117ee Battery

After a carriage accident in his youth, his left arm was shortened and stiffened at the elbow, while his right hand was thinner than his left and frequently hidden.[290] Bronze casts made in 1990 from plaster death mask and plaster cards of his hands clearly show a normal right hand and a withered left hand.[292] He could be charming and polite, mainly towards visiting statesmen.[290] In movies, Stalin was often played by Mikheil Gelovani and, less frequently, by Aleksei Dikiy. HP Pavilion dv2-1118ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1119ax Battery

  MARRIAGES AND FAMILY

Stalin's son Yakov, whom he had with his first wife Ekaterina Svanidze, shot himself because of Stalin's harshness toward him, but survived. After this, Stalin said "He can't even shoot straight".[293] Yakov served in the Red Army during World War II and was captured by the Germans. HP Pavilion dv2-1120ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1120br Battery

They offered to exchange him for Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, who had surrendered after Stalingrad, but Stalin turned the offer down, stating "You have in your hands not only my son Yakov but millions of my sons. Either you free them all or my son will share their fate."[294] HP Pavilion dv2-1120ed Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1120ef Battery

Afterwards, Yakov is said to have committed suicide, running into an electric fence in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where he was being held.[295] Yakov had a son Yevgeny, who is recently noted for defending his grandfather's legacy in Russian courts. Yevgeny is married to a Georgian woman, has two sons, and grandchildren.[296]HP Pavilion dv2-1120eg Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1121ax Battery

Stalin had a son, Vasiliy, and a daughter, Svetlana, with his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva. She died in 1932, officially of illness. She may have committed suicide by shooting herself after a quarrel with Stalin, leaving a suicide note which according to their daughter was "partly personal, partly political".[297] According to A&E Biography, HP Pavilion dv2-1122ax Battery

there is also a belief among some Russians that Stalin himself murdered his wife after the quarrel, which apparently took place at a dinner in which Stalin tauntingly flicked cigarettes across the table at her. Historians also claim her death ultimately "severed his link from reality."[298]HP Pavilion dv2-1123ax Battery

Vasiliy rose through the ranks of the Soviet air force, officially dying of alcoholism in 1962; however, this is still in question. He distinguished himself in World War II as a capable airman. Svetlana emigrated to the United States in 1967. In March 2001 Russian Independent Television NTV interviewed a previously unknown grandson living inNovokuznetsk, Yuri Davydov, who stated that his father had told him of his lineage, but, was told to keep quiet because of the campaign against Stalin's cult of personality.[299]HP Pavilion dv2-1124ax Battery

Beside his suite in the Kremlin, Stalin had numerous domiciles. In 1919 he started with a country house near Usovo, he added dachas at Zuvalova and Kuntsevo (Blizhny dachabuilt by Miron Merzhanov). Before World War II he added the Lipki estate andSemyonovskaya, and had at least four dachas in the south by 1937, including one nearSochi. HP Pavilion dv2-1125ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1125ee Battery

A luxury villa near Gagri was given to him by Beria. In Abkhazia he maintained a mountain retreat. After the war he added dachas at Novy Alon, near Sukhumi, in the ValdaiHills, and at Lake Mitsa. Another estate was near Zelyony Myss on the Black Sea. HP Pavilion dv2-1126ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1127ea Battery

All these dachas, estates, and palaces were staffed, well furnished and equipped, kept safe by security forces, and were mainly used privately, rarely for diplomatic purposes.[300]Between places Stalin would travel by car or train, never by air; he flew only once when attending the 1943 Tehran conference. HP Pavilion dv2-1130eb Battery

 

In 1967 Svetlana defected to the USA and later married William Wesley Peters and by him had a daughter Olga (surname now Evans). HP Pavilion dv2-1130es Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1131ax Battery

  HABITS

Stalin enjoyed drinking, but could keep it under control.[301] He would also often force those around him to join in.[301] Stalin preferred Georgian wine over Russian vodka, but usually ate traditional Russian food.[301]HP Pavilion dv2-1132ax Battery

Khrushchev reports in his memoirs that Stalin was fond of American cowboy movies.[302]He would often sleep until evening in his dacha, and after waking up summon high-ranking Soviet politicians to watch foreign movies with him in the Kremlin movie theater.[302] The movies, being in foreign languages, were given a running translation by Ivan Bolshakov, people's commissar of cinema.[302] HP Pavilion dv2-1133ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1134ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1134nr Battery

The translations were hilarious for the audience as Ivan spoke very basic English.[303] His favourite films were westerns and Charlie Chaplinepisodes. He banned any hint of nudity. When Ivan showed a film with a naked woman Stalin shouted: "Are you making a brothel here Bolshakov?" After the war he took control of all of Goebbels' films. After the movie had ended, Stalin often invited the audience for dinner, even though the clock was usually past midnight.[302]HP Pavilion dv2-1136ax Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax Battery

 

He could play billiards so well he did not seem to aim at the ball.[304] He could read 500 pages a day and had a library of 20,000 volumes.[305] He loved hunting and fishing all his life. HP Pavilion dv2-1140ed Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1140es Battery

  RELIGION

Stalin had a complex relationship with religious institutions in the Soviet Union.[306]Historians Vladislav Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov have suggested that "[Stalin's] atheism remained rooted in some vague idea of a God of nature."[307]HP Pavilion dv2-1140en Battery

 

During the Second World War Stalin reopened the Churches. One reason could have been to motivate the majority of the population who had Christian beliefs. The reasoning behind this is that by changing the official policy of the party and the state towards religion, the Church and its clergymen could be to his disposal in mobilizing the war effort. On 4 September 1943, HP Pavilion dv2-1140eo Battery

Stalin invited Metropolitan Sergius, Metropolitan Alexy and Metropolitan Nikolay to the Kremlin and proposed to reestablish the Moscow Patriarchate, which had been suspended since 1925, and elect the Patriarch. On 8 September 1943, Metropolitan Sergius was elected Patriarch. HP Pavilion dv2-1144ca Battery

HP Pavilion dv2-1160ed Battery

 

The CPSU Central Committee continued to promote atheism and the elimination of religion during the remainder of Stalin's lifetime after the 1943 concordat.[308] Stalin's greater tolerance for religion after 1943 was limited by party machinations. Whether persecutions after World War II were more aimed at certain sections of society over and above detractors is a disputed point. HP Pavilion dv2-1199us Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-1000 Series Battery

 

There are conflicting accounts of Stalin's birth, who listed his birth year in various documents as being in 1878 before coming to power in 1922.[1] The phrase "death of one man is a tragedy, death of a million is a statistic" is sometimes attributed to Stalin,[309] HP Pavilion dv3-1001TX Battery

but was actually made by the German writer and pacifist Erich Maria Remarque. In addition, hypotheses and popular rumors exist about Stalin's real father.[310] Some Bolsheviks and others have accused Stalin of being an agent for the Okhrana.[311]HP Pavilion dv3-1051xx Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-1073cl Battery

ALLIED CONFERENCES ON POST-WAR EUROPE

Stalin met in several conferences with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and laterClement Attlee) and/or U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (and later Harry Truman) to plan military strategy and, later, to discuss Europe's postwar reorganization. HP Pavilion dv3-1075ca Battery

Very early conferences, such as that with British diplomats in Moscow in 1941 and with Churchill and American diplomats in Moscow in 1942, focused mostly upon war planning and supply, though some preliminary postwar reorganization discussion also occurred. HP Pavilion dv3-1075us Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-1077ca Battery

In 1943, Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in the Tehran Conference. In 1944, Stalin met with Churchill in the Moscow Conference. Beginning in late 1944, the Red Army occupied much of Eastern Europe during these conferences and the discussions shifted to a more intense focus on the reorganization of postwar Europe. HP Pavilion dv3z-1000 Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2000 Battery

In February 1945, at the conference at Yalta, Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern Europe.[213] Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany.[213] Stalin also stated that the Polish government-in-exile demands for self-rule were not negotiable, HP Pavilion dv3-2001tu Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2001TX Battery

such that the Soviet Union would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had already taken by invasion with German consent in 1939, and wanted the pro-Soviet Polish government installed.[213] After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.[213] He stated the new government's primary task would be to prepare elections.[214]HP Pavilion dv3-2001xx Battery

The parties at Yalta further agreed that the countries of liberated Europe and former Axis satellites would be allowed to "create democratic institutions of their own choice", pursuant to "the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live."[215]HP Pavilion dv3-2002tu Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2002tx Battery

The parties also agreed to help those countries form interim governments "pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections" and "facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections."[215] After the re-organization of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland, the parties agreed that the new party shall "be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot."[215] HP Pavilion dv3-2003tu Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2003tx Battery

One month after Yalta, the Soviet NKVD arrested 16 Polish leaders wishing to participate in provisional government negotiations, for alleged "crimes" and "diversions", which drew protest from the West.[214] The fraudulent Polish elections, held in January 1947 resulted in Poland's official transformation to undemocraticcommunist state by 1949. HP Pavilion dv3-2004tu Battery

At the Potsdam Conference from July to August 1945, though Germany had surrendered months earlier, instead of withdrawing Soviet forces from Eastern European countries, Stalin had not moved those forces. At the beginning of the conference, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe.[216] HP Pavilion dv3-2004tx Battery

Stalin pushed for reparations from Germany without regard to the base minimum supply for German citizens' survival, which worried Truman and Churchill who thought that Germany would become a financial burden for Western powers.[217]HP Pavilion dv3-2005ee Battery

In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for "war booty", which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations.[217]HP Pavilion dv3-2005tu Battery

 By July 1945, Stalin's troops effectively controlled the Baltic States, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania, and refugees were fleeing out of these countries fearing a Communist take-over. The western allies, and especially Churchill, were suspicious of the motives of Stalin, who had already installed communist governments in the central European countries under his influence. HP Pavilion dv3-2005tx Battery

In these conferences, his first appearances on the world stage, Stalin proved to be a formidable negotiator. Anthony Eden, the British Foreign Secretary noted: "Marshal Stalin as a negotiator was the toughest proposition of all. HP Pavilion dv3-2006tu Battery

Indeed, after something like thirty years' experience of international conferences of one kind and another, if I had to pick a team for going into a conference room, Stalin would be my first choice. Of course the man was ruthless and of course he knew his purpose. He never wasted a word. He never stormed, he was seldom even irritated."[218]HP Pavilion dv3-2006tx Battery

Post-war era, 1945–1953 THE IRON CURTAIN AND THE EASTERN BLOC

After Soviet forces remained in Eastern and Central European countries, with the beginnings of communist puppet regimes in those countries, Churchill referred to the region as being behind an "Iron Curtain" of control from Moscow.[219][220] The countries under Soviet control in Eastern and Central Europe were sometimes called the "Eastern bloc" or "Soviet Bloc".HP Pavilion dv3-2007ee Battery

 

In Soviet-controlled East Germany, the major task of the ruling communist party in Germany was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties pretending that these were initiatives of its own,[221] with deviations potentially leading to reprimands, imprisonment, torture and even death.[221] Property and industry were nationalized.[221]HP Pavilion dv3-2007tu Battery

 

The German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949, with a new constitution which enshrined socialism and gave the Soviet-controlled Socialist Unity Party ("SED") control. In Berlin, after citizens strongly rejected communist candidates in an election, in June 1948, the Soviet Union blockaded West Berlin, the portion of Berlin not under Soviet control, HP Pavilion dv3-2007tx Battery

cutting off all supply of food and other items. The blockade failed due to the unexpected massive aerial resupply campaign carried out by the Western powers known as the Berlin Airlift. In 1949, Stalin conceded defeat and ended the blockade. HP Pavilion dv3-2008tu Battery

While Stalin had promised at the Yalta Conference that free elections would be held in Poland,[215] after an election failure in "3 times YES" elections,[222] vote rigging was employed to win a majority in the carefully controlled poll.[223][224][225] Following the forged referendum, the Polish economy started to become nationalized.[226]HP Pavilion dv3-2008tx Battery

In Hungary, when the Soviets installed a communist government, Mátyás Rákosi, who described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple"[227] and "Stalin's best pupil",[228]took power. Rákosi employed "salami tactics", slicing up these enemies like pieces of salami,[229] tHP Pavilion dv3-2009tx Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2010el Battery

o battle the initial postwar political majority ready to establish a democracy.[230] Rákosi, employed Stalinist political and economic programs, and was dubbed the "bald murderer" for establishing one of the harshest dictatorships in Europe.[230][231] Approximately 350,000 Hungarian officials and intellectuals were purged from 1948 to 1956.[230]HP Pavilion dv3-2010et Battery

 

During World War II, in Bulgaria, the Red Army crossed the border and created the conditions for a communist coup d'état on the following night.[232] The Soviet military commander in Sofia assumed supreme authority, and the communists whom he instructed, including Kimon Georgiev, took full control of domestic politics.[232]HP Pavilion dv3-2010tx Battery

 

In 1949, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romaniafounded the Comecon in accordance with Stalin's desire to enforce Soviet domination of the lesser states of Central Europe and to mollify some states that had expressed interest in the Marshall Plan,[233] and which were now, increasingly, cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe.[234] HP Pavilion dv3-2011tx Battery

Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland had remained interested in Marshall aid despite the requirements for a convertible currencyand market economies. In July 1947, Stalin ordered these communist-dominated governments to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme. This has been described as "the moment of truth" in the post–World War II division of Europe.[234]HP Pavilion dv3-2012tx Battery

In Greece, Britain and the United States supported the anti-communists in the Greek Civil War and suspected the Soviets of supporting the Greek communists, although Stalin refrained from getting involved in Greece, dismissing the movement as premature. Albania remained an ally of the Soviet Union, but Yugoslavia broke with the USSR in 1948. HP Pavilion dv3-2013tx Battery

 

In Stalin's last year of life, one of his last major foreign policy initiatives was the 1952 Stalin Note for German reunification and Superpower disengagement from Central Europe, but Britain, France, and the United States viewed this with suspicion and rejected the offer. HP Pavilion dv3-2014tx Battery

  SINO-SOVIET RELATIONS

In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war and then also occupied Korea above the 38th parallel north. Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China, though receptive to minimal Soviet support, defeated the pro-Western and heavily American-assisted Chinese Nationalist Party in the Chinese Civil War. HP Pavilion dv3-2015ee Battery

 

There was friction between Stalin and Mao from the beginning. During World War II Stalin had supported the dictator of China, Chiang Kai-Shek, as a bulwark against Japan and had turned a blind eye to Chiang's mass killings of communists. He generally put his alliance with Chiang against Japan ahead of helping his ideological allies in China in his priorities. HP Pavilion dv3-2015tx Battery

Even after the war Stalin concluded a non-aggression pact between the USSR and Chiang's Kuomintang (KMT) regime in China and instructed Mao and the Chinese communists to cooperate with Chiang and the KMT after the war. HP Pavilion dv3-2016tx Battery

Mao did not follow Stalin's instructions though and started a communist revolution against Chiang. Stalin did not believe Mao would be successful so he was less than enthusiastic in helping Mao. The USSR continued to maintain diplomatic relations with Chiang's KMT regime until 1949 when it became clear Mao would win. HP Pavilion dv3-2017ee Battery

 

Stalin supported the Turkic Muslims known today as Uyghur in seeking their own state,Second East Turkestan Republic during the Ili Rebellion against the Republic of China. He backed the Uyghur Communist Muslim leader Ehmetjan Qasim against the anti Communist Chinese Kuomintang forces. HP Pavilion dv3-2017tx Battery

Stalin did conclude a new friendship and alliance treaty with Mao after he defeated Chiang. But there was still a lot of tension between the two leaders and resentment by Mao for Stalin's less than enthusiastic help during the civil war in China. HP Pavilion dv3-2018tx Battery

The Communists controlled mainland China while the Nationalists held a rump state on the island of Taiwan. The Soviet Union soon after recognized Mao's People's Republic of China, which it regarded as a new ally. The People's Republic claimed Taiwan, though it had never held authority there. HP Pavilion dv3-2019tx Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2020ei Battery

Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and China reached a high point with the signing of the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. Both countries provided military support to a new friendly state in North Korea. After various Korean border conflicts, war broke out with U.S.-allied South Korea in 1950, starting the Korean War. HP Pavilion dv3-2020el Battery

 

However, not surprisingly, the relations with the Kuomintang deteriorated. In 1951, in Taiwan, the Chinese Muslim Kuomintang General Bai Chongxi made a speech broadcast on radio to the entire Muslim world calling for a war against Russia, claiming that the "imperialist ogre" leader Stalin was engineering World War III, and Bai also called upon Muslims to avoid the Indian leader Nehru, accusing him of being blind to Soviet imperialism.[235][236]HP Pavilion dv3-2020et Battery

  NORTH KOREA

Contrary to America's policy which restrained armament (limited equipment was provided for infantry and police forces) to South Korea, Stalin extensively armed Kim Il Sung's North Korean army and air forces with military equipment (to include T-34/85 tanks) and "advisors" far in excess of those required for defensive purposes) in order to facilitate Kim's (a former Soviet Officer) aim of conquering the rest of the Korean peninsula. HP Pavilion dv3-2020tx Battery

 

The North Korean Army struck in the pre-dawn hours of Sunday, 25 June 1950, crossing the 38th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery, beginning their invasion of South Korea.[237]During the Korean War, Soviet pilots flew Soviet aircraft from Chinese bases against United Nations aircraft defending South Korea. HP Pavilion dv3-2021tx Battery

Post–Cold War research in Soviet Archives has revealed that the Korean War was begun by Kim Il-sung with the express permission of Stalin, though this is disputed by North Korea.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv3-2022tx Battery

  ISRAEL

Stalin originally supported the creation of Israel in 1948. The USSR was one of the first nations to recognize the new country.[238] Golda Meir came to Moscow as the first Israeli Ambassador to the USSR that year. However, after providing war materiel for Israel through Czechoslovakia, Stalin later changed his mind

and came out against Israel. HP Pavilion dv3-2023tx Battery

  FALSIFIERS OF HISTORY

In 1948, Stalin personally edited and rewrote by hand sections of the cold war bookFalsifiers of History.[239] Falsifiers was published in response to the documents made public in Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939–1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office,[240][241]HP Pavilion dv3-2024tx Battery

 which included the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and other secret German-Soviet relations documents.[240][242] Falsifiers originally appeared as a series of articles in Pravda in February 1948,[241] and was subsequently published in numerous language and distributed worldwide.[243]HP Pavilion dv3-2025ee Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2025eg Battery

 

The book did not attempt to directly counter or deal with the documents published in Nazi-Soviet Relations[244] and rather, focused upon Western culpability for the outbreak of war in 1939.[243] It argues that "Western powers" aided Nazi rearmament and aggression, HP Pavilion dv3-2025tx Battery

including that American bankers and industrialists provided capital for the growth of German war industries, while deliberately encouraging Hitler to expand eastward.[240][243]It depicted the Soviet Union as striving to negotiate a collective security against Hitler, HP Pavilion dv3-2026tx Battery

while being thwarted by double-dealing Anglo-French appeasers who, despite appearances, had no intention of a Soviet alliance and were secretly negotiating with Berlin.[243] It casts theMunich agreement, not just as Anglo-French short-sightedness or cowardice, but as a "secret" agreement that was a "a highly important phase in their policy aimed at goading the Hitlerite aggressors against the Soviet Union."[245] HP Pavilion dv3-2027ee Battery

The book also included the claim that, during the Pact's operation, Stalin rejected Hitler's offer to share in a division of the world, without mentioning the Soviet offers to join the Axis.[246] Historical studies, official accounts, memoirs and textbooks published in the Soviet Union used that depiction of events until the Soviet Union's dissolution.[246]HP Pavilion dv3-2027tx Battery

  DOMESTIC SUPPORT Domestically, Stalin was seen as a great wartime leader who had led the Soviets to victory against the Nazis.

An increasingly nationalistic emphasis on Russian history and achievements became a salient feature of Soviet culture in the 1940s. At the end of May 1945, Stalin proposed a victory toast to the Soviet people, and to the virtues of the Russian majority in particular: HP Pavilion dv3-2028tx Battery

 

Various foreign scientific discoveries and inventions (such as the Wright Brothers' airplane) were attributed to Russians in post-war Soviet propaganda. Examples include the boiler, reclaimed by father and son Cherepanovs; HP Pavilion dv3-2030ef Battery

the electric light, by Yablochkov andLodygin; the radio, by Popov; and the airplane, by Mozhaysky. Stalin's internal repressive policies continued (including in newly acquired territories), but never reached the extremes of the 1930s. HP Pavilion dv3-2029tx Battery

  Pablo Picasso

Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso, known as Pablo Picasso (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpaβlo piˈkaso], 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973), was a Spanish painter,sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer. One of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is widely known for co-founding the Cubistmovement, the invention of constructed sculpture, [2][3] HP Pavilion dv3-2030ei Battery

the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War. HP Pavilion dv3-2030ek Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2030eo Battery

Picasso, Henri Matisse and Marcel Duchamp are commonly regarded as the three artists who most defined the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting, sculpture, printmaking and ceramics.[4][5][6][7]HP Pavilion dv3-2030ez Battery

Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a realistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. His revolutionary artistic accomplishments brought him universal renown and immense fortune, making him one of the best-known figures in 20th century art. HP Pavilion dv3-2030tx Battery

Early life

Picasso was baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Crispiniano de la Santísima Trinidad, a series of names honoring various saints and relatives.[8] Added to these were Ruiz and Picasso, for his father and mother, respectively, as per Spanish law. Born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, HP Pavilion dv3-2032tx Battery

he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913) and María Picasso y López.[9] Picasso’s family was middle-class. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz’s ancestors were minor aristocrats. HP Pavilion dv3-2033eg Battery

Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were “piz, piz”, a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for ‘pencil’.[10] From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. HP Pavilion dv3-2033tx Battery

Ruiz was a traditional, academic artist and instructor who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork. HP Pavilion dv3-2034tx Battery

The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. HP Pavilion dv3-2036tx Battery

Observing the precision of his son’s technique, an Apocrypha story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting,[11] though paintings by him exist from later years. HP Pavilion dv3-2050ea Battery

 

In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died ofdiphtheria.[12] After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home.[13] Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. HP Pavilion dv3-2050ec Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2050ep Battery

This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the impressed jury admitted him, at just 13. The student lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented him a small room close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings. The two argued frequently. HP Pavilion dv3-2050es Battery

 

Picasso’s father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid’s Royal Academy of San Fernando, the country's foremost art school.[13] At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and quit attending classes soon after enrollment. HP Pavilion dv3-2051ea Battery

Madrid, however, held many other attractions. The Prado housed paintings byDiego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco; elements like the elongated limbs, arresting colors, and mystical visages are echoed in his later work. HP Pavilion dv3-2055ea Battery

Career beginnings

Picasso made his first trip to Paris in 1900, then the art capital of Europe. There, he met his first Parisian friend, the journalist and poet Max Jacob, who helped Picasso learn the language and its literature. Soon they shared an apartment; Max slept at night while Picasso slept during the day and worked at night. These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. HP Pavilion dv3-2080eo Battery

Much of his work was burned to keep the small room warm. During the first five months of 1901, Picasso lived in Madrid, where he and his anarchist friend Francisco de Asís Soler founded the magazine Arte Joven (Young Art), which published five issues. HP Pavilion dv3-2090ej Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2090en Battery

Soler solicited articles and Picasso illustrated the journal, mostly contributing grim cartoons depicting and sympathizing with the state of the poor. The first issue was published on 31 March 1901, by which time the artist had started to sign his work simplyPicasso, while before he had signed Pablo Ruiz y Picasso.[15]HP Pavilion dv3-2100 Battery

 

By 1905 Picasso became a favorite of the American art collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein. Their older brother Michael Stein and his wife Sarah also became collectors of his work. Picasso painted portraits of both Gertrude Stein and her nephew Allan Stein.[16] Gertrude Stein became Picasso's principal patron, acquiring his drawings and paintings and exhibiting them in her informal Salon at her home in Paris.[17] HP Pavilion dv3-2101tu Battery

At one of her gatherings in 1905, he met Henri Matisse, who was to become a lifelong friend and rival. The Steins introduced him to Claribel Cone and her sister Etta who were American art collectors; they also began to acquire Picasso and Matisse's paintings. Eventually Leo Stein moved to Italy, and Michael and Sarah Stein became patrons of Matisse; while Gertrude Stein continued to collect Picasso.[18]HP Pavilion dv3-2101tx Battery

In 1907 Picasso joined an art gallery that had recently been opened in Paris by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Kahnweiler was a German art historian, art collector who became one of the premier French art dealers of the 20th century. He was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, HP Pavilion dv3-2102tu Battery

Georges Braque and the Cubism that they jointly developed. Kahnweiler promoted burgeoning artists such as André Derain, Kees Van Dongen, Fernand Léger,Juan Gris, Maurice de Vlaminck and several others who had come from all over the globe to live and work in Montparnasse at the time.[19]HP Pavilion dv3-2102tx Battery

In Paris, Picasso entertained a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, poet Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Alfred Jarry, and Gertrude Stein. Apollinaire was arrested on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisafrom the Louvre in 1911. Apollinaire pointed to his friend Picasso, who was also brought in for questioning, but both were later exonerated.[20]HP Pavilion dv3-2103tx Battery

PERSONAL LIFE

In the early 20th century, Picasso divided his time between Barcelona and Paris. In 1904, in the middle of a storm, he met Fernande Olivier, a Bohemian artist who became his mistress.[12] Olivier appears in many of his Rose period paintings. HP Pavilion dv3-2105ee Battery

After acquiring some fame and fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom he called Eva Gouel. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Picasso was devastated by her premature death from illness at the age of 30 in 1915.[21]HP Pavilion dv3-2105tu Battery

After World War I, Picasso made a number of important relationships with figures associated with Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Among his friends during this period were Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, Juan Gris and others. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Battery

In the summer of 1918, Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev’s troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome; and they spent their honeymoon in the villa near Biarritz of the glamorous Chilean art patron Eugenia Errázuriz. Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, HP Pavilion dv3-2107tu Battery

formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, [22] who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova’s insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso’s bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. HP Pavilion dv3-2108tu Battery

During the same period that Picasso collaborated with Diaghilev’s troup, he and Igor Stravinsky collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several drawings of the composer. HP Pavilion dv3-2110er Battery

In 1927 Picasso met 17-year-old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso’s marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth. HP Pavilion dv3-2112tx Battery

The two remained legally married until Khokhlova’s death in 1955. Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Marie-Thérèse Walter and fathered a daughter with her, named Maya. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and hanged herself four years after Picasso’s death. HP Pavilion dv3-2115ea Battery

Throughout his life Picasso maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso was married twice and had four children by three women. HP Pavilion dv3-2115ee Battery

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. HP Pavilion dv3-2116tx Battery

War years and beyond

During the Second World War, Picasso remained in Paris while the Germans occupied the city. Picasso’s artistic style did not fit the Nazi ideal of art, so he did not exhibit during this time. Retreating to his studio, he continued to paint, HP Pavilion dv3-2117tx Battery

producing works such as the Still Life with Guitar (1942) and The Charnel House (1944–48).[23] Although the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso continued regardless, using bronze smuggled to him by the French Resistance.[24]HP Pavilion dv3-2119tx Battery

Around this time, Picasso took up writing as an alternative outlet. Between 1935 and 1959 he wrote over 300 poems. Largely untitled except for a date and sometimes the location of where it was written (for example “Paris 16 May 1936”), these works were gustatory, erotic and at times scatological, as were his two full-length plays Desire Caught by the Tail(1941) and The Four Little Girls (1949).[25]HP Pavilion dv3-2120ea Battery

 

In 1944, after the liberation of Paris, Picasso began a romantic relationship with a young art student named Françoise Gilot. She was 40 years younger than he was. Picasso grew tired of his mistress Dora Maar; Picasso and Gilot began to live together. HP Pavilion dv3-2120ss Battery

Eventually they had two children: Claude, born in 1947 and Paloma, born in 1949. In her 1964 book Life with Picasso,[26] she describes his abusive treatment and myriad infidelities which led her to leave him, taking the children with her. This was a severe blow to Picasso. HP Pavilion dv3-2121tx Battery

 

Picasso had affairs with women of an even greater age disparity than his and Gilot's. While still involved with Gilot, in 1951 Picasso had a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who was four years younger than Gilot. Eventually, as evident in his work, Picasso began to come to terms with his advancing age and his waning attraction to young women.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv3-2122tx Battery

By his 70s, many paintings, ink drawings and prints have as their theme an old, grotesque dwarf as the doting lover of a beautiful young model.Jacqueline Roque (1927–1986) worked at the Madoura Pottery in Vallauris on the French Riviera, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. She became his lover, and then his second wife in 1961. The two were together for the remainder of Picasso’s life. HP Pavilion dv3-2123tx Battery

 

His marriage to Roque was also a means of revenge against Gilot; with Picasso’s encouragement, Gilot had divorced her then husband, Luc Simon, with the plan to finally actually marry Picasso to secure the rights of her children as Picasso's legitimate heirs. However, Picasso had already secretly married Roque, after Gilot had filed for divorce. This strained his relationship with Claude and Paloma. HP Pavilion dv3-2125ee Battery

By this time, Picasso had constructed a huge Gothic home, and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, and in theProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. He was an international celebrity, and there was often as much interest in his personal life as his art. HP Pavilion dv3-2126tx Battery

 

In addition to his artistic accomplishments, Picasso made a few film appearances, always as himself, including a cameo in Jean Cocteau’s Testament of Orpheus. In 1955 he helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. HP Pavilion dv3-2129tx Battery

 

Death

Pablo Picasso died on 8 April 1973 in Mougins, France, while he and his wife Jacqueline entertained friends for dinner. His final words were “Drink to me, drink to my health, you know I can’t drink any more.”[27] He was interred at the Chateau of Vauvenargues near Aix-en-Provence, a property he had acquired in 1958 and occupied with Jacqueline between 1959 and 1962. HP Pavilion dv3-2130ea Battery

Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral.[28] Devastated and lonely after the death of Picasso, Jacqueline Roque took her own life by gunshot in 1986 when she was 59 years old.[29]HP Pavilion dv3-2130ef Battery

 

Aside from the several anti-war paintings that he created, Picasso remained physically neutral during World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, refusing to join the armed forces for any side or country. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1937, HP Pavilion dv3-2130ei Battery

Picasso was already in his late fifties. He was even older at the onset of World War II, and could not be expected to take up arms in those conflicts. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either World War. HP Pavilion dv3-2130es Battery

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. HP Pavilion dv3-2130ez Battery

While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Francisco Franco and fascists through his art, he did not take up arms against them. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. HP Pavilion dv3-2131tx Battery

 

In 1944 Picasso joined the French Communist Party, attended an international peace conference in Poland, and in 1950 received the Stalin Peace Prize from the Soviet government,[30] But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso’s interest in Soviet politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. HP Pavilion dv3-2133tx Battery

In a 1945 interview with Jerome Seckler, Picasso stated: “I am a Communist and my painting is Communist painting. ... But if I were a shoemaker, Royalist or Communist or anything else, I would not necessarily hammer my shoes in a special way to show my politics.”[31] HP Pavilion dv3-2135tx Battery

His Communist militancy, common amongcontinental intellectuals and artists at the time although it was officially banned in Francoist Spain, has long been the subject of some controversy; a notable source or demonstration thereof was a quote commonly attributed to Salvador Dalí (with whom Picasso had a rather strained relationship[32]): HP Pavilion dv3-2136tx Battery

Picasso es pintor, yo también; [...] Picasso es español, yo también; Picasso es comunista, yo tampoco.

(Picasso is a painter, so am I; [...] Picasso is a Spaniard, so am I; Picasso is a communist, neither am I.)[33][34][35][36][37][38]HP Pavilion dv3-2137tx Battery

 

In the late 1940s his old friend the surrealist poet and Trotskyist[39] and anti-Stalinist André Breton was more blunt; refusing to shake hands with Picasso, he told him: “I don’t approve of your joining the Communist Party nor with the stand you have taken concerning the purges of the intellectuals after the Liberation”.[40]HP Pavilion dv3-2138tx Battery

In 1962, he received the Lenin Peace Prize.[41] Biographer and art critic John Berger felt his talents as an artist were “wasted” by the communists.[42]HP Pavilion dv3-2140ei Battery

According to Jean Cocteau's diaries, Picasso once said to him in reference to the communists: "I have joined a family, and like all families, it's full of shit".[43]HP Pavilion dv3-2139tx Battery

He was against the intervention of the United Nations and the United States[44] in theKorean War and he depicted it in Massacre in Korea. HP Pavilion dv3-2140eo Battery

Picasso’s work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period(1901–1904), the Rose Period (1905–1907), the African-influenced Period (1908–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919). HP Pavilion dv3-2144tx Battery

 

In 1939–40 the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, under its director Alfred Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, held a major and highly successful retrospective of his principal works up until that time. This exhibition lionized the artist, brought into full public view in America the scope of his artistry, and resulted in a reinterpretation of his work by contemporary art historians and scholars.[46]HP Pavilion dv3-2145tx Battery

 

BEFORE 1901

Picasso’s training under his father began before 1890. His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist’s beginnings.[47] During 1893 the juvenile quality of his earliest work falls away, and by 1894 his career as a painter can be said to have begun.[48] HP Pavilion dv3-2146tx Battery

The academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in The First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts his sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called “without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting.”[49]HP Pavilion dv3-2147tx Battery

 

In 1897 his realism became tinged with Symbolist influence, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call his Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with his admiration for favorite old masters such asEl Greco, led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period.[50]HP Pavilion dv3-2149tx Battery

BLUE PERIOD

Picasso’s Blue Period (1901–1904) consists of somber paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors. This period’s starting point is uncertain; it may have begun in Spain in the spring of 1901, or in Paris in the second half of the year.[51]HP Pavilion dv3-2150ec Battery

 Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from this period. In his austere use of color and sometimes doleful subject matter—prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects—Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas. HP Pavilion dv3-2150ej Battery

Starting in autumn of 1901 he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903),[52]now in the Cleveland Museum of Art.[53]HP Pavilion dv3-2150el Battery

The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast (1904),[54] which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. HP Pavilion dv3-2150ep Battery

Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso’s works of this period, also represented in The Blindman’s Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina(1903). Other works include Portrait of Soler and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch‎.HP Pavilion dv3-2150es Battery

The Rose Period (1904–1906)[55] is characterized by a more cheery style with orange and pink colors, and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris in 1904, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, HP Pavilion dv3-2150ev Battery

in addition to his increased exposure to French painting. The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e. just prior to the Blue Period) and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods. HP Pavilion dv3-2150tx Battery

AFRICAN-INFLUENCED PERIOD

Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed along with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colors. Both artists took apart objects and “analyzed” them in terms of their shapes. HP Pavilion dv3-2150us Battery

Picasso and Braque’s paintings at this time have many similarities. Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre, in which cut paper fragments—often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages—were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art. HP Pavilion dv3-2154ca Battery

CLASSICISM AND SURREALISM

In the period following the upheaval of World War I, Picasso produced work in aneoclassical style. This “return to order” is evident in the work of many European artists in the 1920s, including André Derain, Giorgio de Chirico, Gino Severini, the artists of the New Objectivity movement and of the Novecento Italiano movement. Picasso’s paintings and drawings from this period frequently recall the work of Raphael and Ingres. HP Pavilion dv3-2155ee Battery

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During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a common motif in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and it appears in Picasso’s Guernica. HP Pavilion dv3-2160eo Battery

Arguably Picasso’s most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War—Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Asked to explain its symbolism, Picasso said, “It isn’t up to the painter to define the symbols. Otherwise it would be better if he wrote them out in so many words! The public who look at the picture must interpret the symbols as they understand them.”[56][57]HP Pavilion dv3-2175ee Battery

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Guernica hung in New York’s Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernicawas returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in Madrid’s Reina Sofía Museum when it opened. HP Pavilion dv3-2225TX Battery

Picasso was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in mid-1949. In the 1950s, Picasso’s style changed once again, as he took to producing reinterpretations of the art of the great masters. He made aseries of works based on Velazquez’s painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. HP Pavilion dv3-2301tu Battery

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50-foot (15 m)-high public sculpture to be built in Chicago, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and somewhat controversial. HP Pavilion dv3-2301tx Battery

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What the figure represents is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Chicago, was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of the city. HP Pavilion dv3-2304tx Battery

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Picasso’s final works were a mixture of styles, his means of expression in constant flux until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colorful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate etchings. HP Pavilion dv3-2306tx Battery

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At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Only later, after Picasso’s death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as so often before, ahead of his time. HP Pavilion dv3-2308tx Battery

Picasso was exceptionally prolific throughout his long lifetime. The total number of artworks he produced has been estimated at 50,000, comprising 1,885 paintings; 1,228 sculptures; 2,880 ceramics, roughly 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints, and numerous tapestries and rugs.[58] HP Pavilion dv3-2309tx Battery

At the time of his death many of his paintings were in his possession, as he had kept off the art market what he did not need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, HP Pavilion dv3-2310ea Battery

 with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties (estate tax) to the French state were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. HP Pavilion dv3-2310er Battery

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of his early works, created while he was living in Spain, including many rarely seen works which reveal his firm grounding in classical techniques. The museum also holds many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father’s tutelage, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, his close friend and personal secretary. HP Pavilion dv3-2310sw Battery

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world.Garçon à la pipe sold for US$104 million at Sotheby's on 4 May 2004, establishing a new price record. Dora Maar au Chat sold for US$95.2 million at Sotheby’s on 3 May 2006.[59]HP Pavilion dv3-2310tx Battery

On 4 May 2010, Nude, Green Leaves and Bust was sold at Christie's for $106.5 million. The 1932 work, which depicts Picasso's mistress Marie-Thérèse Walter reclining and as a bust, was in the personal collection of Los Angeles philanthropist Frances Lasker Brody, HP Pavilion dv3-2311tx Battery

who died in November 2009. Christie's won the rights to auction the collection against London-based Sotheby's. The collection as a whole was valued at over $150 million, while the work was originally expected to earn $80 million at auction.[60] There were more than half a dozen bidders, while the winning bid was taken via telephone.[61][62] The previous auction record ($104.3 million) was set in February 2010, by Alberto Giacometti's Walking Man I.[63]HP Pavilion dv3-2312tx Battery

As of 2004, Picasso remains the top ranked artist (based on sales of his works at auctions) according to the Art Market Trends report.[64] More of his paintings have been stolen than those by any other artist;[65] the Art Loss Register has 550 of his works listed as missing. HP Pavilion dv3-2313tx Battery

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The Picasso Administration functions as his official Estate. The U.S. copyright representative for the Picasso Administration is the Artists Rights Society.[67]

In the 1996 movie Surviving Picasso, Picasso is portrayed by actor Anthony Hopkins. HP Pavilion dv3-2315tx Battery

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